Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
GeroScience : Official Journal of the American Aging Association (AGE)
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2509-2715 - ISSN (Online) 2509-2723
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Exploratory and locomotor activity, learning and memory functions in
           somatostatin receptor subtype 4 gene-deficient mice in relation to aging
           and sex
    • Abstract: Abstract The inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin regulates several functions in the nervous system including memory. Its concentrations decrease by age leading to functional alterations, but there are little known about the receptorial mechanism. We discovered that somatostatin receptor 4 (sst4) mediates analgesic, anti-depressant, and anti-inflammatory effects without endocrine actions, and it is a unique target for drug development. We investigated the exploratory and locomotor activities and learning and memory functions of male and female sst4gene-deficient mice compared with their wild-types (WT) at ages of 3, 12, 17 months in the Y-maze test, open field test (OFT), radial-arm maze (RAM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) test. Young sst4 gene-deficient females visited, repeated, and missed significantly less arms than the WTs in the RAM; males showed decreased exploration in the NOR. Young mice moved significantly more, spend longer time in OFT center, and visited more arms in the Y-maze than older ones. Young WT females spend significantly longer time in the OFT center, visited, missed and repeated more arms of the RAM than males. Old males found more rewards than females. Young males explored longer the novel object than young females and older males in the NOR; the recognition index was smaller in females. We conclude that aging and sex are important factors of behavioral parameters that should be focused on in such studies. Sst4 is likely to influence locomotion and exploratory behavior only in young mice, but not during normal aging, which is a beneficial feature of a good drug target focusing on the elderly.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • What is the rate-limiting step towards aging' Chemical reaction
           kinetics might reconcile contradictory observations in experimental aging
    • Abstract: Abstract Modern geroscience is divided as regards the validity of the free radical theory of aging. Thermodynamic arguments and observations from comparative zoology support it, whereas results from experimental manipulations in representative animal species sometimes strongly contradict it. From a comparison of the multi-step aging process with a linear metabolic pathway (glycolysis), we here argue that the identification of the rate-limiting kinetic steps of the aging cascade is essential to understand the overall flux through the cascade, i.e., the rate of aging. Examining free radical reactions as a case in point, these reactions usually occur as chain reactions with three kinetically independent steps: initiation, propagation, and termination, each of which can be rate-limiting. Revisiting the major arguments in favor and against a role of free radicals in aging, we find that the majority of arguments in favor point to radical propagation as relevant and rate-limiting, whereas almost all arguments in disfavor are based on experimental manipulations of radical initiation or radical termination which turned out to be ineffective. We conclude that the overall lack of efficacy of antioxidant supplementation (which fosters termination) and antioxidant enzyme overexpression (which inhibits initiation) in longevity studies is attributable to the fact that initiation and termination are not the rate-limiting steps of the aging cascade. The biological and evolutionary plausibility of this interpretation is discussed. In summary, radical propagation is predicted to be rate-limiting for aging and should be explored in more detail.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Taming expectations of metformin as a treatment to extend healthspan
    • Abstract: Abstract The anti-hyperglycemic medication metformin has potential to be the first drug tested to slow aging in humans. While the Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) proposal and other small-scale clinical trials have the potential to support aging as a treatment indication, we propose that the goals of the TAME trial might not be entirely consistent with the Geroscience goal of extending healthspan. There is expanding epidemiological support for the health benefits of metformin in individuals already diagnosed with overt chronic disease. However, it remains to be understood if these protective effects extend to those free of chronic disease. Within this editorial, we seek to highlight critical gaps in knowledge that should be considered when testing metformin as a treatment to target aging.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Raman fingerprints as promising markers of cellular senescence and aging
    • Abstract: Abstract Due to our aging population, understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms constantly gains more and more importance. Senescent cells, defined by being irreversibly growth arrested and associated with a specific gene expression and secretory pattern, accumulate with age and thus contribute to several age-related diseases. However, their specific detection, especially in vivo, is still a major challenge. Raman microspectroscopy is able to record biochemical fingerprints of cells and tissues, allowing a distinction between different cellular states, or between healthy and cancer tissue. Similarly, Raman microspectroscopy was already successfully used to distinguish senescent from non-senescent cells, as well as to investigate other molecular changes that occur at cell and tissue level during aging. This review is intended to give an overview about various applications of Raman microspectroscopy to study aging, especially in the context of detecting senescent cells.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
