Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 395, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 545, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
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American Behavioral Scientist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.982
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-7642 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3381
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • The Multifaceted Impact of COVID-19: Health, Emotions, Well-Being, and
           Risk Assessment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laura Robinson, Kuo-Ting Huang, Jeremy Schulz, Cara Chiaraluce, Aneka Khilnani, Elisha Johnston
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Analyzing diverse and rich data on the COVID-19 pandemic, this issue of the American Behavioral Scientist offers important insights into health and risk assessment in a time of unprecedented crisis in the 21st century. This issue explores health, emotions, and well-being vis-à-vis the pandemic and its societal impacts. Across the articles, we see the complex ways that this global health crisis has consequences for individuals and groups as they engage in risk assessment and grapple with the secondary effects of the pandemic. Within this issue, we observe the importance of information exchange, networks and relationships, emotional and economic well-being, and risk perception. All of these phenomena converge in the myriad ways that the COVID-19 pandemic forces people to reevaluate everyday activities in consequential life realms. As the issue as a whole illuminates, human emotions and risk assessment are powerful forces that prompt practices and behaviors even in a time of public health crisis.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-10-15T05:33:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211051616
       
  • Hope and Fear in the Midst of Coronavirus: What Accounts for COVID-19
           Preparedness'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David B. Feldman
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: The present study asks the question: What variables accounted for people’s tendencies to take steps to prepare for COVID-19 during the earliest stage of the pandemic' Data collection took place from March 6 to 11, 2020. In particular, the study examines variables that have been shown to predict health behavior in previous research outside the context of the present pandemic, including hope, optimism, perceived risk, fear, and mental health variables. Method: Participants (222 adults in 39 U.S. states) were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Online surveys included the Adult Hope Scale (AHS), Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Impact of Events Scale (IES-R), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Also included were items inquiring about COVID-19 perceived mortality risk, fear/anxiety, and preparedness. Results and Conclusion: Participants were asked to imagine that COVID-19 had different hypothetical levels of mortality risk, ranging from 1 to 10 percent mortality (at the time of data collection, the WHO estimated actual mortality of the disease at approximately 3 percent). For each level, participants rated the degree to which they would be willing to take steps to prepare and protect themselves from the disease on a 7-point scale. Nearly 49 percent of participants said they would be relatively unlikely (i.e., provided a rating below the midpoint of the scale) to take steps to protect themselves if the mortality rate were at the 3 percent level. Stepwise multiple regression including the aforementioned predictors showed that three variables accounted for unique variance in participants’ levels of current preparedness: COVID-19 fear/anxiety, posttraumatic stress (as measured by the IES-R), and hope. Implications of these results are briefly discussed in the context of raising preparedness given that future public health crises are likely inevitable.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T04:29:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211050900
       
  • The Rise of Presidential Eschatology: Conspiracy Theories, Religion, and
           the January 6th Insurrection

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      Authors: Bayleigh Elaine Bond, Ryan Neville-Shepard
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay argues that the insurrection at the United States Capitol on January 6, 2021, can be partially explained by the rise of what we call presidential eschatology, a religious master narrative that represents a historic shift from presidents appealing to God to presidents becoming a messiah figure. More specifically, we trace President Trump’s embrace of this kind of religious discourse—which we contend is a form of weaponized political communication aiming to undermine democracy—to his acceptance of a millennialist narrative fashioned by QAnon conspiracy theorists. Through a close reading of primary sources from the movement, the study illustrates how these eschatological themes surfaced in QAnon's discourse and were exploited by Trump and his allies as they sought to overturn the 2020 presidential election.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-10-02T01:44:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211046557
       
  • Fetterman and the Forgotten: Dramatism and Democracy after January 6

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      Authors: Brian Snee, Grant Cos, R. Pierre Rodgers
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay argues that Lt. Governor John Fetterman (D-PA), in running for the open US Senate seat in Pennsylvania, is attempting to appeal to disaffected Trump voters, showing what the “forgotten men and women” of Pennsylvania might stand to gain by embracing his progressive, Democratic populist appeal. This study examines Fetterman’s announcement advertisement, “Launch,” illustrating how he figuratively and literally enacts Burkean “consubstantiality,” as the candidate not only speaks about and on behalf of the forgotten, but he also appears on camera with the history of Braddock tattooed on his body. Utilizing Burkean theory, we contend that Fetterman’s two-and-a-half-minute video follows the basic formula for Burke’s guilt-redemption cycle. In the wake of the failed insurrection, “Launch” offered the promise of rhetorical redemption through what Burke labeled victimage in the form of factional scapegoating. Additionally, midway through the video, the “Agent” and the “Scene” switch roles, in a unique symbolic move. The analysis concludes that, from Burke’s perspective of purification-redemption, Fetterman uses visuals, text, and context to appeal to an important audience for his candidacy.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T10:39:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211046553
       
  • Bigmouth Strikes Again: The Controversies of Morrissey and Cancel Culture

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      Authors: Simone Pereira de Sá, Thiago Pereira Alberto
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      On May 14, 2019, Morrissey performed on American television using a pin of the far right For Britain party. When criticized, he succinctly responded on Twitter: “Why don't you have freedom of speech' Or freedom to wear a pin on TV'” His online fandom reacted vehemently suggesting a “cancellation” of the artist. In this context, our proposal is to track constitutive parts of this process of “deception” with Morrissey, focusing specifically on a phenomenon that has gained visibility on socio-technical networks: the idea of “canceling.” To gauge the reaction of his fandom, we address this event from the perception that this response to the singer took place on the horizon of expectations constructed through the experience that fans had with his career over the decades. We also use the notion of expressive coherence, as an analytical guide to understand some of the implications and tensions related to Morrissey’s trajectory, examining how his historically constituted nostalgic performance tracks and sheds light on two questions that are essential to our analysis: “Was he really always like this'”; and “How did he become this person'” These are conjugated to a definitive affirmation: “I cannot be his fan anymore.”
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-09-26T06:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042291
       
  • “Hey! Mr Prime Minister!”: The Simpsons Against the Liberals,
           Anti-fandom and the “Politics of Against”

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      Authors: Renee Barnes, Renée Middlemost
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Memes and popular culture have become central to our understanding of contemporary politics. Recent fan scholarship has shown how popular culture encourages audiences into discussion, participation, creativity, intervention, and evaluation in politics. In this article, we build on existing scholarship analysing political meme creation and distribution, which to date has primarily focused primarily on American politics. Using a case study of the Facebook group The Simpsons Against the Liberals (the conservative ruling party in Australia), we examine how the anti-fannish behaviors of appropriating and remixing content, affective investment, and community collective identity formation is activated through othering or a “politics of against” (Sandvoss, 2019). The Simpsons Against the Liberals page features memes which insert current Australian political issues, scandals, and controversies into the fictional world of The Simpsons. As we argue, the community is bound by its anti-fandom of the Australian Liberal party, rather than a specific unifying feature. While anti-fandom is driven from hate and dislike, this case study demonstrates that a form of anti-fandom exists in which pleasure is derived from the use of humor to perform acts of citizenship and imagined community. Specifically, this article will examine the flurry of creative production during the 2019/20 Australian bushfire crisis—centered around the controversial behavior of Prime Minister Scott Morrison—as a form of contemporary civic action and activism rooted in anti-fan practices.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-09-20T09:32:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042292
       
  • Can the Celebrity Speak' Controversies and the Eulogistic Fandom of
           Shah Rukh Khan

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      Authors: Abir Misra
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article addresses the participation of celebrities and their fans in media controversies. As techno-social events, controversies are constitutive of discursive battles, between numerically conscious participatory communities, aimed at describing the meaning and significance of cultural symbols. Celebrities, in their capacity as cultural symbols, provide the ground for staging these discursive battles. Fan participation, as auxiliary of celebrity participation, is studied here specifically to discern its essential functions vis-a-vis controversies. For elaborating its argument, this article looks at Shah Rukh Khan (hereafter SRK) and his fandom in India. SRK, as a transcultural symbol of Liberal Islam, was embroiled in media controversies wherein the meaning and significance of his ‘Muslimness’ was debated and scrutinised. Marked by struggles between SRK fandom, on one side, and right-wing/reactionary groups on the other, these controversies testify SRK’s centrality in political debates surrounding the ‘Muslim Question’ in Indian Polity. This article argues that SRK Fandom’s primary discursive function is to create an ‘Eulogistic Buffer’ that insulates SRK from right-wing/reactionary islamophobia.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T11:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042286
       
  • Groupies, Fangirls and Shippers: The Endurance of a Gender Stereotype

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      Authors: Ysabel Gerrard
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this special issue is to offer new perspectives on fan cultures which respond to changes and controversies that have happened since the last American Behavioral Scientist special issue on fandom was published, in 2005. But the aim of my contribution is to argue that, sadly, derisive-gendered discourses like ‘fangirls’, ‘groupies’ and ‘shippers’ are still alive and well. Returning to the kind of research conducted in the 1980s – when women’s experiences of feminized popular cultures began to be taken seriously – reminds us that their pleasures are no less derided or controversial four decades on. My findings also suggest that the enduring presence of older stereotypes within teen drama fandoms – particularly the ‘groupie’ – signals the agility of sexism, as the term can now be understood as more of a generational designation rather than a medium-specific one. This article is the product of three years of qualitative empirical research with ‘teen girl’ fandoms of three popular television shows: Pretty Little Liars, Revenge and The Vampire Diaries. The data it discusses includes Skype audio and video interviews, written interviews conducted via email and Facebook Messenger, along with overt social media observations.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T10:47:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042284
       
  • Editorial: Fandom and Controversy

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      Authors: Rebecca Williams, Lucy Bennett
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T11:53:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042290
       
  • Fans of Q: The Stakes of QAnon’s Functioning as Political Fandom

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      Authors: CarrieLynn D. Reinhard, David Stanley, Linda Howell
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Affective activation, and the community engagement it fosters, is the driving mechanism of all fandoms, irrespective of the specific “objects of affection” around which they coalesce. These centralized objects of affection may hail from popular culture, such as in the form of sports teams, television shows, cartoon characters, or musicians. As fan scholars have increasingly recognized, fandoms can also emerge around profit-driven brands, specific politicians, and social movements. Much has been said regarding the dangers of the online conspiracy theory QAnon. However, these warnings have tended to overemphasize the rapidly evolving, amorphous beliefs of its adherents, rather than recognize the affective activation propelling the movement. Through its analysis of affect-driven communities, the field of fan studies can be productively applied to investigate the online discursive activities of QAnon community members. Framing QAnon as a fandom elucidates the functions through which the conspiracy theory radicalizes “normies” by exploiting the types of fan activities already well-established in mainstream fan communities. Underscoring the transferability of fan studies concepts to political movements and communities, this exploration outlines the societal stakes of QAnon’s manipulation and normalization of the toxic emotions cohering its adherents into a fanatic community.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-09-08T03:24:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042294
       
  • Corrigendum to Politicians, Social Media, and Digital Publics: Old Rights,
           New Terrain

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      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T01:08:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042678
       
  • School Desegregation and Resegregation in the Upper South: An Introduction
           and Overview

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      Authors: Toby L. Parcel, Roslyn A. Mickelson
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Despite strong progress toward school desegregation in the late 20th century, many locations in the Upper South have recently experienced school resegregation. The articles in this issue investigate similarities and differences across this region in attitudes underlying these developments. Individual papers treat factors including resident location within and across school districts, as well as the role of school choice. Papers also advocate for combining the results of case studies and opinion polls in elucidating these dynamics. The issue concludes with a look forward regarding the social and political forces that will contribute to whether or not the Supreme Court’s mandate, based on Brown v. Board of Education, will be realized by its 100th anniversary in 2054.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T02:40:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211033282
       
  • The Past, Present, and Future of Brown’s Mandate: A View from North
           Carolina

