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Matter and Radiation at Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1672-6030 - ISSN (Online) 2589-5540
Published by AIP  [2 journals]
  • Reduction of ice adhesion on nanostructured and nanoscale slippery

    • Authors: Luke Haworth, Deyu Yang, Prashant Agrawal, Hamdi Torun, Xianghui Hou, Glen McHale, Yongqing Fu
      Abstract: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2023.
      Ice nucleation and accretion on structural surfaces are sources of major safety and operational concerns in many industries including aviation and renewable energy. Common methods for tackling these are active ones such as heating, ultrasound, and chemicals or passive ones such as surface coatings. In this study, we explored the ice adhesion properties of slippery coated substrates by measuring the shear forces required to remove a glaze ice block on the coated substrates. Among the studied nanostructured and nanoscale surfaces [i.e., a superhydrophobic coating, a fluoropolymer coating, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chain coating], the slippery omniphobic covalently attached liquid (SOCAL) surface with its flexible polymer brushes and liquid-like structure significantly reduced the ice adhesion on both glass and silicon surfaces. Further studies of the SOCAL coating on roughened substrates also demonstrated its low ice adhesion. The reduction in ice adhesion is attributed to the flexible nature of the brush-like structures of PDMS chains, allowing ice to detach easily.
      Citation: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
      PubDate: 2023-02-17T01:07:47Z
  • Design and fabrication of a series contact RF MEMS switch with a novel top

    • Authors: Qiannan Wu, Honglei Guo, Qiuhui Liu, Guangzhou Zhu, Junqiang Wang, Yonghong Cao, Mengwei Li
      Abstract: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2023.
      Radio-frequency (RF) micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) switches are widely used in communication devices and test instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate the structural design and optimization of a novel RF MEMS switch with a straight top electrode. The insertion loss, isolation, actuator voltage, and stress distribution of the switch are optimized and explored simultaneously by HFSS and COMSOL software, taking into account both its RF and mechanical properties. Based on the optimized results, a switch was fabricated by a micromachining process compatible with conventional IC processes. The RF performance in the DC to 18 GHz range was measured with a vector network analyzer, showing isolation of more than 21.28 dB over the entire operating frequency range. Moreover, the required actuation voltage was about 9.9 V, and the switching time was approximately 33 μs. A maximum lifetime of 109 switching cycles was obtained. Additionally, the dimension of the sample is 1.8 mm × 1.8 mm × 0.3 mm, which might find application in the current stage.
      Citation: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T01:13:28Z
  • Three-dimensional acoustic radiation force of a eukaryotic cell
           arbitrarily positioned in a Gaussian beam

    • Authors: Shuyuan Li, Xiaofeng Zhang
      Abstract: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2023.
      Expressions are derived for calculating the three-dimensional acoustic radiation force (ARF) on a multilayer microsphere positioned arbitrarily in a Gaussian beam. A theoretical model of a three-layer microsphere with a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus is established to study how particle geometry and position affect the three-dimensional ARF, and its results agree well with finite-element numerical results. The microsphere can be moved relative to the beam axis by changing its structure and position in the beam, and the axial ARF increases with increasing outer-shell thickness and core size. This study offers a theoretical foundation for selecting suitable parameters for manipulating a three-layer microsphere in a Gaussian beam.
      Citation: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T01:41:56Z
  • Portable FBAR based E-nose for cold chain real-time bananas shelf time

    • Authors: Chen Wu, Jiuyan Li
      Abstract: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2023.
      Being cheap, nondestructive, and easy to use, gas sensors play important roles in the food industry. However, most gas sensors are suitable more for laboratory-quality fast testing rather than for cold-chain continuous and cumulative testing. Also, an ideal electronic nose (E-nose) in a cold chain should be stable to its surroundings and remain highly accurate and portable. In this work, a portable film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR)-based E-nose was built for real-time measurement of banana shelf time. The sensor chamber to contain the portable circuit of the E-nose is as small as a smartphone, and by introducing an air-tight FBAR as a reference, the E-nose can avoid most of the drift caused by surroundings. With the help of porous layer by layer (LBL) coating of the FBAR, the sensitivity of the E-nose is 5 ppm to ethylene and 0.5 ppm to isoamyl acetate and isoamyl butyrate, while the detection range is large enough to cover a relative humidity of 0.8. In this regard, the E-nose can easily discriminate between yellow bananas with green necks and entirely yellow bananas while allowing the bananas to maintain their biological activities in their normal storage state, thereby showing the possibility of real-time shelf time detection. This portable FBAR-based E-nose has a large testing scale, high sensitivity, good humidity tolerance, and low frequency drift to its surroundings, thereby meeting the needs of cold-chain usage.
      Citation: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T01:26:41Z
  • Pick-up strategies for and electrical characterization of ZnO nanowires
           with a SEM-based nanomanipulator

