Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8677 journals)
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    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2410 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2410 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians     Open Access  

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Primary Prevention
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.782
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-095X - ISSN (Online) 1573-6547
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences Increase Risk for Prescription Opioid Misuse
    • Abstract: Abstract The United States is in the midst of an opioid overdose epidemic, with a significant portion of the burden associated with prescription opioids. In response, the CDC released a Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain, which promotes access to treatment for opioid use disorder. Decades of research have linked childhood adversity to negative health and risk behavior outcomes, including substance misuse. Our present study builds upon this work to examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and prescription opioid misuse. We compiled data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System implemented by Montana and Florida in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Logistic regressions (run in 2017) tested the associations between ACEs and subsequent prescription pain medicine/opioid misuse outcomes in adulthood. ACEs were prevalent, with 62.7% of respondents in Montana and 50% in Florida reporting at least one ACE. The presence of ACEs was positively associated with prescription opioid misuse across both samples. Respondents reporting three or more ACEs had increased odds of taking opioids more than prescribed, without a prescription, and for the feeling they cause. Our results support a strong link between ACEs and prescription opioid misuse. Opportunities to prevent opioid misuse start with assuring safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments in childhood and across the lifespan to prevent ACEs from occurring, and intervening appropriately when they do occur. Substance use prevention programs for adolescents, appropriate pain management and opioid prescribing protocols, and treatments for opioid use disorder can address ACEs by enhancing treatment safety and effectiveness and can reduce the intergenerational continuity of early adversity.
      PubDate: 2020-01-28
       
  • Predictors of Undergoing Colonoscopy, Does Time Horizon Matter'
    • Abstract: Abstract When talking to patients about undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy, their doctors can present the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) in different time horizons. Studies on time horizons suggest that people have different psychological associations for the near and distant future, which potentially influence their judgments and actions. The aim of this study was to examine what factors predict patients’ intentions to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy. We particularly focused on examining the role of the time horizon in which the probability of developing malignant CRC was presented, when taking into account the following factors: the perception of risk (perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of CRC), expected discomfort related to the procedure, a previous colonoscopy, and subjective numeracy. Using the Health Belief Model, we sought to determine whether the intention to undergo a preventive colonoscopy is affected by the time horizon. We hypothesized that the risk of developing CRC in a proximal time horizon would be more threatening to an individual than a distal one and would consequently increase an individual’s behavioral intention to undergo a colonoscopy. We examined the effects of two different time horizons: the risk of developing a disease in the next few years and total lifetime risk. A total of 144 respondents (77 women and 67 men) aged 50–59 years participated in the study. We found that risk perception and expected discomfort significantly affected participants’ intention to undergo a colonoscopy. No empirical evidence was found to confirm that presenting a person with the risk of developing malignant CRC in the coming years, as compared to their lifetime risk, increases the behavioral intention to undergo a diagnostic colonoscopy.
      PubDate: 2020-01-24
       
  • Effectiveness of Indiana’s Statewide Smoke-Free Indoor Air Law in
           Reducing Prevalence of Adult Cigarette Smoking
    • Abstract: Abstract Indiana recently implemented a statewide smoke-free indoor air law that has prohibited smoking in both restaurants and non-hospitality workplaces. Evidence for the effectiveness of the recent statewide smoke-free indoor law may persuade 14 states that do not have any statewide smoke-free laws to enact such laws. We evaluated the effectiveness of Indiana’s State Smoke-Free Air Law, implemented July 2012, in reducing adult smoking prevalence. We analyzed samples of U.S. adults using a nonequivalent control group design with multi-year, cross-sectional data from the 2011–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ( N= 2,259,014). Four state groups with different levels of comprehensiveness in regard to statewide smoke-free indoor air laws in 2011–2016 served as the comparison groups, namely those with: (1) no law; (2) a partial law (prohibiting smoking in either one or two of these three settings, namely non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars); (3) a comprehensive law (prohibiting smoking in all non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars); and (4) those that changed from a partial to a comprehensive law. We used a difference-in-differences approach with multiple logistic regressions to assess the net effect of the policy with a secular trend removed. The decline rate of cigarette smoking in Indiana was steeper, from 21.2% in 2011–2012 to 17.8% in 2013–2016, than in states in our four comparison groups, which suggests a significant reduction in adult cigarette smoking prevalence above and beyond the downward secular trend observed. All the comparison groups showed higher odds of cigarette smoking than Indiana (adjusted odds ratios range from 1.08 to 1.16). Although a long-term effect of Indiana’s State Smoke-Free Air Law has yet to be evaluated, current data indicate that such a policy appears to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence. The implementation of statewide smoke-free indoor air laws in all restaurants and non-hospitality workplaces may help reduce smoking rates in the 14 states that still do not have any statewide smoke-free indoor air laws.
      PubDate: 2020-01-17
       
