Publisher: Springer-Verlag (Total: 2626 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 2626 Journals sorted alphabetically
3D Printing in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
4OR: A Quarterly J. of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
AAPS J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.118, CiteScore: 4)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 3)
Abdominal Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universitat Hamburg     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.439, CiteScore: 0)
aBIOTECH : An Intl. J. on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 1)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: J. for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.359, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.284, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Diabetologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.587, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Endoscopica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.312, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.588, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Informatica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 7.066, CiteScore: 3)
Acta Mathematica Hungarica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.379, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mathematica Vietnamica     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.27, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, English Series     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Mechanica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.638, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neurochirurgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Neurologica Belgica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Neuropathologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 7.589, CiteScore: 12)
Acta Oceanologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 1)
Activitas Nervosa Superior     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.72, CiteScore: 2)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.005, CiteScore: 2)
Adolescent Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.703, CiteScore: 2)
Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Fiber Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.698, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Computational Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.09, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gerontology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.64, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Operator Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adversity and Resilience Science : J. of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aequationes Mathematicae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.517, CiteScore: 1)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.673, CiteScore: 2)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : J. of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.825, CiteScore: 1)
Affective Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 1)
Afrika Matematika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.39, CiteScore: 1)
Aggiornamenti CIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.173, CiteScore: 3)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.864, CiteScore: 6)
AI & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.792, CiteScore: 3)
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.862, CiteScore: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Algebra and Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 0)
Algebra Universalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Algebras and Representation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.095, CiteScore: 1)
Algorithmica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.56, CiteScore: 1)
Allergo J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 0)
Allergo J. Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 3)
ALTEX : Alternatives to Animal Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.569, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.329, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.772, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Dance Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.181, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 0)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 0)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.135, CiteScore: 3)
AMS Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Analysis in Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.978, CiteScore: 3)
Anatomical Science Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.367, CiteScore: 1)
Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.177, CiteScore: 5)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.389, CiteScore: 3)
Annales françaises de médecine d'urgence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.097, CiteScore: 2)
Annales mathématiques du Québec     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 0)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.429, CiteScore: 0)
Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.197, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.042, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Data Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.85, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Functional Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.043, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.413, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.687, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of PDE     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Annals of Solid and Structural Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.986, CiteScore: 4)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.495, CiteScore: 1)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.424, CiteScore: 4)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.294, CiteScore: 1)
Applications of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.602, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.58, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.6, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics & Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Mathematics - A J. of Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 1.182, CiteScore: 4)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.481, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.74, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.519, CiteScore: 2)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.316, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Aquaculture Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 2)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 3)