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      Authors: Roslyn A. Mickelson, Jennifer B. Ayscue, Martha C. Bottia, Jerry J. Wilson
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The unanimous 1954 Brown v. Board of Education opinion is one of the most consequential legal decisions of the 20th century. Even though it concerned government sanctioned racial segregation of public schools, many legal scholars, policy makers, and citizens see Brown’s impact going well beyond ordering the dismantling of de jure segregated public schools and instituting desegregated ones that would provide equitable high quality public education to all students irrespective of their race. Brown’s mandate overturned the notorious Plessy decision sanctioning legal segregation and exposed the fiction that separate could be equal in any institution or sphere of public life. But, progress toward Brown’s literal and figurative mandate has been halting and, at best, uneven. This article considers the question of whether the nation will achieve Brown’s mandate by its 100th anniversary in 2054. The authors reflect upon the relevant history of progress in Brown’s implementation and the current retrenchments on those gains that have returned this nation’s schools, in some districts, to pre-Brown levels of segregation. Using the state of North Carolina as a strategic case study, they speculate about the sets of social forces that may either discourage or encourage realization of Brown’s mandate going forward. In doing so, they note population changes, national and local political factors, and other events that will either make it more or less likely that Brown’s mandate will be realized by 2054.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-08-09T05:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211033296
       
  • Location, Location, Location' School District, Length of Residence and
           Attitudes Toward Diversity and Neighborhood Schools in the Upper South

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      Authors: Alyssa J. Alexander, Toby L. Parcel
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Attitudes toward diversity and neighborhood schools matter because they underlie many families’ decisions for residential location, with consequences for both school systems and students. Case studies of desegregation highlight locational dynamics that influence these outcomes, but differences in theory and methods limit rigorous comparisons among residents across such areas. This study focuses on two under-researched correlates of these preferences toward school assignment models: school district location and length of residence in that district. We evaluate whether school district location and length of residence decrease support for diverse schools and increase support for neighborhood schools, net of numerous controls. We use an innovative new dataset that features opinion polling of respondents’ views of public school assignments in Raleigh, NC; Charlotte, NC; Louisville, KY; Rock Hill, SC; and Nashville, TN (5302 cases). We find that compared to having lived in a school district 7 years or less, living in that district over 15 years decreases support for diversity. Furthermore, living all one’s life in a district increases support for neighborhood schools. We also find that Charlotte-Mecklenburg, Rock Hill, and Nashville districts are less supportive of neighborhood schools than Raleigh, but that there are also interactive effects between length of residence and school district location. These results shed light on district differences in social forces leading to school resegregation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T03:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211033292
       
  • Case Studies of School Desegregation and Resegregation: How Can We Pursue
           External Validity'

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      Authors: Toby L. Parcel
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Case studies form a vital part of sociological inquiry. Despite their important strengths, they often fail to pursue issues of external validity or replication, an important direction for social science generally. In this article, I begin with the premise that at least some case studies can and should contribute to a growing body of research within sociology aimed at replication and promoting external validity. I first discuss how qualitative case studies have handled issues of external validity in the past. Then I outline three dimensions of external validity that are particularly relevant for sociological research: the degree to which qualitative case study findings generalize or replicate to: (1) a larger population, (2) across social contexts, and (3) over time. I set my overall arguments within the larger literature of case studies in sociology but focus specifically on case studies dealing with school desegregation and resegregation. I show the current challenges in pursuing external validity using a set of case studies investigating school desegregation and resegregation in the United States. I argue that quantitative methods can assist in providing evidence regarding the generalizability of individual case studies. I conclude by noting the limitations to such an approach, which signal some of the challenges our discipline faces when pursuing the external validity of case studies.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T02:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211033283
       
  • Using Opinion Polling Data to Replicate Non-Experimental Quantitative
           Results Across Time and Space: An Exploration of Attitudes Surrounding
           School Desegregation and Resegregation Policies

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      Authors: Toby L. Parcel, Shawn Bauldry, Roslyn A. Mickelson, Stephen S. Smith, Virginia Riel, Madison Boden
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      A renewed call for replications has emerged in social science research. An important form of replication involves exploring the extent to which findings from a given study hold in other contexts. This study draws on opinion polling data to replicate key findings across time and space based on an original study in one location analyzing attitudes toward public school assignment policies. The replication finds that many of the original findings hold, though one important exception reflects the changing context. We note that the increasing availability of relatively inexpensive methods of quantitative data production facilitates replication and comment on how the temporal interval between the original study and the replication may influence the extent to which findings replicate. We argue that largely successful replications help to clarify the conditions under which findings replicate, and that sociologists are in the early stages of determining which strategies work best for replicating which findings.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T05:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211033285
       
  • Who Favors Magnets and Who Favors Charters' Political Ideology, Social
           Purpose Politics, and School Choice in the Upper South

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      Authors: Virginia Riel, Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, Stephen Samuel Smith
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      School choice is an increasingly important feature of the US educational landscape. Numerous studies examine whether a particular form of school choice promotes student achievement or whether a type of school choice discourages or encourages diversity by race, ethnicity, and ability. Studies also examine attitudes toward school choice, but these studies are typically limited to the views of parents, teachers, and administrators rather than public attitudes. We contribute to this literature by studying public opinion about magnet and charter schools in five southern school districts. Using a new and unique dataset, we examine if social background characteristics, political ideology, and attitudes toward the role of public schooling, neighborhood schools, and school diversity influence citizen opinion regarding magnets and charters. We find that more educated, higher income, and older individuals do not support charters, while conservatives and Republicans do. Whites are less likely to favor magnets than other races, while the more educated are more likely to favor them. Those who believe public schools should operate for the common good support magnets, as do those who favor diverse schools. However, those who favor neighborhood schools support both charters and magnets. We interpret our findings within the context of case studies of the respective locations and suggest that public opinion studies motivate public policies regarding educational choice.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T05:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211033288
       
  • Do Presidential Primary Debates Increase Political Polarization'

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      Authors: Benjamin R. Warner, Jihye Park, Go-Eun Kim, Mitchell S. McKinney, Wm. Bryan Paul
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents the results of a quasi-experiment to assess the effects of viewing a strategically manipulated portion of a 2020 Democratic Primary debate. Our aim was to assess the polarizing potential of primary debates on both ingroup (Democratic) and outgroup (Republican) viewers. Viewing the primary debate resulted in less perceived closeness with members of the opposing political party, greater feelings of social distance, and more attribution of malevolent intentions. These effects were consistent regardless of whether the viewer was a member of the political ingroup (Democrats) or outgroup (Republicans). Conversely, there was no effect of debate viewing on evaluations of outparty candidates (with respect to negative trait attributions or lower feeling thermometer evaluations)., nor did support for political compromise change as a result of viewing the debate. Both Democrats and independents reported improved evaluations of participating candidates, though Republican evaluations did not change.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T01:18:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211026613
       
  • How to Capture Global Protest Trends: Using Survey Data Recycling Data to
           Construct Cross-National Trends in Protest

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      Authors: J. Craig Jenkins, Joonghyun Kwak
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      A common claim about the affluent democracies is that protest is trending, becoming more legitimate and widely used by all political contenders. In the new democracies, protest is seen as having contributed to democratization, but growing apathy has led to protest decline while in authoritarian regimes protest may be spurring more democratization. Assessing these ideas requires comparative trend data covering 15 or more years but constructing such data confronts problems. The major problem is that the most available survey item asks “have you ever joined (lawful) demonstrations,” making it difficult to time when this protest behavior occurred. We advance a novel method for timing these “ever” responses by focusing on young adults (aged 18-23 years), who are likely reporting on participation within the past 5 years. Drawing on the Survey Data Recycling harmonized data set, we use a multilevel model including harmonization and survey quality controls to create predicted probabilities for young adult participation (576 surveys, 119 countries, 1966-2010). Aggregating these to create country-year rate estimates, these compare favorably with overlapping estimates from surveys asking about “the past 5 years or so” and event data from the PolDem project. Harmonization and survey quality controls improve these predicted values. These data provide 15+ years trend estimates for 60 countries, which we use to illustrate the possibilities of estimating comparative protest trends.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T07:04:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021627
       
  • Measuring and Analyzing Protest Potential From a Survey Data Recycling
           Framework

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      Authors: Joonghyun Kwak
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As active involvement in protest has been legitimized as an acceptable form of political activity, citizens’ protest potential has become an important measure to understand contemporary democratic politics. However, the arbitrary use of a forced-choice question, which prevents those who have previously participated in protests from expressing willingness to engage in future protest, and the limited coverage of international surveys across countries and years have impeded comparative research on protest potential. This research develops a new systematic weighting method for the measurement of protest potential for comparative research. Using the 1996 International Social Survey Program survey, which asks two separate questions about “have done” and “would do” demonstrations, I create a weighting scale for the forced-choice question by estimating the predicted probabilities of protest potential for those who have already participated in demonstrations. Capitalizing on the survey data recycling framework, this study also controls for harmonization procedures and the quality of surveys, thereby expanding the cross-national and temporal coverage beyond the affluent Western democracies. The results show that this weighting scale provides a valid measure of protest potential, and the survey data recycling framework improves comparability between surveys.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-15T07:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021626
       
  • A Total Error Approach for Validating Event Data

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      Authors: Scott Althaus, Buddy Peyton, Dan Shalmon
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding how useful any particular set of event data might be for conflict research requires appropriate methods for assessing validity when ground truth data about the population of interest do not exist. We argue that a total error framework can provide better leverage on these critical questions than previous methods have been able to deliver. We first define a total event data error approach for identifying 19 types of error that can affect the validity of event data. We then address the challenge of applying a total error framework when authoritative ground truth about the actual distribution of relevant events is lacking. We argue that carefully constructed gold standard datasets can effectively benchmark validity problems even in the absence of ground truth data about event populations. To illustrate the limitations of conventional strategies for validating event data, we present a case study of Boko Haram activity in Nigeria over a 3-month offensive in 2015 that compares events generated by six prominent event extraction pipelines—ACLED, SCAD, ICEWS, GDELT, PETRARCH, and the Cline Center’s SPEED project. We conclude that conventional ways of assessing validity in event data using only published datasets offer little insight into potential sources of error or bias. Finally, we illustrate the benefits of validating event data using a total error approach by showing how the gold standard approach used to validate SPEED data offers a clear and robust method for detecting and evaluating the severity of temporal errors in event data.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-15T05:19:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021635
       
  • Random Sampling in Corpus Design: Cross-Context Generalizability in
           Automated Multicountry Protest Event Collection

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      Authors: Erdem Yörük, Ali Hürriyetoğlu, Fırat Duruşan, Çağrı Yoltar
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      What is the most optimal way of creating a gold standard corpus for training a machine learning system that is designed for automatically collecting protest information in a cross-country context' We show that creating a gold standard corpus for training and testing machine learning models on the basis of randomly chosen news articles from news archives yields better performance than selecting news articles on the basis of keyword filtering, which is the most prevalent method currently used in automated event coding. We advance this new bottom-up approach to ensure generalizability and reliability in cross-country comparative protest event collection from international and local news in different countries, languages, sources and time periods, which entails a large variety of event types, actors, and targets. We present the results of comparing our random-sample approach with keyword filtering. We show that the machine learning algorithms, and particularly state-of-the-art deep learning tools, perform much better when they are trained with the gold standard corpus from a randomly selected set of news articles from China, India, and South Africa. Finally, we also present our approach to overcome the major ethical issues that are intrinsic to protest event coding.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:10:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021630
       
  • Survey Data Quality in Analyzing Harmonized Indicators of Protest
           Behavior: A Survey Data Recycling Approach

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      Authors: Kazimierz M. Slomczynski, Irina Tomescu-Dubrow, Ilona Wysmulek
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes a new approach to analyze protest participation measured in surveys of uneven quality. Because single international survey projects cover only a fraction of the world’s nations in specific periods, researchers increasingly turn to ex-post harmonization of different survey data sets not a priori designed as comparable. However, very few scholars systematically examine the impact of the survey data quality on substantive results. We argue that the variation in source data, especially deviations from standards of survey documentation, data processing, and computer files—proposed by methodologists of Total Survey Error, Survey Quality Monitoring, and Fitness for Intended Use—is important for analyzing protest behavior. In particular, we apply the Survey Data Recycling framework to investigate the extent to which indicators of attending demonstrations and signing petitions in 1,184 national survey projects are associated with measures of data quality, controlling for variability in the questionnaire items. We demonstrate that the null hypothesis of no impact of measures of survey quality on indicators of protest participation must be rejected. Measures of survey documentation, data processing, and computer records, taken together, explain over 5% of the intersurvey variance in the proportions of the populations attending demonstrations or signing petitions.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021623
       
  • Family Resemblances: Remnants of Populism in Portuguese 2017 Regional
           Elections

