Publisher: De Gruyter   (Total: 66 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 66 of 66 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABI Technik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.045, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pure and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis. Intl. mathematical journal of analysis and its applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annual of Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Applied Rheology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
arcadia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.124, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv für Religionsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Risk and Insurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian J. of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
B.E. J. of Economic Analysis & Policy, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
B.E. J. of Macroeconomics, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Berliner Theologische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal  
Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.15, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Perinatal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Chemical Product and Process Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.295, CiteScore: 1)
Chemistry Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.114, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Methods in Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.291, CiteScore: 1)
Computer Law Review Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Concrete Operators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Trends in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Corrosion Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 2)
Croatian Intl. Relations Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Economics : The Open-Access, Open-Assessment J.     Open Access  
Economists' Voice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Electrochemical Energy Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Harvesting and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Company and Financial Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 0)
European Review of Contract Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 3)
Global Economy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.217, CiteScore: 0)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 0)
Historische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.021, CiteScore: 2)
HTM J. of Heat Treatment and Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.242, CiteScore: 0)
Hugoye : J. of Syriac Studies     Hybrid Journal  
ICL J.. Vienna J. on Intl. Constitutional Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Information - Wissenschaft & Praxis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.151, CiteScore: 0)
Innovative Neurosurgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Emerging Electric Power Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Turbo and Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.175, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. on Disability and Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.286, CiteScore: 1)
it - Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
J. of Citizenship and Globalisation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Environmental Protection, Safety, Education and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
J. of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.465, CiteScore: 1)
Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Economic History Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Language in Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Latvian J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Law & Ethics of Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Libri     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.243, CiteScore: 1)
Macedonian Medical Review     Open Access  
MACRo 2015     Open Access  
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.54, CiteScore: 2)
Zurich Studies in the History of Art     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Corrosion Reviews
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.458
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0334-6005 - ISSN (Online) 2191-0316
Published by De Gruyter Homepage  [66 journals]
  • IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials

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      Authors: Dusit Tao Niyato;
      Pages: 2058 - 2063
      Abstract: I welcome you to the fourth issue of the IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials in 2021. This issue includes 23 papers covering different aspects of communication networks. In particular, these articles survey and tutor various issues in “Internet Technologies,” “Network Security,” “Network Virtualization,” “Optical Communications,” “Vehicular and Sensor Communications,” and “Wireless Communications.” A brief account for each of these papers is given below.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Leveraging Deep Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Engineering: A Survey

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      Authors: Yang Xiao;Jun Liu;Jiawei Wu;Nirwan Ansari;
      Pages: 2064 - 2097
      Abstract: After decades of unprecedented development, modern networks have evolved far beyond expectations in terms of scale and complexity. In many cases, traditional traffic engineering (TE) approaches fail to address the quality of service (QoS) requirements of modern networks. In recent years, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has proved to be a feasible and effective solution for autonomously controlling and managing complex systems. Massive growth in the use of DRL applications in various domains is beginning to benefit the communications industry. In this paper, we firstly provide a comprehensive overview of DRL-based TE. Then, we present a detailed literature review on applications of DRL for TE including three fundamental issues: routing optimization, congestion control, and resource management. Finally, we discuss our insights into the challenges and future research perspectives of DRL-based TE.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Big Data Resource Management & Networks: Taxonomy, Survey, and
           Future Directions

