Publisher: Int Associ for Food Protection (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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J. of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.761, CiteScore: 2)
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Journal of Food Protection(R)
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.761
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0362-028X
Published by Int Associ for Food Protection Homepage  [1 journal]
  • “Occurrence of Ethyl Carbamate in Foods and Beverages: Review of the
           Formation Mechanisms, Advances in Analytical Methods, and Mitigation
           Strategies.” A Comment on: J Food Prot . 84(12):2195–2212 (2021).
           https://doi.org/10.4315/JFP-21-219. PMID: 34347857.

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      Pages: 1104 - 1106
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.85.8.1104
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Different Roasting Conditions and Coreopsis Extract on
           Heterocyclic Amine Formation in Roast Lamb Products

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      Pages: 1107 - 1113
      Abstract: ABSTRACTHeterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are known carcinogens in thermally processed foods, were investigated in roast lamb patties under various time and temperature conditions. HCAs in lamb products roasted at some temperatures increased with roasting time. An exponential model with a time factor fit well for the production of HCAs. The mean pH and cooking loss at various temperatures were also determined. The mean pH decreased as the temperature increased. Coreopsis extract was added to lamb patties roasted at 230°C for 15 min per side. The amount of coreopsis extract added had a significant effect on HCA development. A weak positive relationship was observed between the antioxidant activity of the lamb patty with the coreopsis extract and the inhibitory effect of coreopsis extract on various HCAs, with a correlation coefficient of 0.14 to 0.44 (P > 0.05). Coreopsis extract containing flavonoids can be a beneficial additive for production of barbecue meat.HIGHLIGHTSHCA production greatly increased when lamb was heated to 230°C for 15 min.An exponential model with a time factor was a good fit for HCA production.Coreopsis extract has a dual effect on HCAs in roast lamb.HCA production and free radical scavenging were weakly correlated.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-21-152
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Efficacy of Antimicrobial Interventions Used in Meat Processing Plants
           against Antimicrobial Tolerant Non–Antibiotic-Resistant and
           Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella on Fresh Beef

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      Pages: 1114 - 1121
      Abstract: ABSTRACTSalmonella is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and several strains of Salmonella have been identified as resistant to antibiotics. It is not known whether strains that are antibiotic resistant (ABR) and that have some tolerance to antimicrobial compounds are also able to resist the inactivation effects of antimicrobial interventions used in fresh meat processing. Sixty-eight Salmonella isolates (non-ABR and ABR strains) were treated with half concentrations of lactic acid (LA), peracetic acid (PAA), and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which are used in beef processing plants to screen for tolerant strains. Six strains each from non-ABR and ABR Salmonella that were most tolerant of LA (2%), PAA (200 ppm), and CPC (0.4%) were selected. Selected strains were inoculated on surfaces of fresh beef and subjected to spray wash treatment with 4% LA, 400 ppm PAA, or 0.8% CPC for the challenge study. Tissue samples were collected before and after each antimicrobial treatment for enumeration of survivors. Spray treatment with LA, PAA, or CPC significantly reduced non-ABR Salmonella and ABR Salmonella on surfaces of fresh beef by 1.95, 1.22, and 1.33 log CFU/cm2, and 2.14, 1.45, and 1.43 log CFU/cm2, respectively. The order of effectiveness was LA > PAA = CPC. The findings also indicated that LA, PAA, and CPC were equally (P ≤ 0.05) effective against non-ABR and ABR Salmonella on surfaces of fresh beef. These data contribute to the body of work that indicates that foodborne pathogens that have acquired both antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial tolerance are still equally susceptible to meat processing antimicrobial intervention treatments.HIGHLIGHTSLA, PAA, or CPC equally reduced antimicrobial tolerant non-ABR and ABR Salmonella.LA was the most effective in reducing Salmonella on fresh beef surfaces.CPC has the potential to be used as a beef carcasses decontamination agent.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-21-364
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Modeling the Growth of Salmonella on Sliced Cucumbers as a Function of
           Temperature and Relative Humidity