  • Psychosocial Correlates of Emotional Eating and Their Interrelations:
           Implications for Obesity Treatment Research and Development
    • Abstract: Abstract We tested the effects of emotional eating in long-term weight-loss so that both treatment processes and theory could be improved. Women with obesity participated in treatments of either high interpersonal contact and behavioral methods (n = 39) or low interpersonal contact and educational methods (n = 36) through community-based settings. We assessed mood, emotional eating, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and weight. Changes in the psychosocial measures were significantly greater in the high interpersonal contact/behavioral methods group. That group had a mean weight reduction of 6.5% and 6.8% over 6 and 24 months, respectively, which was significantly greater than the 2.9% and 1.8% loss in the low interpersonal contact/educational methods group at the same time points. Using aggregate data, change in eating self-regulation significantly mediated the prediction of reduced anxiety- and depression-related emotional eating over 6 months by improvements in tension and depression, respectively. The emotional eating reductions were significantly associated with weight loss over both 6 and 24 months. Increased physical activity was significantly associated with reduced tension and depression. We also found that the relationship between changes in physical activity and tension was significantly mediated by a change in exercise-related self-efficacy. Increased exercise self-regulation significantly predicted improved eating regulation, with eating-related self-efficacy change being a significant mediator. Our findings suggest an array of psychosocial targets for behavioral weight-management treatments that have large-scale applications.
      PubDate: 2020-01-13
       
  • Authoritative Parenting Behaviors and Marijuana Use Based on Age Among a
           National Sample of Hispanic Adolescents
    • Abstract: Abstract Although numerous prevention efforts have been implemented, marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance among Hispanic adolescents nationwide. We sought to determine the influence authoritative parenting behaviors have on lifetime, past year, and past month marijuana use among Hispanic adolescents overall, and then based on age (i.e., 12–13, 14–15, and 16–17 years). We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 3457). We performed a series of logistic regression analyses. Nearly one-fifth (19.5%) of Hispanic participants reported lifetime marijuana use, 14.5% reported past year use, and 7.5% reported past month use. Results indicated that Hispanic adolescents who are at significantly increased risk for reporting lifetime, past year, and past month marijuana use, were those who reported that their parents seldom or never performed the following behaviors: (1) checked if their homework was done, (2) helped them with their homework, (3) limited the amount of TV they watched, (4) told them they did a good job, and (5) told them they were proud of them. There were no relationships between adolescents’ lifetime, past year, or past month marijuana use and whether their parents made their youth do chores or limited their time out on a school night. Regarding age, while results indicated that most authoritative parenting behaviors have a significant effect against marijuana use, the protective effect diminished with age, with the exception of the relationship between adolescents’ past month marijuana use and whether their parents checked to see if their homework was done. Substance use prevention programs for this population should start in early adolescence and involve and educate parents on adopting authoritative parenting behaviors.
      PubDate: 2020-01-13
       