  • Extension of longevity and reduction of inflammation is ovarian-dependent,
           but germ cell-independent in post-reproductive female mice
    • Abstract: Abstract Cardiovascular disease, rare in premenopausal women, increases sharply at menopause and is typically accompanied by chronic inflammation. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that replacing senescent ovaries in post-reproductive mice with young, actively cycling ovaries restored many health benefits, including decreased cardiomyopathy and restoration of immune function. Our objective here was to determine if depletion of germ cells from young transplanted ovaries would alter the ovarian-dependent extension of life and health span. Sixty-day-old germ cell-depleted and germ cell-containing ovaries were transplanted to post-reproductive, 17-month-old mice. Mean life span for female CBA/J mice is approximately 644 days. Mice that received germ cell-containing ovaries lived 798 days (maximum = 815 days). Mice that received germ cell-depleted ovaries lived 880 days (maximum = 1046 days), 29% further past the time of surgery than mice that received germ cell-containing ovaries. The severity of inflammation was reduced in all mice that received young ovaries, whether germ cell-containing or germ cell-depleted. Aging-associated inflammatory cytokine changes were reversed in post-reproductive mice by 4 months of new-ovary exposure. In summary, germ cell depletion enhanced the longevity-extending effects of the young, transplanted ovaries and, as with germ cell-containing ovaries, decreased the severity of inflammation, but did so independent of germ cells. Based on these observations, we propose that gonadal somatic cells are programed to preserve the somatic health of the organism with the intent of facilitating future germline transmission. As reproductive potential decreases or is lost, the incentive to preserve the somatic health of the organism is lost as well.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • The effect of fear of falling on prefrontal cortex activation and
           efficiency during walking in older adults
    • Abstract: Abstract Neural inefficiency is inferred when higher brain activations are associated with similar or worse performance. Improved neural efficiency is achieved when task-related brain activations are reduced after practice. No information is available on the effect of fear-of-falling (FOF) on brain activation during walking. We hypothesized that the presence of FOF would be associated with neural inefficiency and with a delay in improving neural efficiency during dual-task walking. Task conditions included single-task walk (STW), Alpha (cognitive interference), and dual-task walk (DTW). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-derived HbO2 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was used to quantify task-related changes in brain activation. Practice included three repeated counterbalanced trials for each task. Participants with FOF (n = 19; mean age = 79.84 ± 6.01 years; %female = 68.42) and without FOF (n = 56; mean age = 76.73 ± 6.39 years; %female = 44.64) were included. The presence of FOF was associated with slower stride velocity (estimate = − 12.354; p = 0.0154) and with greater increases in PFC HbO2 from STW to DTW (estimate = 0.303, p = 0.0009) and from Alpha to DTW (estimate = 0.387, p < 0.0001). Compared to controls, participants reporting FOF demonstrated an attenuated decline in PFC HbO2 from the first to the second DTW trials (estimate = 0.264; p = 0.0173). In contrast, compared to controls, participants with FOF demonstrated greater decline in Alpha PFC HbO2 from trial 1 to trial 2 (estimate = − 0.419, p < 0.0001) and from trial 1 to 3 (estimate = − 0.281, p = 0.0006). The change in PFC HbO2 over repeated STW trials was not significant and was not moderated by FOF status. The presence of FOF was associated with higher and inefficient PFC activation during DTW in older adults.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Astaxanthin supplementation modulates cognitive function and synaptic
           plasticity in young and aged mice
    • Abstract: Abstract The incidence of neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive impairment is increasing. Rising prevalence of age-related medical conditions is associated with a dramatic economic burden; therefore, developing strategies to manage these health concerns is of great public health interest. Nutritionally based interventions have shown promise in treatment of these age-associated conditions. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with reputed neuroprotective properties in the context of disease and injury, while emerging evidence suggests that astaxanthin may also have additional biological activities relating to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigate the potential for astaxanthin to modulate cognitive function and neural plasticity in young and aged mice. We show that feeding astaxanthin to aged mice for 1 month improves performance on several hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks and increases long-term potentiation. However, we did not observe an alteration in neurogenesis, nor did we observe a change in microglial-associated IBA1 immunostaining. This demonstrates the potential for astaxanthin to modulate neural plasticity and cognitive function in aging.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • The influence of GDF11 on brain fate and function