Arabian J. for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Arabian J. of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.319, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 0)
Archiv der Mathematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 1)
Archival Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 2)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Mathematical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 1)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 3.93, CiteScore: 3)
Archive of Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.79, CiteScore: 2)
Archives and Museum Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.41, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.773, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.956, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.146, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.493, CiteScore: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.541, CiteScore: 5)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, CiteScore: 2)
Archives of Women's Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.274, CiteScore: 3)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.946, CiteScore: 3)
ArgoSpine News & J.     Hybrid Journal  
Argumentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 1)
arktos : The J. of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Arnold Mathematical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 0)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 2)
Arthroskopie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Geomatics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.733
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1866-928X - ISSN (Online) 1866-9298
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Exploring the dynamics of urban sprawl using geo-spatial indices: a study
           of English Bazar Urban Agglomeration, West Bengal
    • Abstract: Abstract The term “urban sprawl” can be defined in a number of ways. Traditionally, urban sprawls were described in qualitative terms. At present, geo-spatial indices are mostly used to measure and quantify “urban sprawl.” This study measures the extent and magnitude of “urban sprawl” by employing seven landscape metrics and Shannon entropy in remote sensing and GIS environments. The study also explores the prospective future urban growth centers based on the directionality and magnitude of sprawling. The analysis also shows a dynamic trend of urban expansion beyond its defined boundary which results in “urban sprawl.” This is also supported by the result of selected landscape metrics which revealed that high growth of sprawl is taking place in the Northwest and Southwest part of English Bazar UA. The diversified methodology employed in this study effectively demonstrates the dynamic growth pattern of sprawl and also helps in timely monitoring of spatial dynamics, its variation, and changing forms of “urban sprawl” patterns using spatio-temporal remote-sensing data in a growing city like English Bazar UA of West Bengal, India.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • Evaluation of unsustainable land use/land cover change on ecosystem
           services in coastal area of Lagos state, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Abstract Increasing human-induced developmental activities around the Eti-Osa coastal area of Lagos state, Nigeria has continued to trigger social and environmental challenges that have not been given desired attention. The study therefore attempted to utilize Landsat TM 1984, ETM+ 2000, and OLI 2013 to estimate the changes in the land use/land cover categories using GIS techniques, economic valuation method, and monetary valuation model to estimate the ecosystem service loss. The result showed that the built-up increased by 973.63 Ha between 1984 and 2013 while 6717.65 Ha, 1314 Ha, and 1740.49 Ha of mangrove, wetland, and water bodies respectively were lost to land reclamation. In monetary term, the study established ecosystem service loss of US$101.59 million per annum for the study period. It further estimated ecosystem service loss caused by damage to mangrove and food supply services at US$113.77 million and US$21.83 million per annum respectively. It was observed that land reclamation activity for urban and industrial uses has significant effect on the ecosystem service loss. By implication, socio-economics of the inhabitants were impacted by drastic decline in the income accrued from fishing activities and collapsing infrastructure arising from unsustainable land use activities through land reclamation and emerging flooding. The study advocates adoption of rigorous ecosystem resource accounting in subsequent environmental impact analyses on all future land-reclamation projects.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Impact assessment of meteorological drought on rainfed agriculture using
           drought index and NDVI modeling: a case study of Tikamgarh district, M.
           P., India
    • Abstract: Abstract Drought, an environmental stress is a major crisis of India. Tikamgarh, a district of Madhya Pradesh, is facing the crisis of drought since the last two decades. Rainfall data of the previous years between 1964–1965 and 2011–2012 (crop year) is obtained from Commissioner Land Record (CLR) and crop yield from resource atlas of Tikamgarh. Drought index shows that 52% of the years have mild to severe drought (rainfall deficit) and 48% have no drought but after 1990–1991; 13 years out of 21 have mild to moderate drought and 1 year has severe drought. The last two decades during 1991–1992 to 2011–2012 suffer from drought. Crop yield (cereals, pulses, and oilseeds) is showing continuously increasing trend since 1964–1965 to 1996–1997 and after continuously decreasing. The maximum yield of cereals and pulses for year 1999–2000 and 1996–1997 is 1924 and 883 kg/ha respectively and oilseeds for 1996–1997 is 1122 kg/ha. NDVI modeling shows that natural vegetation is also showing the impact of rainfall variation as severe (2007), mild (2001), and no drought (2012). Crop yield and natural vegetation show the drought impact during 1964–1965 to 2011–2012. Regression model is showing that district witnessed good to very good rainfall (no drought) for two decades and in two decades rainfall-deficit (mild to severe drought) alternately. Rainfall and agricultural correlation are showing that total agriculture depends on rainfall so rainwater harvesting must be implemented for crop saving in Rabi season.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • SEH-SDB: a semantically enriched historical spatial database for
           documentation and preservation of monumental heritage based on CityGML