  • Lay-Based Morbidity Profiles of Sugar Cane Workers: Testing a New Method
           Using Free Lists
    • Abstract: Abstract Epidemiological profiles are key elements in preventive medicine and public health planning activities. There are no standard methods to identify these profiles. We explored the epidemiological profile of sugar cane workers in the municipality of Ginebra (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) using free lists of municipal morbidity data. We administered an instrument to 30 sugar cane workers, 15 health care workers and 15 people from the general community in order to compare the health problems experienced by the community. Sugar cane workers reported their own health problems and health professionals and community members served as informants for health problems in the general community. Respiratory problems were part of the morbidity profile of all groups evaluated, flu was part of the profile of the general community, and other respiratory problems were part of the profile of sugar cane workers and health personnel. Musculoskeletal problems were predominant only for sugar cane workers, and we found differences between the health problems expressed by the community and those reported by health personnel. The free lists method constitutes a quick, efficient, and useful tool to develop an approximation of an epidemiological profile and is easily interpreted, especially when typical and previously described occupational diseases are considered together with diseases associated with occupational groups. Epidemiological profiles based on free lists are useful to identify new opportunities for prevention strategies.
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
       
  • Minimizing Health-Compromising Behaviors via School-Based Programs: An
           Optimization Approach
    • Abstract: Abstract School health programs are united by their desire to promote health and health-related outcomes among youth. They are also united by the fact that their expected effects are contingent on successful program implementation, which is often impeded by a multitude of real-world barriers. Techniques used in management science may help optimize school-based programs by accounting for implementation barriers. In this exploratory study, we present a detailed example of the first known application of linear programming (LP), which is an optimization technique, to Positive Action (PA). PA is a social emotional and character development program that includes a six-unit, teacher-delivered, classroom curriculum. We specify how we used LP to calculate the optimal levels of program implementation needed to minimize substance use, subject to known levels of implementation barriers (e.g., disruptive behavior, teacher education, teacher attitudes towards character development, school resources, and school safety). We found that LP is a technique that can be applied to data from a school health program. Specifically, we were able to develop a model that calculated the number of lessons that should be taught to minimize a specific health-compromising behavior, given expected levels of predetermined implementation barriers. Our findings from this exploratory study support the utility of applying LP during the program planning and implementation processes of school health programs.
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
       
  • Patterns of Drug Use and Related Factors Among Prisoners in Iran: Results
           from the National Survey in 2015
    • Abstract: Abstract Drug use by prisoners is one of the world’s most important problems. We sought to determine the pattern of drug use behavior and related factors among prisoners of Iran in 2015. This cross-sectional study was part of the bio-behavioral surveillance survey conducted among 6200 prisoners in 26 prison sites in Iran who were selected through multi-stage sampling. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews which inquired about participants’ demographics and drug use behaviors. We analyzed study data using descriptive statistics, and crude and adjusted logistic regressions, in STATA-12. Of all prisoners, 74.0% had a history of lifetime drug use, and 16.6% of drug users had a history of lifetime injection drug use (IDU). According to the results of a multivariate logistic regression, male sex, being between the ages of 24 and 45, having a history of imprisonment, and having a history of lifetime high-risk sexual behavior were significant risk factors for lifetime drug use. Also, male sex, single status, and a history of previous imprisonment were significant risk factors for lifetime IDU. The prevalence of drug use in Iran’s prison population is high and alarming. There is a continuing need for harm reduction programs, including the methadone maintenance treatment, among imprisoned drug users and IDUs.
      PubDate: 2020-01-07
       