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      Authors: Feras M. Awaysheh;Mamoun Alazab;Sahil Garg;Dusit Niyato;Christos Verikoukis;
      Pages: 2098 - 2130
      Abstract: Big Data (BD) platforms have a long tradition of leveraging trends and technologies from the broader computer network and communication community. For several years, dedicated servers of homogeneous clusters were employed as the dominant paradigm in BD networks. In recent years, the BD landscape has changed, porting different deployment architectures with various network models. This trend has resulted in various associated opportunities and challenges that induce BD practitioners to achieve the next-generation BD vision. In particular, addressing the BD velocity with batch and micro-batch processing. Nevertheless, the literature misses an extensive study of the associated impacts of adopting these new deployment architectures, giving it holds a significant research interest. This study addresses the previous concern, offering a comprehensive review of the architectural elements of BD batch query deployment models and environments. A novel taxonomy is proposed to classify these models based on their underlying communication systems. We first discuss the batch query processing requirements as comparison criteria of BD communication models and compare their salient features. The benefits/challenges of these environments away from BD traditional on-premise dedicated clusters are presented. Thereafter, we provide an extensive survey of the modern BD deployment architectures, categorizing them based on their underlying infrastructure. Finally, several directions are outlined for future research on improving the state-of-the-art of BD landscape and provide recommendations for the BD practitioners on emerging environments supporting BD applications and the general large-scale data analytics.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Resource Scheduling in Edge Computing: A Survey

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      Authors: Quyuan Luo;Shihong Hu;Changle Li;Guanghui Li;Weisong Shi;
      Pages: 2131 - 2165
      Abstract: With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the wide penetration of wireless networks, the surging demand for data communications and computing calls for the emerging edge computing paradigm. By moving the services and functions located in the cloud to the proximity of users, edge computing can provide powerful communication, storage, networking, and communication capacity. The resource scheduling in edge computing, which is the key to the success of edge computing systems, has attracted increasing research interests. In this paper, we survey the state-of-the-art research findings to know the research progress in this field. Specifically, we present the architecture of edge computing, under which different collaborative manners for resource scheduling are discussed. Particularly, we introduce a unified model before summarizing the current works on resource scheduling from three research issues, including computation offloading, resource allocation, and resource provisioning. Based on two modes of operation, i.e., centralized and distributed modes, different techniques for resource scheduling are discussed and compared. Also, we summarize the main performance indicators based on the surveyed literature. To shed light on the significance of resource scheduling in real-world scenarios, we discuss several typical application scenarios involved in the research of resource scheduling in edge computing. Finally, we highlight some open research challenges yet to be addressed and outline several open issues as the future research direction.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Content Delivery Network Security: A Survey

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      Authors: Milad Ghaznavi;Elaheh Jalalpour;Mohammad A. Salahuddin;Raouf Boutaba;Daniel Migault;Stere Preda;
      Pages: 2166 - 2190
      Abstract: A content delivery network (CDN) is a distributed infrastructure to deliver digital contents to end users with high performance. CDNs are critical to provide and protect the availability of Internet contents. However, adversaries can not only evade the CDN protection but also weaponize CDN resources to mount more sophisticated attacks. In this paper, we provide the first survey on CDN security. We categorize CDN security challenges per CDN infrastructure components, discuss possible countermeasures and their effectiveness, and delineate future research directions. This paper aims to highlight the state of CDN security and identify important research challenges in this area.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • A Survey of Decentralizing Applications via Blockchain: The 5G and Beyond
           Perspective

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      Authors: Kaifeng Yue;Yuanyuan Zhang;Yanru Chen;Yang Li;Lian Zhao;Chunming Rong;Liangyin Chen;
      Pages: 2191 - 2217
      Abstract: Trusted third parties (TTPs) are frequently used for serving as an authority to issue and verify transactions in applications. Although the TTP-based paradigm provides customers with convenience, it causes a whole set of inevitable problems such as security threats, privacy vulnerabilities, and censorship. The TTP-based paradigm is not suitable for all modern networks, e.g., 5G and beyond networks, which are been evolving to support ubiquitous, decentralized, and autonomous services. Driven by the vision of blockchain technologies, there has been a paradigm shift in applications, from TTP-based to decentralized-trust-based. Decentralized applications (DApps) with blockchains promise no trust on authorities, tackling the key challenges of security and privacy problems. A main thrust of blockchain research is to explore frameworks and paradigms for decentralizing applications, fostering a number of new designs ranging from network architectures to business models. Therefore, this paper provides a compact and concise survey on the state-of-the-art research of decentralizing applications with blockchain in the 5G and beyond perspective. We provide four burning 5G and beyond challenges and discuss five aspects of motivation for decentralizing applications with blockchain. Then, we define nine fundamental modules of blockchains and explain the potential influence of these modules on decentralization in depth. We also discuss the interrelation between decentralization and some desired blockchain properties. Particularly, we present the capabilities of blockchain for decentralizing applications through reviewing DApps for 5G and beyond. We clearly distinguish three blockchain paradigms and discuss how developers to make right choices for 5G and beyond. Finally, we highlight important learned lessons and open issues in applying blockchain for decentralizing applications. Lessons learned and open issues from this survey will facilitate the transformation of centralized appli-ations to DApps.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Quantum Internet—Applications, Functionalities, Enabling Technologies,
           Challenges, and Research Directions