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      Authors: Mafalda Eiró-Gomes, Ana Raposo
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In September of 2017 during the Portuguese regional elections, the mass media began reporting an emergence of a populist movement or, at least, started to label one of the candidates as a populist leader. To understand this phenomenon and see if significant rhetorical aspects of populism were present in the candidate’s discourse as according to the media, we analyzed the four primary Portuguese newspapers. As a first, exploratory approach to the research question, we developed a quantitative content analysis. We found that the newspapers became resonance boxes, not only of this particular candidate but also from all Western society, underlining some of the main rhetorical aspects of the populist discourse used by the candidate.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:01:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211016521
       
  • When Good Cash Goes “BADs”: The Role of Bankers’ Acceptance Drafts
           as a Cash Substitute in China’s Economy

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      Authors: Dinny McMahon
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Bankers’ acceptance drafts (BADs) are transferrable promissory notes that are designed to facilitate trade and that circulate among firms much like large-denomination bank notes. They play an important role in facilitating sales between industrial companies in China, particularly during straitened economic times. They have also been used to commit widescale fraud as bankers took advantage of the lack of insight regulators had into BADs’ circulation. However, BADs’ true value is as a tool that banks—and, to a lesser extent, companies—have repeatedly used to meet the often contradictory demands made of them by Beijing as it regulates the economy. In the years after the 2008 stimulus, banks used BADs to harvest deposits (companies must place a portion of the face value of a BAD issued on their behalf on deposit at the issuing bank), allowing them to meet strict loan-to-deposit ratios even as the practice resulted in ballooning off-balance-sheet credit creation. When Beijing cracked down on local government borrowing, some local governments got around the strictures by structuring BADs in creative ways that ensured ongoing access to funding. And starting in 2018, banks met Beijing’s demand that they reduce risk while increasing lending to small private companies—a group banks regard as the riskiest potential borrowers in the economy—by massively increasing their discounting of BADs, an approach that technically realized the competing demands but had none of the stimulatory effects Beijing had hoped for. This article will look at how BADs—and their counterpart, commercial acceptance drafts—give banks and state firms the flexibility to balance the political demands of the state with their own perceived interests. It will focus on how banks used BADs in 2018 and 2019 to deal with Beijing’s concerns about lack of funding for small private firms.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T06:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211020059
       
  • Protest as One Political Act in Individuals’ Participation Repertoires:
           Latent Class Analysis and Political Participant Types

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      Authors: Jennifer Oser
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study advances research on the role of protest in individual-level participation repertoires by examining how latent class analysis can be used to identify distinctive types of political participants. This methodological approach requires shifting researchers’ traditional theoretical and analytical focus on protest as a single political act to the ways in which political actors combine protest with other political behaviors. From a theoretical perspective, the study examines the increased salience of research on the causes and consequences of protest in the context of individuals’ broader participation repertoires. From a methodological perspective, an illustrative analysis is conducted using the 2016 American National Election Studies survey to test theoretical expectations about the relationship between protest and civic duty. The study concludes with a discussion of how latent class analysis can be used to advance research on protest as one political act in individuals’ broader repertories of political participation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T05:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021633
       
  • Innovative Methods in the Study of Protest: Editor’s Introduction

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      Authors: J. Craig Jenkins
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This special issue examines innovative methods in three areas of protest studies: (1) survey methodology and scaling, (2) the development and assessment of political event data, and (3) methods of contextual analysis. The articles provide new techniques and general methodologies for improving the quality of data that we have about protest, especially in the comparative study of protest.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T05:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021641
       
  • Political Action, Protest, and the Functioning of Democratic Governance

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      Authors: Russell J. Dalton
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The current debate on the vitality of affluent democracies often cites the changing patterns of citizens’ political participation as signs of this malaise. Fewer citizens are voting, and more are turning toward contentious and more direct forms of participation. What are the consequences' I describe the participation patterns in affluent democracies and then consider whether these changes in citizen participation are linked to the quality of democratic performance. Some scholars see a more assertive public as overloading the political system or destroying collective views of politics. Others see contentious politics as giving citizens an additional and more effective method of influencing policymakers. The evidence on citizen participation comes from two waves of the International Social Survey Program. Measures of the functioning of government come from the Economist Intelligence Unit and the World Bank. The analyses show that a more active public is correlated with a better functioning government. Moreover, these relationships are stronger for protest and other forms of direct action than for voting in national elections. The results suggest that an assertive and elite-challenging public is more of a boon than a curse for democratic politics.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-05T05:41:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021624
       
  • Multilevel Analysis of Protest: Application for Small N Designs

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      Authors: Kateřina Vráblíková
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Protest is the result of complex multilevel processes. It is triggered by contextual factors such as political opportunities or events, it depends on organizations’ mobilizing capacity as well as on the type of people who protest, and it is shaped by the characteristics of the populations they come from. To effectively study the antecedents that operate at various levels, social movement research needs to integrate data from multiple analytical levels and systematically examine the relationships across the various levels. While large N statistical techniques of multilevel modelling are well understood, less is known about applying multilevel analysis research examining small number of cases. The article develops conceptual and methodological tools for multilevel analysis of protests in studies with a small number of cases. First, it demonstrates the empirical requirements associated with analyzing three types of multilevel effects: contextual effects, composition effects, and cross-level interactions. Next, specific multilevel small N designs that can be used to examine the three multilevel effects are presented. The last section uses the multilevel approach to examine the demobilization of anti-Iraq War protests in the United States.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-05T05:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021628
       
  • The Puzzle of Protest Policing Over Time: Historicizing Repression
           Research Using Temporal Moving Regressions

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      Authors: Heidi Reynolds-Stenson, Jennifer Earl
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Research attempting to predict repression, including the policing of protest, has tended to rely on pooled time series data, which statistically produces coefficients that estimate the average relationship between each variable and the outcome across the entire pooled time period. When relationships are very stable, this statistical assumption, referred to as temporal homogeneity, is unproblematic. But, when enforced without testing, it threatens to artificially “stabilize” temporally heterogenous relationships. In terms of protest policing, this has resulted in relatively ahistorical empirical explanations of protest policing. This article imports modeling techniques from work on identifying historical periods to show how temporal moving regressions can be built to recognize and model temporal heterogeneity in the factors influencing protest policing. We present three important uses for these models: testing exhaustively for temporal heterogeneity in apparently stable findings; testing for temporal heterogeneity that may reconcile otherwise contradictory findings; and inductively combining orthogonal research lines. We demonstrate the utility of each in examinations of protest policing. More generally, we show the potential of temporal moving regressions for uncovering new insights and bringing greater historical sensitivity to research on protest and beyond.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-05T05:39:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021642
       
  • Similar But Different: Constructing Equivalent Protest Measures in
           Comparative Research

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      Authors: Jan W. van Deth
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Protest emerges in different forms in different countries. A strategy is presented here to deal with country-specific forms of protest by developing equivalent instead of identical measures in 13 advanced democracies around the world. The main substantive results show, first, a clear distinction between direct forms of protest and organizational actions. Yet the specific compositions of these two modes differ between countries. Second, common cross-national subsets of items comprising only three forms for direct actions (demonstrating, petitioning, boycotting) and also for organizational protest (humanitarian/charitable, self-help, consumer organizations). Third, several forms of protest can be used as country-specific expansions of the common three-item sets. Apparently, constructing equivalent instead of identical measures for protest is most important for the detection of relatively small sets of common cross-national indicators and for the accompanying disclosure of country-specific forms of protest. Due to the small percentages of protesters, applying equivalent measures and identical measures of protest largely produces the same results for the positioning of countries from a cross-national perspective.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T08:46:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021646
       
  • New Data Sources and Presidential Campaigns

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      Authors: Efe Sevin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Social media has an undeniable role in presidential campaigns. Starting with Barack Obama’s first presidential campaign in 2008, on one hand, scholars and practitioners have embraced the potential and importance of these platforms. The 2016 presidential elections, on the other hand, raised concerns about social media’s role in democratic processes as debates about how the platforms can sow misinformation have become mainstream. I argue that there has been a positive outcome of such debates: new data sources. Understanding their role—and their probable potential to do “harm”—social media platforms have worked toward increasing transparency in the political advertisements they carry. From Snapchat to Facebook, transparency reports share detailed information on how political groups, including presidential nominees, have utilized their platforms, targeted audiences, and disseminated calls-to-action. In this article, I argue that these transparency attempts will be invaluable data resources for political communication scholars to better explain how voter choice and candidate positioning work within digital media ecology. I answer four sample research questions about 2020 Presidential Elections in the United States to demonstrate the potential of these data sets in shedding light on how issues, identities, and time-relevant variables change political advertising in presidential campaigns.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T04:41:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021634
       
  • Protest Event Analysis: Developing a Semiautomated NLP Approach

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      Authors: Jasmine Lorenzini, Hanspeter Kriesi, Peter Makarov, Bruno Wüest
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Protest event analysis is a key method to study social movements, allowing to systematically analyze protest events over time and space. However, the manual coding of protest events is time-consuming and resource intensive. Recently, advances in automated approaches offer opportunities to code multiple sources and create large data sets that span many countries and years. However, too often the procedures used are not discussed in details and, therefore, researchers have a limited capacity to assess the validity and reliability of the data. In addition, many researchers highlighted biases associated with the study of protest events that are reported in the news. In this study, we ask how social scientists can build on electronic news databases and computational tools to create reliable PEA data that cover a large number of countries over a long period of time. We provide a detailed description our semiautomated approach and we offer an extensive discussion of potential biases associated with the study of protest events identified in international news sources.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T09:00:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211021650
       
  • The Chinese Economy From the Underside: Funny Money and Institutional
           Transformation in the Xi Jinping Era

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      Authors: Tom Cliff
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This special issue of American Behavioral Scientist examines the irregular transactions and informal institutions that constitute the essential underside of the Chinese economy. Contributors with a range of disciplinary backgrounds explore shadow banking, social welfare and rural development by private enterprise, NGO financing, the credit/debt cycle of informal international trade, and offshore investment by Chinese state-owned enterprises. The question posed by all contributors is as follows: How, in China through the 2010s, do irregular or nonlegal financial transactions influence political authority' Institutions, the rules and norms by which we live, are found to be key. This “Introduction” sketches the conceptual links between money, rules, and ruling in the context of the heightened authoritarianism and institutional formalization of the 2010s—the Xi Jinping era.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T08:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211020065
       
  • Institutional Articulation: Governance Between Family and State in Rural
           China

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      Authors: Tom Cliff
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses the money transformations and institutional frameworks that are central to highly successful and innovative, yet legally questionable, community welfare funds in Huagang (pseudonym), an industrialized township in Shandong. One of two aims is to address the question, “How do funny money transactions constitute, undermine, affirm, and/or modify political authority—and whose political authority'” The second aim is to contribute to the study of formation within the economy—“how an economy emerges in the first place, and grows and changes structurally over time”. Both are approached by detailing how the irregular or nonlegal financial transactions that underpin welfare provision by private enterprise in Huagang are made acceptable to local authority by institutional articulation at the village level. Institutional articulation involves registered community welfare funds being granted limited and contingent autonomy on the basis of their formalised exterior institutional face, but operating according to their informal interior institutional mechanisms. The detailed case study supports the argument of this special issue that the admixture of legitimate with illegitimate transactions is intrinsic to the operation of the formal economy in China. Institutional articulation and irregular financial transactions play key roles in innovation, structural change, and the production of political authority.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T08:59:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211020052
       
  • Emergent Political Norms in Local State–Private Enterprise Relations
           during China’s Big Push for Poverty Reduction

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      Authors: Lijie Fang, Bingqin Li, Tom Cliff
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In 2014, the Chinese government adopted a version of the controversial Big Push approach to poverty reduction, and augmented this once-discredited developmental narrative by enlisting very large private enterprises to operate in the poorest regions. Not without controversies, this approach and the resources associated with it has created new state-large business relations in China. This article studies four large enterprises and examines why they participated in poverty reduction, the resulting state–business relations and the outcomes of poverty reduction. The field research was conducted in 2018 through in depth interviews with company management and site visits. The findings show that the local state became collaborators of big businesses that were endorsed by the central government. Whether these relationships become formalised will depend on the future direction of poverty reduction. This research contributes to the literature on how state–business relations may initiate economic growth.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T08:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211020050
       
  • The Power of Money: Chinese Investments and Financialization in an Asian
           Hinterland

