Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 546, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 355, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
AERA Open
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2332-8584
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • The Forgotten 20%: Achievement and Growth in Rural Schools Across the
           Nation

    • Authors: Angela Johnson, Megan Kuhfeld, James Soland
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Leveraging achievement data measured in the fall and spring of kindergarten through eighth grade for 840,000 students attending 8,800 public schools, we report novel evidence on how achievement and growth patterns differ between rural and nonrural schools. Rural students start kindergarten slightly ahead of nonrural students but fall behind by middle school. The divergence is driven by larger summer losses for rural students. In both rural and nonrural schools, we provide additional evidence that Black–White achievement gaps widen during the school year. These findings highlight the importance of seasonal learning patterns in interpreting rural school performance.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T01:00:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211052046
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Nationally Representative Evidence on the Association Between Preschool
           and Executive Function Skills Throughout Elementary School

    • Authors: Michael Little
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Executive function skills are a set of cognitive processes that help individuals to engage in goal-directed behavior and have been linked to benefits in academic achievement and other learning-related outcomes. Recently, there has been interest in understanding how attending center-based preschool may relate to the development of executive function skills. This study used the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (n ~ 9,270) to examine the association between preschool attendance and executive function skills in each grade of elementary school. The results of the analysis suggest small initial associations of preschool attendance with some subdomains of executive function (working memory) but not others (cognitive flexibility). These associations are heterogenous based on preschool type (i.e., public vs. private). The longitudinal analysis revealed rapid attenuation of initially positive associations, but also some indications of so-called “sleeper effects” emerged in late elementary school for working memory. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T12:29:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211048399
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Unequal Civic Development' Vocational Tracking and Civic Outcomes in
           Germany

    • Authors: Corey Savage, Michael Becker, Jürgen Baumert
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Vocational education and training (VET) is a common form of upper secondary school tracking in countries around the world. There are ongoing debates regarding the effects of this differentiation on academic and labor market outcomes; however, evidence on civic outcomes is lacking. Using a unique cohort study in Germany (N = 2461) and a doubly robust weighting approach with a rich set of baseline covariates to address selection bias, we estimated the effects of VET (relative to academic upper secondary school) on political interest, internal political efficacy, and intent to vote across 15 years of late adolescence and early adulthood. We estimated negative effects of VET on these civic outcomes, particularly as participants grew older. Implications for future research and VET policy are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T01:52:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211045397
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Measuring Equity-Promoting Behaviors in Digital Teaching Simulations: A
           Topic Modeling Approach

    • Authors: Joshua Littenberg-Tobias, Elizabeth Borneman, Justin Reich
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) issues are urgent in education. We developed and evaluated a massive open online course (N = 963) with embedded equity simulations that attempted to equip educators with equity teaching practices. Applying a structural topic model (STM)—a type of natural language processing (NLP)—we examined how participants with different equity attitudes responded in simulations. Over a sequence of four simulations, the simulation behavior of participants with less equitable beliefs converged to be more similar with the simulated behavior of participants with more equitable beliefs (ES [effect size] = 1.08 SD). This finding was corroborated by overall changes in equity mindsets (ES = 0.88 SD) and changed in self-reported equity-promoting practices (ES = 0.32 SD). Digital simulations when combined with NLP offer a compelling approach to both teaching about DEI topics and formatively assessing learner behavior in large-scale learning environments.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T05:13:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211045685
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Disparities in Disruptions to Postsecondary Education Plans During the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Ran Liu
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This study examines disruptions to postsecondary education plans in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using nationally representative data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey from August 2020 through March 2021, we investigate the prevalence, forms, reasons, and disparities of education disruption across different sociodemographic groups. While nearly three in four households report education plan disruption, the forms and reasons are drastically different. Black and Latinx respondents are more likely to report plan cancellation, while Whites are more likely to report taking classes in different formats. Non-White groups are more likely to cancel plans due to health or financial concerns, while Whites are more likely to cancel plans due to concerns about changes to campus life. Results also reveal nuanced intersections of race, type of education plans, and household vulnerability in affecting education disruption, pointing to the necessity of well-targeted initiatives to address long-term consequences and resulting inequality.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T11:46:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211045400
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Linking Features of Structural and Process Quality Across the Landscape of
           Early Education and Care

    • Authors: Emily C. Hanno, Kathryn E. Gonzalez, Stephanie M. Jones, Nonie K. Lesaux
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Commonly regulated structural quality features, like educator education levels and group size, are thought to be foundational to the quality of children’s everyday experiences in early education and care settings. Yet little is known about how these features relate to the day-to-day interactions and activities that occur in these settings—or process quality features—across the landscape of early education and care. In this study, we examine the association between structural quality features and process quality features in a diverse sample of classrooms (n = 672) participating in a statewide study of early education and care. Using a permutation test approach, we found that group size and child-to-adult ratio were most consistently linked to children’s experiences but educator education, experience, and curriculum usage were largely unrelated. Implications of these findings for quality improvement initiatives are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T06:23:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211044519
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • A Blueprint for Scaling Tutoring and Mentoring Across Public Schools

    • Authors: Matthew A. Kraft, Grace T. Falken
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      In this thought experiment, we explore how to make access to individualized instruction and academic mentoring more equitable by taking tutoring to scale as a permanent feature of the U.S. public education system. We first synthesize the tutoring and mentoring literature and characterize the landscape of existing tutoring programs. We then outline a blueprint for integrating federally funded and locally delivered tutoring into the school day. High school students would serve as tutors/mentors in elementary schools via an elective class, college students in middle schools via federal work-study, and 2- and 4-year college graduates in high schools via AmeriCorps. We envision an incremental, demand-driven expansion process with priority given to high-needs schools. Our blueprint highlights a range of design tradeoffs, implementation challenges, and program costs. We estimate that targeted approaches to scaling school-wide tutoring nationally, such as focusing on K–8 Title I schools, would cost between $5 and $16 billion annually.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T04:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211042858
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Determinants of Dual Enrollment Access: A National Examination of
           Institutional Context and State Policies

    • Authors: George Spencer, Mónica Maldonado
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Despite considerable growth in rates of participation in recent years, concerns remain about disparities in access to dual enrollment programs. On one hand, there are questions regarding who has access, which students are most disadvantaged, and which schools fail to offer the opportunity at all' On the other hand, there has been little clarity about what helps to improve access—in particular, what is the role of state policies in this effort' Using nationally representative data sources, this study uses a multilevel approach to understand how dual enrollment participation varies at the level of states, schools, and students. The findings reveal that policy mandates are among the strongest predictors of dual enrollment participation. Furthermore, schools serving greater proportions of racially minoritized students are the least likely to offer dual enrollment, but within schools, students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds have a lower probability of participating relative to their more affluent peers.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T09:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211041628
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Egypt’s ICT Reform: Adoption Decisions and Perspectives of Secondary
           School Teachers During COVID-19

    • Authors: Alaa Badran, Lamiaa Eid, Hanan Abozaied, Noha Nagy
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This descriptive quantitative survey study explored the perspectives of 221 secondary school teachers from 19 Egyptian governorates on the ICT (information and communications technology) component of the 2017 education reform. Data were collected during the novel context and mandates dictated by the widespread COVID-19. The main indicators of teachers’ perspectives were adopted from Rogers’s diffusion of innovation theory, while their digital competencies were aligned with the levels of the UNESCO ICT Competency Framework. The study found that the majority of participants hold positive perspectives on the relative advantage of ICT integration, average perspectives on its complexity, and negative perspectives on its compatibility with Egypt’s education needs and main priorities. Findings further highlight the presence of multiple challenges that may affect teachers’ decision to adopt/reject the ICT reform, including the human and technological infrastructures as well as communication. The insights gained from this study may assist in understanding teachers’ level of persuasion, possible sources of social resistance, and need for effective capacity building.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-04T09:50:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211042866
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • If You Fund Them, Will They Come' Implications From a PhD Fellowship
           Program on Racial/Ethnic Student Diversity

    • Authors: Walter G. Ecton, Christopher T. Bennett, H. Kenny Nienhusser, Milagros Castillo-Montoya, Shaun M. Dougherty
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Prior research demonstrates the important role that financial considerations play in prospective students’ decision making when applying to and enrolling in graduate school. Racially/ethnically minoritized students, in particular, face persistent challenges during the graduate application and enrollment process. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we identify the effects of introducing a PhD fellowship on the composition of applicants and enrolling students in PhD programs at a large public university’s graduate school of education. Using administrative data from 9 years of applications, we use difference-in-differences and event study analyses to show that the fellowship increased the number of applicants overall, as well as the share of Black applicants and enrollees in impacted cohorts, with no significant effects on academic preparation. To better understand why and how a PhD fellowship might impact students’ application behaviors and experiences once in graduate school, we supplement our primary findings with survey responses from current PhD students at the graduate school of education.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T05:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211040485
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Student–Teacher Gender Matching and Academic Achievement

    • Authors: NaYoung Hwang, Brian Fitzpatrick
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Scholars have examined the effects of same-gender teachers on student achievement, but the findings are mixed. In this study, we use 7 years of administrative data from students in elementary and middle schools (i.e., Grades 3 through 8) in Indiana to test links between gender matching and student achievement. We find that female teachers are better at increasing both male and female students’ achievement than their male counterparts in elementary and middle schools. The positive effects of having female math teachers are particularly large for female students’ math achievement, but we do not find evidence for a positive gender matching effect in English language arts. In addition, contrary to popular speculation, boys do not exhibit higher academic achievement when they are assigned to male teachers. Our findings suggest that the effects of teacher gender on student learning vary by subject and gender, but the effect sizes are small.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T05:13:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211040058
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Impact of the Tennessee Voluntary Prekindergarten Program on Children’s
           Literacy, Language, and Mathematics Skills: Results From a
           Regression-Discontinuity Design

    • Authors: Georgine M. Pion, Mark W. Lipsey
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The Tennessee Voluntary Pre-K Program (TN-VPK) is statewide full-day program that gives priority to children from low-income families. A regression-discontinuity design with a statewide probability sample of 155 TN-VPK classrooms and 5,189 children participating across two pre-K cohorts found positive effects at kindergarten entry with the largest effects for literacy skills and the smallest for language skills. The results contribute to the growing body of regression-discontinuity studies of state and local pre-K programs and affirm the statewide generalizability of analogous prior findings from a more specialized subsample in the parent Tennessee Pre-K Study. Furthermore, the respective effect sizes compared favorably with those found in other regression-discontinuity studies of public pre-K on the same outcome measures, providing one index of the quality of the TN-VPK program.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T09:50:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211041353
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Immigration Arrests and Educational Impacts: Linking ICE Arrests to
           Declines in Achievement, Attendance, and School Climate and Safety in
           California