    • Abstract: Abstract Cultural heritage has a great and inestimable value for communities. Unfortunately, several historical monuments are under deteriorating conditions mainly due to the lack of knowledge about their historical importance. Hence, it is necessary to provide efficient solutions to preserve these monuments. An effective approach for the preservation of cultural heritage should address two main aspects: documentation and information. The first aspect is related to methods that are used to document and digitally archive historic buildings by using appropriate materials and techniques for acquiring 3D spatial data. The second aspect aims to inform the population and policy makers about the importance of the historical heritage in a simple, effective, and interactive manner. In this paper, we propose an original approach to design a semantically enriched historical spatial database (SEH-SDB) for documentation and information of monumental heritage. First of all, a LiDAR acquisition of the historical heritage should be undertaken to capture its current condition. Then, the SEH-SDB database will be designed according to four semantic packages related to historical buildings that are (1) Components package, (2) Material package, (3) Historical package, and (4) Social package. The component package is based on the CityGML standard, which ensures a high interoperability for 3D models. The material package represents the material used in the construction of the building (wood, stone …). The historical package informs about historical elements that characterize the building and its temporal evolution. The social package aims to inform about the main social activities that may take place in the historical building. Based on the SEH-SDB, a 3D historical GIS is developed to provide rich semantic information about historical sites. At the end of this paper, a case study of a historical monument named “Ribat Banajah” in Jeddah Historical City in Saudi Arabia is presented. A digital archiving of the current state of this building is performed by using terrestrial LiDAR in combination with other classical surveying techniques (traversing, leveling, and GPS). Then, a building information model of this building is created and exported to the 3D HGIS designed for the documentation of historical buildings.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Integrating dendrochronology and geomatics to monitor natural hazards and
           landscape changes
    • Abstract: Abstract The monitoring of natural hazards is of extreme importance in the areas of Italy where there are high hydrogeological and avalanche risks. Despite the fact that records of past events are sometimes available, some of their data are often incomplete and show that the monitoring and mapping of these phenomena are never enough to avoid damage. We present the results of different studies where an integrated approach has been used by combining geomatics and dendrochronology techniques. In particular, we refer to case studies concerning avalanches, debris flows, natural reforestation in Italy and riverbed path changes in Albania. The position of all the plants sampled for dendrochronology was taken by GPS (Global Positioning System). The cartographic information used in these studies was provided by official sources from public organisations or processed by extracting them from aerial photographs or satellite imagery. With the Geographic Information System, it was possible to spatialise and analyse the information from dendrochronological sampling through the creation of multi-temporal morphological and potential risk maps showing the effects of the phenomena on forest cover. The GIS software used in these studies are GRASS, QGIS and IDRISI. The results showed that avalanches, debris flow, riverbed and landscape change can be studied effectively by integrating geomatics and dendrochronological techniques. This integration enabled spatial and temporal modelling, including the reconstruction of paths and volumes of past phenomena. The analysis of growth disturbances over time also enabled the reconstruction of the frequency of avalanches and debris flow activity over the last 50 years and, in some areas, over the last century. A detailed analysis of one of the avalanche tracks provided interesting results regarding the reconstruction of avalanche dynamics. Analysis of scars on buried stems of Pinus sylvestris also provided interesting results in terms of debris volume estimation. The dendrochronological reconstruction of the patterns of natural reforestation led to the determination of forest expansion rates that were used for modelling future scenarios and refining the changes of river morphology. Dendrochronology strongly improved the results of GIS satellite imagery analysis. These reconstructions are particularly important for the areas that are more exposed to the direct risk of avalanches, debris flows and floods in order to prevent the consequences of such phenomena in a changing climate.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The effect of user-defined parameters on DTM accuracy — development
           of a hybrid model
    • Abstract: Abstract User-defined parameters (point density, interpolation, and pixel size) have a great influence on the accuracy of digital terrain model (DTM). Therefore, the optimal interpolation method (IM) and appropriate pixel size should be used to create a continuous surface. Pixel size or spatial resolution tends to be a compromise between the number of samples and the size of the study area, whereby input dataset is often devaluated. In this paper, the authors propose a new methodological approach to DTM production (hybrid DTM—HDTM) from an aero-photogrammetry dataset. Two different approaches to DTM production are presented: the usual (UDTM) and the hybrid (HDTM). HDTM is based on restructuring and refining the input dataset by generating contour lines, determining the optimal interpolation method and selecting the appropriate spatial resolution. The goal is to develop a qualitative DTM while minimalizing the devaluation of input data and error propagation. The accuracy of different IMs for UDTM was examined in a comparative analysis of six statistical parameters by applying cross-validation, with the focus on the root mean square error (RMSE) parameter. Four different methods of selecting optimal spatial resolution were tested for the same model. The UDTM and HDTM generated were compared by interior, exterior, and visual accuracy assessment and by the performance success of specific hydrological parameters: (1) flow accumulation—by applying a developed DNA concept and (2) watershed—by calculating volume and 3D surface. The reference value for exterior accuracy assessment was high-resolution airborne LiDAR DTM (LDTM). It was found that ordinary kriging (OK) was the best IM (RMSE, 1.9893 m). The spatial resolution of UDTM was calculated by combining two variants of the point pattern analysis method and was found to be 19 m. On the other hand, the complexity of terrain method was used to define the spatial resolution of HDTM (3 m). HDTM achieved better results than UDTM in all aspects of accuracy assessment. The exterior accuracy of HDTM was better by 1.483 m (RMSE). Finally, the results of the applied DNA concept showed that a stream generated from HDTM had a 2.587 m lower horizontal root mean square error (HRMSE) than the stream generated from UDTM.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The impact of relative and absolute GNSS positioning strategies on