  • Misperception of Healthy Weight: Associations Among Weight, Body Size
           Satisfaction and Body Appreciation in Older Adults
    • Abstract: Abstract Misperceived body weight in older people can affect their health and quality of life. We analysed the body image of older adults in Primary Health Care services in central Portugal, by considering participants’ weight, body size satisfaction and body appreciation. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study involved 150 participants (56% women) with an average age of 74.9 years who completed questionnaires on body size and body appreciation. Forty-nine percent of participants were affected by overweight and 29% by obesity. The majority was not satisfied with their body size (71.2%), but had very high scores related to body appreciation. Around 40% of the participants with normal weight or overweight were satisfied with their body size. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both body size satisfaction and appreciation were negatively associated with obesity, but not with overweight. Older Portuguese adults are not able to assess if their weight is a risk to their health, but regardless of their perceived physical appearance, the elderly respect their body and are receptive to improving their health.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
       
  • Joint Effects of Parental Smoking Cessation and an Antismoking Parenting
           Program on Children’s Susceptibility to Smoking: A Three-Year
           Prospective Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Cognitive susceptibility to smoking is indicated by positive social expectancies about smoking, being curious about smoking, wanting to try smoking, and intending to try smoking. Among children, cognitive susceptibility is a risk factor for initiating smoking; reducing susceptibility is, therefore, a viable primary prevention strategy. Our study tested prospectively the combined effect of two variables—parental modeling of smoking cessation and parental exposure to an antismoking parenting program—on cognitive susceptibility to smoking among children who had never puffed on a cigarette. The study sample comprised 859 daily smokers who called a state Quitline seeking assistance to quit smoking and these adults’ 8- to 10-year-old children. The factors in the 2 × 2 design were parental modeling of cessation (successful cessation vs. continued smoking) and parental exposure to an antismoking parenting program (program vs. control). We hypothesized that children whose parents both quit smoking and received the antismoking parenting program would report lower susceptibility to smoking than children exposed to one or neither of these factors. Multivariable analysis of variance, conducted using child-reported susceptibility to smoking collected 12, 24, and 36 months post-baseline, confirmed this hypothesis. Post hoc tests for simple main effects showed that, at each time point, parent smoking cessation had a significant protective effect on children’s susceptibility to smoking, but only among children whose parents received the parenting program. These tests also showed that the parenting program had a significant protective effect on children’s susceptibility to smoking, but only among children whose parents had successfully quit smoking. Our study results suggest that Quitlines and other programs that assist adults in quitting smoking could extend the reach and benefits of such assistance by providing parents with resources that promote antismoking parenting practices.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
       
  • You-Me-Us: Results of a Cluster Randomized Trial of a Healthy
           Relationships Approach to Sexual Risk Reduction
    • Abstract: Abstract By middle adolescence, most young people have been involved in at least one romantic relationship, a context in which many sexual interactions occur. Indeed, researchers have suggested the importance of attending to relationships in programs focused on sexual risk, yet few evidence-based programs have a strong relationships focus. Our study examined the impact of a healthy relationship program called You-Me-Us that included a classroom curriculum and a school-wide peer norms approach. We evaluated the intervention using a small group randomized trial that included nine participating urban middle schools (defined as schools that include grades 6–8) in three urban school districts. We invited all 7th grade students within the study schools to enroll. Students completed three surveys during 7th and 8th grades (baseline plus two follow up surveys at 6 and 18 months following baseline). A total of 911 youth with positive consent and assent were enrolled in the study. Follow up survey response rates among those taking the baseline were 92% at 6 months and 80% at 18 months. Multilevel regression models were used to adjust for the correlation among students within the same school, and the correlation of repeated measurements taken on the same student over time. The intervention reduced vaginal sexual initiation by about half at the 6-month follow-up, and this approached significance. Further, youth in the intervention condition were less likely to believe it is okay for people their age to have vaginal sex without using condoms if the girl is on birth control. None of the remaining variables differed significantly by intervention condition. This study provides insights on using a healthy relationship approach for younger urban adolescents. This approach produced a programmatically significant reduction in sexual initiation that did not reach standard levels of statistical significance, and warrants further exploration.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
       