    • Authors: J. Jacob Kirksey, Carolyn Sattin-Bajaj
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      With increased tensions and political rhetoric surrounding immigration enforcement in the United States, schools are facing greater challenges in ensuring support for their students of immigrant and Latinx origin. This study examined the associations between county-level immigration arrests and academic achievement, absenteeism, and measures of school climate and safety for students in the California CORE districts. Using ordinary least squares regression analyses with year, grade, school, and student fixed effects, we found that immigration arrests corresponded to declines in academic achievement, attendance, and various measures of school climate and safety for Latinx students and Latinx students who were English learners. We also find small declines in measures of school climate and safety for students who ever received special education services via an Individualized Education Program. Associations were strongest for arrests that occurred during the Trump administration compared with those that occurred during the second term of the Obama administration. Policy implications are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-27T10:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211039787
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • A QuantCrit Analysis of Context, Discipline, Special Education, and
           Disproportionality

    • Authors: Rebecca A. Cruz, Saili S. Kulkarni, Allison R. Firestone
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Using a dis/ability critical race theory (DisCrit) and critical quantitative (QuantCrit) lens, we examine disproportionate application of exclusionary discipline on multiply marginalized youth, foregrounding systemic injustice and institutionalized racism. In doing so, we examined temporal-, student-, and school-level factors that may result in exclusion and othering (i.e., placing into special education and punishing with out-of-school suspensions) within one school district. We frame this study in DisCrit and QuantCrit frameworks to connect data-based decision making to sociocultural understandings of the ways in which schools use both special education and discipline to simultaneously provide and limit opportunities for different student groups. Results showed a complex interconnectedness between student sociodemographic labels (e.g., gender, race, and socioeconomic status) and factors associated with both special education identification and exclusionary discipline. Our findings suggest that quantitative studies lacking in-depth theoretical justification may perpetuate deficit understandings of the racialization of disability and intersections with exclusionary discipline.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T09:21:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211041354
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Estimating Test-Score Growth for Schools and Districts With a Gap Year in
           the Data

    • Authors: Ishtiaque Fazlul, Cory Koedel, Eric Parsons, Cheng Qian
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We evaluate the feasibility of estimating test-score growth for schools and districts with a gap year in test data. Our research design uses a simulated gap year in testing when a true test gap did not occur, which facilitates comparisons of district- and school-level growth estimates with and without a gap year. We find that growth estimates based on the full data and gap-year data are generally similar, establishing that useful growth measures can be constructed with a gap year in test data. Our findings apply most directly to testing disruptions that occur in the absence of other disruptions to the school system. They also provide insights about the test stoppage induced by COVID-19, although our work is just a first step toward producing informative school- and district-level growth measures from the pandemic period.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T09:19:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211041346
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Youth Critical Data Practices in the COVID-19 Multipandemic

    • Authors: Angela Calabrese Barton, Day Greenberg, Chandler Turner, Devon Riter, Melissa Perez, Tammy Tasker, Denise Jones, Leslie Rupert Herrenkohl, Elizabeth A. Davis
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This study investigates how youth from two cities in the United States engage in critical data practices as they learn about and take action in their lives and communities in relation to COVID-19 and its intersections with justice-related concerns. Guided by theories of critical data literacies and data justice, a historicized and future-oriented participatory methodological approach is used to center the lived lives and communities of participants through dialogic interviews and experience sampling method. Data were co-analyzed with participants using critical grounded theory. Findings illustrate how youth not only aimed to reveal the dynamic and human aspects of and relationships with data as they engage with/in the world as people who matter but also offered alternative infrastructures for counter data production and aggregation toward justice in the here and now and desired possible futures. Implications for studies of learning with/through data practices in everyday life in relation to issues of justice are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T07:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211041631
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Safety and Belonging in Immigrant-Serving Districts: Domains of Educator
           Practice in a Charged Political Landscape

    • Authors: Rebecca Lowenhaupt, Dafney Blanca Dabach, Ariana Mangual Figueroa
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Drawing from a context of reception framework, this article asks the following questions: How do educators describe issues of safety and belonging in the context of a charged immigration policy climate' What practices have educators developed to support immigrant-origin youth' And, what are the relationships between educators’ perceptions of safety and belonging and educator practices' We analyze educators’ survey responses administered across six school districts in different contexts across the United States, including the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. We synthesize four domains of educator practice: signaling affirmation, building shared knowledge and capacity, finding and mobilizing resources, and creating space for conversation. Through this work, we connect the domain of safety as a perennial theme to safety as a practice. We discuss the implications of this and the need for future work that critically analyzes educators’ practice in relation to immigrant-origin youth for more generative contexts—contexts of development, not merely reception.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T07:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211040084
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • A Model-Based Examination of Scale Effects in Student Evaluations of
           Teaching

    • Authors: Karyssa A. Courey, Michael D. Lee
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Student evaluations of teaching are widely used to assess instructors and courses. Using a model-based approach and Bayesian methods, we examine how the direction of the scale, labels on scales, and the number of options affect the ratings. We conduct a within-participants experiment in which respondents evaluate instructors and lectures using different scales. We find that people tend to give positive ratings, especially when using letter scales compared with number scales. Furthermore, people tend to use the end-points less often when a scale is presented in reverse. Our model-based analysis allows us to infer how the features of scales shift responses to higher or lower ratings and how they compress scale use to make end-point responses more or less likely. The model also makes predictions about equivalent ratings across scales, which we demonstrate using real-world evaluation data. Our study has implications for the design of scales and for their use in assessment.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T07:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211040083
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • How an Antiscience President and the COVID-19 Pandemic Altered the Career
           Trajectories of STEM PhD Students of Color

    • Authors: Ebony McGee, Yuan Fang, Yibin (Amanda) Ni, Thema Monroe-White
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      In this mixed-methods study, we performed content analysis on openended survey items to reveal primary themes related to how PhD students are responding to the Trump policies and the COVID-19 pandemic. In our data set, 40.7% of the respondents reported that their career plans have been affected by Trump’s antiscience policies, 54.5% by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study revealed three themes, which were (1) awareness of the reduced funding for STEM (science, engineering, technology, and mathematics) and higher education, (2) heightened awareness of and commitment to the pursuit of social and racial justice, (3) interest in seeking job opportunities abroad. The top three themes for the COVID-19 pandemic were (1) shifting graduation timelines and adjusting research to the virtual campus life; (2) losing jobs, concerning about hiring freezes and fewer job openings; and (3) reconsidering their place in a STEM field postpandemic, including a possible complete change in career plans; thoughts of leaving the country for international jobs.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-24T05:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211039217
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of Immigration Enforcement on School Engagement: Evidence From
           287(g) Programs in North Carolina

    • Authors: Laura Bellows
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      During the past 15 years, immigration enforcement increased dramatically in the U.S. interior. There is a growing recognition that immigration enforcement in the U.S. interior has spillover effects onto U.S. citizens. I examine the impacts of a type of partnership between Immigration and Customs Enforcement and local law enforcement, 287(g) programs, on school engagement within North Carolina. In North Carolina, nine counties were approved to establish 287(g) programs, and another 15 applied but were not approved to participate. I use a triple difference strategy in which I compare educational outcomes for different groups of students in these two sets of counties before and after activation of 287(g) programs between 2003/2004 and 2012/2013. I find that 287(g) programs decrease school engagement by decreasing attendance. This effect appears to be driven by increabes in chronic absenteeism (missing 15 or more days per year).
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-24T05:03:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211039467
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Disparities in Educational Access in the Time of COVID: Evidence From a
           Nationally Representative Panel of American Families

    • Authors: Shira K. Haderlein, Anna Rosefsky Saavedra, Morgan S. Polikoff, Daniel Silver, Amie Rapaport, Marshall Garland
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We use data collected between April 2020 and March 2021 from the Understanding America Survey, a nationally representative internet panel of approximately 1,450 households with school-age children, to document the access of American households to K–12 education during the COVID-19 crisis. We also explore disparities by parent race/ethnicity, income, urbanicity, partisanship, and grade level (i.e., elementary school vs. middle/high school). Results shed light on the vectors of inequality that occurred throughout the pandemic in access to technology, instruction, services (e.g., free and reduced-price meals), and in-person learning opportunities. Our work highlights the equity implications of the pandemic and suggests the importance of encouraging widespread in-person learning opportunities and attendance by the beginning of the 2021–2022 school year for addressing COVID-19’s educational effects.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-24T04:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211041350
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Boundary Matters: Uncovering the Hidden History of New York City’s
           School Subdistrict Lines

    • Authors: Judith Kafka, Cici Matheny
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This article traces the spatial history of New York City’s geographic school subdistrict boundaries throughout the 20th century, exploring the historical relationship between race, space, and schooling in New York City and beyond. It seeks to both make the case for studying the spatial history of within-district education boundaries and put the results of our historical mapping project into the public domain. Ultimately, we hope that researchers will use our data to explore their own questions about the history of New York City, its neighborhoods, and its schools, and that some may embark on similar boundary-mapping projects for other cities, counties, and school systems.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T05:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211038939
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Variability in Preschool CLASS Scores and Children’s School
           Readiness

    • Authors: Jennifer K. Finders, Adassa Budrevich, Robert J. Duncan, David J. Purpura, James Elicker, Sara A. Schmitt
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) is a widely administered measure of classroom quality that assesses teacher-child interactions in the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support. We use data from an evaluation of state-funded prekindergarten provided to 684 children from families with low incomes (Mage = 57.56 months, 48% female) to examine the extent to which CLASS scores vary over the course of an observational period within a single day and investigate whether this variability is related to children’s school readiness at the end of the preschool year, holding constant two additional measures of quality. Teacher-child interactions in all three domains were moderately stable. Mean Classroom Organization was positively related to math, and variability in Classroom Organization was negatively related to literacy. Mean Instructional Support was negatively associated with language. Findings have implications for programs that utilize the CLASS to make high-stakes decision and inform professional development.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T05:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211038938
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Associations Between Online Instruction in Lateral Reading Strategies and
           Fact-Checking COVID-19 News Among College Students

    • Authors: Jessica E. Brodsky, Patricia J. Brooks, Donna Scimeca, Peter Galati, Ralitsa Todorova, Michael Caulfield
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      College students, and adults in general, may find it hard to identify trustworthy information amid the proliferation of false news and misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic. In Fall 2020, college students (N = 221) in an online general education civics course were taught through asynchronous assignments how to use lateral reading strategies to fact-check online information. Students improved from pretest to posttest in the use of lateral reading to fact-check information; lateral reading was predicted by the number of assignments completed and students’ reading comprehension test scores. Students reported greater use, endorsement, and knowledge of Wikipedia at posttest, aligning with the curriculum’s emphasis on using Wikipedia to investigate information sources. Students also reported increased confidence in their ability to fact-check COVID-19 news. While confidence was related to perceived helpfulness of the assignments, it was only weakly associated with lateral reading. Findings support the effectiveness of the online curriculum for improving fact-checking.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T09:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211038937
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Bringing Transparency to Predictive Analytics: A Systematic Comparison of
           Predictive Modeling Methods in Higher Education