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      Authors: Amoldeep Singh;Kapal Dev;Harun Siljak;Hem Dutt Joshi;Maurizio Magarini;
      Pages: 2218 - 2247
      Abstract: The advanced notebooks, mobile phones, and Internet applications in today’s world that we use are all entrenched in classical communication bits of zeros and ones. Classical Internet has laid its foundation originating from the amalgamation of mathematics and Claude Shannon’s theory of information. However, today’s Internet technology is a playground for eavesdroppers. This poses a serious challenge to various applications that rely on classical Internet technology, and it has motivated the researchers to switch to new technologies that are fundamentally more secure. By exploring the quantum effects, researchers paved the way into quantum networks that provide security, privacy, and range of capabilities such as quantum computation, communication, and metrology. The realization of Quantum Internet (QI) requires quantum communication between various remote nodes through quantum channels guarded by quantum cryptographic protocols. Such networks rely upon quantum bits (qubits) that can simultaneously take the value of zeros and ones. Due to the extraordinary properties of qubits such as superposition, entanglement, and teleportation, it gives an edge to quantum networks over traditional networks in many ways. At the same time, transmitting qubits over long distances is a formidable task and extensive research is going on satellite-based quantum communication, which will deliver breakthroughs for physically realizing QI in near future. In this paper, QI functionalities, technologies, applications and open challenges have been extensively surveyed to help readers gain a basic understanding of the infrastructure required for the development of the global QI.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • A Survey on Industrial Control System Testbeds and Datasets for Security
           Research

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      Authors: Mauro Conti;Denis Donadel;Federico Turrin;
      Pages: 2248 - 2294
      Abstract: The increasing digitization and interconnection of legacy Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) open new vulnerability surfaces, exposing such systems to malicious attackers. Furthermore, since ICSs are often employed in critical infrastructures (e.g., nuclear plants) and manufacturing companies (e.g., chemical industries), attacks can lead to devastating physical damages. In dealing with this security requirement, the research community focuses on developing new security mechanisms such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs), facilitated by leveraging modern machine learning techniques. However, these algorithms require a testing platform and a considerable amount of data to be trained and tested accurately. To satisfy this prerequisite, Academia, Industry, and Government are increasingly proposing testbed (i.e., scaled-down versions of ICSs or simulations) to test the performances of the IDSs. Furthermore, to enable researchers to cross-validate security systems (e.g., security-by-design concepts or anomaly detectors), several datasets have been collected from testbeds and shared with the community. In this paper, we provide a deep and comprehensive overview of ICSs, presenting the architecture design, the employed devices, and the security protocols implemented. We then collect, compare, and describe testbeds and datasets in the literature, highlighting key challenges and design guidelines to keep in mind in the design phases. Furthermore, we enrich our work by reporting the best performing IDS algorithms tested on every dataset to create a baseline in state of the art for this field. Finally, driven by knowledge accumulated during this survey’s development, we report advice and good practices on the development, the choice, and the utilization of testbeds, datasets, and IDSs.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • SIMBox Bypass Frauds in Cellular Networks: Strategies, Evolution,
           Detection, and Future Directions