  • Prevalence and Correlates of Homelessness Among American Indian and Alaska
           Native Youth
    • Abstract: Abstract Youth homelessness is a serious national challenge affecting millions of young people every year. However, due to their relatively small population size, together with limitations related to data and research efforts on homelessness to date, prevalence estimates and evidence of homelessness experiences among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) youth have been scarce. This is particularly the case at the national level. We report findings on the prevalence, characteristics, and correlates of AIAN youth experiencing homelessness that are based on a nationally representative survey on homelessness among adolescents and young adults, age 13 to 25. The overall national survey sample included 25,492 respondents. During a 12-month period, approximately 10.2% of AIAN households with 13–17 year olds reported youth homelessness or runaway experiences that lasted at least one night. For AIAN 18–25 year olds, the 12-month population prevalence of homelessness experiences was 12.2%. AIAN young adults had three times the prevalence rate of homelessness as their White non-Hispanic peers. Furthermore, most AIAN youth experiencing homelessness, like most AIAN people overall, reside in predominantly urban counties. Controlling for other variables, lower educational attainment, and parenting (especially if unmarried) were associated with higher likelihood of homelessness. There is a clear and urgent need for tailored, culturally-responsive homelessness prevention and intervention strategies, along with focused housing and support investments, for AIAN young people and the communities in which they live. The federal government and local jurisdictions need to take policy actions to address high rates of AIAN youth homelessness in urban and suburban communities, in addition to policies centered on AIAN reservations and rural communities.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
       
  • Stresses, Strengths and Resilience in Adolescents: A Qualitative Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Resilience, or positive adaptation in the face of adversity, mitigates the negative effects of stress and promotes lifelong physical and mental wellbeing. Identifying adolescents who are struggling with stress could provide opportunities for individual clinical preventive interventions. However, resilience assessments are rarely performed in clinical settings and no clear, evidence-based protocols or language for such exploration exist. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify both clinically feasible methods for assessment, and actual findings, regarding stress, supports, attributes, and strategies youth consider most useful for building resilience. We recruited 59 urban and rural dwelling 13–16 year olds from two Canadian primary care practices. Interviewers asked five open-ended questions about sources of stress and resilience and wrote summaries of answers provided. These were then coded. Researchers independently identified conceptual themes, then reached consensus on these. Stress arose from schoolwork and conflicts with friends or family, rather than from socioeconomic adversities. A majority of participants felt able to manage stresses well, finding strength through (1) social connection with family or friends; (2) self-reliant activities including exercise, music or drawing; and (3) personal attributes such as optimism, calmness and competence. They used a variety of approaches to work through stress, many of which align with key domains of resilience, as well as the novel technique of distraction. Ruminating on stress-provoking events made youth feel they were coping poorly. Most participants experienced stress and drew strength from psychosocial and emotional assets, as well as external resources that fostered resilience. Direct, open conversation was particularly effective for building rapport, augmenting strengths by discussing them, and identifying those who were struggling. Similar questions asked in clinical practice may open doors to deep and, perhaps, transformative conversations and evidence-based preventive interventions.
      PubDate: 2019-10-28
       
  • Cross-Country Comparison of School Neighborhood Food Environments in
           Houston, Texas and Guadalajara, Mexico
    • Abstract: Abstract Studies in the U.S. and Mexico have observed the clustering of food resources around schools, which may promote the use of these resources. Our study characterized and compared school neighborhood food environments in Guadalajara, Jalisco, and Houston, Texas, and examined socioeconomic disparities in food resource availability across school neighborhoods. We used the Goods and Services Inventory to document the frequency and type of resources within each school neighborhood. School neighborhoods in Guadalajara had significantly more food resources than those in Houston. We found that convenience stores and table service restaurants were the most prevalent food resources in school neighborhoods in both cities. Guadalajara school neighborhoods had a higher prevalence of supermarkets and grocery stores than Houston. Low-income school neighborhoods in Guadalajara with poorly educated residents had significantly more food carts than high-income neighborhoods with more educated residents. In Houston, we found significantly more fast food restaurants and convenience stores in school neighborhoods with more educated residents than school neighborhoods with less educated residents. The influence of food resources within school neighborhoods on the dietary habits of schoolchildren should be further explored in both the U.S. and Mexico. The characterization of school neighborhood food environments can inform policymakers, city planners, and school officials who seek to implement policies to create healthier food environments.
      PubDate: 2019-10-26
       