    • Authors: Kelli A. Bird, Benjamin L. Castleman, Zachary Mabel, Yifeng Song
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Colleges have increasingly turned to predictive analytics to target at-risk students for additional support. Most of the predictive analytic applications in higher education are proprietary, with private companies offering little transparency about their underlying models. We address this lack of transparency by systematically comparing two important dimensions: (1) different approaches to sample and variable construction and how these affect model accuracy and (2) how the selection of predictive modeling approaches, ranging from methods many institutional researchers would be familiar with to more complex machine learning methods, affects model performance and the stability of predicted scores. The relative ranking of students’ predicted probability of completing college varies substantially across modeling approaches. While we observe substantial gains in performance from models trained on a sample structured to represent the typical enrollment spells of students and with a robust set of predictors, we observe similar performance between the simplest and the most complex models.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T09:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211037630
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Development and Validation of the “Tübingen Inventory to Measure
           Teachers’ Profession-Specific Value Orientations” (TIVO)

    • Authors: Samuel Merk, Martin Drahmann, Colin Cramer
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Broadly understood, values represent orientation guidelines for daily action, thinking, and feeling. Thus, they affect teachers’ everyday work and are among their professional competencies. While general values and some single profession-specific values of teachers (e.g., responsibility) have already been investigated empirically, the current study aims to cover a broader range of profession-specific values by developing and validating the Tübingen Inventory to Measure Teachers’ Profession-Specific Value Orientations (TIVO), based on three independent studies with pre-service (Studies 1 and 2; N1 = 334, N2 = 239) and in-service teachers (N3 = 308). The results demonstrate that the TIVO is appropriate to assess four profession-specific values in a second-order model: caring, justice, responsibility, and truthfulness as first-order factors, with fairness as a second-order factor loading on the latter three first-order factors. The results from preregistered experiments and confirmatory factor analysis provide consistent evidence for the construct validity of the TIVO.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-07T07:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211033595
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Relationship Between Immigration Enforcement and Educational
           Attainment: The Role of Sanctuary Policies

    • Authors: Daniel Corral
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This study explores the association between sanctuary policies and the high school completion and college enrollment of Hispanic undocumented youth. Sanctuary policies, which city, county, and/or state governments implement, prohibit local political leaders and police officials from cooperating with federal immigration enforcement officers regarding the questioning, detention, and deportation of undocumented immigrants. This study uses data from the American Community Survey and applies a difference-in-differences design. On average, my preferred specification detected no association with high school completion or college enrollment. These findings suggest that although these policies may help counteract immigration enforcement, they may not reduce uncertainty enough to have a significant relationship with educational outcomes.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T10:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211037253
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • When the Kids Are Not Alright: School Counseling in the Time of COVID-19

    • Authors: Mandy Savitz-Romer, Heather T. Rowan-Kenyon, Tara P. Nicola, Emily Alexander, Stephanie Carroll
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The unprecedented arrival of COVID-19 upended the lives of American children with rapid shifts to remote and hybrid schooling and reduced access to school-based support. Growing concerns about threats to students’ mental health and decreased numbers of students transitioning to postsecondary education suggest access to school counselors is needed more than ever. Although previous research on school counselors finds they promote positive postsecondary, social emotional, and academic outcomes for students, further studies highlight the organizational constraints, such as an overemphasis on administrative duties and unclear role expectations, that hinder their work. Drawing on survey and focus group data, our mixed methods study documents school counselors’ experiences during the COVID-19 crisis, including the opportunities and constraints facing their practice. Findings suggest there should be a concerted effort to reduce the role ambiguity and conflict in counselors’ roles so they are better able to meet students’ increased needs.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-31T11:57:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211033600
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Race, School Discipline, and Magnet Schools

    • Authors: Karin Kitchens, NaLette Brodnax
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      School environment plays an important role in student outcomes. Increasingly, research has also highlighted the role school environment plays in the White–Black suspension gap. We test whether magnet schools reduce the White–Black suspension gap using data from Tulsa Public Schools. Using student-level and incident-level data from Tulsa, Oklahoma, we explore whether Black students receive exclusionary discipline at lower rates in magnet schools than in traditional schools compared with White students. Using matching techniques to minimize selection bias, we find that magnet schools in Tulsa are associated with a reduction in the racial suspension gap. In magnet schools in Tulsa, we do not find a racial gap in severity of incident or days assigned.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T06:22:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211033878
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Spending More or Spending Less' Institutional Expenditures and
           Staffing in the Free-College Era

    • Authors: Taylor K. Odle, Alex B. Monday
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      While research has documented outcomes for students served by promise programs, few studies have considered the behavior of institutions themselves in the promise era. A new source of revenue combined with larger and more diverse cohorts is likely to motivate changes in spending and staffing—decisions instrumental to student access and success. We employ complementary difference-in-differences and synthetic control strategies to estimate impacts of the first statewide promise program on these two outcomes. Findings suggest institutions diverted expenditures away from instruction, academic support, and institutional support toward greater institutional grant awards. We find no meaningful impact on staffing levels. While some institutional actions may further support the access and success goals of promise programs, the diversity of programs across the nation suggests not all may follow suit. This study should inform policy makers considering the full extent of outcomes of free-college programs and invigorate further research on institutional responses.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T06:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211034491
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • “It’s Created by a Community”: Local Context Mediating Districts’
           Approaches to Serving Immigrant and Refugee Newcomers

    • Authors: Megan Hopkins, Hayley Weddle, Peter Bjorklund, Ilana M. Umansky, Dafney Blanca Dabach
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Literature examining the context of reception reveals how various structural and cultural factors shape newcomers’ experiences, and thus their opportunities for integration. Fewer studies explore how school districts are situated in this broader context of reception, or how district policies and practices for newcomers are enabled or constrained by the local context. This study draws on a zones of mediation framework to examine how external forces mediated districts’ approaches to serving growing numbers of immigrant and refugee newcomers. Analysis of interviews with 57 stakeholders from across three districts revealed that the presence or absence of community-based support networks, as well as the extent to which local policies and perceptions emphasized inclusion, mediated districts’ programmatic approaches. Implications for district and community leaders are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-23T06:31:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211032234
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Bilingual Singaporean
           Children’s Leisure Reading

    • Authors: Baoqi Sun, Chin Ee Loh, Beth Ann O’Brien, Rita Elaine Silver
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Long-term school absences during pandemic lockdowns may result in learning gains and losses much like the summer reading loss, but little is known about the actual effects of such lockdowns. This mixed-methods study examined changes in reading enjoyment, amount and resources in three groups of bilingual children—English-Chinese, English-Malay, and English-Tamil speaking children—during the COVID-19 lockdown in Singapore. Results reveal a lockdown reading gap between children’s stronger language (English) and weaker language (Chinese/Malay/Tamil). Within each language, results show differential reading gains and losses for children who enjoyed and did not enjoy reading in print and digital formats. Children’s reading enjoyment before the lockdown, changes in reading enjoyment and print reading amount during the lockdown in English and Chinese/Malay were significantly correlated. Children preferred print reading over reading digitally both before and during the lockdown, and devices were underutilized for reading purposes.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-23T06:30:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211033871
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • COVID on Campus: Assessing the Impact of the Pandemic on Undocumented
           College Students

    • Authors: Laura E. Enriquez , William E. Rosales , Karina Chavarria, Martha Morales Hernandez, Mercedes Valadez
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This article examines the initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on undocumented college students. Deploying an ecological framework, we situate students’ experiences within their families, communities, and educational institutions. We draw on qualitative and quantitative survey responses from 1,067 undocumented students attending California 4-year universities. Qualitative findings show that immigration status exacerbated the negative economic effects of the pandemic, leading to severe financial strains that had cascading negative effects on undocumented students’ academics and health. Regression analyses confirm the strong association between students’ preexisting economic insecurity and negative effects of the pandemic. Legal vulnerability and family strains moderated this relationship, but campus environment had little effect.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T10:37:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211033576
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • “I’ll Be Right Behind You”: Native American Families, Land Debt, and
           College Affordability

    • Authors: Amanda R. Tachine, Nolan L. Cabrera
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Family connections are critical for Native student persistence, yet families’ voices are absent in research. Using an Indigenous-specific version of educational debt, land debt, we center familial perspectives by exploring the financial struggles among Native families as their students transition to a Predominately White Institution. Findings indicate that Indigenous families experienced fear and frustration surrounding college affordability and the financial aid process. Regardless, these Native families made extreme sacrifices in paying for college. These findings were contextualized within the economic conditions created by land theft from Indigenous peoples. Returning to land debt, we argue that institutions need to begin from a perspective of what is owed to Native peoples in their policy decisions. That is, such decisions should take account of the benefits historically accrued by institutions residing on forcibly taken Indigenous land, and then examine how that debt can be repaid by supporting Native students, families, and communities.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T10:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211025522
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Big Problem With Little Interruptions to Classroom Learning

    • Authors: Matthew A. Kraft, Manuel Monti-Nussbaum
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Narrative accounts of classroom instruction suggest that external interruptions, such as intercom announcements and visits from staff, are a regular occurrence in U.S. public schools. We study the frequency, nature, duration, and consequences of external interruptions in the Providence Public School District (PPSD) using original data from a district-wide survey and classroom observations. We estimate that a typical classroom in the PPSD is interrupted more than 2,000 times per year and that these interruptions and the disruptions they cause result in the loss of between 10 and 20 days of instructional time. Several findings suggest that there exists substantial scope for reducing interruptions. Administrators appear to systematically underestimate the frequency and negative consequences of interruptions. Furthermore, interruptions vary widely across schools and are largely caused by school staff. Schools might reduce disruptions to the learning environment by creating a culture that prioritizes instructional time, instituting better communication protocols, and addressing the challenges posed by student tardiness.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-13T05:51:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211028856
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Teacher’s Reasons for Trust and Distrust in Scientific Evidence:
           Reflecting a “Smart But Evil” Stereotype'

    • Authors: Tom Rosman, Samuel Merk
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We investigate in-service teachers’ reasons for trust and distrust in educational research compared to research in general. Building on previous research on a so-called “smart but evil” stereotype regarding educational researchers, three sets of confirmatory hypotheses were preregistered. First, we expected that teachers would emphasize expertise—as compared with benevolence and integrity—as a stronger reason for trust in educational researchers. Moreover, we expected that this pattern would not only apply to educational researchers, but that it would generalize to researchers in general. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the pattern could also be found in the general population. Following a pilot study aiming to establish the validity of our measures (German general population sample; N = 504), hypotheses were tested in an online study with N = 414 randomly sampled German in-service teachers. Using the Bayesian informative hypothesis evaluation framework, we found empirical support for five of our six preregistered hypotheses.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T06:51:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211028599
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • One Program Fits All' Patterns and Outcomes of Professional
           Development During a Large-Scale Reform in a High-Stakes Science
           Curriculum

    • Authors: Nicolas Hübner, Christian Fischer, Barry Fishman, Frances Lawrenz, Arthur Eisenkraft
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      When translating large-scale policy changes into educational practice, classroom-level implementation is crucial and dependent on teachers’ capabilities. Most research underscores the importance of professional development (PD) as a proximal factor to achieve educational change. Connected to the recent Advanced Placement (AP) science examination reform, this large-scale quantitative study (NTeachers = 9,096; NStudents = 197,589) investigates teacher participation in different PD formats (i.e., face-to-face, online, materials) and their associations with teacher- and student-level outcomes. We found that teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and administrative support) were associated with the choice of the PD format. We also found AP subscore differences between students of teachers who participated in different PD formats. Furthermore, teachers who participated in formal PD activities tended to report higher challenges with the AP reform. Thus, this study encourages PD providers to implement changes alongside a variety of PD programs to account for the potential differential benefits for teachers.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-07-09T05:13:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211028601
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • A Natural Language Processing Approach to Measuring Treatment Adherence
           and Consistency Using Semantic Similarity

