Publisher: American Society of Animal Science   (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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J. of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
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Journal of Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.848
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0021-8812 - ISSN (Online) 1525-3163
Published by American Society of Animal Science Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Correction to: PSXII-20 Ovarian dynamics and fertility in beef cows
           administered a 5-day or 6-day CO-Synch protocol for timed artificial
           insemination

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      Abstract: This is a correction to: Alexandria E. Crist, Jessica Cristina Lemos Motta, Cameron Hayden, Benjamin Duran, Martin Mussard, Alvaro Garcia-Guerra, PSXII-20 Ovarian dynamics and fertility in beef cows administered a 5-day or 6-day CO-Synch protocol for timed artificial insemination, Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_3, November 2021, Page 423, https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab235.759
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac113
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Influence of environmental factors and genetic variation on mitochondrial
           DNA copy number

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      Authors: Sanglard L; Kuehn L, Snelling W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) has been shown to be highly heritable and associated with traits of interest in humans. However, studies are lacking in the literature for livestock species such as beef cattle. In this study, 2,371 individuals from a crossbred beef population comprising the Germplasm Evaluation program from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center had samples of blood, leucocyte, or semen collected for low-pass sequencing (LPS) that resulted in both nuclear DNA (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence reads. Mitochondrial DNA CN was estimated based on the ratio of mtDNA to nuDNA coverages. Genetic parameters for mtDNA CN were estimated from an animal model based on a genomic relationship matrix (~87K SNP from the nuDNA). Different models were used to test the effects of tissue, sex, age at sample collection, heterosis, and breed composition. Maternal effects, assessed by fitting a maternal additive component and by fitting eleven SNP on the mtDNA, were also obtained. As previously reported, mtDNA haplotypes were used to classify individuals into Taurine haplogroups (T1, T2, T3/T4, and T5). Estimates of heritability when fitting fixed effects in addition to the intercept were moderate, ranging from 0.11 to 0.31 depending on the model. From a model ignoring contemporary group, semen samples had the lowest mtDNA CN, as expected, followed by blood and leucocyte samples (P ≤ 0.001). The effect of sex and the linear and quadratic effects of age were significant (P ≤ 0.02) depending on the model. When significant, females had greater mtDNA CN than males. The effects of heterosis and maternal heterosis were not significant (P ≥ 0.47). The estimates of maternal and mtDNA heritability were near zero (≤0.03). Most of the samples (98%) were classified as haplogroup T3. Variation was observed in the mtDNA within Taurine haplogroups, which enabled the identification of 24 haplotypes. These results suggest that mtDNA CN is under nuclear genetic control and would respond favorably to selection.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac059
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Influence of environmental factors and genetic variation on mitochondrial
           DNA copy number

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      Abstract: Graphical Abstract
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac103
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effect of chemical and biological preservatives and ensiling stage on the
           dry matter loss, nutritional value, microbial counts, and ruminal in vitro
           gas production kinetics of wet brewer’s grain silage

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      Authors: Killerby M; Almeida S, Hollandsworth R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThis study evaluated the effects of chemical and biological preservatives and ensiling stage on spoilage, ruminal in vitro fermentation, and methane production of wet brewer’s grain (WBG) silage. Treatments (TRT) were sodium lignosulfonate at 10 g/kg fresh WBG (NaL1) and 20 g/kg (NaL2), propionic acid at 5 g/kg fresh WBG (PRP, 99%), a combination inoculant (INO; Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus buchneri each at 4.9 log cfu per fresh WBG g), and untreated WBG (CON). Fresh WBG was treated and then ensiled for 60 d, after which mini silos were opened and aerobically exposed (AES) for 10 d. Data were analyzed as an RCBD (five blocks) with a 5 TRT × 3 stages (STG; fresh, ensiled, and AES) factorial arrangement. Results showed that ensiled PRP-treated WBG markedly preserved more water-soluble carbohydrates and starch than all other ensiled TRT (P < 0.001). Dry matter losses of ensiled PRP-treated WBG were 48% lower than all other ensiled TRT (P = 0.009) but were not different than CON in AES (P = 0.350). Due to its greater concentration of digestible nutrients, PRP-treated AES was less aerobically stable than CON (P = 0.03). Preservation was not improved by INO, NaL1, or NaL2 but the latter prevented the increase of neutral detergent fiber across STG (P = 0.392). Apparent in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) decreased only in ensiled CON, INO, and NaL1 relative to fresh WBG and AES NaL2 had greater IVDMD than all other AES TRT (P ≤ 0.032). In vitro ruminal fermentation of fresh WBG resulted in a greater methane concentration and yield than the other STG (P < 0.033). In conclusion, PRP was the most effective at preserving WBG during ensiling but failed to improve aerobic stability under the conditions tested.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac095
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Odd-chain fatty acids as an alternative method to predict ruminal
           microbial nitrogen flow of feedlot Nellore steers fed grain-based diets
           supplemented with different nitrogen sources

