Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8212 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2241 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 601 - 800 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
F&S Science : Official journal of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
Facial Plastic Surgery & Aesthetic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Medicine and Biology     Open Access  
Family Medicine and Community Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Family Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Family Practice & Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Family Practice Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Faridpur Medical College Journal     Open Access  
FEM : Revista de la Fundación Educación Médica     Open Access  
Finlay : Revista de Enfermedades no Transmisibles     Open Access  
Fisioterapia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Fisioterapia & Saúde Funcional     Open Access  
Flugmedizin · Tropenmedizin · Reisemedizin - FTR     Hybrid Journal  
FMC - Formación Médica Continuada en Atención Primaria     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Medica     Open Access  
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Folia Morphologica     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fontanus     Open Access  
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Foot & Ankle Specialist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Foot and Ankle Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Foot and Ankle Online Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Forensic Science International : Mind and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forum Medycyny Rodzinnej     Hybrid Journal  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontières     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Digital Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Network Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Tropical Diseases     Open Access  
Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fuss & Sprunggelenk     Hybrid Journal  
Future Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Future Prescriber     Hybrid Journal  
Future Science OA     Open Access  
Gaceta Médica Boliviana     Open Access  
Gaceta Médica Espirituana     Open Access  
Galen Medical Journal     Open Access  
Galician Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Galle Medical Journal     Open Access  
Gefäßmedizin Scan     Hybrid Journal  
Gender and the Genome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
General Reanimatology     Open Access  
Genes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Genome Instability & Disease     Hybrid Journal  
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Ghana Medical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GigaScience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Gimbernat : Revista d’Història de la Medicina i de les Ciències de la Salut     Open Access  
Glia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Global Advances in Health and Medicine     Open Access  
Global Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Health : Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Global Health Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access  
Global Journal of Cancer Therapy     Open Access  
Global Journal of Fertility and Research     Open Access  
Global Journal of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Global Journal of Medical and Clinical Case Reports     Open Access  
Global Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Perioperative Medicine     Open Access  
Global Journal of Rare Diseases     Open Access  
Global Medical & Health Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
Grande Medical Journal     Open Access  
Growth Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
GSTF Journal of Advances in Medical Research     Open Access  
Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Hamdan Medical Journal     Open Access  
Hämostaseologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hämostaseologie     Open Access  
Hand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hand Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Hard Tissue     Open Access  
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Head and Neck Cancer Research     Open Access  
Head and Neck Tumors     Open Access  
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access  
Health Matrix : The Journal of Law-Medicine     Open Access  
Health Notions     Open Access  
Health Science Journal of Indonesia     Open Access  
Health Science Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Sciences Review     Open Access  
Health Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Technology Letters     Open Access  
Hearing, Balance and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hearts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
HEC Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Heighpubs Otolaryngology and Rhinology     Open Access  
Heilberufe     Hybrid Journal  
HeilberufeSCIENCE     Hybrid Journal  
Heilpflanzen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Helicobacter     Hybrid Journal  
HemaSphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hemoglobin     Hybrid Journal  
Hepatology, Medicine and Policy     Open Access  
HERALD of North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov     Open Access  
Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Herzschrittmachertherapie + Elektrophysiologie     Hybrid Journal  
Highland Medical Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
HIV Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Homeopathy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Homoeopathic Links     Hybrid Journal  
Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Horizonte Medico     Open Access  
Hormones : International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal  
Hospital a Domicilio     Open Access  
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
Hospital Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Hua Hin Sook Jai Klai Kangwon Journal     Open Access  
Huisarts en wetenschap     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Human Factors in Healthcare     Open Access  
Human Fertility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Humanidades Médicas     Open Access  
I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald     Open Access  
Iatreia     Open Access  
Ibnosina Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
IDCases     Open Access  
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IJID Regions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJS Global Health     Open Access  
IJU Case Reports     Open Access  
iLiver     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Im OP     Hybrid Journal  
Image Analysis & Stereology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IMAGING     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Imaging in Medicine     Open Access  
Imaging Journal of Clinical and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imam Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Ayurveda and lntegrative Medicine Klue     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Community and Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research KLEU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Medical Specialities     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian Spine Journal     Open Access  
Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Biomedical Journal     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal for Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease     Open Access  
Infant Observation: International Journal of Infant Observation and Its Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Inflammation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Info Diabetologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Infodir : Revista de Información científica para la Dirección en Salud     Open Access  
Informatics in Medicine Unlocked     Open Access  
Injury Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
InnovAiT     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Health Science     Open Access  
Innovare Journal of Medical Science     Open Access  
Innovation in Aging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inside Precision Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Insights in Biology and Medicine     Open Access  
Integrative and Complementary Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Integrative Medicine Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intellectual Disability Australasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Intelligence-Based Medicine     Open Access  
Intelligent Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
intensiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
interactive Journal of Medical Research     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Sciences : Computational Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Health Trends and Perspectives     Open Access  
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Academic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advance in Medical Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.37
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0970-0218
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [448 journals]
  • Dementia friendly community: Concept to implementation

    • Authors: Abhik Sinha, Sukamal Bisoi, Sanjay Zodpey
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Abhik Sinha, Sukamal Bisoi, Sanjay Zodpey
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):1-3

      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):1-3
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_60_22
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Integration of attitude, ethics, and communication competencies into
           competency-based UG curriculum

    • Authors: Sunder Lal, Pankaj Sehgal
      Pages: 4 - 7
      Abstract: Sunder Lal, Pankaj Sehgal
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):4-7
      The new MBBS curriculum has a course called Attitudes, Ethics, and Communication (AETCOM) which will run across years. Students will be assessed for how they communicate with patients, how they counsel people for organ donation or other challenging procedures, how sensitively they offer care and obtain informed consent? All these elements will count along with competencies. The new regulations mandate the development of AETCOM competencies through 27 modules with emphasis on self-directed learning. Ultimately it is expected that these modules are integrated into the basic curriculum of Indian Medical Graduates. Each module is a comprehensive self-contained unit. It describes learning objectives of competencies addressed, level of learning, contents of learning, professional year of study, hours of study, methods of learning and their formative and summative assessment along with accessible resource material.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):4-7
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1022_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Exploring the socioeconomic factors associated with girl child marriage
           and its impact on pregnancy outcomes: A study from Malda District of West
           Bengal