           estimated coordinates and ZWD in the framework of meteorological
    • Abstract: Abstract Since many years, the GNSS has been regarded by the meteorological community as one of the systems for atmospheric water vapour remote sensing. Time series of wet delays, estimated as by-products of accurate positioning, have been assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. However, a dedicated use the system for water vapour monitoring is still under investigation. Ad hoc dense networks have been designed and implemented to collect data at a high spatial resolution, baseline lengths lower than 10 km, with the aim of describing the high spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric water vapour. Within this framework, the paper reports a study on how the positioning strategy affects the estimated coordinates and tropospheric parameters. The study was conducted on the data collected by an experimental network of geodetic receivers, used as single or dual frequency ones. More specifically, investigations were made on the use of L1-only or iono-free combinations in differential positioning of receivers 100 to 10 km apart, finding that L1-only data provide more accurate results. Therefore, comparisons between local coordinates and ZWD obtained from relative and absolute positioning were performed to provide the statistics of the differences; the agreement between the results for short baselines is always better than 1 cm standard deviation. In order to assess the differences in the results that can be obtained from the two strategies when applied to the same observation set, a further comparison was carried out in terms of baseline components and ZWD increments. It results that, even for dense networks, the differential approach produces accurate results without losing information compared to the absolute one.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Code multipath analysis of Galileo FOC satellites by time-frequency
    • Abstract: Abstract Galileo is currently in full operational capability (FOC) phase with 18 FOC satellites. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the multipath performance of Galileo FOC signals E1, E5a, E5b, and E5. With the advent of FOC satellites, assessing the multipath behavior of Galileo FOC signals is becoming one of the greatest interests for the user’s community. In fact, the reduction of multipath has been one of the main criteria on which the Galileo signals have been designed. We analyzed data over three different days from six International GNSS Service (IGS) stations located at different latitudes, for all visible Galileo satellites. This is one of the first studies to present experimental results for the multipath of Galileo signals transmitted by FOC satellites since they started to operate in 2015. Code multipath was estimated using code-minus-carrier (CMC) and pseudorange multipath (MP) methods. The study involves a comparison with the GPS signals, showing results of multipath performance as function of satellite elevation. A time-frequency representation, based on the use of continuous wavelet transform (CWT), was performed to rigorously account for the presence of multipath. The expectations of FOC satellites to lead to a multipath reduction have been verified: the E5 signal shows the highest suppression of multipath as compared to the other Galileo and GPS signals and it is almost independent from the satellite elevation. An assigned FOC satellite showed a lower frequency multipath compared to a GPS satellite at the same azimuth and elevation, which is in line with a lower Galileo satellite elevation rate.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Remote sensing analysis for surface urban heat island detection over
           Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
    • Abstract: Abstract Urbanization and human activity within an urban system produce many destructive and irreversible effects on natural environment such as air pollution and climate changes. One of the important effects of climate change is the formation of surface urban heat island (SUHI) which is an area with higher temperature than surroundings. It is important to study the surface urban heat islands to understand the complexity of the climate systems and to lessen their impact on the environment. In this paper, an approach for detecting SUHIs based on the combination between a set of Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) night vision images and Spot5 data was proposed. To accurately detect SUHIs over Jeddah City, it is important to determine the land surface temperature (LST). To achieve this goal, pixel values of Landsat images were converted to represent at sensor temperature. The spot image was classified using supervised classification techniques to determine feature types in the scene, the emissivity value for each pixel was assigned using classification-based emissivity and NDVI-based emissivity. Then, the two values of at sensor temperature and feature emissivity were linked together to retrieve an accurate LST. Based on the results of this study, the SUHIs over Jeddah City appeared as small boundaries in the South area of the city, as a result of the land use patterns. The difference between urban and non-urban areas ranges from 4 to 7 °C. The SUHIs over Petromin neighborhood and Almohajer neighborhood were presented. Night vision Landsat 8 offers an effective framework to delineate and monitor behavior, movement, and size of SUHIs. The early detection of SUHIs by remote sensing data contributes in discovering environmental imbalance and helps to identify problems and developing solutions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
  • Image treatment method and spatial analysis of Anna magmatic ring complex
           (Eglab massif, the Reguibat Rise, South-West Algeria)
    • Abstract: Abstract This study proposes an image treatment process of Anna magmatic ring complex (Eglab, Dorsale Reguibat, South-West Algeria). Quantification and the related problem of classification by the mobile centers method lead us to search for methods as tools for the generalization of these treatments. Unlike the supervised classification, there are no predetermined classes or labels. The various processes to achieve the expected results are discussed in this work, and an automatically system of semantic analysis and interpretation of remote sensing images is presented. Considering that the k-means method corresponds to the probabilistic formulation of the classification problem, the aim is to characterize the geological facies of Anna ring complex (ARC). The result of this approach allowed us to recognize five magmatic facies that stack forming a ring magmatic complex. This confirms the interest of the k-means method in the desert areas.