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      Authors: Campos L; Souza V, Granja-Salcedo Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the use of total odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) as a marker to estimate microbial nitrogen flow (MicN) and calculate the efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) in Nellore steers fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with different nitrogen supplements (NS). Ruminally and duodenally cannulated Nellore steers (n = 6; 354 ± 12 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 repeated switchback design balanced for residual effects. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial of three nitrogen (N) supplements (urea plus soybean meal; corn gluten meal; dried distillers’ grains plus solubles) and three microbial markers (OCFA; double-labeled urea, 15N; microbial nucleic acid bases, MNAB). The total mixed ration was composed of fresh chopped sugarcane as the forage source in an 83:17 concentrate: forage ratio (dry matter basis). Linear regression was used to develop predictions of MicN from OCFA using 15N and MNAB as response variables. Microbial N flow was underestimated by the MNAB marker compared to 15N. Neither NS nor their respective interactions with the marker methods (MM) affected MicN or EMNS (P > 0.05). However, MicN was different for 15N and MNAB (P > 0.001 for both treatments). Marker methods affected EMNS in all energetic bases (total digestible carbohydrates P < 0.001; rumen-fermentable carbohydrates P < 0.001; organic matter truly degradable in the rumen P < 0.001). Equations that utilized OCFA as a regressor to predict MicN under different MM resulted in good fits of the data as observed by the coefficient of determination (R2; 15N = 0.78; MNAB = 0.69). Microbial N flow estimated from OCFA was overpredicted (15N by 7.46%; MNAB by 4.30%) compared with observed values. The OCFA model presented a small slope bias when methodological validation was applied (15N = 0.96%; MNAB = 3.90%), ensuring reliability of the proposed alternative method. Based on the conditions of this experiment, OCFA may be a suitable alternative to other methods that quantify MicN under different dietary conditions.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac089
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Coated tannin supplementation improves growth performance, nutrients
           digestibility, and intestinal function in weaned piglets

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      Authors: Xu T; Ma X, Zhou X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractTo explore the effect of coated tannin (CT) on the growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and intestinal function in weaned piglets, a total of 180 piglets Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (28 d old) weighing about 8.6 kg were randomly allotted to three treatments: 1) Con: basal diet (contains ZnSO4); 2) Tan: basal diet + 0.15% CT; and 3) ZnO: basal diet + ZnO (Zn content is 1,600 mg/kg). The results showed that 0.15% CT could highly increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake of weaned piglets compared with the control group, especially decreasing diarrhea incidence significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, crude protein apparent digestibility and digestive enzyme activity of the piglets fed with 0.15% CT were enhanced obviously (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the intestinal villi and microvilli arranged more densely, while the content of serum diamine oxidase was decreased, and the protein expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1 were significantly upregulated (P < 0.05). In addition, CT altered the structure of intestinal microbiota and augmented some butyrate-producing bacteria such as Ruminococcaceae and Megasphaera. PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) analysis also showed that the abundances of pathways related to butyrate metabolism and tryptophan metabolism were increased; however, the function of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteins was significantly decreased. The results demonstrated that 0.15% CT could improve growth performance, digestibility, and intestinal function of weaned piglets, and it had the potential to replace ZnO applied to farming.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac088
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Influence of infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae on clinical
           expression, growth performance, and digestibility in growing pigs fed
           diets varying in type and level of fiber

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      Authors: Lee G; Skou Hedemann M, Borg Jensen B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractResearch on the effects of different fiber types and levels on infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae on growth performance and nutrients digestibility in pigs is scarce. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of infection with B. hyodysenteriae when feeding diets varying in soluble and insoluble dietary fiber (DF) on the expression of swine dysentery, growth performance, and digestibility of organic matter (OM) nutrients. A total of 96 growing pigs (26.9 ± 2.5 kg) were used for the experiment and divided into six blocks. The growing pigs were fed one of four diets for 12 wk: low fiber (LF), high fiber (HF), high soluble fiber (HS), and high insoluble fiber (HI). After 2 wk, half of the pigs were inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae. Half of the pigs in each group were euthanized at week 6 for the measurement of the apparent digestibility at the ileum, cecum, colon, and total tract. The remaining pigs were maintained to observe and analyze the clinical expression of fecal score and excretion of B. hyodysenteriae, growth performance, and total tract digestibility up to 12 wk. In the current study, the experimental diets did not influence the expression of infection in the pigs. The body weight and average daily gain (ADG) were in line with the results of clinical expression from week 4 to 6. However, the ADG of the infected pigs started to recover from week 6 (P < 0.05) and then recovered from week 8 to 12 (P < 0.05). The infection with B. hyodysenteriae did not impair apparent ileal digestibility (AID; P > 0.05), whereas the apparent digestibility of OM, total non-starch polysaccharide, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, and cellulose in the cecum of the infected pigs was higher than non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). The apparent colonic digestibility of ash and nitrogen was higher in non-infected pigs than in infected pigs (P < 0.05). The pigs fed the LF diet had a higher digestibility in all segments of the intestinal tract, whereas the HS diet had the lowest AID but higher or similar to the LF diet in the cecum, colon, and the total tract (P < 0.05). The pigs fed the HF and HI diets, with a high proportion of insoluble fiber, had a lower digestibility in the hindgut than the other two diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the infection with B. hyodysenteriae negatively influenced clinical signs of swine dysentery and growth performance but did not impair AID, and neither soluble nor insoluble DF influenced the expression of the infection.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac066
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dietary supplementation with lysine (protein) stimulates mammary
           development in late pregnant gilts