    • Abstract: Abstract Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) protein that regulates aspects of central nervous system (CNS) formation and health throughout the lifespan. During development, GDF11 influences CNS patterning and the genesis, differentiation, maturation, and activity of new cells, which may be primarily dependent on local production and action. In the aged brain, exogenous, peripherally delivered GDF11 may enhance neurogenesis and angiogenesis, as well as improve neuropathological outcomes. This is in contrast to a predominantly negative influence on neurogenesis in the developing CNS. Seemingly antithetical effects may correspond to the cell types and mechanisms activated by local versus circulating concentrations of GDF11. Yet undefined, distinct mechanisms of action in young and aged brains may also play a role, which could include differential receptor and binding partner interactions. Exogenously increasing circulating GDF11 concentrations may be a viable approach for improving deleterious aspects of brain aging and neuropathology. Caution is warranted, however, since GDF11 appears to negatively influence muscle health and body composition. Nevertheless, an expanding understanding of GDF11 biology suggests that it is an important regulator of CNS formation and fate, and its manipulation may improve aspects of brain health in older organisms.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Age- and AD-related redox state of NADH in subcellular compartments by
           fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
    • Abstract: Abstract Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form: NADH) serves as a vital redox-energy currency for reduction-oxidation homeostasis and fulfilling energetic demands. While NADH exists as free and bound forms, only free NADH is utilized for complex I to power oxidative phosphorylation, especially important in neurons. Here, we studied how much free NADH remains available for energy production in mitochondria of old living neurons. We hypothesize that free NADH in neurons from old mice is lower than the levels in young mice and even lower in neurons from the 3xTg-AD Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model. To assess free NADH, we used lifetime imaging of NADH autofluorescence with 2-photon excitation to be able to resolve the pool of NADH in mitochondria, cytoplasm, and nuclei. Primary neurons from old mice were characterized by a lower free/bound NADH ratio than young neurons from both non-transgenic (NTg) and more so in 3xTg-AD mice. Mitochondrial compartments maintained 26 to 41% more reducing NADH redox state than cytoplasm for each age, genotype, and sex. Aging diminished the mitochondrial free NADH concentration in NTg neurons by 43% and in 3xTg-AD by 50%. The lower free NADH with age suggests a decline in capacity to regenerate free NADH for energetic supply to power oxidative phosphorylation which further worsens in AD. Applying this non-invasive approach, we showed the most explicit measures yet of bioenergetic deficits in free NADH with aging at the subcellular level in live neurons from in-bred mice and an AD model.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Sympathetic nervous system as a target for aging and obesity-related
           cardiovascular diseases
    • Abstract: Abstract Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity is a hallmark of aging and obesity and contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and heart failure. The cause of this chronic sympathoexcitation in aging and obesity is multifactorial and centrally mediated. In this mini-review, we have provided an overview of the key and emerging central mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of sympathoexcitation in obesity and healthy aging, specifically focusing on hypertension. A clear understanding of these mechanisms will pave way for targeting the sympathetic nervous system for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in obesity and aging.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • High rates of undiagnosed vascular cognitive impairment among American
           Indian veterans
    • Abstract: Abstract As data on prevalence and etiology of dementia in American Indians are limited, we sought to determine rates and patterns of memory loss among American Indian veterans with vascular risk factors. Sixty consecutive outpatient American Indian veterans with a mean age of 64 years (range 50–86), without prior dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and with ≥ 2 vascular risk factors were enrolled. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to screen for cognitive impairment and depression. Patients with MoCA scores < 26 were referred for additional evaluation, including imaging, serology, and neuropsychological testing. Overall rates, types, and distribution of cognitive impairment were determined. Most prevalent vascular risk factors included hypertension (92%), hyperlipidemia (88%), diabetes (47%), and smoking (78%). Eight patients (13%) with severe depression were excluded, leaving 23/52 with abnormal MoCA scores (44%, 95%CI 30%–59%). Fifteen completed additional evaluation for memory loss, including four with normal MoCA scores who requested evaluation based on symptoms. Results were adjudicated as normal (4), non-amnestic MCI (4), vascular MCI (5), and vascular dementia (2). These results show that rates of undiagnosed cognitive impairment among American Indian veterans with vascular risk factors exceed rates previously published in non-American Indian cohorts. The most common etiology is vascular. Our findings support the need to improve vascular risk reduction in this understudied population.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Progerin expression induces a significant downregulation of transcription