    • Authors: Kylie L. Anglin, Vivian C. Wong, Arielle Boguslav
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Though there is widespread recognition of the importance of implementation research, evaluators often face intense logistical, budgetary, and methodological challenges in their efforts to assess intervention implementation in the field. This article proposes a set of natural language processing techniques called semantic similarity as an innovative and scalable method of measuring implementation constructs. Semantic similarity methods are an automated approach to quantifying the similarity between texts. By applying semantic similarity to transcripts of intervention sessions, researchers can use the method to determine whether an intervention was delivered with adherence to a structured protocol, and the extent to which an intervention was replicated with consistency across sessions, sites, and studies. This article provides an overview of semantic similarity methods, describes their application within the context of educational evaluations, and provides a proof of concept using an experimental study of the impact of a standardized teacher coaching intervention.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T12:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211028615
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Improving Outcomes for English Learners Through Technology: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial

    • Authors: David Harper, Anita R. Bowles, Lauren Amer, Nick B. Pandža, Jared A. Linck
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      English learners (ELs) in K–12 schools must acquire English while simultaneously mastering content knowledge. Educational technology may support students’ learning through the affordance of individualized language practice. The current randomized controlled trial intervention study examined the effects of Rosetta Stone Foundations software on English learning among middle school ELs. The study took place in Grades 6 to 8 of an urban U.S. school district (N = 221). Predictors of interest included time of testing (pretest vs. posttest) and software usage, and covariates included grade level, sex, and attendance. Additionally, socioeconomic status and home language were accounted for due to sample homogeneity. Multilevel models indicated that treatment group students showed larger gains than control group students on oral/aural outcomes. These results indicate that the software intervention enables individualized practice that can produce proficiency-related gains over and above the typical classroom curriculum.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T10:01:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211025528
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Examining the Relationship Between Psychosocial and Academic Outcomes in
           Higher Education: A Descriptive Analysis

    • Authors: Elise Swanson, Tatiana Melguizo, Paco Martorell
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This article estimates the relationship between students’ psychosocial and academic outcomes during their first 3 years enrolled at public, 4-year institutions. Our sample comprises students from low-income backgrounds who applied for a competitive scholarship and enrolled at a 4-year public institution. We follow two cohorts of entering students throughout their first 3 years on campus. We observe their cumulative grade point average and persistence decisions each semester, and have annual measures of four psychosocial outcomes: mattering to campus, sense of belonging to campus, academic self-efficacy, and social self-efficacy. We find that psychosocial outcomes are moderately predictive of academic outcomes, with sense of belonging and academic self-efficacy emerging as most predictive of both cumulative grade point avaerage and persistence.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-29T12:32:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211026967
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Testing a Theoretical Assumption of a Learning-Trajectories Approach in
           Teaching Length Measurement to Kindergartners

    • Authors: Julie Sarama, Douglas H. Clements, Arthur J. Baroody, Traci S. Kutaka, Pavel Chernyavskiy, Jackie Shi, Menglong Cong
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We tested a specific theoretical assumption of a learning trajectories (LTs) approach to curriculum and teaching in the domain of early length measurement. Participating kindergartners (n = 189) were assigned to one of three conditions: LT, reverse-order (REV), or business-as-usual (BAU). LT and REV students received one-on-one instruction using the same activities from a length LT, while the REV condition reversed the LT order. At posttest, LT and REV children exhibited significantly greater learning relative to BAU peers. But importantly, LT children outperformed their REV peers. We conclude that instruction following LTs (i.e., providing instruction just beyond a child’s present level of thinking, progressing through the levels in order as the child advances) may promote more learning than an equivalent amount of instruction using the same activities but that are not theoretically sequenced.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-28T12:11:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211026657
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • How Do Teachers From Alternative Pathways Contribute to the Teaching
           Workforce in Urban Areas' Evidence From Kansas City

    • Authors: Yang An, Cory Koedel
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We examine how teachers from two alternative preparation programs—Teach for America (TFA) and Kansas City Teacher Residency (KCTR)—contribute to the teacher labor market in and around Kansas City, Missouri. TFA and KCTR teachers are more likely than other teachers to work in charter schools and, more broadly, in schools with more low-income, low-performing, and underrepresented minority (Black and Hispanic) students. Teachers from both programs are more racially/ethnically diverse than the larger local-area teaching workforce, but only KCTR teachers are more diverse than other teachers in the same districts where they work. We estimate value added to achievement for teachers in both programs compared with nonprogram teachers, with the caveat that our KCTR sample for this analysis is small. In math, we find large positive impacts of TFA and KCTR teachers on test score growth; in English language arts also, we estimate positive impacts, but they are smaller.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-26T11:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211026952
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Who Are America’s Teachers of the Year'

    • Authors: Christopher Redding, Ted Myers
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The Teacher of the Year (TOY) program is the longest-standing teacher recognition program in the United States. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of state and national TOY awardees and the schools in which they teach. To accomplish this aim, we develop a new data set including the characteristics of all TOY awardees and their schools from 1988 to 2019. Using descriptive and regression analysis, we find that TOY awardees are most likely to teach at the high school level, while the most common subjects taught were elementary education, English language arts, natural sciences, and, for National TOY awardees, social studies. They also have a greater probability of being selected from schools with a smaller fraction of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, and higher student enrollments. We discuss how these differences may impede the TOY program’s efforts to amplify teachers’ voice in education policymaking.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T02:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211025524
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Beyond Receptivity: Exploring the Role of Identity in Educators’
           Orientation Toward Newcomers in a New Immigrant Destination

    • Authors: Daphne M. Penn
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Research on education in new immigrant destinations has highlighted the importance of educators’ professional missions and expertise in shaping their receptivity toward newcomers. Less attention has been given to how educators’ social identities, especially in relation to newcomers, influence how they perceive their role in serving the population. Drawing on the theory of representative bureaucracy, this qualitative study explores how educators’ social identities shaped their identification with and orientation toward addressing the needs of immigrant-origin English learners in one new-destination high school. Results indicate that educators framed their orientation toward serving the population as a moral imperative, a professional responsibility, or a legal obligation. These orientations influenced how educators perceived their role in addressing newcomers’ needs. This study offers implications for educational practice and provides avenues for future research on education in new immigrant destinations.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-22T07:30:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211025529
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Response to Fuson, Clements, and Sarama Commentary on Litkowski, Duncan,
           Logan, and Purpura (2020)

    • Authors: David J. Purpura, Ellen C. Litkowski, Robert J. Duncan, Jessica A. R. Logan
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      In response to Fuson et al.’s commentary on Litkowski et al. (2020), we clarify and expand on three areas: (1) the need for prekindergarten standards, (2) the value in developmental survey work, and (3) the importance of understanding curriculum translation and uptake. Specifically, we note that standards need to be appropriate for grade-level and it is time for more aligned prekindergarten standards. Developmental survey work is critical for ensuring that standards and expectations are accurate and adjusted to meet current needs and can be used address equity issues in instruction. Furthermore, we agree that intervention and curriculum work are needed, but there should be explicit emphasis on enhancing uptake and use of high-quality instruction. Ultimately, we need a system of assessment and instruction that is continually updated and improved, that integrates and modifies new evidence over time to ensure that we are striving for—and attaining—the best results for young children.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-17T03:45:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211027132
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Understanding Public Sentiment About Educational Reforms: The Next
           Generation Science Standards on Twitter

    • Authors: Joshua M. Rosenberg, Conrad Borchers, Elizabeth B. Dyer, Daniel Anderson, Christian Fischer
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      System-wide educational reforms are difficult to implement in the United States, but despite the difficulties, reforms can be successful, particularly when they are associated with broad public support. This study reports on the nature of the public sentiment expressed about a nationwide science education reform effort, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Through the use of data science techniques to measure the sentiment of posts on Twitter about the NGSS (N = 565,283), we found that public sentiment about the NGSS is positive, with only 11 negative posts for every 100 positive posts. In contrast to findings from past research and public opinion polling on the Common Core State Standards, sentiment about the NGSS has become more positive over time—and was especially positive for teachers. We discuss what this positive sentiment may indicate about the success of the NGSS in light of opposition to the Common Core State Standards.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T07:21:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211024261
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Mobile Learning During School Disruptions in
           Sub-Saharan Africa”

    • Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.

      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T04:50:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211028231
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Helping Students FIG-ure It Out: A Large-Scale Study of Freshmen Interest
           Groups and Student Success

    • Authors: Lovenoor Aulck, Joshua Malters, Casey Lee, Gianni Mancinelli, Min Sun, Jevin West
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Freshman seminars are a ubiquitous offering in higher education, but they have not been evaluated using matched comparisons with data at scale. In this work, we use transcript data on over 76,000 students to examine the impact of first-year interest groups (FIGs) on student graduation and retention. We first apply propensity score matching on course-level data to account for selection bias. We find that graduation and re-enrollment rates for FIG students were higher than non-FIG students, an effect that was more pronounced for self-identified underrepresented racial minority students. We then employ topic modeling to analyze survey responses from over 12,500 FIG students to find that social aspects of FIGs were most beneficial to students. Interestingly, references to social aspects were not disproportionately present in the responses of self-identified underrepresented racial minority students.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T04:23:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211021857
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Commentary on “Alignment Between Children’s Numeracy Performance, the
           Kindergarten Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, and State-Level
           Early Learning Standards”

    • Authors: Karen C. Fuson, Douglas H. Clements, Julie Sarama
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Litkowski et al. compare preschoolers’ performance on three counting items to various standards. We clarify that the items Litkowski and colleagues found to be too easy for kindergarten were actually goals for 4s/PKs in the National Research Council’s report Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood: Paths Toward Excellence and Equity but that they were included as kindergarten standards to ensure that all children had an opportunity to learn these crucial competencies. The helpful analysis in their article of the variability across present state early childhood standards indicates that the kindergarten Common Core State Standards–Mathematics need to remain unchanged for the same reason. We suggest that research funding in early childhood is better spent on research on high-quality instructional contexts for all children than on survey research. And we address the important question of what more-advanced children should learn in kindergarten by pairing standards those children already know with crucial standards that need a lot of time and attention.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T08:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211017148
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • What Matters When' Social and Dimensional Comparisons in the Context
           of University Major Choice

    • Authors: Luise von Keyserlingk, Anna-Lena Dicke, Michael Becker, Jacquelynne S. Eccles
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Students compare their achievement to different standards in order to evaluate their ability. We built on the theoretical frameworks of situated expectancy-value theory, dimensional comparison theory, and the big-fish-little-pond effect literature to examine the role of social and dimensional comparisons for ability self-concept and subjective task value (STV) in secondary school and university major choice. We used two German longitudinal data sets from different cohorts with data collection in 12th grade and 2 years after high school graduation (Study 1: N = 2,207, Study 2: N = 1,710). Dimensional and social comparisons predicted students’ self-concept and domain-specific STV in school: Individual achievement was positively related to ability self-concept and STV in the corresponding domain and negatively related in the noncorresponding domain. School-level mean achievement was negatively related to ability self-concept and STV in the corresponding domain. Dimensional comparisons were directly related to university major choice, social comparisons were only indirectly related.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T06:56:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211020711
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Test Score Gaps in Higher Order Thinking Skills: Exploring Instructional
           Practices to Improve the Skills and Narrow the Gaps