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      Authors: Hasan H. Karrar
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In February 2002, a Chinese State-Owned Enterprise (SOE), Sinotrans Xinjiang, partnered with a local Pakistani collective, the Silk Route Dry Port Trust, to finance and operate a dry port in mountainous north Pakistan. Given minimal overland trade between China and Pakistan, this was an unlikely place for investment by a subsidiary of one of China’s largest SOEs. Individuals who commanded extensive social networks and possessed local knowledge were instrumental in brokering the joint venture. Brokers both Chinese and Pakistani leveraged the implicit power of money to create a new institution, the dry port joint venture, that helped normalize the presence and operations of Chinese business leaders in north Pakistan. The joint venture also enabled Pakistani strongmen to exert their control over local land and draw funds from a public bank, activities that ultimately undermined the joint venture itself. This episode is more than just a cautionary tale of an unsuccessful joint venture between a Chinese SOE and local partners. The episode highlights how, in an epoch of transnational financialization, money empowered local leaders, public officials, and official organizations to engage in and indeed benefit from loss-making activities that combine both regular and irregular processes.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T05:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211020062
       
  • Funny Money or Legitimate Finance' Shadow Banking and Policy Impacts
           in China

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      Authors: Sara Hsu, Xun Han
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Government officials in China have taken different views regarding shadow banking. Some have seen the industry as overly risky, potentially undermining the formal financial system, while others have asserted that it is an increasingly important part of the financial system, filling a gap in finance provision to particular sectors and smaller firms. Do their views matter' Regulators have striven to crack down on the riskiest practices in shadow banking, but are the policies effective' In this article, we analyze the impact of government attitudes and actions on the shadow banking sector. Using a unique data set based on information collected from various sources in a difference-in-difference model, we find that shadow banking regulation plays a strong role in China’s financial sector, while contradictory government views (in the form of commentary in the People’s Daily) on shadow banking do not. This reveals that shadow banking is strongly affected by political authority when it is codified into regulation. Only some aspects of shadow banking can be legitimized through regulation, while the remainder of China’s financial system remains constrained due to state dominance over the financial sector. This underscores the “funny” nature of shadow banking’s money flows. This article is one of the first to study the effects of government views and regulations on the shadow banking system.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T06:04:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211020060
       
  • Funny Money Circulation and Fabric Exports From China to Dubai Through
           Indian Trading Networks

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      Authors: Ka-Kin Cheuk
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Chiefly drawing on my ethnographic fieldwork in the district of Keqiao in Zhejiang Province since 2009, I argue that irregular financial transactions—conceptualized as “funny money” in this article—play a significant role in the sustenance of otherwise tenuous business relations between Indian traders and Chinese suppliers in the China–Dubai fabric trade. Much of the fabric exported from Keqiao to Dubai relies on intertwined formal and informal transactions operated by Indian trading networks. These labyrinthine transnational funny money transactions aim to circumvent institutional hurdles and overcome deficiencies in operating capital, yet inherent to this system is a cycle of payment lags that cause tense relations between payers and payees. Funny money transactions facilitate eventual payment in most cases most of the time and maintain enough trust to keep the trade network alive. Furthermore, the interlocking circuits of funny money also prevent the overaccumulation of wealth and power by any particular stakeholder involved in the international trade and defy or at least circumvent the formal political authority of state and financial institutions that seek to curtail such practices. These transactions thereby create a larger space for business survival among the grassroots players, especially Indian traders who may not have enough capital available when they initiate a deal with a Chinese supplier.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T06:04:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211020056
       
  • Introduction: Mediated Realities of Election 2020

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      Authors: Gregory Payne
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T09:05:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211016568
       
  • Consumer Ethicality Perception and Legitimacy: Competitive Advantages in
           COVID-19 Crisis

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      Authors: Gregory Payne, Alicia Blanco-González, Giorgia Miotto, Cristina del-Castillo
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The article aims to analyze the cause–effect relationship between Brand Ethicality Perception (CPE), legitimacy and purchase intention during the COVID-19 first wave, taking into consideration the mediation effect of the country of residence. Data collection was based on a survey launched during the COVID-19 lockdown in Madrid and New York. To analyze the established hypotheses and to test the multigroup analysis, we applied a structural modelling with SmartPLS. The research contributes to the field of brand management, and specifically of ethical branding, since it will analyze how stakeholders’ expectations fulfillment is key to build a consistent and valued brand meaning in crisis’ situations, demonstrating that ethical behaviors are key for gaining corporate legitimacy and, therefore, for improving business performances.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T10:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211016515
       
  • The Transparency Challenge in Environmental Organizations: Factors
           Influencing Whether Institutions Collect and Reveal Diversity Data

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      Authors: Dorceta E. Taylor
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, diversity advocates have organized a national campaign aimed to get environmental organizations to reveal data on the demographic characteristics of their institutions publicly. Environmental organizations are urged to be more transparent and put their data on GuideStar (renamed Candid). Past research indicates that as of 2018, less than 4% of the organizations have done so. Still diversity and transparency campaigns focus on the disclosure of data on Candid. Despite the push to get environmental nonprofits to disclose their demographic data, scholars and diversity advocates have not investigated if and how organizations are collecting and revealing demographic and other types of diversity data. This article addresses this gap in our knowledge about the collection and disclosure of diversity data by environmental institutions. The article reports the findings of a national study of 516 environmental organizations that analyze the following questions: (a) To what extent do environmental nonprofits collect diversity data' (b) What kinds of diversity data do organizations collect' (c) Why do organizations collect or refrain from collecting diversity data' (d) Where do organizations disclose their diversity data if they collect any' The data reported here was collected in 2018. The study assessed if organizations collected data on 12 different diversity metrics. The study found that 31.4% of the nonprofits collected or tracked data on at least one metric. The nonprofits are also more likely collect data than to divulge them. That is, 25.8% of the organizations said they shared data on at least one diversity metric. The results show that a much higher percent of organizations collect and reveal data than are currently disclosing such data on Candid. The research also found that organizations are more likely to collect data on their boards than on their staff and the nonprofits are more likely to share diversity data with funders and their boards than any other kinds of external or internal sources. The findings suggest that in crafting diversity and transparency campaigns, more attention should be paid to the kinds of data that organizations do collect, as well as where and how they reveal such data.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T10:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013383
       
  • Introduction: Strategic Messaging in Election 2020

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      Authors: Gregory Payne
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-17T07:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211016569
       
  • Understanding Black, Asian, Latinx, and White College Students’ Views of
           

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      Authors: Dorceta E. Taylor
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Nature and landscapes are essential elements of American culture. Consequently, many scholars have examined the public’s perceptions of nature and landscapes. Some posit that Blacks are averse to wildlands and prefer urban settings. Despite the plethora of research, few studies investigate what comes to people’s minds when they contemplate nature. This study of 287 American college students examines what students think about when they reflect on nature. Furthermore, the study investigates whether there are significant racial/ethnic differences in the way students think about nature. The study also investigates how gender, social class, age, educational attainment, and academic interest are related to what students think about when they reflect on nature. Data presented here were collected in 2017 from a national sample of students who attend colleges and universities all over the country. The study used a purposive sampling technique to identify students in a variety of majors. The sample contains undergraduates and graduate students. It is composed of 102 Whites, 63 Asians, 62 Blacks, and 60 Latinx/other students. The study found that respondents from all racial backgrounds reported that they thought about urban landscapes when they contemplated nature. Though the racial differences were significant, the results show that ethnic minority students do not fixate on urban landscapes; less than half of the students of color said they thought about urban landscapes regularly when they thought about nature. Instead, more than 90% of the respondents thought about the wild, wilderness, and untamed lands regularly when they cogitated nature. Respondents were also much more likely to report that they thought about connectedness to nature rather than disconnection from it. This article found that the students’ educational attainment and parental/guardian education were significant in more multivariate models than other explanatory variables. The article urges researchers to investigate a broader range of explanatory variables in studies of this kind.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-14T07:08:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013403
       
  • Indigenous-Settler Climate Change Boundary Organizations Contending With
           U.S. Colonialism

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      Authors: Carla M. Dhillon
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Indigenous peoples who are taking actions on climate change issues have formed networks that are at the intersect between Indigenous knowledges and various environmental science fields. These climate organizations work across many boundaries in science, politics, and culture. This article asks how large-scale U.S. climate boundary organizations that convene Indigenous and non-Indigenous climate practitioners contend with ongoing colonialism. Analysis indicates that Indigenous-settler networks offer avenues for Indigenous values to be practiced in collaborative climate science. Such organizations also provide limited opportunities to utilize climate science in tribal climate adaptation. While these boundary organizations aim to build meaningful cross-cultural and mentoring relationships, uneven power dynamics and resources also permeate the partnerships. These structural inequalities cause tensions to arise. Tensions further arise from uses of new terminology to navigate longstanding struggles over places, political sovereignties, and human relationships to natural worlds. I argue that a decolonial environmental framework discerns roles for Indigenous governance in attending to anthropogenic climate change. The approach broadens sociological understandings of climate change by examining the attempts of Indigenous and non-Indigenous actors to build climate networks.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-14T07:07:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013389
       
  • Examining the Relationship Between Racialized Poverty Segregation and
           Hazardous Industrial Facilities in the U.S. Over Time

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      Authors: Kerry Ard, Kevin Smiley
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars interested in understanding the unequal exposure to environmental harms by race and class have often relied on urban sociological theory. Specifically, the argument that the outmigration of middle-class Whites and African Americans from America’s industrial areas, as well as the decline in manufacturing employment in these communities, concentrated minority poverty around industrial sites. These nested, community-level, processes have not yet been measured as such in the environmental inequality literature. This article addresses this limitation by using spatial measures of poverty segregation between and within racial groups. Multilevel models are presented that examine how the density of industrial facilities is related to the economic health of a host-tract, the broader economic context of the county, and the level of poverty segregation (both within and between racial/ethnic groups). Results demonstrate that there is a spatial separation of the economic benefits and environmental harms across the United States, a pattern that has remained consistent over time.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T12:55:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013417
       
  • Mental Health, Social Support, and Active Coping in Nepali Earthquake
           Survivors

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      Authors: Claire Luce, Tara Leytham Powell, Youngmi Kim
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown a positive relationship between exposure to natural disasters and common disaster-related mental health disorders. However, much more can be done to fully examine how protective factors such as perceived social support or active coping strategies are related to mental health in the context of natural disasters. This study seeks to examine the relationship between mental disorders and active coping. The article also explores analyzes the moderating effect of perceived social support on mental health. Data were collected in August 2016 as part of a longitudinal study on a mental health and psychosocial intervention in postearthquake Nepal (n = 660). Our independent variables in this study were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The dependent variable was active coping. Perceived social support was tested as a potential moderating variable. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were run to examine the relationships between the three mental disorders and active coping. We also tested the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationships between the three mental disorders and active coping. Ordinary least square analyses found a statistically significant negative relationship between active coping and anxiety (B = −0.137, p < .001), depression (B = −0.116, p < .001), and posttraumatic stress symptoms (B = −0.065, p = .337), controlling for other factors. Perceived social support significantly moderated the associations between active coping and each mental disorder: anxiety (B = 0.012, p < .05), depression (B = 0.017, p < .05), and posttraumatic stress symptoms (B = 0.064, p < .05). Our findings suggest that perceived social support moderates the relationship between common mental disorders and active coping in Nepali earthquake survivors.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-10T10:36:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013406
       
  • Introduction

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      Authors: Dorceta E. Taylor
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-08T10:28:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211015530
       
  • Racial, Gender, and Age Dynamics in Michigan’s Urban and Rural Farmers
           Markets: Reducing Food Insecurity, and the Impacts of a Pandemic