           from human repetitive sequences in iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons
    • Abstract: Abstract Repetitive DNA sequences represent about half of the human genome. They have a central role in human biology, especially neurobiology, but are notoriously difficult to study. The purpose of this study was to quantify the transcription from repetitive sequences in a progerin-expressing cellular model of neuronal aging. Progerin is a nuclear protein causative of the Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome that is also incrementally expressed during the normal aging process. A dedicated pipeline of analysis allowed to quantify transcripts containing repetitive sequences from RNAseq datasets oblivious of their genomic localization, tolerating a sufficient degree of mutational noise, all with low computational requirements. The pipeline has been applied to a published panel of RNAseq datasets derived from a well-established and well-described cellular model of aging of dopaminergic neurons. Progerin expression strongly downregulated the transcription from all the classes of repetitive sequences: satellites, long and short interspersed nuclear elements, human endogenous retroviruses, and DNA transposon. The Alu element represented by far the principal source of transcript originating either from repetitive sequences or from canonical coding genes; it was expressed on average at 192,493.5 reads per kilobase million (RPKM) (SE = 21,081.3) in the control neurons and dropped to 43,760.1 RPKM (SE = 5315.0) in the progerin-expressing neurons, being significant downregulated (p = 0.0005). The results highlighted a global perturbation of transcripts derived from repetitive sequences in a cellular model of aging and provided a direct link between progerin expression and alteration of transcription from human repetitive elements.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Nrf2 deficiency in aged mice exacerbates cellular senescence promoting
           cerebrovascular inflammation
    • Abstract: Abstract Aging-induced pro-inflammatory phenotypic alterations of the cerebral vasculature critically contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment. Cellular senescence is a fundamental aging process that promotes inflammation; however, its role in cerebrovascular aging remains unexplored. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that advanced aging promotes cellular senescence in the cerebral vasculature. We found that in cerebral arteries of 24-month-old mice, expression of molecular markers of senescence (p16INK4a, p21) is upregulated as compared to that in young controls. Induction of senescence programs in cerebral arteries is associated by an upregulation of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are known to contribute to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in vascular cells. Age-related cerebrovascular senescence and inflammation are associated with neuroinflammation, as shown by the molecular footprint of microglia activation in the hippocampus. Genetic depletion of the pro-survival/anti-aging transcriptional regulator Nrf2 exacerbated age-related induction of senescence markers and inflammatory SASP factors and resulted in a heightened inflammatory status of the hippocampus. In conclusion, our studies provide evidence that aging and Nrf2 dysfunction promote cellular senescence in cerebral vessels, which may potentially cause or exacerbate age-related pathology.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Repeated Valsalva maneuvers promote symptomatic manifestations of cerebral
           microhemorrhages: implications for the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive
           impairment in older adults
    • Abstract: Abstract Multifocal cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs, also known as “cerebral microbleeds”), which are associated with rupture of small intracerebral vessels, have been recognized as an important cause for cognitive decline in older adults. Although recent studies demonstrate that CMHs are highly prevalent in patients 65 and older, many aspects of the pathogenesis and clinical significance of CMHs remain obscure. In this longitudinal observational study, a case of a 77-year-old man with multifocal CMHs is described, in whom the rupture of intracerebral vessels could be linked to repeatedly performing extended Valsalva maneuvers. This patient was initially seen with acute aphasia after performing a prolonged Valsalva maneuver during underwater swimming. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left acute frontal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with multiple CMHs. The aphasia was resolved and no cognitive impairment was present. Two years later, he developed unsteadiness and confusion after performing two prolonged Valsalva maneuvers during underwater swimming separated by about 12 days. Repeat brain imaging revealed an acute right and a subacute left ICH, with a marked interval increase in the number of CMHs. The patient also exhibited manifest memory loss after the second admission and was diagnosed with dementia. These observations suggest that prolonged Valsalva maneuver is potentially a common precipitating cause of both CMHs and symptomatic ICHs. The Valsalva maneuver both increases the systolic arterial pressure and gives rise to a venous pressure wave transmitted to the brain in the absence of the competent antireflux jugular vein valves. This pressure increase is superimposed on existing hypertension and/or increases in blood pressure due to exercise and increased venous return due to immersion of the body in water. We advocate that further studies are needed to distinguish between CMHs with arterial and venous origins and their potential to lead to ICH induced by Valsalva maneuver as well as to determine whether these lesions have a predilection for a particular location.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Meta-analysis identifies mitochondrial DNA sequence variants associated