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      Authors: Anne Josiane Kouam;Aline Carneiro Viana;Alain Tchana;
      Pages: 2295 - 2323
      Abstract: Due to their complexity and opaqueness, cellular networks have been subject to numerous attacks over the past few decades. These attacks are a real problem to telecom operators and cost them about USD 28.3 Billion annually, as reported by the Communications Fraud Control Association. SIMBox fraud is one of the most prevalent of these telephone frauds. It consists of diverting international calls on the VoIP network and terminating them as local calls using an off-the-shelf device, referred to as SIMBox. This paper surveys both the existing literature and the major SIMBox manufacturers to provide comprehensive and analytical knowledge on SIMBox fraud, fraud strategies, fraud evolution, and fraud detection methods. We provide the necessary background on the telephone ecosystem while extensively exploring the SIMBox architecture required to understand fraud strategies. Our goal is to provide a complete introductory guide for research on SIMBox fraud and stimulate interest for SIMBox fraud detection, which remains little investigated. In this vein, we conclude the paper by presenting insights into tomorrow’s SIMBox fraud detection challenges and research directions.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • De-Anonymisation Attacks on Tor: A Survey

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      Authors: Ishan Karunanayake;Nadeem Ahmed;Robert Malaney;Rafiqul Islam;Sanjay K. Jha;
      Pages: 2324 - 2350
      Abstract: Anonymity networks are becoming increasingly popular in today’s online world as more users attempt to safeguard their online privacy. Tor is currently the most popular anonymity network in use and provides anonymity to both users and services (hidden services). However, the anonymity provided by Tor is also being misused in various ways. Hosting illegal sites for selling drugs, hosting command and control servers for botnets, and distributing censored content are but a few such examples. As a result, various parties, including governments and law enforcement agencies, are interested in attacks that assist in de-anonymising the Tor network, disrupting its operations, and bypassing its censorship circumvention mechanisms. In this survey paper, we review known Tor attacks and identify current techniques for the de-anonymisation of Tor users and hidden services. We discuss these techniques and analyse the practicality of their execution method. We conclude by discussing improvements to the Tor framework that help prevent the surveyed de-anonymisation attacks.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • A Survey of Honeypots and Honeynets for Internet of Things, Industrial
           Internet of Things, and Cyber-Physical Systems

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      Authors: Javier Franco;Ahmet Aris;Berk Canberk;A. Selcuk Uluagac;
      Pages: 2351 - 2383
      Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT), the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have become essential for our daily lives in contexts such as our homes, buildings, cities, health, transportation, manufacturing, infrastructure, and agriculture. However, they have become popular targets of attacks, due to their inherent limitations which create vulnerabilities. Honeypots and honeynets can prove essential to understand and defend against attacks on IoT, IIoT, and CPS environments by attracting attackers and deceiving them into thinking that they have gained access to the real systems. Honeypots and honeynets can complement other security solutions (i.e., firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems - IDS) to form a strong defense against malicious entities. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the research that has been carried out on honeypots and honeynets for IoT, IIoT, and CPS. It provides a taxonomy and extensive analysis of the existing honeypots and honeynets, states key design factors for the state-of-the-art honeypot/honeynet research and outlines open issues for future honeypots and honeynets for IoT, IIoT, and CPS environments.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Security and Privacy for 6G: A Survey on Prospective Technologies and
           Challenges

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      Authors: Van-Linh Nguyen;Po-Ching Lin;Bo-Chao Cheng;Ren-Hung Hwang;Ying-Dar Lin;
      Pages: 2384 - 2428
      Abstract: Sixth-generation (6G) mobile networks will have to cope with diverse threats on a space-air-ground integrated network environment, novel technologies, and an accessible user information explosion. However, for now, security and privacy issues for 6G remain largely in concept. This survey provides a systematic overview of security and privacy issues based on prospective technologies for 6G in the physical, connection, and service layers, as well as through lessons learned from the failures of existing security architectures and state-of-the-art defenses. Two key lessons learned are as follows. First, other than inheriting vulnerabilities from the previous generations, 6G has new threat vectors from new radio technologies, such as the exposed location of radio stripes in ultra-massive MIMO systems at Terahertz bands and attacks against pervasive intelligence. Second, physical layer protection, deep network slicing, quantum-safe communications, artificial intelligence (AI) security, platform-agnostic security, real-time adaptive security, and novel data protection mechanisms such as distributed ledgers and differential privacy are the top promising techniques to mitigate the attack magnitude and personal data breaches substantially.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Thirty Years of DNS Insecurity: Current Issues and Perspectives