      PubDate: 2019-02-02
  • A multi-image super-resolution algorithm applied to thermal imagery
    • Abstract: Abstract Although thermal imaging is a widely used technique in many applications and is under continuous development, one of its limits is the relatively coarse spatial resolution. Nevertheless, in the last years, a number of super-resolution algorithms have been developed which allow to enhance the resolution of the images. They can be divided in two main different categories: single-image or multiple image-based algorithms. In this work, a multiple image-based algorithm for the super-resolution was implemented, tested and applied to terrestrial thermal imaging with the aim to overcome the limitation of the low resolution. In particular, the method relies on the use of many images acquired from slightly different positions to obtain, thanks to the redundancy of observations, a super-resolution frame having an upsampling factor of four. Several tests were performed on synthetic datasets, and the accuracy of the obtained super-resolution images was investigated. Moreover, an original algorithm capable to identify gross errors during the image registration phase, which is one of the crucial phases, is presented and its reliability assessed. Results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method on both common visible images and thermal infrared ones, since discrepancies between reconstructed and reference values are reduced by 18 and 25% respectively, when compared with a conventional bicubic algorithm. Finally, the proposed method was tested on a case study concerning the thermal survey of the façade of a historical building in Bologna (Palazzo D’Accursio). A dataset of real thermal frames was acquired and a super-resolution image of the subject was generated through the developed algorithm. Strengths and weaknesses of the method were analysed and discussed in the paper.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • A geospatial analysis of the influence of landscape and climate on the
           location of Greek vernacular settlements using GIS
    • Abstract: Abstract A core argument of several studies that focus on Greek vernacular settlements is that climate and landscape had a significant impact on their spatial distribution and growth. For the majority of these studies, this argument is primarily underpinned by qualitative observations at the geographical scale or by detailed microscale analyses of specific case studies. A nationwide analysis of the relation of vernacular settlement locations with key environmental factors has not yet been conducted in Greece. The present study seeks to cover this research gap by adopting a geospatial analysis approach. It utilises Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to relate the location of Greek vernacular settlements with the sea, the sun, the wind and the local geomorphology. The results of the study provide valuable insight on these relations and ultimately support the argument of the environmental responsiveness of vernacular settlements with quantitative data.