    • Authors: Hajime Mitani
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Today’s economy demands higher order thinking skills (HOTS), and the public education system has a critical role in supporting students’ acquisition of HOTS. Yet, numerous studies documented inequity in access to higher quality instruction that promotes HOTS, which could result in wide test score gaps in HOTS. In this study, I examined test score gaps in HOTS and explored instructional practices associated with HOTS, particularly among low-performing students, using large-scale international assessment data from the 2015 Trends in Mathematics and Science Study. I found wide test score gaps in HOTS in mathematics between the lowest and highest socioeconomic status students and between White students and students of color. Instructional practices such as the same ability group work, asking students to work on problems with teacher guidance, and working on problems with no immediately obvious method of solution were found positively associated with the test scores.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T09:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211016470
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • A Remote Instructor Like Me: Student–Teacher Congruence in Online,
           High School Courses

    • Authors: Jennifer Darling-Aduana
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Students belonging to marginalized groups experience positive impacts when taught by a teacher of the same race, ethnicity, and gender. The unique nature of standardized, asynchronous online course taking allows for greater separation of any possible educational benefits of student versus teacher-driven mechanisms contributing to these improved outcomes. Using a student-by-course fixed effect strategy on data from a large urban school district, I examined associations between whether students experienced racial/ethnic or gender congruence with their remote instructor and both engagement and learning outcomes. Students who identified as Black demonstrated higher rates of engagement, although no difference in achievement, within lessons taught by a same-race remote instructor. I find that representation is associated with engagement even when instructors follow closely scripted lessons, representation occurs in only small doses, and instruction occurs in an impersonal setting.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T12:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211018719
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Mobile Learning During School Disruptions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Authors: René F. Kizilcec, Maximilian Chen, Kaja K. Jasińska, Michael Madaio, Amy Ogan
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      School closures due to teacher strikes or political unrest in low-resource contexts can adversely affect children’s educational outcomes and career opportunities. Phone-based educational technologies could help bridge these gaps in formal schooling, but it is unclear whether or how children and their families will use such systems during periods of disruption. We investigate two mobile learning technologies deployed in sub-Saharan Africa: a text-message-based application with lessons and quizzes adhering to the national curriculum in Kenya (N = 1.3 million), and a voice-based platform for supporting early literacy in Côte d’Ivoire (N = 236). We examine the usage and beliefs surrounding unexpected school closures in each context via system log data and interviews with families about their motivations and methods for learning during the disruption. We find that mobile learning is used as a supplement for formal and informal schooling during disruptions with equivalent or higher intensity, as parents feel responsible to ensure continuity in schooling.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T11:55:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211014860
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Time Poverty and Parenthood: Who Has Time for College'

    • Authors: Katherine M. Conway, Claire Wladis, Alyse C. Hachey
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Student parents are among the least likely student groups to complete college. Regression models were run using 2003–2019 American Time Use Survey data to explore time poverty among college students. Results indicate that students with children under 13 years had significantly less discretionary time and free time, spent significantly less time on their education, enrolled part-time at significantly higher rates, and spent significantly more time studying while simultaneously caring for children, compared with students without children under 13 years. The strength of these relationships was strongest when children were younger. Parents with children under 6 years, and mothers of children of all age-groups, had significantly higher time poverty than other groups, yet spent significantly more time on education after controlling for discretionary time, at the cost of significantly less free time for themselves. Results suggest that improving college outcomes for student parents may require consideration of time poverty.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T11:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211011608
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • An Ethnomethodological Study of Abductive Reasoning While Tinkering

    • Authors: ChanMin Kim, Brian R. Belland, Afaf Baabdullah, Eunseo Lee, Emre Dinç, Anna Y. Zhang
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Tinkering is often viewed as arbitrary practice that should be avoided. However, tinkering can be performed as part of a sound reasoning process. In this ethnomethodological study, we investigated tinkering as a reasoning process that construes logical inferences. This is a new asset-based approach that can be applied in computer science education. We analyzed artifact-based interviews, video observations, reflections, and scaffolding entries from three pairs of early childhood teacher candidates to document how they engaged in reasoning while tinkering. Abductive reasoning observed during tinkering is discussed in detail.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T11:50:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211008111
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Cracks to Craters: College Advising During COVID-19

    • Authors: Meredith R. Naughton
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease–2019) pandemic disrupted the education of students across the globe in the spring of 2020. Students who were previously at most risk for falling behind their peers and through the cracks because of academic, financial, racial, and/or generational disadvantage faced a wide range of additional obstacles in the pursuit of their college goals. This qualitative study sought to uncover postsecondary advising implications for students through the perspectives of near-peer college advisers (n = 23) serving in high-need schools in two different states as intensive, in-person advising was forced to adapt to virtual formats. Two key thematic findings reveal that advisers faced new communication challenges and existing systemic barriers for marginalized students became even larger. For seniors who had not yet made final postsecondary decisions or who had remaining to-dos, the impact of school closures and distanced advising may have fatally widened existing cracks in the path to college.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T11:48:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211018715
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Student Learning in Online College Programs

    • Authors: Stephanie Riegg Cellini, Hernando Grueso
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We draw on administrative data from the country of Colombia to assess differences in student learning in online and traditional on-campus college programs. The Colombian context is uniquely suited to study this topic, as students take a compulsory exit examination at the end of their studies. We can therefore directly compare the performance on the exit exam for students in online and on-campus programs both across and within institutions, degrees, and majors. Using inverse probability weighting methods based on a rich set of background characteristics coupled with institution–degree–major fixed effects, our results suggest that bachelor’s degree students in online programs perform worse on nearly all test score measures (including math, reading, writing, and English) relative to their counterparts in on-campus programs. Results for shorter technical certificates are more mixed. While online students perform significantly worse than on-campus students on exit exams in private institutions, they perform better in SENA—the main public vocational institution in the country.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T10:57:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211008105
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Boundary Spanning Roles and Power in Educational Partnerships

    • Authors: Christopher M. Wegemer, Jennifer R. Renick
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Research-practice partnerships (RPPs) offer promising approaches to improve educational outcomes. Navigating boundaries between contexts is essential for RPP effectiveness, yet much work remains to establish a conceptual framework of boundary spanning in partnerships. Our longitudinal comparative case study draws from our experiences as graduate student boundary spanners in three long-term partnerships to examine boundary spanning roles in RPPs, with particular attention to the ways in which power permeates partnership work. Using qualitative, critically reflexive analysis of meeting artifacts and field notes, we found that our boundary spanning roles varied along five spectrums: institutional focus, task orientation, expertise, partnership disposition, and agency. Our roles were shaped by the organizational, cultural, relational, and historical features of the partnerships and contexts of interaction. We aim to promote the development of effective RPP strategies by leveraging the perspectives and positionality of graduate students in order to advance understanding of boundary spanning roles.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T10:53:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211016868
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Formative Education Online: Teaching the Whole Person During the Global
           COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Deoksoon Kim, Stanton Wortham, Katrina Borowiec, Drina Kei Yatsu, Samantha Ha, Stephanie Carroll, Lizhou Wang, Julie Kim
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented public health emergency, challenged higher education and threatened students’ well-being in several ways. With the abrupt shift to online learning, were instructors able to maintain a focus on educating whole students, in addition to teaching subject matter' We answer this question by investigating “formative education,” an approach to teaching and learning that emphasizes holistic development, exploring formative education online during the pandemic. This qualitative study investigates the strategies of 37 college faculty who provided successful formative education online. A cross-subject analysis of data from faculty interviews and supplemental materials (course artifacts, course evaluations, student interviews) uncovered three teaching approaches that faculty used to achieve formative education online: empathic (centering students’ emotions), reflective (facilitating deep inquiry), and adaptive (having flexibility in meeting students’ needs). These approaches could help instructors design online education that engages the whole person.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T10:50:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211015229
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Incorporating Human–Animal Interaction Into Academic Stress Management
           Programs: Effects on Typical and At-Risk College Students’ Executive
           Function

    • Authors: Patricia Pendry, Alexa M. Carr, Jaymie L. Vandagriff, Nancy R. Gee
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Implementation of university-based animal-assisted stress-prevention programs is increasing despite limited knowledge about impacts on students’ academic success. This randomized trial (N = 309) examined the effects of a 4-week stress-prevention program with varying levels of human–animal interaction (HAI) and evidence-based content presentations on students’ executive functioning (EF). Effects were examined while considering the moderating role of students’ risk status (N = 121), based on history of academic failure, suicidal ideation, mental health, and learning issues. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at-risk students showed the highest levels of EF (Β = 4.74, p = .018) and metacognition (Β = 4.88, p = .013) at posttest in the condition featuring 100% HAI, effects that remained 6 weeks later (ΒGlobal EF = 4.48, p = .028; ΒMetacognition = 5.31,p = .009). Since evidence-based content presentations did not confer benefits for at-risk students’ EF, even when offered in combination with HAI, universities should consider providing at-risk students with targeted programs emphasizing exposure to HAI.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T02:00:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211011612
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Systemwide Quality Improvement in Early Childhood Education: Evidence From
           Louisiana

    • Authors: Daphna Bassok, Preston Magouirk, Anna J. Markowitz
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Despite substantial federal, state, and local investments in improving early care and education (ECE), we know little about whether ECE program quality has improved over time. The lack of data tracking the quality of publicly funded ECE programs at scale creates a substantial evidence gap for policymakers attempting to weigh the returns on, and future of, quality improvement policies. Data from Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) provide a promising opportunity to address this problem. Using 4 years of data from a mandatory, statewide QRIS covering subsidized child care, Head Start, and state prekindergarten, we document systemwide quality and improvement trends over a period of targeted investment in quality improvement statewide. We find improvements in quality overall, across sectors and communities over this period. Results also reveal differential growth across sectors such that quality gaps diminished. This study highlights the potential of statewide ECE data for informing quality improvement efforts.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211011610
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • It’s Not That You Said It, It’s How You Said It: Exploring the
           Linguistic Mechanisms Underlying Values Affirmation Interventions at Scale
           

    • Authors: Nia M. M. Dowell, Timothy A. McKay, George Perrett
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Over the last decade, psychological interventions, such as the values affirmation intervention, have been shown to alleviate the male-female performance difference when delivered in the classroom, however, attempts to scale the intervention are less successful. This study provides unique evidence on this issue by reporting the observed differences between two randomized controlled implementations of the values affirmation intervention: (a) successful in-class and (b) unsuccessful online implementation at scale. Specifically, we use natural language processing to explore the discourse features that characterize successful female students’ values affirmation essays to gain insight on the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the beneficial effects of the intervention. Our results revealed that linguistic dimensions related to aspects of cohesion, affective, cognitive, temporal, and social orientation, independently distinguished between males and females, as well as more and less effective essays. We discuss implications for the pipeline from theory to practice and for psychological interventions.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T11:19:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211011611
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Does the Common Core Have a Common Effect' An Exploration of Effects
           on Academically Vulnerable Students