    • Authors: Avijit Roy, Pradip Chouhan
      Pages: 8 - 11
      Abstract: Avijit Roy, Pradip Chouhan
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):8-11
      Background: Child marriage is not a new phenomenon in India. The prevalence of child marriage remains high in many districts of West Bengal. Objectives: The present study aims to address socioeconomic factors associated with girl child marriage and its effect on selected pregnancy outcomes among women in the Malda district of West Bengal. Methods: The study is based on primary data, collected from the Manikchak CD block by adopting a random sample survey technique. The participants in the study consisted of 357 ever married women aged 15–49 years. Results: Multivariate analysis revealed that the prevalence of child marriage was substantially higher among women who had no formal education resided in the marginalized family. Similarly, educated parents were less likely to marry their daughter at an early age. Besides, the likelihood of miscarried or stillbirth, complications during pregnancy and delivery were significantly higher among those married <18 years than those married at 18 years or later. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest preventing child marriage by increasing opportunities for girls' education and employment. The targeted approach should be made among rural and poor girls to reduce the vulnerability of child marriage.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):8-11
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_7_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Perinatal mortality and its causes in a rural block in Tamil Nadu,
           Southern India: A community-based nonconcurrent cohort study

    • Authors: Anne George Cherian, Cherryl Tryphena, Kuryan George, Vinod Joseph Abraham, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Jasmine Helan Prasad
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Anne George Cherian, Cherryl Tryphena, Kuryan George, Vinod Joseph Abraham, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Jasmine Helan Prasad
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):12-17
      Background: Globally, over 130 million babies are born every year, and almost 8 million die before their first birthday. Data on perinatal mortality (PM) and its various causes are lacking in many parts of the world including India. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate stillbirth (SB), early neonatal, and PM rates and its causes over the last decade in a rural development block, India. Materials and Methods: This is a nonconcurrent cohort study, analyzing the births, SBs, and early neonatal deaths between January 2008 and December 2017. The World Health Organization-PM classification was used to allocate causes of death as well as maternal risk factors. Birth weights were classified using standard growth charts. Results: There were 20,704 births after 28 weeks gestation and where the fetus weighed more than 1000 g of which 285 were SBs. There were 20,419 live births with 229 early neonatal deaths. There was a significant decline in PM rate from 32 per 1000 to 11 per 1000. There was a decrease in the small for gestational age fetuses from 20% to 12.5%. The main cause for SBs was antepartum hypoxia (34.4%) and fetal growth disorders (26.3%). Complications of intrapartum events contributed to 32.8% of the early neonatal deaths. Conclusion: Steady decline in PM rate and in the number of small for gestational age fetuses over 10 years was seen. Pregnancy registration and follow-up help in giving us a better understanding of the causes of PM.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):12-17
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_80_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Association of conicity index with different cardiovascular disease risk
           factors among rural elderly women of West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Joyeta Ghosh, Debnath Chaudhuri, Indranil Saha, Aditi Nag Chaudhuri
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Joyeta Ghosh, Debnath Chaudhuri, Indranil Saha, Aditi Nag Chaudhuri
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):18-22
      Introduction: In menopause, changes in body fat distribution lead to increasing risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Therefore, the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by the presence of risk factors is of importance in elderly women. Objective: To find out the conicity index (CI) and its association with different CVD risk factors among rural elderly women of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 236 rural elderly women, selected randomly from 30 villages of Amdanga block, West Bengal. Components of metabolic syndrome (MS), body fat percentage, different lipid profile fractions, CI, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Statistical tests were calculated using SPSS software version 20.0. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: High CI (median 1.25 and interquartile range 1.05–1.45) was found. The proportion of participants with high CI were significantly higher among those with MS (87.95%), waist circumference having 80 cm or more (99.09%), blood pressure having ≥ 130/85 mm of Hg (75.66%), body fat percentage ≥25% (80.14%), and BMI ≥23 (93.18%). Conclusion: High prevalence of CI existed among rural elderly women. Significant correlation existed between CI and different CVD risk factors as well as some of the components of MS indicating a possible coexistence of different CVD risks.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):18-22
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_595_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A community-based noncommunicable disease prevention intervention in
           Punjab, India: Baseline characteristics of 11,322 adults

    • Authors: Lindsay M Jaacks, Ananya Awasthi, Shilpa Bhupathiraju, Sanjay Kumar, Shilpi Gupta, Vinayak Sonawane
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Lindsay M Jaacks, Ananya Awasthi, Shilpa Bhupathiraju, Sanjay Kumar, Shilpi Gupta, Vinayak Sonawane
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):23-29
      Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death in India, with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in particular accounting for nearly 1 in 3 deaths. The prevention of key CVD risk factors – namely, diabetes and hypertension – is a public health priority. Objectives: The objective is to describe the results of large-scale, community-based NCD screening using the Government of India's Community Based Assessment Checklist (CBAC) scoring system. Materials and Methods: Trained enumerators visited each household in 10 villages in Punjab, India, between September 2019 and March 2020. Standardized methods were used to measure blood pressure, blood glucose, waist circumference, family medical history, and lifestyle behaviors. Results: A total of 11,322 adults (52.1% women; mean age 48.3 years) completed the assessment and 14.4% were classified as high-risk (CBAC >4). Those classified as high-risk were significantly more likely to have hypertension (46.0% vs. 20.6% among low-risk, P < 0.0001) and diabetes (12.0% vs. 7.7%, P < 0.0001). Only 26.8% of those with hypertension were diagnosed and only 14.9% treated. Proportions among those with diabetes were similarly low: 29.2% diagnosed and 16.0% treated. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate the prevalence of high-risk CBAC scores in a population-based sample. Given that the Government of India aims to undertake population-based screening of all adults >30 years for NCDs, the results of this study are directly translatable.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):23-29
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_672_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Bereavement care practices following stillbirths: Health-care
           provider&#39;s perspective

    • Authors: Bharti Sharma, Shatakshi Kulshreshtha, Neelam Aggarwal, Vanita Suri, Ritu Nehra
      Pages: 30 - 33
      Abstract: Bharti Sharma, Shatakshi Kulshreshtha, Neelam Aggarwal, Vanita Suri, Ritu Nehra
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):30-33
      Background: Addressing stillbirth is a difficult task and becomes more challenging with a huge burden and skewed doctorpatient ratio. There is a lack of data regarding the knowledge about the bereavement care practices following pregnancy loss and practices being followed by the health-care providers in the Indian context. The objective of this study is to describe the experience, views, and practices of health-care professionals while managing women with stillbirths. Design: Internet-based Monkey Survey. Methodology: An on-line self completion questionnaire was shared with various health care providers via emails and whats app groups. Results: A total of 281 responses of health-care providers were analyzed, and the majority of them were obstetricians. Almost 90% had managed women with stillbirth, but just a third (38.1%) had provided bereavement care. The majority of them felt the lack of a uniform and comprehensive training model for providing bereavement care to such women. Out of 281 participants, 258 (91.8%) believed that health-care providers should have a bereavement care training and support system, whereas only 23 (8.2%) rejected this idea. Conclusion: There is no defined protocol or standards for providing bereavement care to women following stillbirth. Most health-care professionals feel an urgent need for professional training to bridge the gap between the expectations of patients and the care provided.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):30-33
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_676_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • ”Written formative assessments with peer-assisted learning” an
           innovative teaching program for postgraduate students in community
           medicine