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      Authors: Giovanni Schmid;
      Pages: 2429 - 2459
      Abstract: When DNS was created, nobody expected that it would have become the base for the digital economy and a prime target for cybercriminals. And nobody expected that one main asset of the digital economy would have been users’ browsing habits, putting at risk their privacy. The DNS was designed and implemented according to speed, scalability, and reliability criteria, whereas security and privacy did not fit in the objectives. Although the first attacks were already conceived about thirty years ago, the DNS infrastructure - with a bunch of improvements but its original design - continues to play a pivotal role in enabling access to services, data and devices. And, despite the fairly widespread adoption of DNSSEC security extensions in recent years, DNS attacks are becoming more and more frequent, sophisticated and dangerous. They are global, varied, dynamic and can circumvent traditional security systems such as next-generation firewalls and data loss prevention systems. A revisitation of DNS assumptions has been proposed in very different ways, reflecting diverse point of views in terms of Internet governance and user freedom, and a great effort is in place by standardization bodies, industry consortia and academic research to converge toward an updated design and implementation. The present work overviews the most promising proposals, trying to shed some insight on the future of DNS.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • A Survey of Defensive Deception: Approaches Using Game Theory and Machine
           Learning

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      Authors: Mu Zhu;Ahmed H. Anwar;Zelin Wan;Jin-Hee Cho;Charles A. Kamhoua;Munindar P. Singh;
      Pages: 2460 - 2493
      Abstract: Defensive deception is a promising approach for cyber defense. Via defensive deception, a defender can anticipate and prevent attacks by misleading or luring an attacker, or hiding some of its resources. Although defensive deception is garnering increasing research attention, there has not been a systematic investigation of its key components, the underlying principles, and its tradeoffs in various problem settings. This survey focuses on defensive deception research centered on game theory and machine learning, since these are prominent families of artificial intelligence approaches that are widely employed in defensive deception. This paper brings forth insights, lessons, and limitations from prior work. It closes with an outline of some research directions to tackle major gaps in current defensive deception research.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Online Advertising Security: Issues, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

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      Authors: Zahra Pooranian;Mauro Conti;Hamed Haddadi;Rahim Tafazolli;
      Pages: 2494 - 2524
      Abstract: Online advertising has become the backbone of the Internet economy by revolutionizing business marketing. It provides a simple and efficient way for advertisers to display their advertisements to specific individual users, and over the last couple of years has contributed to an explosion in the income stream for several Web-based businesses. For example, Google’s income from advertising grew 51.6% between 2016 and 2018, to $$ $ 136.8 billion. This exponential growth in advertising revenue has motivated fraudsters to exploit the weaknesses of the online advertising model to make money, and researchers to discover new security vulnerabilities in the model, to propose countermeasures and to forecast future trends in research. Motivated by these considerations, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the security threats to online advertising systems. We begin by introducing the motivation for online advertising system, explain how it differs from traditional advertising networks, introduce terminology, and define the current online advertising architecture. We then devise a comprehensive taxonomy of attacks on online advertising to raise awareness among researchers about the vulnerabilities of online advertising ecosystem. We discuss the limitations and effectiveness of the countermeasures that have been developed to secure entities in the advertising ecosystem against these attacks. To complete our work, we identify some open issues and outline some possible directions for future research towards improving security methods for online advertising systems.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • A Comparative Study on Cyber Threat Intelligence: The Security Incident
           Response Perspective