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      Pages: 1122 - 1127
      Abstract: ABSTRACTRecent multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to fresh cucumbers underscore the importance of understanding Salmonella behavior on cucumbers under different storage conditions. No validated models that describe the impact of environmental factors on the growth of Salmonella on sliced cucumbers currently exist. This study developed mathematical models to predict the growth of Salmonella on sliced cucumbers at different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions. Sliced cucumbers were inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella and placed in desiccators containing a saturated salt solution to create controlled RH environments (∼15, 50, and 100% RH) at 7, 14, and 21°C for up to 120 h. Predictive models were developed by using the Baranyi and Roberts equation as a primary model, and estimated kinetic parameters were fitted into a square root (or Ratkowsky) equation for secondary models. The maximum growth rates for Salmonella on sliced cucumbers depended on temperature but not RH. The square root model for Salmonella growth was √μ= 0.0297 × (T − 6.5185), with a high R2 value (0.98). The models in this study will be useful for future microbial risk assessments and predictions of Salmonella behavior in the cucumbers to manage the risk of Salmonella on sliced cucumbers.HIGHLIGHTSSalmonella growth on sliced cucumbers was faster at higher temperatures.Salmonella growth on sliced cucumbers depends only on temperature and not RH.These validated models can be used to predict Salmonella growth on sliced cucumber.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-22-109
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Growth Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes on Cut Red Cabbage

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      Pages: 1128 - 1132
      Abstract: ABSTRACTListeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen associated with fresh produce vectors such as leafy greens. Recent outbreaks and recalls associated with red cabbage–containing salads have brought attention to this food commodity. Although data on the proliferation of L. monocytogenes are available for different varieties of whole and cut white cabbage, no information is available on the fate of this pathogen on red cabbage. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the survival of L. monocytogenes on cut red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) during storage at different temperatures. Red cabbage was cut into pieces (5 by 4 cm) and spot inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant L. monocytogenes, resulting in an initial inoculation level of 4 log CFU/g. Samples were stored at 5 or 10°C for 14 days or at 25°C for 7 days. At intervals during storage, L. monocytogenes was enumerated by homogenization of cabbage with Butterfield's phosphate buffer, and serial dilutions were plated onto brain heart infusion agar supplemented with rifampin. No growth of L. monocytogenes was observed on cut red cabbage during storage at 5°C, and only minimal proliferation was observed at the higher temperatures. Significant population increases of 0.58 and 1.07 log CFU/g were determined after 3 days of storage at 10 and 25°C, respectively; however, a significant decrease of 0.77 log CFU/g from 3 to 14 days was also observed at 10°C. The modeled growth rates for L. monocytogenes on cut red cabbage stored at 5 and 10°C were 0.11 ± 0.03 and 0.27 ± 0.07 log CFU/g/day, with calculated times to a 1-log CFU/g increase of 9.51 and 3.70 days, respectively; however, L. monocytogenes did not achieve a 1-log increase at either temperature in this study. At 25°C, the modeled growth rate of L. monocytogenes on cut red cabbage was 1.15 ± 0.36 log CFU/g, leading to a calculated and an observed 1-log increase in 0.87 and 3.00 days, respectively. Results from this study aid in understanding the fate of L. monocytogenes on cut red cabbage during storage at different temperatures.HIGHLIGHTSNo growth of L. monocytogenes was observed on cut red cabbage stored at 5°C for 7 days.Minimal L. monocytogenes growth was seen on cut red cabbage at 10 and 25°C after 7 days.The highest growth rate was determined at 25°C, with a 1-log CFU/g increase in 3 days.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-22-072
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Potential for Butyl and Heptyl Para-Hydroxybenzoate
           Enhancement of Thermal Inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii during
           Rehydration of Powdered Infant Formula and Nonfat Dry Milk