    • Authors: Rupali Sabale, Rukman Mecca Manapuranth, Saurabha Urmi Subrahmanya, Barsha Pathak
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: Rupali Sabale, Rukman Mecca Manapuranth, Saurabha Urmi Subrahmanya, Barsha Pathak
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):34-38
      Introduction: There is a paucity of research on conducting written formative assessment with constructive feedback for theory paper writing for postgraduates of Community Medicine in India. The concept of “Written Formative assessments with Peer-Assisted Learning Program” was implemented to improve the first 2 levels of Miller's Pyramid and assess its impact on the summative assessment. Materials and Methods: The program was conducted for 2 batches of postgraduate students in the Community Medicine enrolled for the academic session of 2016–2019 and 2017–2020. The written formative assessment was conducted every Saturday for 1 h from August to March month in 2018 and 2019. After each test, answer papers were evaluated by the peer and faculty from the department. Written and oral feedback was given by the peer. After IEC approval, we planned to assess the program's effect on level 1 and level 2 Kirkpatrick's framework. The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 24 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total 23 formative written assessments were conducted per year. The proportions of knowledge, comprehension, and analytical type of questions asked were 47%, 32%, and 21%, respectively. The mean attendance rate was 76.28% ±16.4%. There was no statistically significant difference in the average percentage of marks in formative (weekly test) and summative assessment (university final examination). There was a statistically significant positive co-relation of projected mean marks and summative assessment marks with the co-efficient of the determination being 22.6%. There was overall positive feedback of the formative and peer-assisted learning (PAL) from post graduate students. Conclusions: Written Formative Assessment with PAL program is one of the effective programs for postgraduate students to gain confidence in writing and presentation skills and to score higher in theory examination.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):34-38
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_682_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Perceptions and preparedness of dental professionals toward
           COVID-19-related oral manifestations in India

    • Authors: Ramanarayana Boyapati, Hema Duddukuri, Ravindranath Dhulipalla, Lakshmikanth Kolaparthy, Tejaswin Polepalle, Kishore Kumar Katuri
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Ramanarayana Boyapati, Hema Duddukuri, Ravindranath Dhulipalla, Lakshmikanth Kolaparthy, Tejaswin Polepalle, Kishore Kumar Katuri
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):39-44
      Background: With the reports of oral manifestations observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients snowballing day-by-day, it calls for the attention of dental professionals to keep themselves updated regarding these manifestations and how to prevent and manage them in COVID-infected patients. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the perceptions and preparedness of dental professionals in India toward the COVID-19-related oral manifestations. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted on dental professionals using a pretested and validated questionnaire. Six hundred and twenty-three responses obtained from January 23, 2021 to February 15, 2021 were included in the study. Results: Mean knowledge scores regarding COVID-19-related oral manifestations were noted to be significantly high among males (13.5 ± 4.9), having a PhD (18.3 ± 5.8), belonging to the specialty of oral medicine and radiology (15.6 ± 4.7), with more than 15 years of clinical experience (15.4 ± 4.7) and practicing in metropolitan areas (13.7 ± 5.03). Tele-consultation and advising palliative care (65.5%) were the most preferred ways of managing COVID-19-related oral manifestations. Ninety-one percentage of the participants felt that inclusion of dentists in the intensive care unit multiprofessional teams, would contribute toward early diagnosis and management of oral manifestations. Conclusion: Study noted lower knowledge scores pertaining to COVID-19-related oral manifestations among BDS graduates with <5 years of clinical experience calling for the implementation of continuing dental education on the oral manifestations occurring in COVID-19 patients.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):39-44
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_704_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence and determinants of depression among multi drug resistant (MDR)
           TB cases registered under national tuberculosis elimination program in
           Ahmedabad City

    • Authors: Rashmi Sharma, Harsh Bakshi, Shailesh Prajapati, Gneyaa S Bhatt, Rajesh Mehta, Kiran C Rami, Prakash Mehta, Tejas Shah, Roshni Dave, Azba Peerzada
      Pages: 45 - 49
      Abstract: Rashmi Sharma, Harsh Bakshi, Shailesh Prajapati, Gneyaa S Bhatt, Rajesh Mehta, Kiran C Rami, Prakash Mehta, Tejas Shah, Roshni Dave, Azba Peerzada
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):45-49
      Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) increases the risk of depression, lowers treatment compliance leading to poor outcomes. Objectives:To (1) document the prevalence of depression among MDR-TB cases registered at tuberculosis units (TUs) of Ahmedabad city and (2) assess determinants of depression. Methodology: Adult MDR-TB patients registered at all (23) TUs of Ahmedabad city, were studied using semi-structured questionnaire along with Gujarati translated version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) to assess the severity of depression based on 17 items. The sample size at 95% level of significance, was 251. Probability proportional to size sampling was adopted for selecting participants from each of the 23 TUs. Proportions and odds ratio with confidence interval with probability value were calculated. Results: Of 251, only 185 (73.7%) cases could be contacted. Mortality proportion among selected cases was 18.7%. More than one-fifth (22%) had ≥1 comorbidity and 9.7% had another active TB case in the family. 161 (87.1) experienced ≥1 adverse event. Financial, social, or psychological stressors were reported by 22% of cases. Based on the HAM-D scale, 16.2% suffered from depression, determinants of depression by univariate analysis showed significant association with recent family issues, discrimination, financial/other troubling issues, and the presence of adverse drug event. Conclusion: MDR-TB cases are more vulnerable for developing depression as the prevalence was 16.2% among them. Hence, cases need to be monitored closely for depression at TU as well at community level.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):45-49
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_813_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Development and use of a reproducible framework for spatiotemporal
           climatic risk assessment and its association with decadal trend of dengue
           in India

    • Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Arun Mitra, Biju Soman
      Pages: 50 - 54
      Abstract: Gurpreet Singh, Arun Mitra, Biju Soman
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):50-54
      Introduction: The study aimed to develop a reproducible, open-source, and scalable framework for extracting climate data from satellite imagery, understanding dengue's decadal trend in India, and estimating the relationship between dengue occurrence and climatic factors. Materials and Methods: A framework was developed in the Open Source Software, and it was empirically tested using reported annual dengue occurrence data in India during 2010–2019. Census 2011 and population projections were used to calculate incidence rates. Zonal statistics were performed to extract climate parameters. Correlation coefficients were calculated to estimate the relationship of dengue with the annual average of daily mean and minimum temperature and rainy days. Results: Total 818,973 dengue cases were reported from India, with median annual incidence of 6.57 per lakh population; it was high in 2019 and 2017 (11.80 and 11.55 per lakh) and the Southern region (8.18 per lakh). The highest median annual dengue incidence was observed in Punjab (24.49 per lakh). Daily climatic data were extracted from 1164 coordinate locations across the country for the decadal period (4,249,734 observations). The annual average of daily temperature and rainy days positively correlated with dengue in India (r = 0.31 and 0.06, at P < 0.01 and 0.30, respectively). Conclusion: The study provides a reproducible algorithm for bulk climatic data extraction from research-level satellite imagery. Infectious disease models can be used to understand disease epidemiology and strengthen disease surveillance in the country.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):50-54
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_862_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Mental Health Status Prevailing among
           COVID-19 Patients in Mumbai, India

    • Authors: Arjun Gurmeet Singh, Hitesh Singhavi, Florida Sharin, Muffazal Lakdawala, Sharayu Mhatre, Jayita Deodhar, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Rajesh Dikshit
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Arjun Gurmeet Singh, Hitesh Singhavi, Florida Sharin, Muffazal Lakdawala, Sharayu Mhatre, Jayita Deodhar, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Rajesh Dikshit
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):55-60
      Introduction: The aim was to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression among less symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Methods: A questionnaire-based assessment was conducted among asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients when admitted in a COVID-19 facility (T1) and after 6 months (T2). Interviews were conducted using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 instrument. Socio-demographic details and length of facility stay were recorded. Changes in scores between the two-time points T1 and T2 were compared. Factors predicting depression were determined using Chi-square and Mann–Whitney U test during facility stay, and those predicting worsening over time were obtained using multivariate regression models. Results: Among the 91.4% (n = 450) participants, prevalence of depression was 38.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 34.0–43.0) with a significant increase of 7.8-fold (95% CI = 4.8–12.8) in depression as the duration of stay increased beyond a median of 5 days. A significant association was observed between higher income and lower depression (odds ratios = 0.6, P = 0.03). 84% (n = 378) responded at the second timepoint assessment after a median of 6.62 months (T2). There was a significant difference observed between the 2.6% (n = 6) that worsened into depression at T2 and the 73.8% (n = 107) that improved out of depression at T2 (P ≤ 0.001). Age >45 years (P = 0.007), males (P = 0.011) and reinfection (P = 0.039) significantly led to worsening of depression. Conclusion: There is a need for actively detecting and managing depression in institutionally quarantined survivors, considering limiting such quarantine to no more than a week, and providing routine screening and care for depression beyond this period.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):55-60
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_928_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • COVID-19 serological survey-3 prior to second wave in Mumbai, India

    • Authors: Gajanan D Velhal, Jayanthi S Shastri, Daksha Shah, Sachee R Agrawal, Mangala Gomare, Deepika Mandar Sadawarte
      Pages: 61 - 65
      Abstract: Gajanan D Velhal, Jayanthi S Shastri, Daksha Shah, Sachee R Agrawal, Mangala Gomare, Deepika Mandar Sadawarte
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):61-65
      Background: Subsequent to serosurveys 1 and 2 for COVID-19 carried out in three wards of Mumbai in July and August 2020, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai conducted serosurvey 3 in March 2021. This was to identify the extent of exposure by testing specific IgG antibodies against COVID-19. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the prevalence of seropositivity in Mumbai, which included 10,197 samples belonging to patients visiting public dispensaries (slum population, 6006) and private (nonslum population, 4191) laboratories of Aapli Chikitsa network for blood investigations for non-COVID illnesses. The ward-wise number of unlinked anonymous samples from 24 wards was predecided by using probability proportionate sampling. The samples were collected using quota sampling technique as per predecided sample for each ward. These samples collected from nonimmunized individuals were tested for IgG antibodies at the Molecular Biology Laboratory of Kasturba Hospital for Infectious Diseases by chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) method. Results: The overall seropositivity was found to be 36.3% (41.6% in slum and 28.59% in nonslum population). It was more in city wards (38.28%) followed by western suburb (36.47%) and then eastern suburb wards (34.86%), matching with the proportion of cases in these wards during the study period. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among males and females and in different age groups. Conclusions: Seropositivity is higher in slum areas than nonslum areas. It has reduced in slum areas and increased in nonslum areas as compared to findings of serosurveys 1 and 2. This explains the detection of a greater number of cases from nonslum areas in the second wave. The average seropositivity of 36.3% justifies the necessity of immunization on a wider scale in the city. Periodic serosurveys are required at fixed intervals to monitor the trend of infection and level of herd immunity.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):61-65
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_984_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A novel approach to promote evidence-based development of district
           maternal and newborn health plans in two states in India