           with walking speed
    • Abstract: Abstract Declines in walking speed are associated with a variety of poor health outcomes including disability, comorbidity, and mortality. While genetic factors are putative contributors to variability in walking, few genetic loci have been identified for this trait. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation on walking speed by sequencing the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Data were meta-analyzed from 1758 Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study and replication data from 730 Health, Aging, and Body Composition (HABC) Study participants with baseline walking speed information. Participants were 69+ years old of diverse racial backgrounds (African, European, and other race/ethnic groups) and had a wide range of mean walking speeds [4–6 m (0.78–1.09 m/s) and 400 m (0.83–1.24 m/s)]. Meta-analysis across studies and racial groups showed that m.12705C>T, ND5 variant was significantly associated (p < 0.0001) with walking speed at both short and long distances. Replication and meta-analysis also identified statistically significant walking speed associations (p < 0.0001) between the m.5460.G>A, ND2 and m.309C>CT, HV2 variants at short and long distances, respectively. All results remained statistically significant after multiple comparisons adjustment for 499 mtDNA variants. The m.12705C>T variant can be traced to the beginnings of human global migration and that cells carrying this variant display altered tRNA expression. Significant pooled effects related to stopping during the long-distance walk test were observed across OXPHOS complexes I (p = 0.0017) and III (p = 0.0048). These results suggest that mtDNA-encoded variants are associated with differences in walking speed among older adults, potentially identifying those at risk of developing mobility impairments.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • PACAP deficiency as a model of aging
    • Abstract: Abstract Dysregulation of neuropeptides may play an important role in aging-induced impairments. In the long list of neuropeptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase–activating polypeptide (PACAP) represents a highly effective cytoprotective peptide that provides an endogenous control against a variety of tissue-damaging stimuli. PACAP has neuro- and general cytoprotective effects due to anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant actions. As PACAP is also a part of the endogenous protective machinery, it can be hypothesized that the decreased protective effects in lack of endogenous PACAP would accelerate age-related degeneration and PACAP knockout mice would display age-related degenerative signs earlier. Recent results support this hypothesis showing that PACAP deficiency mimics aspects of age-related pathophysiological changes including increased neuronal vulnerability and systemic degeneration accompanied by increased apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Decrease in PACAP expression has been shown in different species from invertebrates to humans. PACAP-deficient mice display numerous pathological alterations mimicking early aging, such as retinal changes, corneal keratinization and blurring, and systemic amyloidosis. In the present review, we summarize these findings and propose that PACAP deficiency could be a good model of premature aging.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • A framework for selection of blood-based biomarkers for geroscience-guided
           clinical trials: report from the TAME Biomarkers Workgroup
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent advances indicate that biological aging is a potentially modifiable driver of late-life function and chronic disease and have led to the development of geroscience-guided therapeutic trials such as TAME (Targeting Aging with MEtformin). TAME is a proposed randomized clinical trial using metformin to affect molecular aging pathways to slow the incidence of age-related multi-morbidity and functional decline. In trials focusing on clinical end-points (e.g., disease diagnosis or death), biomarkers help show that the intervention is affecting the underlying aging biology before sufficient clinical events have accumulated to test the study hypothesis. Since there is no standard set of biomarkers of aging for clinical trials, an expert panel was convened and comprehensive literature reviews conducted to identify 258 initial candidate biomarkers of aging and age-related disease. Next selection criteria were derived and applied to refine this set emphasizing: (1) measurement reliability and feasibility; (2) relevance to aging; (3) robust and consistent ability to predict all-cause mortality, clinical and functional outcomes; and (4) responsiveness to intervention. Application of these selection criteria to the current literature resulted in a short list of blood-based biomarkers proposed for TAME: IL-6, TNFα-receptor I or II, CRP, GDF15, insulin, IGF1, cystatin C, NT-proBNP, and hemoglobin A1c. The present report provides a conceptual framework for the selection of blood-based biomarkers for use in geroscience-guided clinical trials. This work also revealed the scarcity of well-vetted biomarkers for human studies that reflect underlying biologic aging hallmarks, and the need to leverage proposed trials for future biomarker discovery and validation.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Thioredoxin overexpression in both the cytosol and mitochondria