    • Authors: Joshua Bleiberg
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Policymakers have long sought to raise expectations for students through standards-based reform. I examine the extent to which the Common Core State Content Standards (CC) affected student achievement and the size of achievement gaps. I merge together data on preparation for and implementation of the CC with the National Assessment of Educational Progress student-level data. To identify the effect of CC on student outcomes, I compare early implementors of the CC to late implementors of the CC in a difference-in-differences framework. I find the initial effect of the CC on math scores was positive. The CC had a large positive initial effect on economically advantaged students but no detectable initial effect on economically disadvantaged students. Raising state expectations without addressing the structural issues burdening economically disadvantaged students may result in unintended consequences.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T07:34:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211010727
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Introduction to Special Topic: Rural Education Finance and Policy

    • Authors: Christiana Stoddard, Eugenia F. Toma
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This special topic takes stock of the current state of rural education finance and policy research. Taken together the articles in this special topic highlight a major point. Rural districts and schools not only differ from those in urban areas but also differ from one another. This is perhaps not surprising given the heterogeneity of school size, community size, demographics, and the degree of rurality of schools across the United States. The articles pose a challenge for policymakers. Policies that serve one state or one rural community may not be relevant or helpful to another. Policy solutions must recognize the diversity of education challenges across and within states.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T11:48:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211011607
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Cross-National Variation in School Reopening Measures During the COVID-19
           Pandemic

    • Authors: Kate Steed Hoffman, Mariana Barragan Torres, Christine Min Wotipka
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      To contain the initial spread of the SARS-CoV2 virus and the COVID-19 disease, many countries opted to close schools. However, the importance of schooling to mitigate inequalities motivated many economies to reopen schools after having formulated various COVID-19 mitigation and containment strategies. Using an exploratory sequential mixed method design, we explore the measures undertaken by countries when reopening schools and how these measures varied cross-nationally. We find that countries formulated a wide number (total: 242) and range of school reopening measures to mitigate the spread of the virus in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. From a policy diffusion theoretical perspective, findings from our statistical analyses suggest that cross-national diversity in policies is related to both internal and external country factors such as peer emulation mechanisms, income, and past pandemic experiences. We urge international agencies for more explicit guidelines for effective school reopening measures.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T06:06:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211010180
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • A Missed Opportunity' Instructional Content Redundancy in Pre-K and
           Kindergarten

    • Authors: Lora Cohen-Vogel, Michael Little, Wonkyung Jang, Margaret Burchinal, Mary Bratsch-Hines
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Policy observers have expressed concern over whether misalignment between pre-K and K–12 has negative consequences for children. This study considers students’ exposure to redundant content across the pre-K and kindergarten years. Specifically, it asks, to what extent are skills and concepts taught in kindergarten redundant with skills and concepts taught in one state’s public pre-K program, and for whom is redundancy most likely' Overall, findings from teacher surveys show that about 37% of the language, literacy, and math content covered in kindergarten is redundant with content covered in pre-K. The highest rates of redundancy seem to occur for basic (rather than advanced) content items, including the identification of letters and sight words. Moreover, children from families who live at or below the poverty line experience significantly higher rates of redundant content. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-10T09:14:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211006163
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Exploring an Unexamined Source of Racial Disparities in Juvenile Court
           Involvement: Unexcused Absenteeism Policies in U.S. Schools

    • Authors: Clea A. McNeely, Besufekad Alemu, Won Fy Lee, Isis West
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This two-part study explored whether discrimination encoded into U.S. school absenteeism policies leads to racially minoritized students being overrepresented in the juvenile court system. First, we examined unexcused absenteeism policies in a nationally representative school district sample (n = 97). All districts excused absences for reasons White students often miss school but not necessarily for reasons racially minoritized students do. Next, in three school districts we documented large racial disparities in both the proportion of absences designated unexcused (Whites 13%, Asians 18%, Hispanics 21%, Blacks 24%, and American Indians 24%) and risk of court petition for truancy, even after accounting for the total number of absences: Whites hazard ratio (HR) = 1.0; Asians HR = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.98, 1.36]; Hispanics HR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.34, 1.92]; Blacks HR = 2.17, 95% CI [1.88, 2.50]; and American Indians HR = 3.94, 95% CI [3.12, 4.97]. Disproportionality in unexcused absenteeism fully explained the Hispanic/White and partially explained the Black/White and American Indian/White court petition disparities.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T05:00:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211003132
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Data Sharing in Education Science

    • Authors: Jessica A. R. Logan, Sara A. Hart, Christopher Schatschneider
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Many research agencies are now requiring that data collected as part of funded projects be shared. However, the practice of data sharing in education sciences has lagged these funder requirements. We assert that this is likely because researchers generally have not been made aware of these requirements and of the benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, data sharing is usually not a part of formal training, so many researchers may be unaware of how to properly share their data. Finally, the research culture in education science is often filled with concerns regarding the sharing of data. In this article, we address each of these areas, discussing the wide range of benefits of data sharing, the many ways by which data can be shared; provide a step by step guide to start sharing data; and respond to common concerns.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T07:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211006475
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Measures Matter: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Educational Apps on
           Preschool to Grade 3 Children’s Literacy and Math Skills

    • Authors: James Kim, Joshua Gilbert, Qun Yu, Charles Gale
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Thousands of educational apps are available to students, teachers, and parents, yet research on their effectiveness is limited. This meta-analysis synthesized findings from 36 intervention studies and 285 effect sizes evaluating the effectiveness of educational apps for preschool to Grade 3 children and the moderating role of methodological, participant, and intervention characteristics. Using random effects meta-regression with robust variance estimation, we summarized the overall impact of educational apps and examined potential moderator effects. First, results from rigorous experimental and quasi-experimental studies yielded a mean weighted effect size of +0.31 standard deviations on overall achievement and comparable effects in both math and literacy. Second, the positive overall effect masks substantial variability in app effectiveness, as meta-regression analyses revealed three significant moderators of treatment effects. Treatment effects were larger for studies involving preschool rather than K–3 students, for studies using researcher-developed rather than standardized outcomes, and for studies measuring constrained rather than unconstrained skills.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T07:49:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211004183
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Overcoming the “Trash Talk in Your Head”: Extending an Ethic of Care
           to Students Experiencing Intersectional Stigma in Community College

    • Authors: Rebecca L. Brower, Tamara Bertrand Jones, Shouping Hu
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Intersectional stigma is experienced by individuals who share both a minoritized identity and a socially stigmatized identity. This study examines not only both types of intersectional stigma (e.g., homelessness, addiction, history of incarceration) that exist among students but also how campus personnel have extended an ethic of care to assist these students in changing their self-perceptions or “looking glass selves” to persist and succeed in community college. Recommendations for institutional improvement include flexibility in hiring staff with the expertise of lived experience, extending social support, improving access to campus and community resources, and horizontal peer mentoring for students with stigmatized identities.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T01:09:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211006381
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Keeping Up With the Joneses: District Adoption of the 4-Day School Week in
           Rural Missouri

    • Authors: J. Cameron Anglum, Aaron Park
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      In recent years, rural school district adoption of 4-day school weeks has grown markedly. Despite this rapid growth, scant empirical evidence has documented the factors associated with district adoption and subsequent effects on student, labor, and economic outcomes. We examine the spread of the 4-day school week in rural Missouri, where over 10% of the state’s districts have adopted the policy in the past decade, the majority over the past 2 years. To help policymakers understand why districts forgo a day of instruction and to contextualize postpolicy effects, we conduct a survival analysis to assess student, district, and staff characteristics associated with policy adoption. We find that the presence of nearby 4-day school week districts most strongly predicts policy adoption. Adopting districts typically offer lower teacher salaries than nearby districts and have declining student enrollments. Our findings may inform policy focused on teacher recruitment and retention in rural locales.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-19T06:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211002842
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Inconsistencies in English Learner Identification: An Inventory of How
           Home Language Surveys Across U.S. States Screen Multilingual Students

    • Authors: April S. Salerno, Elena Andrei
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Home Language Surveys (HLS) are widely used by states as an initial screening tool to determine whether students should receive English as a Second Language (ESL) services. Parents/guardians are asked to complete the surveys when enrolling a student into a school. We collected surveys from the 50 states and the District of Columbia. We completed them as if we were the parent/guardian of six use-case students. Research questions were (1) How do HLS vary from state to state, if at all' What kinds of questions do they ask' (2) How do HLS across the 50 states and the District of Columbia identify, or not, six fictitious students for further ESL screening' We found that states and U.S. Department of Education–approved HLS questions identified students differently due to unclear questions, such as asking bilingual families to name one dominant language. We recommend additional validation measures be taken with survey questions.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-19T06:13:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211002212
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Who’s Taking What' “Applied STEM” Coursetaking for High School
           Students With Learning Disabilities

    • Authors: Michael A. Gottfried, Jay Plasman, Jennifer A. Freeman, Shaun Dougherty
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Increasing and improving the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational pipeline has been a point of emphasis for decades, and federal policy in the United States has urged high schools to embed new types of STEM courses into the curriculum. As one example, applied STEM courses—one growing branch within career and technical education (CTE)—are designed to reinforce traditional academic STEM content and to motivate students’ interests and long-term pursuits in STEM areas. That said, little is known about who takes these courses, and applied-STEM-CTE enrollment in these courses has not been explored in the research for students with learning disabilities. Using the High School Longitudinal Study (a nationally representative data set of high school students), we asked whether CTE coursetaking differed for students with learning disabilities compared with those without disabilities, and whether there were specific coursetaking differences in applied-STEM-CTE. We found that students with learning disabilities were more likely to earn more units in CTE courses compared with students without disabilities. Yet, when looking at applied-STEM-CTE courses, we see that although students with learning disabilities earn more CTE units than students without disabilities, students with learning disabilities do not take different amounts of applied-STEM-CTE courses. Implications are discussed.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-16T10:31:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421999078
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Higher Education in Times of COVID-19: University Students’ Basic Need
           Satisfaction, Self-Regulated Learning, and Well-Being

    • Authors: Julia Holzer, Marko Lüftenegger, Selma Korlat, Elisabeth Pelikan, Katariina Salmela-Aro, Christiane Spiel, Barbara Schober
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      In the wake of COVID-19, university students have experienced fundamental changes of their learning and their lives as a whole. The present research identifies psychological characteristics associated with students’ well-being in this situation. We investigated relations of basic psychological need satisfaction (experienced competence, autonomy, and relatedness) with positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation, considering self-regulated learning as a moderator. Self-reports were collected from 6,071 students in Austria (Study 1) and 1,653 students in Finland (Study 2). Structural equation modeling revealed competence as the strongest predictor for positive emotion. Intrinsic learning motivation was predicted by competence and autonomy in both countries and by relatedness in Finland. Moderation effects of self-regulated learning were inconsistent, but main effects on intrinsic learning motivation were identified. Surprisingly, relatedness exerted only a minor effect on positive emotion. The results inform strategies to promote students’ well-being through distance learning, mitigating the negative effects of the situation.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T04:08:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211003164
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Do MOOCs Make You More Marketable' An Experimental
           Analysis of the Value of MOOCs Relative to Traditional Credentials and
           Experience”

    • Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.