    • Authors: Harish Kumar, Enisha Sarin, Vaishali Alwadhi, Shailesh Kumar Chaurasia, Kuldeep Singh Martolia, Jaya Swarup Mohanty, Nitin Bisht, Naresh Chandra Joshi, Prasant Kumar Saboth, Sachin Gupta
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: Harish Kumar, Enisha Sarin, Vaishali Alwadhi, Shailesh Kumar Chaurasia, Kuldeep Singh Martolia, Jaya Swarup Mohanty, Nitin Bisht, Naresh Chandra Joshi, Prasant Kumar Saboth, Sachin Gupta
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):66-71
      Background: Maternal and child health implementation plan development in districts of India lacks systematic process and capacity resulting in suboptimal health improvements. There is ineffective and limited participation and lack of autonomy to effect changes in district priorities. Objectives: Primary objective was to demonstrate a systematic planning approach to develop evidence-based district implementation plans for mothers and children. Methods: A planning tool named RAASTA (RMNCH + A Action Agenda using Strategic Approach for evidence-based district work plans) adapted from WHO (World Health Organization) program review tools was used in the states of Uttarakhand and Jharkhand. The tool was implemented in the two states for the development of implementation plans in a 6-step process by prioritizing district health goals; reviewing maternal, neonatal, child, and family planning intervention coverage; and linking them with activity implementation status; assessing strengths, and weaknesses of previous implementation plans and developing solutions based on current gaps in intervention coverage's. Results: Tool was used for capacity building of 59 participants and also identification of prioritized activities based on their available data. Several newer activities were identified. The districts mainstreamed them as action plans, many of which were incorporated in the state Program Implementation Plan for budgetary provisions under state NHM (National Health Mission) funds. Conclusion: The use of a tool facilitated the systematic development of evidence-based district implementation plans.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):66-71
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1011_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effectiveness of after-school physical activity intervention on body mass
           index and waist circumference/height ratio among overweight adolescents in
           selected Schools at Puducherry, India: A randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Sumathy Ponnambalam, Soundararajan Palanisamy, Rajeswari Singaravelu, Hemamalini Arambakkam Janardhanan
      Pages: 72 - 75
      Abstract: Sumathy Ponnambalam, Soundararajan Palanisamy, Rajeswari Singaravelu, Hemamalini Arambakkam Janardhanan
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):72-75
      Background: Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in the recent years. In India, more than 10% of schoolchildren are overweight or obese. Schools play a major role in the modification of behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of after-school physical activity intervention on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference/height ratio as primary outcomes. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was adopted where the schools were randomized. Each group, i.e., study and control groups, had 140 overweight adolescents. BMI and waist circumference/height ratio were measured. After-school physical activity intervention was carried out for a period of 9 months by the study group. The posttests were carried out at an interval of 3 months up till 9 months. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in BMI between the study and control groups during the 6th and 9th months (t = 1.256, P < 0.001 and t = 0.920, P < 0.001), respectively. The repeated measures analysis of variance did not show a significant reduction in BMI and waist circumference/height ratio over a period of time. Conclusion: School-based physical activity interventions are effective in prevention of childhood overweight/obesity and are a very cost-effective measure that can be easily implemented in schools.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):72-75
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1031_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Health-related quality of life among liver disorder patients in Northern
           India

    • Authors: Yashika Chugh, Swati Katoch, Deepshikha Sharma, Pankaj Bahuguna, Ajay Duseja, Manmeet Kaur, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Shankar Prinja
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Yashika Chugh, Swati Katoch, Deepshikha Sharma, Pankaj Bahuguna, Ajay Duseja, Manmeet Kaur, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Shankar Prinja
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):76-81
      Objective: The present study aims to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among liver disorder patients being treated in tertiary care hospital in north India and exploration of factors affecting HRQoL. Methodology: The HRQoL was assessed among 230 patients visiting either the outpatient department (OPD) or those admitted in high dependency unit (HDU) or liver intensive care unit (ICU) using direct measuring tools such as Euro QoL five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ visual analog scale. Multivariate regression was used to explore the factors influencing HRQoL. Results: Mean EQ-5D scores among chronic hepatitis and compensated cirrhosis patients were 0.639 ± 0.062 and 0.562 ± 0.048, respectively. Among those who were admitted in the ICU or HDU, mean EQ-5D score was 0.295 ± 0.031. At discharge, this score improved significantly to 0.445 ± 0.055 (P < 0.001). The multivariate results implied that HRQoL was significantly better among patients with lower literacy level (P = 0.018) and those treated in OPD settings (P < 0.001). Conclusion: HRQoL is impaired among patients suffering from liver disorders specifically those admitted in ICU. Further, there is a need to generate more evidence to explore the impact of determinants and treatment-associated costs on the HRQoL.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):76-81
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1033_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Transmission dynamics of covid-19 and utility of contact tracing in risk
           assessment of health-care worker exposure during COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Malathi Murugesan, Padmanaban Venkatesan, Jagadish Ramasamy, Prasanna Samuel, Rajiv Karthik, Winsley Rose, Priscilla Rupali
      Pages: 82 - 86
      Abstract: Malathi Murugesan, Padmanaban Venkatesan, Jagadish Ramasamy, Prasanna Samuel, Rajiv Karthik, Winsley Rose, Priscilla Rupali
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):82-86
      Background: In the COVID-19 pandemic, the frontline health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring infection either through household or workplace exposure. Objectives: To assess the risk of acquiring infection after COVID-19 exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of a contact tracing assessment to identify the high-risk contacts. Materials and Methods: All HCW who tested COVID-19 positive in July 2020 were interviewed to do risk assessment based on their exposure, advised quarantine, and then followed up on day 14 for development of symptoms of COVID-19. Results: Contact tracing identified 2569 HCW contacts for 422 index positive cases, among which 1642 (63.9%) were contactable for follow-up. Among 1642 contacts, 12.97% developed COVID-19 symptoms within 14 days of the exposure. Household contacts comprising (142 out of 956, 14.9%) had a higher risk of becoming symptomatic than workplace contacts (71 out of 686, 10.3%) ([odds ratio 0.66 (confidence interval 0.49–0.89)]. Of these, 76.6% of the household exposure and 55.4% of significant workplace exposure were tested positive for COVID-19. Conclusions: Based on the risk assessment, we found that a HCW is likely to acquire infection at home rather than at the workplace, and hence, an appropriate quarantine policy can help decrease the transmission and mitigate staff shortage.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):82-86
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1097_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smokeless tobacco exposure and fetal iron status: An analytical study

    • Authors: Swathi Sunil Rao, Rutuja Agadi, Sukanya Shetty, Raghavendra Rao, Rathika D Shenoy
      Pages: 87 - 91
      Abstract: Swathi Sunil Rao, Rutuja Agadi, Sukanya Shetty, Raghavendra Rao, Rathika D Shenoy
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):87-91
      Objectives: To compare the cord serum ferritin and fetal iron status in newborns with and without maternal occupational smokeless tobacco exposure and determine the influencing factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study included mother–infant dyads with occupational tobacco exposure (exposed) and an unexposed group. Umbilical cord serum ferritin was compared in both groups. Fetal nicotine absorption was established by cord cotinine. Results: A total of 140 newborns each were analyzed in each group. There was no significant mean difference (MD) (P = 0.900) between the cord serum ferritin in the tobacco exposed and unexposed group. Fetal nicotine absorption was seen in 43.6% of the exposed group. Cord serum ferritin was 14.1 μg/L (95% confidence interval [(95% CI:-43.1, 14.9); P=0.338] lower in this group compared with the group without fetal nicotine absorption. A higher adjusted MD for ferritin was present for maternal hypertension (12.5 [95% CI: −75.5, 100.5]; P = 0.777) and gestational diabetes mellitus (21.4 [95% CI: −54.0, 96.9]; P = 0.571) in the group with fetal nicotine absorption. Fetal nicotine absorption exaggerated fetal iron depletion in maternal anemia [aOR 4.8 (95%CI: 1.2, 19.0); P=0.025]. Conclusion: Cord serum ferritin and fetal iron status were comparable in tobacco exposed and unexposed groups. In those with fetal nicotine absorption, cord ferritin levels reflect the fetal inflammatory state.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):87-91
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1136_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of multiple-choice questions by item analysis, from an online
           internal assessment of 6th semester medical students in a rural medical
           college, West Bengal