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      Authors: Dorceta E. Taylor, Alliyah Lusuegro, Victoria Loong, Alexis Cambridge, Claire Nichols, Maeghen Goode, Ember McCoy, Socorro M. Daupan, M’Lis Bartlett, Erin Noel, Brayden Pollvogt
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In recent decades, the number of farmer’s markets has increased dramatically across the country. Though farmers markets have been described as White spaces, they can play important roles in reducing food insecurity. This is particularly true in Michigan where farmer’s markets were crucial collaborators in pioneering programs such as Double-Up Food Bucks that help low-income residents and people of color gain access to fresh, healthy, locally grown food. This article examines the questions: (1) What are the demographic characteristics of the farmers market managers, vendors, and customers and how do these influence market activities' (2) To what extent do farmers markets participate in programs aimed at reducing food insecurity' (3) To what extent do farmers markets serve low-income residents and people of color' and (4) How has the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19) affected the operations of farmers markets. This article discusses the findings of a 2020 study that examined the extent to which Michigan’s farmer’s markets served low-income customers and people of color and participated in food assistance programs. The study examined 79 farmers markets and found that 87.3% of the farmer’s market managers are White. On average, roughly 79% of the vendors of the markets are White and almost 18% are people of color. Most of the vendors in the markets participate in nutrition assistance programs. Market managers estimate that about 76% of their customers are White and about 23% are people of color. Farmers markets operated by people of color attract higher numbers of customers and vendors of color than those operated White market managers. Almost half of the farmer’s markets started operations later than usual in 2020 because of the pandemic. More than a third of the markets reported that their funding declined during the pandemic. Moreover, the number of vendors declined at two thirds of the markets and the number of customers dipped at more than 40% of the markets. On the other hand, the number of people requesting food assistance during the pandemic increased in more than half of the markets.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-08T10:27:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013387
       
  • Surviving a Shut-Off: U.S. Households at Greatest Risk of Utility
           Disconnections and How They Cope

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      Authors: Diana Hernández, Jennifer Laird
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This is the first known study to estimate household characteristics and coping behaviors associated with utility disconnections in the United States. We capitalize on a measure of disconnections available in the Residential Energy Consumption Survey that is administered by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Using the 2015 panel, we analyzed the prevalence of disconnection notices, disconnection of services, and related coping strategies, including: forgoing basic necessities, maintaining an unhealthy home temperature, and receiving energy assistance. Findings indicate that nearly 15% of U.S. households received a disconnection notice and 3%—more than three million households—experienced a service disconnection in 2015. Our results further demonstrate that more households resorted to forgoing basic necessities than maintaining an unhealthy temperature or receiving energy assistance, though many families used a combination of strategies to prevent or respond to the threat or experience of being disconnected. We discuss implications for future research on material hardships, survival strategies, and the health impacts of poverty.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-05-08T10:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013401
       
  • It’s Okay to Change Your Mind: You Do Not Need to Vote the Same Way
           Twice

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      Authors: Kenneth J. Levine
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Voters make their decisions based on several factors; however, cognitive dissonance and ego-involvement are two forces that work to keep voters’ choices consistent over time. Despite these internal pressures, there are times when a particular candidate has disappointed a voter to such an extent that the voter considers voting for a different candidate in the next election. 170 young voters were asked about their feelings of regret and their need for permission to change their minds and vote differently in a future election. Findings suggest that women and Democrats are more likely to need permission to change their votes than men and Republicans. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between regret and desire to change one’s vote with the need for permission to do so on election day. Lastly, the importance of having that permission will affect a voter’s feelings of obligation to cast a ballot for the same party. Open ended responses explore the idea of obligation versus making a change in more detail. Findings suggest that correct messaging about the ability one has to change one’s mind and also being granted permission to vote differently may be an effective campaign messaging strategy.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T06:43:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211009277
       
  • Exhibitions as Public Health Interventions: The University of Alabama
           Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society

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      Authors: Robert B. Riter, Kevin Bailey, Jeff Hirschy
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Can exhibitions of artifacts from the tobacco industry, its allies and critics, act as a public health intervention' The University of Alabama Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society is a curatorial and research center dedicated to the creation of exhibitions on the tobacco industry and its allies, the marketing of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and the efforts to counteract the use and promotion of cigarettes throughout the 20th century to the present day. Physical and digital exhibitions provide social and historical context to increase public understanding of a deadly product which, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, kills 1,300 Americans a day. Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society collects “communication artifacts” of the tobacco industry, from ubiquitous advertisements to subtler promotional efforts such as financial support for museums and other cultural institutions. This summary of the center’s work spotlights archives, curated and made public through exhibitions.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T10:35:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003136
       
  • Masks and Emasculation: Populist Crisis Rhetoric and the 2020 Presidential
           Election

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      Authors: Meredith Neville-Shepard
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay illustrates how Donald Trump engaged in what I call “populist crisis rhetoric” throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and coinciding 2020 U.S. presidential campaign cycle. By performing a critical rhetorical analysis of textual fragments surrounding how Trump addressed the preventative measure of mask-wearing, I show how he rejected the role of comforter-in-chief and instead opted for the role of victim-in-chief. Specifically, turning the bare face into a litmus test of Trump loyalism, his rhetoric suggested that masks threatened masculinity and functioned as a form of anti-choice bodily oppression.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T09:07:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211011223
       
  • Exhibitions as Public Health Interventions: The University of Alabama
           Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society

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      Authors: Robert B. Riter, Kevin Bailey, Jeff Hirschy
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Can exhibitions of artifacts from the tobacco industry, its allies and critics, act as a public health intervention' The University of Alabama Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society is a curatorial and research center dedicated to the creation of exhibitions on the tobacco industry and its allies, the marketing of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and the efforts to counteract the use and promotion of cigarettes throughout the 20th century to the present day (Blum, 1994, p. 8). Physical and digital exhibitions provide social and historical context to increase public understanding of a deadly product which, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, kills 1,300 Americans a day. University of Alabama Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society collects “communication artifacts” of the tobacco industry, from ubiquitous advertisements to subtler promotional efforts such as financial support for museums and other cultural institutions. This summary of the center’s work spotlights archives, curated and made public through exhibitions.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T10:03:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211010889
       
  • Exhibitions of Impact: Introducing the Special Issue

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      Authors: David Haldane Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The Exhibitions of Impact (EOI) special issue of American Behavioral Scientist consists of six articles from authors in communication studies and rhetoric, public health, medicine and bioethics, memory studies, and art therapy. Each article profiles some exhibition or memorial related to a pressing social issue, including gun violence, racist terrorism, domestic violence, religious fundamentalism, corporations selling harmful products, and how society treats those regarded as cognitively and behaviorally different. First, examples from today’s headlines show a global outcry over racist monuments and artifacts, and a global pandemic, which casts doubt on the future of exhibitions. Historical examples and explanatory concepts are introduced, with a focus on public exhibitions which issue suggestions or commands, brazenly or in more indirect ways. A look at medical and health exhibits makes explicit how exhibitions try to get us to do something while being informative. While summaries of each article show the topics are diverse, racism and health inequities emerge as underlying themes. After considering performative exhibits, there is a call for a bioethically informed exhibition studies, capable of navigating the wide variety of exhibits out there, and able to express allyship while troubleshooting urgent problems.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T05:10:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211009289
       
  • Democratic Disarray: Organizational Messaging Coherence and the Local
           Echoing Press During the 2020 Iowa Democratic Caucus

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      Authors: Eric C. Wiemer, Joshua M. Scacco, Brenda Berkelaar
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The Iowa caucuses are the inaugural event of the American presidential nomination process. When the state Democratic Party failed to report the 2020 caucus results in a timely manner and manage the consequences, the crisis situation threatened the legitimacy of the party and the integrity of the results. This research presents an in-depth case of the Iowa Democratic Party’s public communication response regarding an event described by the Des Moines Register as “hell” and a “results catastrophe.” Specifically, we were interested in how the Iowa Democratic Party responded to the crisis event and the extent to which the party organization was successful in disseminating favorable messaging about the caucus process to the local press. Drawing on organizational crisis management and echoing press perspectives, this analysis uses network and qualitative analytic approaches to assess message development, dissemination, and ultimately adoption. A local event with national implications presents a critical case in investigating how a political party, due to its institutional role in American elections and unique organizational structure, struggled to respond to the crisis.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T05:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211010887
       
  • Reasons Why the New Spanish Coalition Government Had to Adjust Its Foreign
           Affairs Policy Along Venezuela’s Political Position, the Sahara’s
           Conflict, and the Renewal of the U.S. Military Basis

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      Authors: Jordi Xuclà
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this article is to detect the lack of coincidence regarding foreign affairs in the electoral programs of the two members of the Spanish center-left coalition1. The main assumption of this article is that the Socialist Party maintains its foreign affairs program, while Unidas Podemos, the coalition partner, does not because it focuses its priorities on other areas of its political agenda at the sacrifice of foreign policy. This article explores the tensions and resignations experienced in the field of foreign policy by the two government partners. It also explains how both political forces had to revise their proposals in order to allow the formation of a new government. This article hypothesizes that the resignations have been greater by Unidas Podemos, and that the Socialist Party has been able to maintain the core of its doctrine on foreign policy, security, and defense. The main challenge that this government will face in the upcoming months is the enlargement of the agreement between Spain and the United States regarding the establishment of the U.S. Army at the Spanish military bases of Rota and Morón. Regarding the methodology, we analyzed the top articles literature to compare the political action of several European coalition governments in developing its foreign affairs policy.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T04:42:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003142
       
  • Acknowledgements

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      Authors: David Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T09:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211009278
       
  • About the Authors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T05:07:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211007173
       
  • Cascading Crises: Society in the Age of COVID-19

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      Authors: Laura Robinson, Jeremy Schulz, Christopher Ball, Cara Chiaraluce, Matías Dodel, Jessica Francis, Kuo-Ting Huang, Elisha Johnston, Aneka Khilnani, Oliver Kleinmann, K. Hazel Kwon, Noah McClain, Yee Man Margaret Ng, Heloisa Pait, Massimo Ragnedda, Bianca C. Reisdorf, Maria Laura Ruiu, Cinthia Xavier da Silva, Juliana Maria Trammel, Øyvind N. Wiborg, Apryl A. Williams
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The tsunami of change triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed society in a series of cascading crises. Unlike disasters that are more temporarily and spatially bounded, the pandemic has continued to expand across time and space for over a year, leaving an unusually broad range of second-order and third-order harms in its wake. Globally, the unusual conditions of the pandemic—unlike other crises—have impacted almost every facet of our lives. The pandemic has deepened existing inequalities and created new vulnerabilities related to social isolation, incarceration, involuntary exclusion from the labor market, diminished economic opportunity, life-and-death risk in the workplace, and a host of emergent digital, emotional, and economic divides. In tandem, many less advantaged individuals and groups have suffered disproportionate hardship related to the pandemic in the form of fear and anxiety, exposure to misinformation, and the effects of the politicization of the crisis. Many of these phenomena will have a long tail that we are only beginning to understand. Nonetheless, the research also offers evidence of resilience on several fronts including nimble organizational response, emergent communication practices, spontaneous solidarity, and the power of hope. While we do not know what the post COVID-19 world will look like, the scholarship here tells us that the virus has not exhausted society’s adaptive potential.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T08:17:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003156
       
  • The Politics of a Memory Wound: Norwegian Exceptionalism and the Trauma of
           July 22, 2011

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      Authors: E. Johanna Hartelius, Kaitlyn E. Haynal
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Following the July 22, 2011, Oslo bombing and shootings at the Utøya youth camp Norway became embroiled in a conflict over commemorative ethics. The memorial initially selected in an international contest, Memory Wound by Jonas Dahlgren, drew opposition from victims’ families and local residents for its severe impact on the natural landscape. Plans for installation were cancelled in 2017. This controversy, we submit, must be contextualized in relation to the Norwegian justice system’s handling of Anders Breivik, the perpetrator whose criminal proceedings were kept relatively secluded. We demonstrate how the design of Memory Wound and the suppression of Breivik’s publicity reflect a symbolic logic traceable to a national imaginary of Norwegian exceptionalism. By interpretively aligning the use of negative space in Memory Wound with the muting of Breivik as a media event, we investigate the prescriptive force of symbols to inculcate world views. Specifically, we attend to the foreclosure of “prosthetic memory,” which through media circulation allows people to engage with memory that is not primarily theirs. We acknowledge the possibility of empathy across difference that Landsberg ascribes to prosthetic memory; however, we insist that the circumstances under which solidarity might be rejected must be considered. With a dual case study, we offer a perspective on enduring assumptions about cultural identity and the rise of rightwing extremism in Northern Europe.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T08:17:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003131
       
  • The COVID Connection: Pandemic Anxiety, COVID-19 Comprehension, and
           Digital Confidence