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      Authors: Daniel Schlette;Marco Caselli;Günther Pernul;
      Pages: 2525 - 2556
      Abstract: Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) is threat information intended for security purposes. However, use for incident response demands standardization. This study examines the broader security incident response perspective. Introducing 18 core concepts, we assist efforts to establish and assess current standardization approaches. We further provide the reader with a detailed analysis of 6 incident response formats. While we synthesize structural elements, we point to characteristics and show format deficiencies. Also, we describe how core concepts can be used to determine a suitable format for a given use case. Our surveys’ findings indicate a consistent focus on incident response actions within all formats. Besides, playbooks are used to represent procedures. Different use cases suggest that organizations can leverage and combine multiple formats. Finally, we discuss open research challenges to fully realize incident response potentials.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Towards Low-Latency Service Delivery in a Continuum of Virtual Resources:
           State-of-the-Art and Research Directions

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      Authors: José Santos;Tim Wauters;Bruno Volckaert;Filip De Turck;
      Pages: 2557 - 2589
      Abstract: The advent of softwarized networks has enabled the deployment of chains of virtual network and service components on computational resources from the cloud up to the edge, creating a continuum of virtual resources. The next generation of low latency applications (e.g., Virtual Reality (VR), autonomous cars) adds even more stringent requirements to the infrastructure, calling for considerable advancements towards cloud-native micro-service-based architectures. This article presents a comprehensive survey on ongoing research aiming to effectively support low latency services throughout their execution lifetime in next-generation networks. The current state-of-the-art is critically reviewed to identify the most promising trends that will strongly impact the full applicability and high performance of low latency services. This article proposes a taxonomy as well as specific evaluation criteria to classify research across different domains addressing low latency service delivery. Current architectural paradigms such as Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) and Fog Computing (FC) alongside novel trends on communication networks are discussed. Among these, the integration of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial intelligence (AI) is introduced as a key research field in current literature towards autonomous network management. A discussion on open challenges and future research directions on low-latency service delivery leads to the conclusion, offering lessons learned and prospects on emerging use cases such as Extended Reality (XR), in which novel trends will play a major role.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Survey on Placement Methods in the Edge and Beyond

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      Authors: Balázs Sonkoly;János Czentye;Márk Szalay;Balázs Németh;László Toka;
      Pages: 2590 - 2629
      Abstract: Edge computing is a (r)evolutionary extension of traditional cloud computing. It expands central cloud infrastructure with execution environments close to the users in terms of latency in order to enable a new generation of cloud applications. This paradigm shift has opened the door for telecommunications operators, mobile and fixed network vendors: they have joined the cloud ecosystem as essential stakeholders considerably influencing the future success of the technology. A key problem in edge computing is the optimal placement of computational units (virtual machines, containers, tasks or functions) of novel distributed applications. These components are deployed to a geographically distributed virtualized infrastructure and heterogeneous networking technologies are invoked to connect them while respecting quality requirements. The optimal hosting environment should be selected based on multiple criteria by novel scheduler algorithms which can cope with the new challenges of distributed cloud architecture where networking aspects cannot be ignored. The research community has dedicated significant efforts to this topic during recent years and a vast number of theoretical results have been published addressing different variants of the related mathematical problems. However, a comprehensive survey focusing on the technical and analytical aspects of the placement problem in various edge architectures is still missing. This survey provides a comprehensive summary and a structured taxonomy of the vast research on placement of computational entities in emerging edge infrastructures. Following the given taxonomy, the research papers are analyzed and categorized according to several dimensions, such as the capabilities of the underlying platforms, the structure of the supported services, the problem formulation, the applied mathematical methods, the objectives and constraints incorporated in the optimization problems, and the complexity of the proposed methods. We summar-ze the gained insights and important lessons learned, and finally, we reveal some important research gaps in the current literature.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Underwater Optical Wireless Communications in Swarm Robotics: A Tutorial