    • Authors: Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Abhijit Mukherjee, Kallol Bhandari, Arup Jyoti Rout
      Pages: 92 - 95
      Abstract: Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Abhijit Mukherjee, Kallol Bhandari, Arup Jyoti Rout
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):92-95
      Background: Properly constructed single best-answer multiple choice questions (MCQs) or items assess higher-order cognitive processing of Bloom's taxonomy and accurately discriminate between high and low achievers. However, guidelines for writing good test items are rarely followed, leading to generation and application of faulty MCQs. Materials and Methods: During lockdown period in 2020, internal assessment was taken through online mode using Google Forms. There were 60 'single response type' MCQs, each consisting of single stem and four options including one correct answer and three distractors. Each item was analyzed for difficulty index (Dif I), discrimination index (DI), and distractor efficiency (DE). Results: The mean of achieved marks was 42.92± (standard deviation [SD], 5.07). Dif I, DI, and DE were 47.95± (SD 16.39) in percentage, 0.12± (SD 0.10), and 18.42± (SD 15.35), respectively. 46.67% of the items were easy and 21.66% were of acceptable discrimination. Very weak negative correlation was found between Dif I and DI. Out of total 180 distractors, 51.66% were nonfunctional one. Conclusion: Item analysis and storage of MCQs with their indices provides opportunity for an examiner to select MCQs of appropriate difficulty level as per the need of assessment and decide their placement in the question paper.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):92-95
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1156_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluating Changes in Determinants of Stunting among Children Under 2
           Years and Assessing Their Contribution to Socioeconomic Disparity in Child
           Nutritional Status across India

    • Authors: Deboshree Das
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Deboshree Das
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):96-103
      Background: Despite concentrated global efforts to bring about reduction in malnutrition among children, it continues to remain a public health concern, especially in developing countries such as India. While substantial reduction in the levels of stunting has taken place over the years, high levels of variation exist in distribution of stunting across the country. Objective: The study aimed to identify the determinants of stunting in early childhood and their contribution to change in levels of stunting across India. It also compared the socioeconomic disparity in the levels of stunting and changes therein over the last decade. Methods: The study utilizes data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 and NFHS-4) on children aged under-2 years. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression identified determinants of early childhood stunting followed by Oaxaca decomposition model to assess the contribution of each of the factors to reduction in levels of stunting over the years. Concentration index was used to study the socioeconomic disparity in early childhood stunting. Results: Nearly 19% decrease in early childhood stunting can be attributed to increase in institutional deliveries, 14% to increase in maternal schooling, and 10% to improvement in maternal body mass index. In spite of an overall decrease, very little change is seen in socioeconomic disparity of childhood stunting. Conclusions: The study identifies institutional deliveries, maternal schooling, and maternal health as major contributors of decrease in early childhood stunting. It identifies persisting socioeconomic disparity in childhood stunting over the last decade.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):96-103
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1173_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Quantifying age heaping and age misreporting in a multicentric survey

    • Authors: DR Basannar, Sumeet Singh, Jyoti Yadav, Arun Kumar Yadav
      Pages: 104 - 106
      Abstract: DR Basannar, Sumeet Singh, Jyoti Yadav, Arun Kumar Yadav
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):104-106
      Introduction: Demographic indices known as the age-heaping indexes were used to explore the patterns of age misreporting in a multicentric survey. Methods: The data of 3252 individuals were analyzed, and measurement of errors in age for the sampled data has been evaluated by Whipple's Index (WI), Myer's Blended Index, and United Nations Age–Sex Accuracy Score which comprises Sex Ratio Score, Male Age Ratio Score (ARS), and Female ARS. Results: Out of total 3252 participants, 828 (25.5%) were female. The mean statistical division age of our population was 34 (8.5) years and ranged from 15 to 65 years. The percentage of female ages ending with digits 0 or 5 is 23.55% and percentage of male ages ending with digits 0 or 5 is 23.28%. The calculated WI was 117.75 and 116.34 for males and females, respectively. The calculated Myer's Index for females and males is 10.53 and 25, respectively. Conclusion: The study provides evidence that probably age-heaping bias is less of problem in the conducted study.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):104-106
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1179_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge, awareness, and practices among consumers regarding trans-fat: A
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Poonam Khanna, Sonu Goel, Rachita Jain, Arshdeep Singh, Mahendra Pratap Singh
      Pages: 107 - 110
      Abstract: Poonam Khanna, Sonu Goel, Rachita Jain, Arshdeep Singh, Mahendra Pratap Singh
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):107-110
      Introduction: Processed and preserved food items are the major source of dietary trans fat. Despite various legal provision, public awareness toward trans fats are limited. Objective: To examine the awareness of participants about various aspects of trans fats and improving their knowledge through education. Methods: A cross sectional pre- and posttest survey was conducted online through a webinar. The questionnaire has 11 questions about trans fats. Received responses were coded. Mean and frequency of continuous data were calculated. Chi-square or t-test were used to find the difference in pre and posttest. Results: Eighty five out of 95 participants completed both pre- and posttest. The scores for each question were compared to find out awareness improvement. The question based on FSSAI showed 57% improvement while 50% in case of World Health Organization's REPLACE initiative. The difference of mean score of pretest (7.57 ± 1.8) and posttest (9.22 ± 1.37) was statistically significant. Conclusion: Nutrition education and proper labelling of food items can improve the knowledge about food ingredients and food purchasing patterns. Proper enforcement and monitoring of food items labeling guidelines can be recommended.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):107-110
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1265_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Lung function impairment in patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis
           and associated factors in Puducherry, South India