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      Authors: Laura Robinson, Jeremy Schulz, Øyvind N. Wiborg, Elisha Johnston
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents logistic models examining how pandemic anxiety and COVID-19 comprehension vary with digital confidence among adults in the United States during the first wave of the pandemic. As we demonstrate statistically with a nationally representative data set, the digitally confident have lower probability of experiencing physical manifestations of pandemic anxiety and higher probability of adequately comprehending critical information on COVID-19. The effects of digital confidence on both pandemic anxiety and COVID-19 comprehension persist, even after a broad range of potentially confounding factors are taken into account, including sociodemographic factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, metropolitan status, and partner status. They also remain discernable after the introduction of general anxiety, as well as income and education. These results offer evidence that the digitally disadvantaged experience greater vulnerability to the secondary effects of the pandemic in the form of increased somatized stress and decreased COVID-19 comprehension. Going forward, future research and policy must make an effort to address digital confidence and digital inequality writ large as crucial factors mediating individuals’ responses to the pandemic and future crises.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:46:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003155
       
  • An Unequal Pandemic: Vulnerability and COVID-19

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      Authors: Laura Robinson, Jeremy Schulz, Massimo Ragnedda, Heloisa Pait, K. Hazel Kwon, Aneka Khilnani
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This collection sheds light on the cascading crises engendered by COVID-19 on many aspects of society from the economic to the digital. This issue of the American Behavioral Scientist brings together scholarship examining the various ways in which many vulnerable populations are bearing a disproportionate share of the costs of COVID-19. As the articles bring to light, the unequal effects of the pandemic are reverberating along preexisting fault lines and creating new ones. In the economic realm, the rental market emerges during the pandemic as an economic arena of heightened socio-spatial and racial/ethnic disparities. Financial markets are another domain where market mechanisms mask the exploitative relationships between the economically vulnerable and powerful actors. Turning to gender inequalities, across national contexts, women represent an increasingly vulnerable segment of the labor market as the pandemic piles on new burdens of remote schooling and caregiving despite a variety of policy initiatives. Moving from the economic to the digital domain, we see how people with disabilities employ social media to mitigate increased vulnerability stemming from COVID-19. Finally, the key effects of digital vulnerability are heightened because the digitally disadvantaged experience not only informational inequalities but also aggravated bodily manifestations of stress or anxiety related to the pandemic. Each article contributes to our understanding of the larger mosaic of inequality that is being exacerbated by the pandemic. By drawing connections between these different aspects of the social world and the effects of COVID-19, this issue of American Behavioral Scientist advances our understanding of the far-reaching ramifications of the pandemic on vulnerable members of society.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T11:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003141
       
  • The Silent Witness Project as Rhetorical Hybrid: Toward a Theory of
           Collective Mourning

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      Authors: Trischa Goodnow
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Public, visual displays, that aid in the mourning process and summon viewers into action, constitute a rhetorical hybrid that combines epideictic and deliberative rhetoric. This essay suggests a theory of collective mourning that seeks to explain the rhetorical import and function of these multimedia, public displays. The combination of form and content allows the critic to understand how the epideictic and deliberative function in this genre of discourse. After explaining the theory, a case study of the Silent Witness Project follows.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T10:23:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003135
       
  • Europe Abhors Donald Trump: The Opinion on the 2020 U.S. Presidential
           Elections and Their Candidates in the European Newspapers

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      Authors: Marçal Sintes-Olivella, Pere Franch, Elena Yeste-Piquer, Klaus Zilles
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      What is the opinion held by the European press on the U.S. election campaign and the candidates running for president' What are the predominant issues that attract the attention of European print media' Does Europe detest Donald Trump' The objective of the present study is to analyze the perception European commentators had of the 2020 race for the White House. The media, the audience, and European governments were captivated more than ever before by how the U.S. election campaign unfolded, fixing their gaze on the contest between Donald Trump and Joe Biden. Through a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology, a combination of content analysis and the application of framing theory (hitherto scarcely applied to opinion pieces), our research centers on exploring the views, opinions, and analyses published in eight leading newspapers from four European countries (France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom) as expressed in their editorials and opinion articles. This study observes how the televised presidential debates were commented on, interpreted, and assessed by commentators from the eight newspapers we selected. The goal was to identify the common issues and frames that affected European public opinion on the U.S. presidential campaign and the aspirants to the White House.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T09:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211005534
       
  • Sophisticated Hate Stratagems: Unpacking the Era of Distrust

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      Authors: Rita Kirk, Dan Schill
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past decade, the rise of political extremism and its associated linguistic expression resulted in communication companies’ decisions to restrict hate speech and, in many cases, ban speech emanating from specific users. Before we attempt to regulate expression per se—whether through “cancelling” expression, “deplatforming” speakers through suspensions or platform restrictions, rewriting social media terms of service, or criminalizing harmful speech—we should seek a clearer understanding of how hate appeals are used to accomplish particular communication purposes. In this analysis, we analyze hate speech as a stratagem—an artifice or trick of war—used with great effect during the 2020 election. Our concern is how this tactic is used to harm the body politic, reducing citizen ability to engage with divergent publics and points of view, and threatening democratic rule. Critically, we must understand how communication on social media platforms is being used to destabilize the communication environment and prevent the robust discussion of ideas in a public forum, a prerequisite for democratic governance.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T09:01:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211005002
       
  • A Flea’s Tumescence: Alan Blum, MD, on Exhibitions, Activism, Irony,
           and Collaboration

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      Authors: David Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In November 2020, I spoke with Alan Blum, MD, scholar, collector, curator, exhibitor, activist, and director of the University of Alabama Center for the Study of Tobacco and Society (CSTS). He has been creating tobacco-themed exhibitions since the 1980s—in brick-and-mortar as well as digital settings—based on a prodigious collection of tobacco-related artifacts. Before joining CSTS, as founder of Doctors Ought to Care, a national organization of concerned and outspoken physicians, Blum satirized and protested at tobacco industry–sponsored events. In addition to being an avid museumgoer, he closely follows the tobacco industry’s sponsorship of museums and exhibitions. This article contains excerpts from our interview, with Blum addressing the dynamism of tobacco marketing, the irony of CSTS exhibitions, his recollections of past exhibitions, and what he regards as the complicity of other industries and professions. Be advised that the exhibitions Blum curates and the views he expresses “may be hazardous to people’s preconceptions.”
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T09:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003160
       
  • More Than Politics: How Personality Trait and Media Technology Use Affect
           Vote Likelihood During the 2020 U.S. Presidential Election

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      Authors: Bu Zhong, Tao Sun, Sydney Forde, Gregory Payne
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Considerable work has been devoted to studying voter behavior in U.S. presidential elections by analyzing their political participation and attitude toward political advertising. Less is known about how other factors may alter voter behavior like personality traits and use of information and communication technology (ICT). This study analyzes vote likelihood among American young voters and their parents (N = 674) after they watched four presidential campaign commercials . It proposes a hierarchical mediation model highlighting the need for cognition (NFC) impact on vote likelihood through the mediation of power use of ICT applications, political participation and trust in negative advertising. This study has revealed both the direct effect of NFC on vote likelihood, and the indirect relationship between NFC and vote likelihood that is mediated by power use of ICT applications. The findings should enrich the literature of vote likelihood by highlighting the effects of need for cognition and ICT usage.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T08:59:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003143
       
  • Sculpting Expression: A Creative Arts Therapy Exhibition

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      Authors: Ashley Hartman, Paige Owings
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Exhibitions have the potential to affect the lives of visitors and the artists themselves. This article considers the potential influence of exhibitions as a culminating factor in creative arts therapy experiences for young adults with autism. It explores the therapeutic potential of using the gallery as a space for change as well as to enhance socially inclusive experiences for the participating artists. Findings from this study suggest that participating in an exhibition as a final component of creative arts therapy sessions may enhance the therapeutic benefits for client-artists with autism and may influence the perception of visitors.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-30T11:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003154
       
  • The Dual Meanings of Artifacts: Public Culture, Food, and Government in
           the “What’s Cooking, Uncle Sam'” Exhibition

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      Authors: Elizabeth A. Petre, David Haldane Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In 2011, “What’s Cooking, Uncle Sam' The Government’s Effect on the American Diet” (WCUS) was exhibited at the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery of the National Archives Building in Washington, DC. Afterward, it toured the country, visiting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) David J. Sencer Museum in Atlanta, the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, and the Kansas Museum of History in Topeka. The exhibition website states that WCUS was “made possible” by candy corporation Mars, Incorporated. WCUS featured over a 100 artifacts tracing “the Government’s effect on what Americans eat.” Divided into four thematic sections (Farm, Factory, Kitchen, and Table), WCUS moves from agrarianism, through industrial food production and into mess halls, cafeterias, and individual kitchens. Photos, documents, news clippings, and colorful propaganda posters portray the government as a benevolent supporter of agriculture, feeder of soldiers and children, and protector of consumer health and safety. Visitors are positioned as citizens in an ideological mélange of paternalism and patriotism. In this rhetorical walk-through of the exhibition, we consider the display of archival materials for purposes of positioning, in consideration of past and present issues of diet and governance. Making explicit unstated assumptions, we claim that, although propagandistic artifacts take on different meanings to those viewing them decades later as memorabilia, they maintain their ideological flavor.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T11:34:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003150
       
  • The Influence of Political Actors in the Digital Public Debate on Twitter
           About the Negotiations for the Formation of the Government in Spain

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      Authors: Andreu Casero-Ripollés, Laura Alonso-Muñoz, Silvia Marcos-García
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Social media has introduced new parameters that can potentially transform the digital political conversation. Traditionally, in the age of mass communication, public debate was dominated by politicians and journalists. However, digital platforms, primarily Twitter, have allowed other social actors to join the political discussion, trying to influence it. The objective of this research is to establish what factors enable the authority and digital influence of political actors in the public debate on Twitter. We use a big data sample of 127.3 million tweets from the negotiation process around the formation of the Government in Spain. The applied methodology is based on social network analysis and machine learning. The results show that ideology, political initiative, and political career are configured as factors capable of conditioning the authority and influence of political actors in the political conversation on Twitter.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T11:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003159
       
  • Persona and the Modern Republican: Constituting and Deconstituting
           Republican Ideals in Two Republican Political Ads

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      Authors: Grant Cos, Babak Elahi
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Ronald Reagan’s iconic, 1984 advertisement, “Morning in America,” has served as an ideological pole star for Republican identity for the past four decades. More recently, the political action committee, The Lincoln Project, a group of ex-Republicans, produced a number of ads highly critical of President Donald Trump’s administration. One specific ad, “Mourning in America,” uses the form of the original 1984 ad to communicate a set of radically different ideas from the original. This article fuses Black’s second persona and Wander’s third persona to Charland’s idea of constitutive rhetoric to explore how “Morning in America” constitutes a Republican identity via a matrimonial symbolism that connects candidate to a gauzy, constructed community and imagined culture. We argue that the Lincoln Project’s “Mourning in America” deconstitutes the very ideals promulgated in the original ad through a stark funereal symbolism. The implications of this symbolism on the Republican identity are discussed in the conclusion.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T11:32:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003147
       
  • Piercing the Pandemic Social Bubble: Disability and Social Media Use About
           COVID-19

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      Authors: Kerry Dobransky, Eszter Hargittai
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing stay-at-home orders caused tremendous restrictions in social contacts, which led to increasing use of the internet for daily tasks and social interactions. As prior research has established, people with disabilities (PWD) had already been using the internet for such purposes prior to the pandemic, especially for health-related content. Through a national survey administered during the first few weeks of the pandemic in the United States, we explore how people with and without disabilities used social media to exchange information and engage in activities about COVID-19. Findings reveal that PWD were more engaged with information about COVID-19 than those without disabilities, even when controlling for sociodemographics and internet experiences and skills. These differences are especially pronounced concerning more active engagement such as sharing information, interacting, and supporting others on social media. Although the content is about a health crisis in which PWD are disproportionately vulnerable, these effects largely remain when we enter controls for health status, belonging to high-risk groups for COVID-19, and personal experiences with COVID-19. Findings highlight the benefits of universal design, both for PWD specifically, and for society more broadly, as the general population ramps up use of tools long fought for and used by PWD.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T11:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003146
       
  • The Rhetorical Impact of the Scopes Trial’s Interconnected Public
           Memory Places