  • Students’ Perceptions of School Connectedness and Being Part of a Team:
           A Brief Report Evaluating Project TEAM™
    • Abstract: Abstract School connectedness constitutes a protective factor for students, diminishing negative outcomes and increasing positive ones. Enhancing school connectedness positively affects students’ stress levels, social confidence, victimization, health risks behaviors, and school performance, including attendance and grades. Interventions for promoting school connectedness are preventive, goal-oriented, and target the wellbeing of all students. We investigated a pilot implementation of a team-oriented whole school prevention program (Project TEAM™) developed to enhance school connectedness by increasing students’ sense of being cared about by adults and peers in their school, as a way to diminish social isolation and marginalization. We examined the relationship of students’ perceptions of their school connectedness and their sense of being a part of a team culture within this program. Findings reflected increases, across a 2-year period, in students’ sense of value in being a part of a team and connectedness to their school. Younger students and girls demonstrated greater increases in school connectedness than older students and boys. Findings suggested that creating a sense of a whole school team-oriented culture may hold promise for enhancing school connectedness.
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
       
  • Mentor’s Self-Efficacy Trajectories During a Mentoring Program for
           At-Risk Adolescents
    • Abstract: Abstract The concept of self-efficacy is dynamic and may change over time. Mentors of youth exposed to risk factors are likely to experience shifts in the degree to which they feel confident in their ability to form a positive mentoring bond with their mentee, potentially affecting the quality of the relationship. Based on previous literature, mentors’ personality traits, their perceptions of positive mentee behaviors, and youth risk may influence changes in mentor self-efficacy over time. Our study includes 238 adolescents aged 11–18 years and their mentors who were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of a mentoring-based intervention for at-risk adolescents, known as Campus Connections. We used latent class growth analysis to identify mentor subgroups with different self-efficacy trajectories. Three subgroups emerged: mentors relatively high in self-efficacy throughout the mentoring relationship, the stable group; those high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the relationship and increasingly so, the increasing group; and those moderately high in self-efficacy and decreasingly so, the decreasing group. Greater mentor conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were associated with greater likelihood of belonging to the increasing group relative to the decreasing group. Greater mentor emotionality was associated with greater likelihood of belonging to the decreasing relative to the increasing group. Mentors and mentees were also more likely to report having a positive mentoring alliance in the increasing relative to the decreasing group. We found that mentor personality traits play an important role in how mentors perceive their ability to serve as a mentor, which may have implications for mentor recruitment and training in programs designed for at-risk youth.
      PubDate: 2019-10-04
       
  • Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Among US Adults: Use of
           1999–2014 NHANES Data
    • Abstract: Abstract One in four deaths in the US is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD), and early detection may be a key aspect of prevention. We assessed the probability of a first hard atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event within 10 years in US Non-Hispanic White and African American population aged 40–79 years. With data from 16 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we utilized the 2013 Pooled Cohort Equations developed by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association to calculate risk scores for a representative sample. NHANES is a repeated, cross-sectional survey aimed at assessing the health and nutritional status of the country. Out of 17,087 eligible participants, a sample of 1876 (11%) remained for the analysis after excluding participants missing data required to compute the scores. Our results showed that 25.2% of the sample had a greater than 10% risk of contracting ASCVD within 10 years, and we also found sex-, race-, and age-based disparities. The ASCVD risk scores can thus be used to evaluate the general cardiac health of the population. Results showed that a quarter of the US adult population was at risk to contract ASCVD in the next 10 years, indicating the need for targeted preventative measures. With the aging population and rise in obesity rates, these results may also indicate trend continuation of high CVD-related morbidity and mortality.
      PubDate: 2019-09-30
       