    • Authors: Mounika Pydipalli, Palanivel Chinnakali, Manju Rajaram, Shanthosh Priyan Sundaram, Gautam Roy
      Pages: 111 - 115
      Abstract: Mounika Pydipalli, Palanivel Chinnakali, Manju Rajaram, Shanthosh Priyan Sundaram, Gautam Roy
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):111-115
      Context: After completion of treatment, a proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (PTB) patients experience lung function impairment (LFI) which can influence their quality of life. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of LFI in patients treated for PTB and the associated factors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients treated for PTB in eight primary health centers in Puducherry. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out among 118 patients. Those aged 18 and above whose PTB treatment outcomes were declared as cured or completed between 2018 and 2019 were included. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms before TB diagnosis, comorbidities, and chest radiography findings before TB treatment were collected. All participants underwent spirometric tests before and after dilatation with salbutamol nebulization. Statistical Analysis: Multivariable analysis identified smear-negative TB and indoor exposure to biomass for cooking as significant independent risk factors for LFI. Results: Of 118 participants interviewed, 70.3% were male and the median age of the participants was 47.7 years. The prevalence of LFI was 62.7% (95% confidence interval: 53.3–71.4). Conclusion: LFI was frequent in patients treated previously for TB. Creating awareness about the possible LFI among these patients along with the awareness for seeking health care for this condition is the need of the hour.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):111-115
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_564_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Factors associated with out-of-pocket expenditure among patients admitted
           for cataract surgery under district blindness control society scheme: A
           cross-sectional study from a private medical college hospital of South
           India

    • Authors: Rashmi Shambhu, Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Anupama Bappal, Rashmi Jain, Vidya Hegde, H Pavithra
      Pages: 116 - 119
      Abstract: Rashmi Shambhu, Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Anupama Bappal, Rashmi Jain, Vidya Hegde, H Pavithra
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):116-119
      Background: The National Programme for Control of Blindness and Visual Impairment in India supports the management of various conditions of the eye including cataracts. Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and factors associated with it among patients admitted for cataract surgery under District Blindness Control Society (DBCS) scheme. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Medical College Hospital of Coastal Karnataka, South India. Data were collected using a predesigned semi-structured interview schedule from 100 patients admitted for cataract surgery under DBCS scheme. Costs were reported as median values with interquartile range (IQR) and compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Median total cost incurred by the patient was INR 1700 (IQR 1052–2575). Median direct costs (1425, IQR 762.5–2200 INR) included medical expenditure (600, IQR 0–1475 INR), mainly contributed by the treatment of systemic comorbid conditions and nonmedical expenditure toward travel. Median indirect costs (400, IQR 200–600 INR) included loss of wages for the patient and the bystander. Conclusions: OOPE for cataract surgery among DBCS patients was associated with the presence of comorbidity, postponement of surgery, duration of hospital stay, and distance traveled by the patient.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):116-119
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_783_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Breastfeeding positioning and attachment among postnatal mothers: A mixed
           methods study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, South India

    • Authors: S Nancy, R Sindhuri, Arulkumaran Arunagirinathan, Amol R Dongre
      Pages: 120 - 124
      Abstract: S Nancy, R Sindhuri, Arulkumaran Arunagirinathan, Amol R Dongre
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):120-124
      Introduction: Proper positioning and attachment play a key role in exclusive breastfeeding. Whereas incorrect breastfeeding techniques lead to poor milk transfer and early discontinuation of breastfeeding. Objectives: 1. To assess the breastfeeding techniques among postnatal mothers and to identify the factors associated with improper positioning and poor attachment. 2. To prioritize the action points to improve the poor breastfeeding practices according to the viewpoint of the staff nurses. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based mixed-methods study was carried out in Puducherry for 6 months. In quantitative phase, 99 postnatal mothers were interviewed consecutively and breastfeeding techniques were observed based on Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness guidelines. In qualitative phase, 45 staff nurses ranked the action points to improve the poor breastfeeding practices. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed. Mean rank and Kendalls' Concordance Coefficient were calculated for the ranked data. Results: About 28.3% and 27.3% of mothers demonstrated improper positioning and poor attachment, respectively. Young mothers, housewives, <10 days old infants, and failure to receive breastfeeding counseling were associated with poor breastfeeding techniques. Poster displays, healthcare workers' training, targeted counseling, and assistance were the priority action points suggested by the staff nurses. Conclusion: Maternal age, maternal occupation, infants' age, and breastfeeding counseling influenced breastfeeding techniques. The prioritized action points need to be implemented to achieve the level of Baby Friendly Hospital.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):120-124
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_859_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A cross-sectional study investigating the association of serum iron
           concentration and platelet count as a risk biomarker among the
           pregnancy-induced hypertensive women in the highlands western ghats of
           nilgiris

    • Authors: Roopa Satyanarayan Basutkar, Bhaktraj Singh Chauhan
      Pages: 125 - 129
      Abstract: Roopa Satyanarayan Basutkar, Bhaktraj Singh Chauhan
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):125-129
      Background: The elevated serum iron levels and reduced platelet count at 20–24th week of gestation period cause oxidative stress that leads to the pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Objectives: The objective is to determine the prevalence of serum iron concentration, decrease in platelet count, and its association with PIH. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the secondary care hospital of Udhagamandalam. A total of 150 study participants were enrolled. Descriptive analysis was performed for demographic characteristics. The Pearson Chi-square test was performed for categorical variables. To measure the strength of the association between the two variables, Pearson's correlation test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: The mean serum iron levels in both the groups were 99.01 ± 12.86 ug/dL and 82.76 ± 18.95 ug/dL, respectively, at a P value of 0.005. The platelet count (96.34 ± 9.77 vs. 116.68 ± 23.55) was significantly lower in PIH group. A moderate and weak correlation was seen between serum iron levels and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.435; P = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r = 0.435; P = 0.01). Moderate negative correlation was observed between SBP, DBP, and platelet count. The risk of developing PIH is 6.76 times due to increased serum iron levels and 3.67 due to decreased platelet count. Conclusion: The serum iron levels were elevated, and the platelet indices were reduced in the PIH group. This should be considered a possible risk biomarker for PIH.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):125-129
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_897_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence and predictors of physical inactivity among adults
           &#8211; A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Deepak Sharma, Naveen Krishan Goel, Ravneet Kaur, Navroz Khosla, Mohit Shekam
      Pages: 130 - 132
      Abstract: Deepak Sharma, Naveen Krishan Goel, Ravneet Kaur, Navroz Khosla, Mohit Shekam
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):130-132
      Background: Physical inactivity is detrimental to health. It is a risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence and predictors of physical inactivity among adults. Methodology: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 374 adults aged 20–50 years. Trained field investigators administered the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Epi Info software for Windows. Logistic regression model was used to study the factors associated with physical inactivity. Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity among the study participants was 52.1%. Females (OR=1.9[1.2-3.1]), literate individuals (OR = 1.8 [1.04–3.2]), and current tobacco users (OR = 2.2 [1.8–4.1]) were significantly more physically inactive; as compared to their counterparts. Conclusions: Nearly half of the study participants were physically inactive, according to the World Health Organization guidelines. This highlights the need for strengthening the existing interventions for promoting physical activity among adults.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):130-132
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_913_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of a text-messaging intervention on oral self-care practices in
           antenatal women in Delhi, India: A pilot randomized control trial