    • Authors: Mei Liu, Lingdi Kong, Weilin Su, Aristide Djoulde, Kai Cheng, Jinbo Chen, Jinjun Rao, Zhiming Wang
      Abstract: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2023.
      Because of their unique mechanical and electrical properties, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are used widely in microscopic and nanoscopic devices and structures, but characterizing them remains challenging. In this paper, two pick-up strategies are proposed for characterizing the electrical properties of ZnO nanowires using SEM equipped with a nanomanipulator. To pick up nanowires efficiently, direct sampling is compared with electrification fusing, and experiments show that direct sampling is more stable while electrification fusing is more efficient. ZnO nanowires have cut-off properties, and good Schottky contact with the tungsten probes was established. In piezoelectric experiments, the maximum piezoelectric voltage generated by an individual ZnO nanowire was 0.07 V, and its impedance decreased with increasing input signal frequency until it became stable. This work offers a technical reference for the pick-up and construction of nanomaterials and nanogeneration technology.
      Citation: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T01:25:25Z
  • Improved calibration method for displacement transformation coefficient in
           optical and visual measurements

    • Authors: Haopeng Li, Zurong Qiu
      Abstract: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2023.
      Optical and visual measurement technology is used widely in fields that involve geometric measurements, and among such technology are laser and vision-based displacement measuring modules (LVDMMs). The displacement transformation coefficient (DTC) of an LVDMM changes with the coordinates in the camera image coordinate system during the displacement measuring process, and these changes affect the displacement measurement accuracy of LVDMMs in the full field of view (FFOV). To give LVDMMs higher accuracy in the FFOV and make them adaptable to widely varying measurement demands, a new calibration method is proposed to improve the displacement measurement accuracy of LVDMMs in the FFOV. First, an image coordinate system, a pixel measurement coordinate system, and a displacement measurement coordinate system are established on the laser receiving screen of the LVDMM. In addition, marker spots in the FFOV are selected, and the DTCs at the marker spots are obtained from calibration experiments. Also, a fitting method based on locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) is selected, and with this fitting method the distribution functions of the DTCs in the FFOV are obtained based on the DTCs at the marker spots. Finally, the calibrated distribution functions of the DTCs are applied to the LVDMM, and experiments conducted to verify the displacement measurement accuracies are reported. The results show that the FFOV measurement accuracies for horizontal and vertical displacements are better than ±15 µm and ±19 µm, respectively, and that for oblique displacement is better than ±24 µm. Compared with the traditional calibration method, the displacement measurement error in the FFOV is now 90% smaller. This research on an improved calibration method has certain significance for improving the measurement accuracy of LVDMMs in the FFOV, and it provides a new method and idea for other vision-based fields in which camera parameters must be calibrated.
      Citation: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T02:17:58Z
  • Direct fabrication of flexible tensile sensors enabled by polariton energy
           transfer based on graphene nanosheet films

    • Authors: Xi Zhang, Junchi Ma, Wenhao Huang, Jichen Zhang, Chaoyang Lyu, Yu Zhang, Bo Wen, Xin Wang, Jing Ye, Dongfeng Diao
      Abstract: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2023.
      A fundamental problem in the direct manufacturing of flexible devices is the low melting temperature of flexible substrates, which hinders the development of flexible electronics. Proposed here is an electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering system that can batch-fabricate devices directly on flexible substrates under a low temperature by virtue of the polariton energy transfer between the plasma and the material. Flexible graphene nanosheet-embedded carbon (F-GNEC) films are manufactured directly on polyimide, polyethylene terephthalate, and polydimethylsiloxane, and how the substrate bias (electron energy), microwave power (plasma flux and energy), and magnetic field (electron flux) affect the nanostructure of the F-GNEC films is investigated, indicating that electron energy and flux contribute to the formation of standing graphene nanosheets in the film. The films have good uniformity of distribution in a large size (17 mm × 17 mm), and tensile and angle sensors with a high gauge factor (0.92) and fast response (50 ms) for a machine hand are obtained by virtue of the unique nanostructure of the F-GNEC film. This work sheds light on the quantum manufacturing of carbon sensors and its applications for intelligent machine hands and virtual-reality technology.
      Citation: Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T03:05:34Z
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