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      Authors: Peter Adam Hoeher;Jan Sticklus;Andrej Harlakin;
      Pages: 2630 - 2659
      Abstract: Underwater swarm robotics is an emerging topic. Compared to individual autonomous vehicles, high-capacity communication links are required between the mobile agents. In this tutorial, suitable communication technologies are studied, with emphasis on LED-based underwater optical wireless communications. A comprehensive overview about challenges, advances, and practical aspects of underwater swarm robotics employing optical wireless communications is provided. The tutorial includes the following topics: (1) Channel modeling fundamentals; (2) Physical layer transmission techniques for underwater optical wireless communications; (3) Data link layer aspects and hybrid transmission schemes; (4) Ambient light and interference suppression; and (5) Realization aspects. Finally, suggestions regarding future work are given. The tutorial is intended for readers with a background or interest in electrical and information engineering.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Applications of Game Theory in Vehicular Networks: A Survey

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      Authors: Zemin Sun;Yanheng Liu;Jian Wang;Guofa Li;Carie Anil;Keqiang Li;Xinyu Guo;Geng Sun;Daxin Tian;Dongpu Cao;
      Pages: 2660 - 2710
      Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT) era, vehicles and other intelligent components in an intelligent transportation system (ITS) are connected, forming vehicular networks (VNs) that provide efficient and safe traffic and ubiquitous access to various applications. However, as the number of nodes in an ITS increases, it is challenging to satisfy a varied and large number of service requests with different quality of service (QoS) and security requirements in highly dynamic VNs. Intelligent nodes in VNs can compete or cooperate for limited network resources to achieve the objective for either an individual or a group. Game theory (GT), a theoretical framework designed for strategic interactions among rational decision makers sharing scarce resources, can be used to model and analyze individual or group behaviors of communicating entities in VNs. This paper primarily surveys the recent developments of GT in solving various challenges of VNs. This survey starts with an introduction to the background of VNs. A review of GT models studied in the VNs is then introduced, including the basic concepts, classifications, and applicable vehicular issues. After discussing the requirements of VNs and the motivation of using GT, a comprehensive literature review on GT applications in dealing with the challenges of current VNs is provided. Furthermore, recent contributions of GT to VNs that are integrated with diverse emerging 5G technologies are surveyed. Finally, the lessons learned are given, and several key research challenges and possible solutions of applying GT in VNs are outlined.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) in Wireless Communications Systems
           and Standards: A Contemporary Survey

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      Authors: Ashfaq Ahmed;Arafat Al-Dweik;Youssef Iraqi;Husameldin Mukhtar;Muhammad Naeem;Ekram Hossain;
      Pages: 2711 - 2752
      Abstract: Automatic repeat request (ARQ) schemes, and in particular hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) schemes, which jointly adopt forward error correction (FEC) and ARQ, are essential to provide reliable data transmission in wireless communications systems. However, the feedback from the receiver to the transmitter and the retransmission process used in ARQ incurs significant cost in terms of power efficiency, throughput, computational power and delay. Unfortunately, such drawbacks can limit their applications to several current and emerging technologies. More specifically, the increasing number of wireless users has create spectrum scarcity, relying on small-size batteries create power constraints, deployment of real-time applications boost the demand for ultra-low delay networks, and the ultra-small low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) devices has limited signal processing and computation capabilities. Consequently, extensive research efforts have been dedicated to overcome the limitations inherent in HARQ. This survey paper provides an extensive literature review of the state-of-the-art HARQ techniques and discusses their integration in various wireless technologies. Moreover, it provides insights on advantages and disadvantages of particular ARQ types and discusses open problems and future directions.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Stochastic Geometry Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Performance in Wireless
           Networks: A Tutorial