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      Pages: 1133 - 1141
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIn previous studies, parabens in model systems enhanced the thermal inactivation of foodborne pathogens, including Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate this phenomenon in actual food systems. In the present study, the potential enhancement of thermal inactivation of C. sakazakii by butyl para-hydroxybenzoate (BPB) was evaluated in powdered infant formula (PIF) and nonfat dry milk (NFDM) in dry and rehydrated forms. When PIF was rehydrated with water at designated temperatures (65 to 80°C) in baby bottles, BPB did not enhance thermal inactivation. When rehydrated NFDM and lactose solutions with BPB were inoculated and heated at 58°C, BPB enhancement of thermal inactivation of C. sakazakii was negatively associated with the concentration of NFDM solutions in a dose-dependent manner, whereas thermal inactivation was enhanced in the presence of lactose regardless of its concentration, suggesting an interaction between proteins and BPB. Fluorescence testing further indicated an interaction between BPB and the proteins in PIF and NFDM. In inoculated dry NFDM with and without BPB stored at 24 and 55°C for 14 days, BPB did not substantially enhance bacterial inactivation. This study suggests that BPB is not likely to enhance mild thermal bacterial inactivation treatments in foods that have appreciable amounts of protein.HIGHLIGHTSBPB did not enhance thermal inactivation of bacteria in rehydrated PIF and NFDM.Quenching of BPB enhanced thermal inactivation by proteins was dose dependent.Foods in which parabens may not enhance thermal inactivation of bacteria were identified.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-22-044
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Detection of Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate, Aluminum, and Borate
           Compounds in Bread and Pasta Products Consumed by Residents in Jilin
           Province, China

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      Pages: 1142 - 1147
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFood additives are widespread in the human diet; however, their excessive intake can have an impact on the quality of health. This study evaluated food additives in bread and pasta products consumed by residents in various regions of Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, from 2019 to 2021. We collected samples of bread and six types of pasta products from farmers' markets and morning markets and used high-performance liquid chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to detect the content of the following food additives: sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, aluminum, and borate compounds. For 836 samples in total, we detected the presence of sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, aluminum, and borate compounds in excess rates reaching 3.5, 10, and 4.7%, respectively. Aluminum in fried breadsticks exceeded the standard by 40%. The results of this study can be used to assess the overall pass rate of bread and pasta products sold in Jilin Province and support the detection of possible food safety problems.HIGHLIGHTSIn total, 836 samples of bread and pasta products were collected in this study.Products were collected from farmers' markets and morning markets.The content of SFS, aluminum, and borate compounds was detected.Urgent action to control the use of certain prohibited additives is warranted.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-22-011
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Regional Codex Guidelines and Their Potential To Impact Food Safety in
           Traditional Food Markets

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      Pages: 1148 - 1156
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTraditional food markets frequently have inadequate infrastructure, limited access to potable water, unsanitary conditions, and inadequate storage facilities, making them especially risky places for the growth and spread of foodborne pathogens. Traditional markets also often lack effective government oversight. Government programs are important for providing a foundation to manage food safety by setting and enforcing minimum food safety and quality standards and by establishing uniform standards for the conduct of food businesses. Four regional guidelines developed by the Codex Alimentarius to improve the safety of street-vended food were examined for their application to traditional food markets. These guidelines provide important standards that can be used to improve food safety in traditional food markets in many countries, including advice to governments and market authorities in the areas of policy and regulation, infrastructure, food handling, vendor health and hygiene, and training and education. The guidelines can be supplemented with additional material from the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, given the gaps identified in the individual regional guidelines, a uniform international standard is needed for national, regional, and local governments to use when managing food safety in traditional markets.HIGHLIGHTSTraditional food markets provide essential food for low-income consumers.Global guidance for food safety in traditional food markets is lacking.Guidelines for street-vended foods can be used to improve food safety.Codex guidelines are uniform international standards for managing food safety.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-22-052
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Temperature, Time, and Type, Oh My! Key Environmental Factors Impacting
           the Recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Tulane
           Virus from Surfaces