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
  • Range validation of UWB and Wi-Fi for integrated indoor positioning
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we address the challenge of robust indoor positioning using integrated UWB and Wi-Fi measurements. A key limitation of any fusion algorithm is whether the distribution that describes the random errors in the measurements has been correctly specified. Here, we describe the details of a set of practical experiments conducted on a purpose built calibration range, to evaluate the performance of commercial UWB sensors with Wi-Fi measurements as captured by an in-house smartphone application. In this paper, we present comparisons of ranges from the UWB sensors and the Wi-Fi built into the smartphone to true ranges obtained from a robotic total station. This approach is validated in both static and kinematic tests. The calibration range has been established as one component of an indoor laboratory to undertake a more diverse research agenda into robust indoor positioning systems. The experiments presented here have been conducted collaboratively under the joint FIG (WG5.5) and IAG (SC4.2) working groups on multi-sensor systems.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
  • The use of geomatics techniques to evaluate crop water requirement in
           Mujib Basin
    • Abstract: Abstract Geomatics was used in this paper to provide efficient tools to create maps and to perform all the necessary analysis about crops (computation of areas, discrimination of crop types etc.) in Mujib Basin (MB), in a timely and cost-effective manner which can’t be delivered using the conventional surveying technology. The use of these techniques allowed the identification and the delineation of agricultural parcels and then the computation of their areas in this basin. This leads to the production of a digital crop map. The obtained crop map beside FAO and climatic data permitted the evaluation of water requirements for crops during the intended period. This study showed the efficiency of geomatics techniques to reveal the illegal use of the underground water resources in comparing with the well production in this basin and to estimate the water requirement to irrigate all parcels during the year 2015. Significant difference between well production and water requirements for the parcels irrigated from underground water is found. This proves the use of illegal water resources for example by digging wells without permission or taking water from main pipelines before metring. This metring helps the control of the consumed water from underground reservoirs.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
  • Measurement and correlation of displacements on the Severn Suspension
           Bridge using GPS
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to monitor the deformations and displacements of structures is well established. Traditionally, research has focussed on the movements of individual locations upon such a structure. In this study, survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) receivers were placed at nine locations upon the bridge and on the tops of the four support towers, and GNSS (GPS, GLONASS) receivers at five key locations on the two suspension cables of the Severn Suspension Bridge. Data were gathered at 10 Hz and 20 Hz, positioned relative to reference GNSS receivers located nearby, over a period of 4 days. This resulted in a dataset allowing the daily movements of the bridge due to applied loading to be measured to millimetre precision. This paper describes the layout of the survey, as well as the movements of the various GNSS antenna locations relative to each other in terms of 3D displacements as well as the frequencies of the movements. A correlation function is developed and applied on the kinematic GPS data, illustrating the synchronised and relative movements of these locations. Correlation between the movements of the bridge’s support towers and suspension cables is illustrated, and conclusions about this development with respect to the potential application of the technique as part of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system are drawn.
      PubDate: 2018-12-17
  • Flood hazard mapping under a climate change scenario in a Ribb catchment
           of Blue Nile River basin, Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was carried out to identify the extent of flood hazard on the Fogera floodplain in the Ribb catchment of the Blue Nile River basin in Ethiopia. A coupled 1 dimensional (D) and 2D hydrodynamic model (i.e., MIKE FLOOD) was used to simulate the flood inundation extent and flooding depth under climate change scenario in the study area. MIKE FLOOD coupled with a SWAT was used to simulate the floods hazard maps under short-term (2030s) and long-term (the 2060s) future climate projections for the RCP4.5 scenario. The results were revealed that the future minimum and maximum temperature can be increased to 1.99 °C and 2.65 °C, respectively. The average annual rainfall can be increased in the future. The dimensionless inflow hydrograph was best fitted with Gumbel distribution for the 100 years return period. This was derived from an output of the hydrological model and then fed into MIKE FLOOD to generate the flood hazard maps. The intensity of annual floods was indicated an increasing trend under the RCP4.5 scenario. The model was calibrated using the historical hydro-meteorological data, measured River cross-section data, and Lake Tana water level. The result of flood frequency analysis showed that a flow value of 100 year return period can be expected to 290 m3/s, 346 m3/s, and 367 m3/s for historical, short-term, and long-term time periods, respectively. The prepared flood hazard map indicated that the flooded area can be expected to 57.72 km2, 59.3 km2, and 61.01 km2 for the base period, 2030s, and 2060s, respectively, while the depth of inundated flood flow in the study area may be anticipated to a depth of 4.23 m, 4.68 m, and 4.96 m for similar time periods, respectively. Therefore, this study will be helpful for the decision makers to take the decision about the planning for the flood mitigation measures in the study region.