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      Authors: Xiao Lu;Mohammad Salehi;Martin Haenggi;Ekram Hossain;Hai Jiang;
      Pages: 2753 - 2801
      Abstract: The performance of wireless networks is fundamentally limited by the aggregate interference, which depends on the spatial distributions of the interferers, channel conditions, and user traffic patterns (or queueing dynamics). These factors usually exhibit spatial and temporal correlations and thus make the performance of large-scale networks environment-dependent (i.e., dependent on network topology, locations of the blockages, etc.). The correlation can be exploited in protocol designs (e.g., spectrum-, load-, location-, energy-aware resource allocations) to provide efficient wireless services. For this, accurate system-level performance characterization and evaluation with spatial-temporal correlation are required. In this context, stochastic geometry models and random graph techniques have been used to develop analytical frameworks to capture the spatial-temporal interference correlation in large-scale wireless networks. The objective of this article is to provide a tutorial on the stochastic geometry analysis of large-scale wireless networks that captures the spatial-temporal interference correlation (and hence the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) correlation). We first discuss the importance of spatial-temporal performance analysis, different parameters affecting the spatial-temporal correlation in the SIR, and the different performance metrics for spatial-temporal analysis. Then we describe the methodologies to characterize spatial-temporal SIR correlations for different network configurations (independent, attractive, repulsive configurations), shadowing scenarios, user locations, queueing behavior, relaying, retransmission, and mobility. We conclude by outlining future research directions in the context of spatial-temporal analysis of emerging wireless communications scenarios.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Fast, Reliable, and Secure Drone Communication: A Comprehensive Survey

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      Authors: Vikas Hassija;Vinay Chamola;Adhar Agrawal;Adit Goyal;Nguyen Cong Luong;Dusit Niyato;Fei Richard Yu;Mohsen Guizani;
      Pages: 2802 - 2832
      Abstract: Drone security is currently a major topic of discussion among researchers and industrialists. Although there are multiple applications of drones, if the security challenges are not anticipated and required architectural changes are not made, the upcoming drone applications will not be able to serve their actual purpose. Therefore, in this paper, we present a detailed review of the security-critical drone applications, and security-related challenges in drone communication such as DoS attacks, Man-in-the-middle attacks, De-Authentication attacks, and so on. Furthermore, as part of solution architectures, the use of Blockchain, Software Defined Networks (SDN), Machine Learning, and Fog/Edge computing are discussed as these are the most emerging technologies. Drones are highly resource-constrained devices and therefore it is not possible to deploy heavy security algorithms on board. Blockchain can be used to cryptographically store all the data that is sent to/from the drones, thereby saving it from tampering and eavesdropping. Various ML algorithms can be used to detect malicious drones in the network and to detect safe routes. Additionally, the SDN technology can be used to make the drone network reliable by allowing the controller to keep a close check on data traffic, and fog computing can be used to keep the computation capabilities closer to the drones without overloading them.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • A Survey of Wireless Networks for Future Aerial Communications (FACOM)

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      Authors: Aygün Baltaci;Ergin Dinc;Mustafa Ozger;Abdulrahman Alabbasi;Cicek Cavdar;Dominic Schupke;
      Pages: 2833 - 2884
      Abstract: Electrification turned over a new leaf in aviation by introducing new types of aerial vehicles along with new means of transportation. Addressing a plethora of use cases, drones are gaining attention in the industry and increasingly appear in the sky. Emerging concepts of flying taxi enable passengers to be transported over several tens of kilometers. Therefore, unmanned traffic management systems are under development to cope with the complexity of future airspace, thereby resulting in unprecedented communication needs. Moreover, the long-term increase in the number of commercial airplanes pushes the limits of voice-oriented communications, and future options such as single-pilot operations demand robust connectivity. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review and vision for enabling the connectivity applications of aerial vehicles utilizing current and future communication technologies. We begin by categorizing the connectivity use cases per aerial vehicle and analyzing their connectivity requirements. By reviewing more than 500 related studies, we aim for a comprehensive approach to cover wireless communication technologies, and provide an overview of recent findings from the literature toward the possibilities and challenges of employing the wireless communication standards. After analyzing the proposed network architectures, we list the open-source testbed platforms to facilitate future investigations by researchers. This study helped us observe that while numerous works focused on cellular technologies to enable connectivity for aerial platforms, a single wireless technology is not sufficient to meet the stringent connectivity demands of the aerial use cases, especially for the piloting operations. We identified the need of further investigations on multi-technology heterogeneous network architectures to enable robust and real-time connectivity in the sky. Future works should consider suitable technology combinations to develop unified aerial networks -hat can meet the diverse quality of service demands of the aerial use cases.
      PubDate: Fourthquarter 2021
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2021)
       
 
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