      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T06:01:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23328584211002292
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Rural/Nonrural Divide' K–12 District Spending and Implications
           of Equity-Based School Funding

    • Authors: Tasminda K. Dhaliwal, Paul Bruno
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      In the 2013–2014 school year, the state of California implemented a new equity-minded funding system, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF). LCFF increased minimum per-pupil funding for educationally underserved students and provided greater autonomy in allocating resources. We use the implementation of LCFF to enrich our understanding of rural school finance and explore the implications of equity-based school finance reform across urbanicity (i.e., between rural, town, suburban, and urban districts) and between rural areas of different remoteness. Drawing on 15 years of financial data from California school districts, we find variation in the funding levels of rural districts but few differences in the ways resources are allocated and only modest evidence of constrained spending in rural areas. Our results suggest that spending progressivity (i.e., spending advantage of higher-poverty districts) has increased since LCFF, although progressivity is lowest in rural districts by the end of the data panel.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T10:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420982549
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Parents’ Online School Reviews Reflect Several Racial and Socioeconomic
           Disparities in K–12 Education

    • Authors: Nabeel Gillani, Eric Chu, Doug Beeferman, Rebecca Eynon, Deb Roy
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Parents often select schools by relying on subjective assessments of quality made by other parents, which are increasingly becoming available through written reviews on school ratings websites. To identify relationships between review content and school quality, we apply recent advances in natural language processing to nearly half a million parent reviews posted for more than 50,000 publicly funded U.S. K–12 schools on a popular ratings website. We find: (1) schools in urban areas and those serving affluent families are more likely to receive reviews, (2) review language correlates with standardized test scores—which generally track race and family income—but not school effectiveness, measured by how much students improve in their test scores over time, and (3) the linguistics of reviews reveal several racial and income-based disparities in K–12 education. These findings suggest that parents who reference school reviews may be accessing, and making decisions based on, biased perspectives that reinforce achievement gaps.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T12:30:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421992344
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Importance of Place: Effects of Community Job Loss on College
           Enrollment and Attainment Across Rural and Metropolitan Regions

    • Authors: Lucy C. Sorensen, Moontae Hwang
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Youth living in remote rural communities face significant geographic barriers to college access. Even those living near to a postsecondary institution may not have the means for, or may not see the value of, pursuing a college degree within their local economy. This study uses 18 years of national county-level data to ask how local economic shocks affect the postsecondary enrollment and attainment of rural students, as compared to students in metropolitan and metropolitan-adjacent regions. Results from an instrumental variables analysis indicate that each 1 percentage point increase in local unemployment increases local college enrollment by 10.0% in remote rural areas, as compared to a 5.2% increase in metropolitan-adjacent areas and no detectable increase in metropolitan areas. The rise in rural college enrollment is driven primarily by students enrolling in or continuing in associate degree programs, and by students transferring from 2-year to 4-year programs.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T06:41:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421997170
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • “Teachers Act Like We’re Robots”: TikTok as a Window Into Youth
           Experiences of Online Learning During COVID-19

    • Authors: Ioana Literat
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Social media, and especially popular youth-focused platforms like TikTok, can offer a valuable window into youth experiences, including their perceptions of online learning. Building on a large-scale thematic analysis of 1,930 TikTok videos posted in March-June 2020, this study examines how young people shared their experiences of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings indicate that youth portrayed online coursework as overwhelming and relentless against the traumatic background of the pandemic. They sought support, empathy, and authenticity from teachers, and both received and provided emotional and educational support to peers on the platform. Students’ home contexts emerged as particularly salient, making visible the intersections between young people’s home, school and social lives. By facilitating a grounded, bottom-up understanding of students’ experiences and perceptions—shared in their preferred spaces and modes of expression—this research stresses the need to attend to youth perspectives to craft more equitable and empowering educational futures.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T11:31:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421995537
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Balancing Time in College: Examining Time-Use and Academic Outcomes of
           Students in a Comprehensive College Transition Program

    • Authors: Elizabeth S. Park, Elise Swanson
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Using a randomized control trial design, this study examines the extent to which a comprehensive college transition program (CCTP) shapes students’ time-use during their first 3 years in college. The CCTP provides comprehensive student-centered support as well as a generous scholarship. We compare students who had access to the CCTP with those who only received the scholarship. Findings indicate that both student groups spent similar amounts of time working for pay, studying, and on social media, and time-use had no differential bearing on college GPA by treatment status. In an exploratory analysis of program components, we find correlational evidence that academic-related interactions with faculty are positively associated with hours spent studying. We consistently find that the strongest predictor of time-use in college is how students spend their time in high school, suggesting that interventions aimed at shaping students’ time-use may be most effective if they are targeted at students’ precollege years.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T10:06:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421995215
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Race, Climate, and Turnover: An Examination of the Teacher Labor Market in
           Rural Georgia

    • Authors: Sheneka M. Williams, Walker A. Swain, Jerome A. Graham
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Teacher turnover across the country presents a persistent and growing challenge for schools and districts, with the highest rates of turnover geographically concentrated in the American South. Research on teacher staffing and turnover problems consistently highlight two subsets of schools as struggling to attract and retain well-credentialed, effective educators—predominantly Black schools and rural schools. However, research has rarely explicitly examined the schools that meet both these criteria. We use administrative records and unique climate survey data from Georgia to examine how the intersecting roles of race, money, and school climate shape evolving teacher turnover patterns in rural schools. Findings suggest that while teacher mobility is generally less common in rural schools, considerable inequities exist within the rural space, with majority Black rural schools bearing far more of the brunt of rural teacher turnover. Among rural teachers, Black teachers have higher mobility rates—more likely to make interdistrict moves and to exit rural settings for teaching opportunities in urban and suburban contexts. However, in majority-Black rural schools, higher salaries and school climate factors, such as relational climate and parental involvement, were strong predictors of retention, even after controlling for a rich set of covariates.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T06:14:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421995514
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Public Support for School Integration

    • Authors: Deven Carlson, Elizabeth Bell
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Polling data routinely indicate broad support for the concept of diverse schools, but integration initiatives—both racial and socioeconomic—regularly encounter significant opposition. We leverage a nationally representative survey experiment to provide novel evidence on public support for integration initiatives. Specifically, we present respondents with a hypothetical referendum where we provide information on two policy options for assigning students to schools: (1) a residence-based assignment option and (2) an option designed to achieve stated racial/ethnic or socioeconomic diversity targets, with respondents randomly assigned to the racial/ethnic or socioeconomic diversity option. After calculating public support and average willingness-to-pay, our results demonstrate a clear plurality of the public preferring residence-based assignment to the racial diversity initiative, but a near-even split in support for residence-based assignment and the socioeconomic integration initiative. Moreover, we find that the decline in support for race-based integration, relative to the socioeconomic diversity initiative, is entirely attributable to White and Republican respondents.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T10:14:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420986864
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Studying Undergraduate Course Consideration at Scale

    • Authors: Sorathan Chaturapruek, Tobias Dalberg, Marissa E. Thompson, Sonia Giebel, Monique H. Harrison, Ramesh Johari, Mitchell L. Stevens, Rene F. Kizilcec
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Elective curriculums require undergraduates to choose from a large roster of courses for enrollment each term. It has proven difficult to characterize this fateful choice process because it remains largely unobserved. Using digital trace data to observe this process at scale at a private research university, together with qualitative student interviews, we provide a novel empirical study of course consideration as an important component of course selection. Clickstream logs from a course exploration platform used by most undergraduates at the case university reveal that students consider on average nine courses for enrollment for their first fall term (
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T09:01:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421991148
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Social Studies Textbook Effects: Evidence From Texas

    • Authors: Corey Savage, Nicolas Hübner, Martin Biewen, Benjamin Nagengast, Morgan S. Polikoff
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Well-informed decisions on curricular materials can be an efficient way to boost student achievement. Prior studies have employed experimental and quasi-experimental designs to investigate the effects of textbooks on mathematics achievement. This is the first study to consider textbook effects in social studies education. Within the context of a textbook adoption cycle in Texas, we use a difference-in-differences approach with district-level administrative data and estimate the effects of adopting a state-approved textbook on social studies achievement. We find no evidence of a practically meaningful adoption effect. We conclude by highlighting the need for further high-quality research in this often-overlooked school subject area.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T09:01:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421992345
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Improvements in Math Instruction and Student Achievement Through
           Professional Learning Around the Common Core State Standards in Chicago

    • Authors: Elaine Allensworth, Sarah Cashdollar, Julia Gwynne
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Existing literature on the impact of Common Core State Standards in Math has shown little benefit, but it has not examined variation in outcomes based on implementation strategies, student subgroups, or outcomes other than test scores. We use a difference-in-differences approach with school fixed effects to compare outcomes in pre- and poststandards years across schools with different levels of participation in professional learning around the standards in the middle grades in Chicago. Postimplementation, there were significantly greater improvements in student reports of standards-aligned instructional practices, math grades, pass rates, and test scores in schools with more extensive professional learning around the standards, among students with low and average initial achievement. Relationships were largely not significant for students with high initial achievement. We discuss why Chicago might have seen positive results, including the district emphasis on professional learning around the practice standards and differential impacts based on student prior achievement.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T06:09:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420986872
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Effects of Homestead Exemptions for Seniors and Disabled People on
           School Districts

    • Authors: Alex E. Combs, John M. Foster
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Homestead exemptions for senior and disabled homeowners disproportionally erode rural tax bases but may still stimulate local educational spending. This article examines one such exemption in Kentucky. Two-stage generalized method of moments is used to estimate the demand for local education spending, then spending in the absence of the exemption is simulated to estimate effects on school district expenditure and academic performance. We combine Census and National Center of Education Statistics data with detailed exemption and academic performance data from Kentucky’s Departments of Revenue and Education into a panel spanning 1999–2013. Results suggest the exemption provides relatively generous tax relief without increasing resource and academic achievement gaps between rural and nonrural districts. This is largely attributable to Kentucky’s strong school finance equalization effort. Our findings can help states with a similarly targeted exemption consider such impacts in relation to their own demography and funding systems.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T11:35:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420988712
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Fiscal Effects of Tax Increment Financing on Rural School Districts:
           The Case of Iowa

    • Authors: Phuong Nguyen-Hoang
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Tax increment financing (TIF)—an economic (re)development tool originally designed for urban cities—has been available to rural communities for decades. This is the first study to focus solely on TIF in rural school districts, to examine TIF effects on school districts’ property tax base and rates, and to conduct event-study estimations of TIF effects. The study finds that TIF has mostly positive effects on rural school districts’ property tax base and mixed effects on property tax rates, and that TIF-induced increases in tax base come primarily from residential property and slightly from commercial property. The study’s findings assert the importance of returned excess increment if rural school districts in Iowa and many other states are to benefit from TIF.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-06T12:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421991149
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • The Additional Cost of Operating Rural Schools: Evidence From Vermont