      PubDate: 2018-12-05
  • Impact of land-use change and soil erosion on cultural landscapes: the
           case of cultural paths and sites in Paphos district, Cyprus
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil loss has been long characterized as one of the main threats of climate change with possible impact to natural and cultural heritage (UNESCO report 2006). This study illustrates how applied geomatics integrating earth observation and geographical information systems (GIS) can be used to quantify this threat in an UNESCO protected archeological site as well as on cultural routes such as the ancient Hellenistic-Roman Road network. Both study sites are located in the western part of Cyprus, and specifically in Paphos district, which is an area with undergoing major pressure caused by soil erosion and soil loss. Multi-temporal earth observation methods were applied for identification, mapping and estimation of the possible soil loss caused by soil erosion in the period of the past 30 years. The soil loss was estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Special attention was given to the land use/land cover factor (C) and its impact on the overall estimation of the soil loss. Cover factor represents the effect of soil-disturbing activities, plants, crop sequence and productivity level, soil cover, and subsurface bio-mass on soil erosion. Urban areas have a definite role in retarding the recharge process, leading to increased runoff and soil loss in the broader area. On the other hand, natural vegetation plays a predominant role in reducing water erosion. In specific, cover factor was estimated for the cultural routes, classified and observed in years 1987 and 2016 in the District of Paphos. The variance of the values between 2 years was then calculated in order to identify the areas under major pressure of soil erosion caused by the changes in land use and land cover. In addition, high-resolution optical data were analyzed in order estimate the multi-temporal changes in soil loss in the archeological site of Nea Paphos. The results shows that integrated earth observation and GIS can be used as a systematic tool for monitoring cultural heritage sites against natural threats such as soil loss.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Special Issue GEORES2017. Geomatics and Restoration: Conservation of
           Cultural Heritage in the Digital Era. Preface
    • PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Mobile mapping systems in civil engineering projects (case studies)
    • Authors: Omar Al-Bayari
      Abstract: Abstract There has been increased interest in mobile mapping system (MMS) usage, especially in the surveying and implementation of projects, for engineering and planning applications. Moreover, it is needed to enable state-of-the-art technologies implementation and usage in both modern and old (i.e., already existing) projects, especially when they are executed at sites with difficult nature and those located in crowded cities. The design of engineering projects consists of three phases: conceptual, preliminary, and detailed design phases. Surveying and site design is one of the most important parts in all these phases, in both the planning and implementation of infrastructure engineering and its layout. Examples are numerous and sometimes they are the fine line in the design and decision of the implementation of some projects, such as in roads rehabilitation, drainage networks, and railway and metro installation. The critical issue in such projects is the required accuracy, which should be achieved and guaranteed. Then, more applications and new practical and easily applied methodologies are needed. To achieve the accuracy required, we propose an effective methodology using an MMS and some software to check and guarantee that the target is met. We present an application of the methodology and a discussion of the problems faced while employing the MMS methodology. Two important projects are highlighted as case studies of our methodology application in employing an MMS in the surveying design phase of important scale infrastructures in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The first is the surveying for the design of 180 km of drainage system in Jeddah and the second is the surveying of 1500 km of an existing railway network. The two surveying projects are the first applications using an MMS in the KSA where the accuracy was a necessity for the purpose of state-of-the-art management and monitoring of new and old installed systems. In this work, we discuss the new technology application and the problems faced. In addition, we address the different applications covered by an MMS.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12518-018-0222-6
  • 3D survey and 3D modelling for seismic vulnerability assessment of
           historical masonry buildings
    • Authors: C. Balletti; M. Ballarin; P. Faccio; F. Guerra; A. Saetta; P. Vernier
      Abstract: Abstract The new geomatics techniques have the aim of responding to the needs of damage documentation, risk assessment and providing support for managing and sharing data in emergency and danger conditions. The paper describes the experience of a group of researchers in geomatics and construction techniques at the Iuav University of Venice following the Emilia earthquake, when on 20th and 29th of May 2012, two powerful earthquakes struck northern Italy. The epicentres were recorded respectively in Finale Emilia (magnitude 5.9 Ml) and Medolla (magnitude 5.8 Ml) in the province of Modena, though the earthquake was formed by a series of seismic shakes located in the district of the Emilian Po Valley, mainly in the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantova, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. An immediate documentation was necessary to shoring up and protect the damaged structures before any restoration and reconstruction intervention. Many monuments in the city of Mantova were hit by the earthquake and, among these, Palazzo Ducale with the well-known Castello di San Giorgio which host the noteworthy “Camera degli Sposi”. This building, the most famous of the city, was so damaged that it was closed for more than 1 year after the earthquake. Immediately after the earthquake, the Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici e Paesaggistici of Brescia, Cremona and Mantova establish an agreement with the University Iuav of Venice, requiring an analysis and assessment of the damage in order to proceed with the development of an intervention project. This activity turned out to be very important not only from the point of view of the recovery of the architectural and artistic heritage but also because the city’s economy is based primarily on tourism. The closure of one of the most important monuments of Mantova has led to a significant and alarming decline in the government income.
      PubDate: 2018-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12518-018-0214-6
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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