    • Authors: Saurav Basu, Anjali Rajeev, Suneela Garg, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
      Pages: 133 - 137
      Abstract: Saurav Basu, Anjali Rajeev, Suneela Garg, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):133-137
      Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of a mHealth (text message) intervention compared with a structured health educational session on the oral care and hygiene practices of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot randomized control trial, parallel design superiority trial, with a 1:1 allocation ratio. A total of 76 pregnant women up to 20 weeks of gestational age and capable of reading mobile phone text messages were recruited during August–October 2020 from the antenatal clinic of a primary health center in a low-income urban agglomeration in Delhi, India. The mHealth intervention arm participants were sent a daily text message for 30 days, while all participants were provided a one-time, face-face, brief didactic structured educational session toward oral health promotion. Results: The baseline characteristics of both groups were comparable in terms of age structure, education, parity, and oral hygiene but differed in terms of oral health problems. Postintervention, although the twice-brushing frequency increased in both arms, only the mHealth arm revealed a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of missed twice-daily brushing episodes (P = 0.016). Conclusions: A mHealth-based daily text-message intervention for 1 month was not superior to a one-time brief didactic structured educational intervention for oral health promotion in antenatal women.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):133-137
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_929_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Epidemiological and clinical profile of COVID-19 patients admitted in a
           tertiary care hospital in Western India

    • Authors: Shikha Jain, Devang A Raval, Aarohi Mitra, Diksha Chaudhary, Utkarsh Khare
      Pages: 138 - 141
      Abstract: Shikha Jain, Devang A Raval, Aarohi Mitra, Diksha Chaudhary, Utkarsh Khare
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):138-141
      Introduction: Ahmedabad city reported the highest number of cases and deaths. In order to guide various interventions and monitor future trends, evidence is required. Hence, we conducted the present study to explore the epidemiological determinants, clinical profile, risk factors, and predictors of mortality of COVID-19. Methods: This was a retrospective record-based descriptive study of 2268 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted in a designated COVID hospital of Ahmedabad city from March to July 2020. Results: The median age of patients was 54 years, and 60.9% of them were males. Majority (83.27%) had comorbidities; the most common comorbidity was hypertension (62.59%) followed by diabetes (44.76%). The most common symptoms reported were fever (69.76%), breathlessness (55.47%), and cough (53.18%). Majority (61.12%) of the patients showed lymphocytopenia, and in one-third (34.85%), D-dimer levels were elevated (>1 μg/ml). Odds of inhospital deaths were higher in patients having breathlessness and gastrointestinal symptoms and comorbidities. More of the deceased had leukocytosis and lymphocytopenia, high D-dimer levels, C-reactive protein, and altered liver function tests as compared to the survivors. Conclusion: While making decisions such as prevention of exposure of high-risk population to the infection, control of the existing comorbid condition, and prioritization of this population for vaccination, criteria of case definition for surveillance keeping in mind the typical and atypical manifestations of the disease, require robust evidence which the current study could provide insight to.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):138-141
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_940_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Awareness of the use of standard precautions during care of people living
           with HIV by ward attendants in Indian hospitals

    • Authors: Ryan Fernandez, Tony D S. Raj, Elsa Heylen, Laura Nyblade, Dhinagaran Devadass, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Maria L Ekstrand
      Pages: 142 - 146
      Abstract: Ryan Fernandez, Tony D S. Raj, Elsa Heylen, Laura Nyblade, Dhinagaran Devadass, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Maria L Ekstrand
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):142-146
      Context: Standard precautions (SP) are infection prevention practices universally used during patient care to lower infection transmission. Aims: The aim of the study was to (1) assess Indian ward attendants' (WAs) knowledge, perceived efficacy, and self-efficacy regarding SP and (2) examine correlates of SP self-efficacy and intent to use unnecessary precautions during care of people living with HIV. Subjects and Methods: Data are sourced from a face-to-face baseline survey of a stigma-reduction trial among 1859 WAs from Indian hospitals. Percentages were used to describe categorical variables means and standard deviations for continuous variables. Multiple regressions examined associations between measures. Results: WAs who had heard of SP had 44% higher odds of confidently using SP than those who had not heard of them. Those aware of universal SP use were 43% more likely to feel confident in using SP but also reported greater intent to use unnecessary precautions. Conclusions: Hospitals could implement SP training for WAs, as their knowledge of universal use was lacking.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):142-146
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1339_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Repeatedly negative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a
           clinically suspected case of COVID-19 in India

    • Authors: Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Nitin Kapoor, Mary Chandrika Anton, Kathiravan Rajamani
      Pages: 147 - 148
      Abstract: Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Nitin Kapoor, Mary Chandrika Anton, Kathiravan Rajamani
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):147-148

      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):147-148
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_562_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Decentralized tuberculosis surveillance for advocacy, local planning, and
           action: A case study from Kerala, India

    • Authors: PS Rakesh, Shibu Balakrishnan, Sunilkumar Mrithunjayan, Sairu Philip
      Pages: 149 - 150
      Abstract: PS Rakesh, Shibu Balakrishnan, Sunilkumar Mrithunjayan, Sairu Philip
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):149-150

      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):149-150
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_583_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A case for action: India's national family health survey datasets
           await exploration of big data applications toward evidence-informed public
           health decision-making to tackle malnutrition

    • Authors: Kandarp Narendra Talati, Geetika D Madan-Patel, Rajiv Kumar Gurjwar, Arvind R Yadav
      Pages: 151 - 152
      Abstract: Kandarp Narendra Talati, Geetika D Madan-Patel, Rajiv Kumar Gurjwar, Arvind R Yadav
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):151-152

      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):151-152
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_698_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Extensively drug-resistant typhoid fever: A call to action

    • Authors: Manas Pustake, Purushottam Giri, Sampada Tambolkar, Shreeja Nayak
      Pages: 153 - 154
      Abstract: Manas Pustake, Purushottam Giri, Sampada Tambolkar, Shreeja Nayak
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):153-154

      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):153-154
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_1008_21
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Retraction: Perinatal outcome in pregnancies associated with hypertension:
           A prospective cohort study in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital of
           North India

    • Pages: 155 - 155
      Abstract:
      Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):155-155

      Citation: Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2022 47(1):155-155
      PubDate: Wed,16 Mar 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.339773
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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