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      Authors: Emma Frances Bloomfield
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In 1925, the Scopes Trial, one of the first legal battles over teaching evolution in public schools, was held in Dayton, Tennessee. Dayton commemorates the trial with a trinity of sites: The Scopes Trial Museum, the Scopes Trial Trail, and Bryan College. I argue that the trail connects the two other public memory places physically and symbolically, inviting visitors to follow the journey of William Jennings Bryan’s death at the Scopes Trial Museum to a rebirth of creationism at Bryan College. This inquiry attends to the influence of creationist messages at historical landmarks in shaping public understanding of the past. Furthermore, I explore how a museum experience can be felt across multiple memory places to elicit subject positions in visitors.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T11:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003158
       
  • Evolving Exhibits: Struggles Over Public Memory in Developing “The
           Willowbrook Mile”

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      Authors: John A. Lynch
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In 2016, the College of Staten Island held a groundbreaking ceremony for the Willowbrook Mile, a walking path across the campuses of the college and the Office of Persons with Developmental Disabilities’ Institute for Basic Research that would document the history of the notorious Willowbrook School. The Willowbrook School was a state institution for the developmentally disabled that was closed in part because of an expose about the School’s horrific conditions. It took more than a decade for the groundbreaking to occur, and 4 years later, the Mile remains unbuilt. This article traces the development process by examining planning documents and recollections of key participants at the groundbreaking and makes two findings about the development and evolution of memory exhibits. First, the Mile’s slow process reflects that public memory is a contest of identity and difference. Memorializing Willowbrook pits vernacular memory of activists and laypeople committed to social justice for the developmentally disabled against an official public memory that deflects attention away from the state’s role in maintaining the Willowbrook School. Second, the competition between official and vernacular memory led to a both-and compromise where official and vernacular memory appear equally. This compromise appears to be untenable for many involved, leading to continued development delays after the Mile’s groundbreaking. This analysis not only traces the conflict between official and vernacular memory of Willowbrook, but how conflict creates new proposals for memory even as their development remains impeded.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T11:38:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003151
       
  • Tied Infections: How Social Connectedness to Other COVID-19 Patients
           Influences Illness Severity

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      Authors: Xuewen Yan, Tianyao Qu, Nathan Sperber, Jinyuan Lu, Mengzhen Fan, Benjamin Cornwell
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Expanding on recent research on the transmission of COVID-19 via social networks, this article argues that exposure to familial and other close contacts who already have the disease may increase the severity of one’s subsequent illness. We hypothesize that having family members or close contacts who were diagnosed with COVID-19 before one’s own diagnosis exacerbates illness severity due to several potential mechanisms including changes in available social support access, increased stress and strain, and increased viral load due to the nature of one’s exposure to the novel coronavirus. We analyze administrative data of all 417 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Chinese city of Shenzhen between January 8 and February 25, 2020. Our analyses show that, when patients had family members or close ties diagnosed with COVID-19, they experienced more severe illness. We also find that patients with infected family members or close contacts did not have significantly extended total illness duration, due to their reduced time to diagnosis. The implications of both findings are discussed.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T11:35:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003138
       
  • Backward and in Converse: Artful Political Communication; How the
           Biden/Harris Presidential Ticket Reverses the 2-for-1 Campaign

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      Authors: Danee Pye, Mary Anne Taylor
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article critically examines the visual and mediated communication of vice presidential candidate and now vice president, Kamala Harris, and Harris’s political surrogates leading up to the 2020 presidential election. As a launching point, we build on our 2016 election retrospective, where we analyzed “Hillary Through Time” and found that political women were not only primed to “take advantage of the democratization of visual rhetorical presentations” but also, political women could challenge normative coverage “through a mediated image of her own making.” Fast forward 4 years, we offer such agency through the visual communication of Kamala’s campaign-mediated image. Drawing from the philosophy of Susanne K. Langer, we argue that Kamala Harris intentionally advances “artful political communication” as a method for challenging gendered aesthetic tropes of political women; ultimately shifting the narrative of “2 for the price of 1” from deferential to empowered.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T11:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211000391
       
  • The “Parallel Pandemic” in the Context of China: The Spread of Rumors
           and Rumor-Corrections During COVID-19 in Chinese Social Media

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      Authors: Yunya Song, K. Hazel Kwon, Yin Lu, Yining Fan, Baiqi Li
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Although studies have investigated cyber-rumoring previous to the pandemic, little research has been undertaken to study rumors and rumor-corrections during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. Drawing on prior studies about how online stories become viral, this study will fill that gap by investigating the retransmission of COVID-19 rumors and corrective messages on Sina Weibo, the largest and most popular microblogging site in China. This study examines the impact of rumor types, content attributes (including frames, emotion, and rationality), and source characteristics (including follower size and source identity) to show how they affect the likelihood of a COVID-19 rumor and its correction being shared. By exploring the retransmission of rumors and their corrections in Chinese social media, this study will not only advance scholarly understanding but also reveal how corrective messages can be crafted to debunk cyber-rumors in particular cultural contexts.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T11:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003153
       
  • Profiting on Crisis: How Predatory Financial Investors Have Worsened
           Inequality in the Coronavirus Crisis

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      Authors: Megan Tobias Neely, Donna Carmichael
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      A once-in-a-century pandemic has sparked an unprecedented health and economic crisis. Less examined is how predatory financial investors have shaped the crisis and profited from it. We examine how U.S. shadow banks, such as private equity, venture capital, and hedge fund firms, have affected hardship and inequality during the crisis. First, we identify how these investors helped to hollow out the health care industry and disenfranchise the low-wage service sector, putting frontline workers at risk. We then outline how, as the downturn unfolds, shadow banks are shifting their investments in ways that profit on the misfortunes of frontline workers, vulnerable populations, and distressed industries. After the pandemic subsides and governments withdraw stimulus support, employment will likely remain insecure, many renters will face evictions, and entire economic sectors will need to rebuild. Shadow banks are planning accordingly to profit from the fallout of the crisis. We argue that this case reveals how financial investors accumulate capital through private and speculative investments that exploit vulnerabilities in the economic system during a time of crisis. To conclude, we consider the prospects for change and inequality over time.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T11:12:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003162
       
  • The COVID-19 Pandemic and the Rental Market: Evidence From Craigslist

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      Authors: John Kuk, Ariela Schachter, Jacob William Faber, Max Besbris
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Past research has demonstrated the racially and spatially uneven impacts of economic shocks and environmental disasters on various markets. In this article, we examine if and how the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic affected the market for rental housing in the 49 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Using a unique data set of new rental listings gathered from Craigslist and localized measures of the pandemic’s severity we find that, from mid-March to early June, local spread of COVID-19 is followed by reduced median and mean rent. However, this trend is driven by dropping rents for listings in Black, Latino, and diverse neighborhoods. Listings in majority White neighborhoods experience rent increases during this time. Our analyses make multiple contributions. First, we add to the burgeoning literature examining the rental market as a key site of perpetuating sociospatial inequality. Second, we demonstrate the utility of data gathered online for analyzing housing. And third, by reflecting on research that shows how past crises have increased sociospatial inequality and up-to-date work showing the racially and spatially unequal effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, we discuss some possible mechanisms by which the pandemic may be affecting the market for rental housing as well as implications for long-term trends.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T10:57:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003149
       
  • The Fine Line: Rural Justice, Public Health and Safety, and the
           Coronavirus Pandemic

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      Authors: Jennifer Sherman, Jennifer Schwartz
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we provide an early glimpse into how the issues of public health and safety played out in the rural United States during the coronavirus pandemic, focusing on Washington State. We utilize a combination of news articles and press releases, sheriff’s department Facebook posts, publicly available jail data, courtroom observations, in-depth interviews with those who have been held in rural jails, and interviews with rural law enforcement staff to explore this theme. As elected officials, rural sheriffs are beholden to populations that include many who are suspicious of science, liberal agendas, and anything that might threaten what they see as individual freedom. At the same time, they expect local law enforcement to employ punitive measures to control perceived criminal activity in their communities. These communities are often tightly knit, cohesive, and isolated, with high levels of social support both for community members and local leaders, including sheriffs and law enforcement. This complex social context often puts rural sheriffs and law enforcement officers in difficult positions. Given the multiple cross-pressures that rural justice systems faced in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, we explore the circumstances in which they attempted to protect and advocate for the health and safety of both their incarcerated and their nonincarcerated populations. We find that certain characteristics of rural communities both help and hinder local law enforcement in efforts to combat the virus, but these characteristics typically favor informal norms of social control to govern community health. Thus, rural sheriff’s departments repeatedly chose strategies that limited their abilities to protect populations from the disease, in favor of appearing tough on crime and supportive of personal liberty.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T10:55:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003144
       
  • The Gendered Politics of Pandemic Relief: Labor and Family Policies in
           Denmark, Germany, and the United States During COVID-19

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      Authors: Nino Bariola, Caitlyn Collins
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified families’ struggles to reconcile caregiving and employment, especially for working mothers. How have different countries reacted to these troubling circumstances' What policies have been implemented to alleviate the pernicious effects of the pandemic on gender and labor inequalities' We examine the policies offered in Denmark, Germany, and the United States, three countries that represent distinct welfare regimes. We find important differences among the policy solutions provided, but also in the “cultural infrastructures” that allow policies to work as intended, or not. In Denmark, a social-democratic welfare state, robust federal salary guarantee programs supplemented an already strong social safety net. The country was among the first to lock down and reorganize health care—and also among the first to reopen schools and child care facilities, acknowledging that parents’ employment depends on child care provisioning, especially for mothers. Germany, a corporatist regime, substantially expanded existing programs and provided generous subsidies. However, despite an ongoing official commitment to reduce gender inequality, the cultural legacy of a father breadwinner/mother caregiver family model meant that reopening child care facilities was not a first priority, which pushed many mothers out of paid work. In the U.S. liberal regime, private organizations—particularly in privileged economic sectors—are the ones primarily offering supports to working parents. Patchwork efforts at lockdown and reopening have meant a lengthy period of limbo for working families, with disastrous consequences for women, especially the most vulnerable. Among such varied “solutions” to the consequences of the pandemic, those of liberal regimes seem to be worsening inequalities. The unprecedented nature of the current pandemic recession suggests a need for scholars to gender the study of economic crises.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T10:52:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211003140
       
  • Closing the Knowledge Gap: How Issue Priming Before Presidential Debate
           Viewing Encourages Learning and Opinion Articulation

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      Authors: Freddie J. Jennings, Robert H. Wicks, Mitchell S. McKinney, Kate Kenski
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      One mechanism by which citizens learn about candidates and issues is through watching presidential debates. Some scholars have raised concerns that these events, however, disproportionately benefit those already high in political knowledge more so than others with lesser knowledge levels. We hypothesize that knowledge begets knowledge because it prompts a constructive cognitive process that results from elaboration and reflection. We test this hypothesis in an experiment that also considers whether issue priming could help mitigate the deficit that those lower in political sophistication have when viewing campaign events. Participants (N = 543) watched a 9-minute segment focusing on economic issues drawn from the first 2020 presidential debate between President Donald Trump and former Vice President Joseph Biden. Half of the participants were randomly assigned to an issue priming condition and viewed the debate segment after reading a narrative text on economic policy, and the other half read an unrelated text. The study presents a model that reveals the following: (a) cognitive elaboration mediates the relationship between prior political knowledge and learning from a campaign event, (b) providing citizens with background issue–related knowledge produces a similar elaborative effect as did preexisting political knowledge, and (c) participants demonstrate greater political opinion articulation following this enhanced elaboration leading to more learning. The implications for cultivating a knowledgeable democratic electorate are discussed.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T07:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211000398
       
  • A Functional Analysis of 2016 Nonpresidential Campaign Tweets

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      Authors: Kevin A. Stein, William Benoit
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      A functional analysis was conducted on 2016 candidate tweets in races for governor, U.S. Senate, and U.S. House. The 2016 presidential campaign left no doubt that Twitter has come of age as a campaign medium. Because this form of communication is relatively new, we know relatively little about it. Tweets and retweets combined used acclaims more than attacks. Tweets used more acclaims, and fewer attacks, than retweets. Incumbent candidates acclaimed more, and attacked less, than challengers. These campaign messages addressed character slightly more than policy. Tweets acclaimed more than they attacked when addressing general goals and ideals. Incumbents (compared with challengers) were more likely to acclaim, and less likely to attack, when discussing past deeds. With the exception of topic (about the same number of policy and character comments) these findings reflect other campaign message forms.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T10:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996770
       