  • Mindful Awareness: Can a Neuro-Developmentally Timed Approach Prevent
           Youth Substance Misuse
    • Abstract: Abstract Youth substance use remains a significant public health issue. Although there are numerous evidence-based substance use preventive interventions, room for program improvement remains. Mindfulness practice, due to its feasibility of implementation, capacity to promote neuro-networks associated with delayed substance use initiation and progression to substance use disorders, and efficacy in promoting protective and reducing risk factors associated with substance use, may constitute one strategy for increasing the effectiveness of substance use preventive interventions. However, mindfulness-based approaches to substance use prevention have yet to be systematically tested with youth. In this conceptual paper, we first define mindfulness and its potential, through practice, to strengthen neuro-circuitry associated with substance use disorders. We then review evidence supporting the effectiveness of mindfulness-based preventive interventions to promote protective factors and reduce risk factors known to predict youth substance use. Thus, a case is made for neuro-developmentally timed, mindfulness-based substance use preventive interventions, with the ultimate goal of preventing future substance misuse and associated health consequences.
      PubDate: 2019-09-25
       
  • Parenting Practices and Emerging Adult Sexual Health: The Role of
           Residential Fathers
    • Abstract: Abstract Emerging adulthood is a developmental period with high rates of sexual risk behavior. Effective parenting practices can reduce the likelihood of this behavior, but most research on the protective effects of parenting focuses on mothers. Research is needed to assess the role of paternal parenting in regards to their children’s sexual risk behavior, particularly for children of teen mothers, who show a greater likelihood of risky sexual behaviors than those with older mothers. We investigated associations between residential fathers’ parenting processes—communication, disapproval of teen sexual behavior, parental presence, and closeness—during adolescence and sexual risk behaviors reported by their children in emerging adulthood. Using multiple group structural equation modeling with data from 7399 participants at Wave I and Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examined whether and how residential fathers’ parenting relates to their children’s sexual risk behavior independent of mothers’ parenting processes, and whether these associations differ across children’s sex and for children of teen and older mothers. We found that adolescents’ perceptions of higher father disapproval of teen sexual behavior predicted lower levels of sexual risk behavior during emerging adulthood with no significant differences across emerging adults’ sex or for children of teen relative to older mothers. Our findings suggest that teens’ relationships with their fathers during adolescence are important for their future sexual health, despite a general understanding of emerging adulthood as a period characterized by independence and separation from parents. Additionally, our results suggest that even though children of teen mothers show greater likelihood of risky sexual behaviors than those of older parents, the processes through which fathers can support teens’ sexual health may be similar.
      PubDate: 2019-09-18
       
  • Exchange and Survival Sex, Dating Apps, Gender Identity, and Sexual
           Orientation Among Homeless Youth in Los Angeles
    • Abstract: Abstract We estimated the association between gender and sexual identities, and engagement in exchange and survival sex and seeking these partners via dating apps or websites, within a sample of homeless youth. In 2017, 253 homeless youth were interviewed from three different drop-in centers in Los Angeles. Multivariable regression analyses assessed associations between gender/sexual identity, and exchange and survival sex, adjusting for demographic characteristics. Sexual minority (43.6%) and gender minority (12.1%) youth reported elevated rates of exchange sex compared to cisgender heterosexual youth. Twenty-three percent of youth who engaged in survival or exchange sex used dating apps or websites to find partners. Exchange sex was associated with having recent HIV positive sex partners. Reporting an HIV positive partner and a relatively high number of sexual partners were significant predictors of engaging in survival sex. Programs and interventions for homeless youth should address engagement with technology and exchange and survival sex, and should respond to the unique needs of sexual and gender minority homeless youth.
      PubDate: 2019-09-14
       
 
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