    • Authors: Tammy Kolbe, Bruce D. Baker, Drew Atchison, Jesse Levin, Phoebe Harris
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      State policymakers wrestle with long-standing questions and concerns about how to best provide additional fiscal support to rural school districts to ensure their students have access to adequate educational opportunities. In this study, we describe how one state developed empirically based estimates for the additional cost of operating rural schools, typified by small enrollment and location in sparsely populated areas. The study’s findings clarify that school size and location are relevant, but distinct, cost factors that should be accounted for state school finance policies. Additionally, the study provides a model for how other states might leverage administrative data and apply education cost modeling to estimate cost differences for rural schools that can be used to inform state school finance policy.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-06T12:33:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420988868
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Adding “Student Voice” to the Mix: Perception Surveys and
           State Accountability Systems

    • Authors: Jack Schneider, James Noonan, Rachel S. White, Douglas Gagnon, Ashley Carey
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      For the past two decades, student perception surveys have become standard tools in data collection efforts. At the state level, however, “student voice” is still used sparingly. In this study, we examine the ways in which including student survey results might alter state accountability determinations. Reconstructing the accountability system in Massachusetts, we draw on a unique set of student survey data, which we add to the state’s formula at a maximally feasible dosage in order to determine new school ratings. As we find, student survey data shift school accountability ratings in small but meaningful ways and appear to enhance functional validity. Student survey results introduce information about school quality that is not captured by typical accountability metrics, correlate moderately with test score growth, and are not predicted by student demographic variables.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-06T12:31:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421990729
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Making a Tough Choice: Teacher Target-Setting and Student Achievement in a
           Teacher Performance System Using Student Learning Objectives

    • Authors: Allison Atteberry, Sarah E. LaCour
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The use of student learning objectives (SLOs) as part of teacher performance systems has gained traction quickly in the United States, yet little is known about how teachers select specific students’ learning goals. When teachers are evaluated—and sometimes compensated—based on whether their students meet the very objectives the teachers set at the start of the year, there may be an incentive to set low targets. SLO systems rely on teachers’ willingness and ability to set appropriately ambitious SLOs. We describe teachers’ SLO target-setting behavior in one school-district. We document the accuracy/ambitiousness of targets and find that teachers regularly set targets that students did not meet. We also find that, within the same year, a student’s spring test scores tend to be higher on the assessments for which they received higher targets. This raises the intriguing possibility that receiving higher targets might cause students to perform better than they otherwise would have.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T09:44:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420979778
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Examining the Educational and Employment Outcomes of Reverse Credit
           Transfer

    • Authors: Matt S. Giani, Jason L. Taylor, Sheena Kauppila
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Reverse credit transfer (RCT) is an emerging policy designed to award associate’s degrees to students who transfer from 2-year to 4-year colleges after transfer. The purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of RCT degree receipt on students’ university and labor outcomes using data from Texas, where the legislature passed RCT policy in 2011. We find that posttransfer associate’s degree recipients are significantly more likely to persist and attain in universities compared to their peers who were eligible for RCT but did not receive the degree, and these benefits are often larger for students from populations historically marginalized from higher education. However, these estimates are suggestive given the potential of self-selection biasing the estimates upward, and the results are sensitive to moderate bias from unobserved variables. We find limited evidence of additional benefit of these associate’s degrees, which are largely academic and transfer-oriented degrees, on labor outcomes.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T11:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421989998
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • An Evaluation of the Educational Impact of College Campus Visits: A
           Randomized Experiment

    • Authors: Elise Swanson, Katherine Kopotic, Gema Zamarro, Jonathan N. Mills, Jay P. Greene, Gary W. Ritter
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We study whether visits to a college campus during eighth grade affect students’ interest in and preparation for college. Two cohorts of eighth graders were randomized within schools to a control condition, in which they received a college informational packet, or a treatment condition, in which they received the same information and visited a flagship university three times during an academic year. We estimate the effect of the visits on students’ college knowledge, postsecondary intentions, college preparatory behaviors, academic engagement, and ninth-grade course enrollment. Treated students exhibit higher levels of college knowledge, efficacy, and grit, as well as a higher likelihood of conversing with school personnel about college. Additionally, treated students are more likely to enroll in advanced science/social science courses. We find mixed evidence on whether the visits increased students’ diligence on classroom tasks and a negative impact on students’ desire to attend technical school.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T09:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858421989707
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • “Doing the ‘Real’ Work”: How Superintendents’ Sensemaking Shapes
           Principal Evaluation Policies and Practices in School Districts

    • Authors: Morgaen L. Donaldson, Madeline Mavrogordato, Peter Youngs, Shaun Dougherty, Reem Al Ghanem
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Almost every state in the United States has revamped its principal evaluation policies since 2009, yet we know little about how they are implemented. Based on interviews and document analysis in 21 small- and medium-sized school districts, we found that superintendents’ sensemaking shaped their implementation of policy. Drawing on their beliefs about principals and evaluation and their understanding of their district context, superintendents in lower performing districts reported that they complied with the processes specified in state principal evaluation policies but strayed from state guidelines regarding maintaining a focus on instructional leadership during evaluation. In contrast, superintendents of higher performing districts reported that they implemented evaluation processes loosely but adhered to their state’s policy emphasis on instructional leadership. Our findings raise questions about whether the implementation of principal evaluation policies disadvantages principals in lower performing districts. We thus caution against attaching high-stakes consequences such as incentive pay or sanctions to these policies.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-01-27T11:41:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420986177
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • COVID-19 and Teachers’ Somatic Burden, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion:
           Examining the Role of Principal Leadership and Workplace Buoyancy

    • Authors: Rebecca J. Collie
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The role of two leadership factors (autonomy-supportive and autonomy-thwarting leadership) and one personal resource (workplace buoyancy) were examined as predictors of three teacher outcomes: somatic burden, stress related to change, and emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from 325 Australian teachers in May, 2020 during the first wave of COVID-19. During this time, many Australian children were being taught remotely from home, while other students were attending schools in-person. Findings showed that autonomy-supportive leadership was associated with greater buoyancy and, in turn, lower somatic burden, stress related to change, and emotional exhaustion (while controlling for covariates, including COVID-19 work situation). Autonomy-thwarting leadership was positively associated with emotional exhaustion. In addition, autonomy-supportive leadership was indirectly associated with the outcomes. The findings provide understanding of factors that may be harnessed to support teachers during subsequent waves of COVID-19 and other future disruptions to schooling that may occur.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-01-18T01:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420986187
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Marta Pellegrini, Cynthia Lake, Amanda Neitzel, Robert E. Slavin
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of elementary mathematics programs; 87 rigorous experimental studies evaluated 66 programs in grades K–5. Programs were organized in six categories. Particularly positive outcomes were found for tutoring programs (effect size [ES] = +0.20, k = 22). Positive outcomes were also seen in studies focused on professional development for classroom organization and management (e.g., cooperative learning; ES = +0.19, k = 7). Professional development approaches focused on helping teachers gain in understanding of mathematics content and pedagogy had little impact on student achievement. Professional development intended to help in the adoption of new curricula had a small but significant impact for traditional (nondigital) curricula (ES = +0.12, k = 7), but not for digital curricula. Traditional and digital curricula with limited professional development, as well as benchmark assessment programs, found few positive effects.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T09:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420986211
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Labor Dynamics of School Principals in Rural Contexts

    • Authors: Minseok Yang, Se Woong Lee, Peter T. Goff
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Numerous studies have explored the labor market of school principals, documenting high turnover rates and voicing concerns regarding labor supply. However, little is known about the staffing challenges in rural schools and what promotes applicants to apply for and be hired for principalship in these locales. In partnership with the Wisconsin Education Career Access Network, we examine the principal labor dynamics in rural schools using statewide job-openings and application information. Results indicate that all rural communities—rural fringe, rural distant, and rural remote—receive comparable numbers of applications, as compared with urban districts. Female candidates and candidates of color are significantly less likely to apply to rural districts, while experience working in the same district is a considerable advantage to being hired. Additionally, higher student poverty is associated with fewer principal applicants in rural schools. These results indicate the need for policies better attuned to subtle differences in rural contexts.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T09:16:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420986189
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Explore, Exploit, and Prune in the Classroom: Strategic Resource
           Management Behaviors Predict Performance

    • Authors: Patricia Chen, Desmond C. Ong, Jessica C. Ng, Brian P. Coppola
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Self-regulated learners strategically manage physical, technological, online, and social resources for learning—by selecting resources that could be useful, reflecting on how useful these resources have been, and adjusting resource use accordingly. We propose a model that conceptualizes resource management as learners’ intentional, self-reflective decisions to explore new resources, exploit (continue to use) previously useful resources, and prune (stop using) previously ineffective resources. We modeled 4,766 students’ reported exploration, exploitation, and pruning between three class exams among four cohorts of an organic chemistry class (i.e., more than 100,000 discrete data points of resource use). Each of these behavioral mechanisms of resource management predicted students’ academic achievement: The more students reported exploring, exploiting, and pruning between their exams, the higher they performed on their subsequent exams, controlling for prior performance. These findings enrich self-regulated learning theories by concretizing the behavioral mechanisms of resource management by which learners take control of their learning.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T06:10:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420986180
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Schools With Test-Based Promotion: Effects on Instructional Time
           Allocation and Student Learning in Grade 3

    • Authors: Yihua Hong, Guanglei Hong
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      This study is focused on the threat of retention associated with test-based promotion in Grade 3. Through analyzing the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 data, we found that schools having such a policy apparently increased math instructional time but not reading instructional time in Grade 3. On average, the policy did not produce significant differences in third graders’ reading and math learning. However, there seemed to be a notable increase in the proportion of students who achieved an at or above-average proficiency level in Grade 3 math. In both reading and math, the test-based promotion seemingly benefited students at the average or lower than average ability levels. In contrast, there was no evidence that the policy had an impact on students at the two ends of the ability distribution. We discussed the implication of the findings for the current design and implementation of test-based promotion in early grades.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T06:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420979167
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
  • Lesson Study as a Faculty Development Initiative in Higher Education: A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Gabriel Hervas
      Abstract: AERA Open, Volume 7, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Lesson study (LS) is a professional development practice that has mainly remained conducted by elementary, secondary, and preservice schoolteachers. However, in recent years, different studies have explored its practice among higher education (HE) faculty members. This article presents the first systematic review on LS among HE faculty members. Twenty-one studies published until December 2019 were analyzed. Among others, findings regarding reveal that (a) most of these studies are of U.S. origin and of linguistic and mathematics disciplines; (b) few faculty members participated in these studies; (c) most LS-related references used are not contextualized in HE; (d) beneficial outcomes of LS in the design of the lessons, the participants’ pedagogical knowledge and the participants’ approach to teaching; (e) mixed results regarding the participants’ reflection and collaboration, and (f) less positive outcomes about organizational issues when conducting LS. I discuss these results and present future research lines and limitations of this study.
      Citation: AERA Open
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T04:49:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2332858420982564
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2021)
       
 
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