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      Authors: Farmer C; Palin M, Hovey R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe goal of this project was to determine if standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine provided at 40% above estimated requirements, with the concomitant increase in protein intake, from days 90 to 110 of gestation would stimulate mammary development in gilts. From day 90 of gestation, Yorkshire × Landrace gilts were fed 2.65 kg of either a conventional diet (CTL, control, n = 19) providing 18.6 g/d of SID Lys or a diet providing 26.0 g/d of SID Lys via additional soybean meal (HILYS, n = 19). Both diets were isoenergetic. Jugular blood samples obtained on days 90 and 110 of gestation were used to measure concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), metabolites, and amino acids (AA). Gilts were necropsied on day 110 ± 1 of gestation to obtain mammary glands for compositional analyses, immunohistochemistry, and analysis of mRNA abundance for AA transporters and markers of cell proliferation and differentiation. The HILYS gilts gained more body weight (P < 0.01) during the experimental period compared with CTL gilts, and had greater fetal weights (1.29 vs. 1.21 ± 0.03 kg, P < 0.05). There was no difference in circulating IGF-1, glucose, or albumin (P > 0.10) between HILYS and CTL gilts on day 110 of gestation, whereas concentrations of urea and free fatty acids were greater (P < 0.01), and those of Trp and Ala were lower (P < 0.05), in HILYS than CTL gilts. The provision of lysine at 40% above estimated requirements increased total mammary parenchymal mass by 44%, as well as total parenchymal fat, protein, DNA, and RNA (P < 0.01). The mRNA abundance of ACACA was greater (P < 0.05) in HILYS than CTL gilts, while only the AA transporter SLC6A14 tended (P < 0.10) to be greater. Results demonstrate that providing dietary Lys above current National Research Council recommendations in late gestation increases mammary development in gilts. Results also indicate that Lys may have been limiting for protein retention. These data suggest that the use of a two-phase feeding strategy during gestation, whereby dietary Lys is increased from day 90, could benefit potential sow milk yield in the subsequent lactation.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac051
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Behavioral and performance response associated with administration of
           intravenous flunixin meglumine or oral meloxicam immediately prior to
           surgical castration in bull calves

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      Authors: Cull C; Rezac D, DeDonder K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the effects of flunixin meglumine or meloxicam on behavioral response and performance characteristics associated with surgical castration in crossbred bulls. Intact male Bos taurus calves (n = 252; averaging 176 kg) were randomly allocated into one of three treatment groups within pen: control (CON), flunixin meglumine (FLU; 2.2 mg/kg intravenous injection), or meloxicam (MEL; 2.0 mg/kg per os). The individual animal was the experimental unit. Calves were individually weighed on days 0 and 14 of the trial to evaluate performance outcomes. On study day 0, treatments were administered, according to their random allocation, immediately prior to surgical castration using the Henderson tool method. Visual analog scale (VAS) assessment and categorical attitude score (CAS) were collected on days −1, 0 (6 h post-castration), 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the study. The VAS was assigned using a 100 mm horizontal line with “normal” labeled at one end of the line and “moribund” at the other end of the horizontal line. The masked observer assigned a mark on the horizontal line based upon the observed severity of pain exhibited by that individual animal. The CAS was assigned by the same observer using five different categories with a score of 0 being “normal”. Average daily gain tended (P = 0.09) to be associated with the treatment group, and MEL had a greater (P = 0.04) average daily gain through day 14 compared with CON. A significant (P < 0.01) treatment by day interaction was indicated for VAS score, and MEL had lower VAS scores on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 post-castration compared with CON; FLU had lower VAS scores on days 0 and 1 compared with CON. A significant treatment by day interaction was not present (P = 0.25) for CAS. The FLU had lesser percent CAS ≥1 (17.5%; P = 0.05) compared with CON (29.4%); MEL has lesser percent CAS ≥1 observations (14.9%; P = 0.01) compared with CON. The median VAS increased as CAS was more severe. Results indicated MEL and FLU calves temporally improved behavioral responses following surgical castration with positive numerical trends for a 14 d average daily gain (ADG). The VAS system appeared to be an effective method of subjective evaluation of pain in beef calves in this study. Route of administration, duration of therapy, and low relative cost make oral meloxicam a reasonable analgesic treatment in calves when administered at the time of surgical castration.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac049
      Issue No: Vol. 100, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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