           accelerates age-related disease and shortens lifespan in male C57BL/6 mice
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate the role of increased levels of thioredoxin (Trx) in both the cytosol (Trx1) and mitochondria (Trx2) on aging, we have conducted a study to examine survival and age-related diseases using male mice overexpressing Trx1 and Trx2 (TXNTg × TXN2Tg). Our study demonstrated that the upregulation of Trx in both the cytosol and mitochondria in male TXNTg × TXN2Tg C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significantly shorter lifespan compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cross-sectional pathology data showed a slightly higher incidence of neoplastic diseases in TXNTg × TXN2Tg mice than WT mice. The incidence of lymphoma, a major neoplastic disease in C57BL/6 mice, was slightly higher in TXNTg × TXN2Tg mice than in WT mice, and more importantly, the severity of lymphoma was significantly higher in TXNTg × TXN2Tg mice compared to WT mice. Furthermore, the total number of histopathological changes in the whole body (disease burden) was significantly higher in TXNTg × TXN2Tg mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, our study suggests that overexpression of Trx in both the cytosol and mitochondria resulted in deleterious effects on aging and accelerated the development of age-related diseases, especially cancer, in male C57BL/6 mice.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • DNA methylation associated with healthy aging of elderly twins
    • Abstract: Abstract Variation in healthy aging and lifespan is ascribed more to various non-genetic factors than to inherited genetic determinants, and a major goal in aging research is to reveal the epigenetic basis of aging. One approach to this goal is to find genomic sites or regions where DNA methylation correlates with biological age. Using health data from 134 elderly twins, we calculated a frailty index as a quantitative indicator of biological age, and by applying the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip technology to their leukocyte DNA samples, we obtained quantitative DNA methylation data on genome-wide CpG sites. We analyzed the health and epigenome data by taking two independent associative approaches: the parametric regression-based approach and a non-parametric machine learning approach followed by GO ontology analysis. Our results indicate that DNA methylation at CpG sites in the promoter region of PCDHGA3 is associated with biological age. PCDHGA3 belongs to clustered protocadherin genes, which are all located in a single locus on chromosome 5 in human. Previous studies of the clustered protocadherin genes showed that (1) DNA methylation is associated with age or age-related phenotypes; (2) DNA methylation can modulate gene expression; (3) dysregulated gene expression is associated with various pathologies; and (4) DNA methylation patterns at this locus are associated with adverse lifetime experiences. All these observations suggest that DNA methylation at the clustered protocadherin genes, including PCDHGA3, is a key mediator of healthy aging.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Report: NIA workshop on translating genetic variants associated with
           longevity into drug targets
    • Abstract: Abstract To date, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of longevity-associated variants (LAVs) in genes such as FOXO3A and APOE. Unfortunately, translating variants into drug targets is challenging for any trait, and longevity is no exception. Interdisciplinary and integrative multi-omics approaches are needed to understand how LAVs affect longevity-related phenotypes at the molecular physiologic level in order to leverage their discovery to identify new drug targets. The NIA convened a workshop in August 2017 on emerging and novel in silico (i.e., bioinformatics and computational) approaches to the translation of LAVs into drug targets. The goal of the workshop was to identify ways of enabling, enhancing, and facilitating interactions among researchers from different disciplines whose research considers either the identification of LAVs or the mechanistic or causal pathway(s) and protective factors they influence for discovering drug targets. Discussions among the workshop participants resulted in the identification of critical needs for enabling the translation of LAVs into drug targets in several areas. These included (1) the initiation and better use of cohorts with multi-omics profiling on the participants; (2) the generation of longitudinal information on multiple individuals; (3) the collection of data from non-human species (both long and short-lived) for comparative biology studies; (4) the refinement of computational tools for integrative analyses; (5) the development of novel computational and statistical inference techniques for assessing the potential of a drug target; (6) the identification of available drugs that could modulate a target in a way that could potentially provide protection against age-related diseases and/or enhance longevity; and (7) the development or enhancement of databases and repositories of relevant information, such as the Longevity Genomics website (, to enhance and help motivate future interdisciplinary studies. Integrative approaches that examine the influence of LAVs on molecular physiologic phenotypes that might be amenable to pharmacological modulation are necessary for translating LAVs into drugs to enhance health and life span.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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