  • Descriptive and Injunctive Incivility Norms in Political Campaigns:
           Differences Across Behavior Type, Candidate Gender, and Candidate Party
           Position

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      Authors: Ashley Muddiman, Lynzee Flores, Brandon Boyce
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Despite evidence that a majority of people in the United States say that they want more civil politics, candidates still use incivility strategically during campaigns. Distinguishing between descriptive and injunctive norms may help explain this apparent contradiction. This study presents an experiment conducted with participants recruited at 2020 Democratic Iowa Caucus rallies that tested whether (a) individuals differ in their descriptive and injunctive normative beliefs about a variety of uncivil behaviors and (b) candidate characteristics such as gender and insider/outsider status in a party influence respondents’ normative beliefs. Findings suggest that, while descriptive and injunctive norms align for some campaign behaviors, they do not for all behaviors, such as sharing false information and using insults. Additionally, men and women candidates, as well as political insider and outsider candidates, are expected to behave differently but are held to the same injunctively normative standard when uncivil behaviors are attributed to them. Future incivility researchers should continue investigating descriptive and injunctive norms to investigate whether voters dismiss descriptively common behaviors during campaigns, even if they perceive those behaviors as inappropriate and uncivil.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T09:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996775
       
  • Why Trump Lost and How' A Rhetorical Explanation

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      Authors: Roderick P. Hart
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Discovering why the 2020 election turned out as it did will, given the complexities of American politics, take considerable time. Discovering how Trump lost and how Biden won will take longer. This article presents an initial foray in the latter direction by subjecting the rhetoric of the campaign to computerized language analysis via the DICTION program. In doing so, this study is the most recent outgrowth of the Campaign Mapping Project, begun at the University of Texas in Austin in 1995 and designed to produce comparative rhetorical data about presidential campaigns from 1948 to the present. The argument being made here is that Donald Trump lost the election by making excessive use of what Richard Hofstadter calls the Paranoid Style. In addition, Trump made exaggerated claims about abstract and unprovable conspiracies, all of which seemed derivative to voters worried about their health and their jobs in 2020. Joe Biden, in contrast, stressed Commonality—the need for shared purpose during a dangerous and dispiriting time. Biden also spoke directly of and to the people, thereby taking a page out of Trump’s own 2016 playbook. In many ways, Donald Trump’s self-preoccupations made him blind to the needs of the electorate, a habit that developed over the course of his presidency and that ultimately cost him his job.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T10:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996760
       
  • Democratic Disarray: Organizational Messaging Coherence and the Local
           Echoing Press During the 2020 Iowa Democratic Caucus

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      Authors: Eric C. Wiemer, Joshua M. Scacco, Brenda Berkelaar
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The Iowa caucuses are the inaugural event of the American presidential nomination process. When the state Democratic Party failed to report the 2020 caucus results in a timely manner, researchers began to assess how party and press officials co-constructed the events. This research presents an in-depth case of the Iowa state and local Democratic Party’s public communication response regarding an event described by the Des Moines Register as “hell” and a “results catastrophe.” Specifically, we were interested in how the Iowa Democratic Party responded to the crisis event and the extent to which the party organization was successful in disseminating favorable messaging about the caucus process to the local press. Drawing on organizational crisis management and echoing press perspectives, this analysis uses network and qualitative analytic approaches to assess message development, dissemination, and ultimately adoption. A local event with national implications presents a critical case in investigating how a political party, due to its institutional role in American elections and unique organizational structure, struggled to respond to the crisis.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T09:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221992808
       
  • Presidential Television Advertisements: Testing Functional Theory in
           Mexico and the United States

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      Authors: Ulises Cruz Valencia, William Benoit
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study employs the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse to analyze the 2006 and 2012 presidential elections in Mexico. In the United States, the theory has been satisfactorily validated; nevertheless, in order to investigate the extent to which it can be generalized in other national contexts, this theory tested with Mexican television spots. Four out of seven subsamples were consistent with the predictions. The variations were mainly focused on the themes and incumbency related hypotheses. Themes regarding character were more frequent than policy themes. Candidates of the party in the government attacked more and acclaimed less than challenger candidates. Likewise, referring to past deeds, challengers acclaimed more and attacked less than the candidates from the government party. Apparently, these results are explained by the absence of a direct link between the candidates and the public office for which they compete.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T05:49:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764220978469
       
  • Conceptual and Methodological Considerations on Effort: An
           Interdisciplinary Approach

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      Authors: Jonas Radl, Luis Miller
      First page: 1447
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This introduction to the special issue “Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Effort” highlights the relevance of effort as a research object and pinpoints the potential of various approaches to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on this multifaceted phenomenon. Addressing three dimensions of research—on the measurement, determinants, and consequences of effort—the article also gives an overview of the collection of articles in the special issue. In terms of measurement, we distinguish between self-reported individual characteristics related to effort, on the one hand, and behavioral measures of effort referring to task performance on the other. Concerning determinants, we review the ways in which studies find incentives, personality characteristics, and family background to affect individual effort provisions. Finally, when it comes to consequences, we discuss effort as a source of legitimate entitlement to rewards, speaking to normative theories of justice, and effort as a driver of socioeconomic achievement, referencing debates about the respective benefits of cognitive and noncognitive skills. In concluding, the article distills selected lessons learned for future research on effort.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T09:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996792
       
  • The Difference Between Saying and Doing: Comparing Subjective and
           Objective Measures of Effort Among Fifth Graders

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      Authors: Paula Apascaritei, Simona Demel, Jonas Radl
      First page: 1457
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The first goal of this study is to examine the capacity of prominent survey-based effort proxies to predict real effort provision in children. Do children who “talk the talk” of hard work also “walk the walk” and make costly effort investments' The second goal is to assess how objective and subjective effort measures are related under two conditions: intrinsic (nonincentivized) motivation and extrinsic (incentivized) motivation. We measure objective “real” effort using three tasks and subjective self-reported effort using four psychological characteristics (conscientiousness, need for cognition, locus of control and delay of gratification) to understand to what extent material incentives affect the cognitive effort of children with different self-reported personalities. Data stem from real-effort experiments carried out with 420 fifth grade students from primary schools in Madrid, Spain. We find that some of the subjective and objective effort measures are positively correlated. Yet the power of personality to predict real effort is only moderate, but greater and more so in the extrinsic than the intrinsic motivation condition. In particular, need for cognition and conscientiousness are the most relevant correlates of objective effort. Overall, we find there is a big difference between saying and doing when it comes to exerting effort, and this difference is even larger when there are no direct material incentives in place to reward effort provision.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T10:17:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996772
       
  • Locus of Control and the Acknowledgment of Effort

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      Authors: Fernando Aguiar, María Álvarez, Luis Miller
      First page: 1480
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      What individual characteristics predict inequality acceptance' Previous literature has focused on economic and sociological determinants of accepting inequalities. Here, we present experimental evidence of one individual correlate of inequality acceptance: the personality trait known as locus of control. In our study, inequality is induced experimentally through the exogenous assignment to one of two experimental treatments. In one treatment, initial inequalities depend on individual performance in a previous real-effort task, that is, they are earned through effort, while in the other they are randomly determined. We report that people who show an internal locus of control (the belief that life’s outcomes are under one’s control) are significantly more likely to accept both arbitrary and effort-based inequalities, although they accept the latter more often.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T10:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996754
       
  • Anticipating Peer Ranking Causes Hormonal Adaptations That Benefit
           Cognitive Performance

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      Authors: Carsten K. W. De Dreu, Klarita Gërxhani, Arthur Schram
      First page: 1497
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Performance ranking is common across a range of professional and recreational domains. Even when it has no economic consequences but does order people in terms of their social standing, anticipating such performance ranking may affect how people feel and perform. We examined this possibility by asking human subjects to execute a simple cognitive task while anticipating their performance being ranked by an outside evaluator. We measured baseline and postperformance levels of testosterone and cortisol. We find that (1) anticipating performance ranking reduces testosterone and increases cortisol, (2) both these hormonal responses benefit cognitive performance, which explains why (3) anticipation of being ranked by a peer increases cognitive performance.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T10:03:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996749
       
  • Patience, Cognitive Abilities, and Cognitive Effort: Survey and
           Experimental Evidence From a Developing Country

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      Authors: Stefania Bortolotti, Thomas Dohmen, Hartmut Lehmann, Frauke Meyer, Norberto Pignatti, Karine Torosyan
      First page: 1512
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study sheds light on the relationship between cognition and patience by documenting that the correlation between cognitive abilities and delay discounting is weaker for the same group of individuals if choices are incentivized. This study conjectures that higher cognitive effort, which induces higher involvement of the cognitive system, moderates the relationship between patience and cognition. For 107 participants drawn from the adult population in Tbilisi, this study examines the relationship between various measures of cognitive ability and that of patience. Specifically, we consider the relationship between the Cognitive Reflection Test, a numeracy test, self-reported math ability measure, enumerators’ assessments, and incentivized and hypothetical trade-offs between smaller-sooner and larger-later payments.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T04:33:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996744
       
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: How Important
           Are Children’s Personality Characteristics'

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      Authors: Anne Christine Holtmann, Laura Menze, Heike Solga
      First page: 1531
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the role of a wide range of personality characteristics—such as the Big Five personality traits, self-esteem, goal pursuit/adjustment, social behavior, and educational aspirations—for the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in Germany, and compares their relative importance with that of cognitive skills. We use information on more than 8,000 students from the German National Educational Panel Study. We find that personality characteristics do not mediate the association between parents’ and children’s attainment of the university entrance qualification (the Abitur) by age 19/20. Only educational aspirations are a strong mediator for intergenerational educational transmission. A few personality characteristics moderate intergenerational educational transmission, and they do so in favor of children with high-educated parents either as Matthew effects or compensatory advantages. In contrast to personality characteristics, cognitive skills act as strong mediators, while moderation is rather weak when accounting for personality characteristics—but again, they work in favor of privileged children. Our German study reveals similarities but also differences compared with the mostly U.S.- and U.K.-based research and inspires to rethink the importance of personality characteristics and cognitive skills for intergenerational education attainment.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T10:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996779
       
  • Strive to Succeed' The Role of Persistence in the Process of
           Educational Attainment

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      Authors: Alberto Palacios-Abad
      First page: 1555
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the role of effort in the process of educational attainment. First, I analyze the impact of effort on future tertiary educational attainment. Then, I test two sociological theories that argue that effort transmits educational inequality across generations. According to the first theory, parental background shapes the effort that children exert in education-related activities. The second theory argues that the drivers of effort in this context are educational expectations. I use a variable for effort that is measured directly over the course of the Programme for International Student Assessment test. Using a longitudinal data set from Australia, I estimate different hierarchical and structural equations models. I find that the measure of effort is positively and significantly associated with the probability of having obtained a tertiary degree 10 years later. Furthermore, the results show partial support for the second theory but not for the first one.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T07:18:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996758
       
  • The (Unequal) Interplay Between Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills in Early
           Educational Attainment

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      Authors: Carlos J. Gil-Hernández
      First page: 1577
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Cognitive and noncognitive skills are key indicators of educational success and merit. However, even when accounting for inequalities in skill formation by family socioeconomic status (SES), a wide SES-gap in college enrolment remains. According to the compensatory advantage hypothesis, SES-gaps in educational transitions are largest among cognitively weak students, but little is known on mechanisms. It has long been argued that noncognitive traits such as effort and motivation might be at least as important as cognitive skills over the status-attainment process, and these skills might interact by being complements or substitutes. Thus, I test whether advantaged students substitute low cognitive skills in test scores by high returns to conscientiousness—rated by teachers— in the transition to academic secondary schools. I draw data from the German National Educational Panel Study to study a cohort of students from Grades 1 to 5, when early tracking is enforced. I estimate linear probability models with school fixed-effects and moderation. To account for measurement error, I also use composite latent skills across elementary education. I report three main findings: (a) High-SES students at the same level of cognitive and noncognitive skills than low-SES schoolmates are more likely to attend the academic track bridged to college; (b) in line with the compensatory hypothesis, these SES-inequalities are largest among low cognitive performers; (3) cognitively weak students from high-SES families get the highest educational returns to conscientiousness in comparison to high cognitive performers or low-SES peers, validating the skill substitution hypothesis. These findings challenge the liberal conception of merit as the sum of ability plus effort in assessing equal opportunity in education.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T10:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0002764221996764
       
 
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