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      Pages: 1157 - 1165
      Abstract: ABSTRACTEnvironmental monitoring (EM) programs are designed to detect the presence of pathogens in food manufacturing environments, with the goal of preventing microbial contamination of food. Nevertheless, limited knowledge exists regarding the influence of environmental conditions on microbial recovery during EM. This study uses a commercially available polyurethane foam EM tool to determine the influence of environmental factors on the recovery of foodborne pathogens. The specific objectives of this study were to determine if environmental conditions and surface composition impact the recovery of sought-after microorganisms found in food processing environments. These data are compared across (i) microorganism type, (ii) surface type, (iii) environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH), and (iv) exposure time. Two bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium) and one human norovirus surrogate (Tulane virus) were inoculated onto three nonporous surfaces (polypropylene, stainless steel, and neoprene). Surfaces were held in an environmental chamber for 24 or 72 h at 30°C with 30% RH, 6°C with 85% RH, and 30°C with 85% RH. Data indicate that microbial recovery from environmental surfaces significantly (P ≤ 0.05) varies by microorganism type, environmental conditions, and exposure time. For instance, all microorganisms were significantly different from each other, with the greatest mean log reduction being Tulane virus and the lesser reduction being L. monocytogenes at 4.94 ± 1.75 log PFU per surface and 2.54 ± 0.91 log CFU per surface, respectively. Overall, these data can be used to improve the effectiveness of EM programs and underscores the need to better comprehend how EM test results are impacted by food manufacturing environmental conditions.HIGHLIGHTSListeria, Salmonella, and Tulane virus differed significantly in surface recovery.Surface type does not significantly impact the overall recovery of microorganisms.The 72-h residence on surfaces significantly impacted microbial recovery compared with 24 h.A relative humidity of 85% at 6°C resulted in higher recovery of Salmonella and Listeria.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-22-057
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes
           and Temperature Change in Low-Temperature–Longtime-Cooked Chicken Meat

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      Pages: 1166 - 1171
      Abstract: ABSTRACTLow-temperature and longtime (LT-LT) cooking, also known as sous vide cooking, is the process in which meat is sealed in a bag and cooked in hot water at a relatively low temperature of around 60°C. This cooking method has increased in popularity, and low-temperature cookers for home use are now commercially available. However, after LT-LT cooking, if any foodborne bacteria remain, they could cause infection and foodborne illnesses. Therefore, in the present study, the aim was to determine the appropriate LT-LT cooking methods for chicken by assessing temperature changes and studying the bacteria in LT-LT–cooked chicken meat. At set cooking temperatures of 60 and 65°C, the temperatures were measured at the surface and in the centers of single- and double-layer samples of 300 g of chicken breast meat. The times required to reach 50°C were 5 to 14 min at the surface, 25 min in the center of the single-layer sample, and 33 to 35 min in the center of the double-layer sample. The time taken to reach 50°C was fastest in the surface of single-layer chicken meat, followed by the center of single-layer and double-layer chicken meat (P < 0.05). When the meat was LT-LT cooked at 60 and 65°C for 60 min, color changes in the meat and heating of the meat were observed all the way to the interior. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella O7, and Listeria monocytogenes were inoculated into chicken breasts, which were then cooked at set temperatures of 60 and 65°C for 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. C. jejuni survived for up to 30 min of cooking, Salmonella O7 survived for up to 60 min of cooking at 60°C and 30 min at 65°C, and L. monocytogenes survived for up to 90 min of cooking at 60°C and 60 min at 65°C. Thus, to prevent infection and illness caused by the three tested bacteria species, LT-LT cooking for 120 min at 60°C and 90 min at 65°C is recommended.HIGHLIGHTSWith LT-LT cooking, the center of a chicken breast reaches 50°C in ∼35 min.Listeria monocytogenes survives for up to 90 min of LT-LT cooking at 60°C.LT-LT cooking for 120 min at 60°C is recommended to avoid bacterial infection.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.4315/JFP-22-114
      Issue No: Vol. 85, No. 8 (2022)
       
 
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