Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 546, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Structural Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.599
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 51  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1369-4332 - ISSN (Online) 2048-4011
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • Cyclic loading test of reinforced concrete frames protected with
           brace-type friction dampers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yusuke Maida, Hiroyasu Sakata
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, cyclic loading tests were conducted on reinforced concrete (RC) portal frames with brace-type friction dampers. The boundary conditions that could reproduce the axial forces exerted on the beams were adopted. To resist the axial force acting on the RC member, a damper connection method was employed by using steel inserted through the center of the RC member. The purpose of this study was to a) understand the behavior of the damper connection and the RC frame with brace-type friction dampers based on experimental tests and b) to confirm the effectiveness of the new connection method. According to the test results, the proposed connection method achieved effective damper connections in the RC frames. For the RC frame specimens with dampers, it was confirmed that the damper reached its sliding force and started to dissipate energy at an early stage with story drift ratios smaller than those at RC beam yielding. The welded part of the gusset plate and the steel inserted through the center of the RC beam were broken. When the welded part inside the beam broke and the axial deformation of the beam increased, the sliding displacement of the damper decreased. Therefore, a reliable jointing method of this part needs to be established.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-09T12:19:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211042785
       
  • Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with high-strength steel
           wire and engineered cementitious composites

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fang Yuan, Wangren Wei, Ren Hu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Engineered cementitious composite (ECC) is a type of high-performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composite with good ductility and excellent crack control ability. It has attracted increasing attention as a structural repair material in severely corrosive environments. However, the strength improvement is limited when ECC is used alone for shear strengthening of existing reinforced concrete (RC) members, although its shear capacity is much higher than that of other brittle cementitious materials such as cement mortar. This study proposes a novel shear strengthening method for RC beams with both high load-carrying capacity and good durability through the combination of high-strength steel wire and an ECC layer. The shear behaviours of the beams were tested under static loading. The test results showed that the shear strength and the ultimate displacement were significantly improved through shear strengthening. A large number of fine cracks appeared on the ECC layer before the failure of the beams. The load-carrying capacity was reduced by pre-damage owing to the important role of the shear resistance of the concrete with respect to the total shear capacity. The shear strength of the strengthened beams cannot be accurately predicted by the current design code owing to the ignorance of the shear resistance of ECC.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T03:34:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211046346
       
  • Cable effective length model error-based bridge performance warning method
           under thermal action

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yan Wang, Dong-Hui Yang, Yu-Zheng Zhou, Ting-Hua Yi
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The cables of long-span cable-stayed bridges are subjected to substantial tension during long-term service and are more susceptible to corrosion and fatigue failure than concrete structures. Most existing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems do not have monitoring equipment to directly measure cable length, and long-term monitoring of the change in cables is less involved. The displacement response of a bridge is induced by the combination of dynamic effects (wind and highways) and quasi-static effects (temperature). In this paper, the dynamic responses were eliminated by averaging the displacement data for 10 min, and the relationship between temperature and displacement was studied. Based on the monitoring data, the distribution of the thermal field for the bridge was studied and the time variability of the tower displacement was investigated. The correlation was analyzed to study the relationship between the temperature and the tower displacements, the north tower–south tower distance and the tower–girder distances. A strong linear relationship between the temperature and quasi-static responses of the displacements was observed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the effective length of cables was proposed as a quantitative index for long-term cable monitoring. The error in the cable effective length is proposed as the warning index for performance warning research. The results show that the proposed performance warning method can monitor cables and perform warnings when the cable is damaged.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:35:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211048007
       
  • Prediction of structural responses induced by single-person jumping
           through a physical principle based on transfer functions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Haoqi Wang, Zhuoran Zhang, Jun Chen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The vibration caused by human excitation has become a key factor at the structural design stage of large-span structures including footbridges, sport stadia, and high-rise buildings. As the structures tend to become slenderer and lighter, the mass of the crowd is not negligibly small compared with the mass of the structure. In such cases, the crowd and the structure form a coupling system through a mechanism known as human–structure interaction (HSI). Researchers found that the structural responses with and without HSI are different. However, the interaction effect on the structural responses has rarely been quantitatively evaluated from the perspective of human system parameters. In this paper, a novel method using a physical principle to predict jumping-induced structural responses is proposed, in which the structural response is expressed as the multiplication of a series of transfer functions representing human system and structural dynamic properties. Structural responses of a large-span concrete structure under jumping excitation are predicted using the proposed method and identified human system parameters. Comparison with measured responses shows satisfactory agreement. The proposed method provides a solution to consider HSI effect on the calculation of structural responses in the vibration serviceability design for large-span structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-02T01:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211046343
       
  • Strength index analysis of concrete with large size recycled aggregate
           based on back propagation neural network

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      Authors: Tan Li, Jianzhuang Xiao, Amardeep Singh
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A back propagation (BP) neural network (NN) model was used to analyze the relationship between the cube compressive strength and various strength indicators of concrete with large-sized recycled aggregates (LSRA) (80 mm maximum size). Factors such as strength and replacement rate of recycled aggregates were used as input parameters to establish the neural network model. The BP-NN model was optimized by analyzing the influence and sensitivity of each parameter in the model. Then the mechanical properties of concrete with LSRA were predicted. Results showed that the strength of new concrete had a more significant impact on the strength of recycled concrete with LSRA, followed by the strength of old concrete. While considering all the factors, including the mechanical strength and the replacement ratio regarding the maximum utilization of RA, the 30% incorporation rate was suggested as an ideal incorporation rate.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T05:45:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211046348
       
  • Research on the hysteretic performance of flower-gusset composite joints
           for single-layer aluminium alloy lattice shell structures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Caiqi Zhao, Gang Wang, Tengteng Zheng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Joints are the most critical component of reticulated shell structures, and their hysteretic performance is crucial to the mechanical properties of the whole reticulated shell structure under seismic action. Therefore, the hysteretic behaviour of aluminium alloy flower-gusset composite joint for an out-of-plane bending moment was studied by experiments and numerical analysis. The results show that the hysteretic curves of flower-gusset composite joints and gusset joints contain four stages: an elastic stage, a bolt slip stage, a hole wall pressure-stiffness degradation stage and a failure stage. The hysteretic performance of the new flower-gusset composite joint is obviously better than that of the traditional plate joint. With the increase in the thickness of the cover plate, the bending stiffness of the flower-gusset composite joint increases significantly, while the rotational deformation decreases. Then, a restoring force model of the flower-gusset composite joint is proposed through theoretical analysis based on experiments and numerical analysis.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T03:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211046341
       
  • A new deck arch bridge and a study on its mechanical properties by FE and
           experiment methods

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xia Qin, Mulin Pang, Xiaoli Xie, Chenyu Yan, Mingzhe Liang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a new type of deck arch bridge was proposed based on the triangle stability principle, and its mechanical properties were tested. The new deck arch bridge—named the superposed truss arch bridge—consists of main arches, auxiliary arches, a girder, and web members. These components adopt steel structures and are connected into a series of triangles to form a superposed truss structure. The new structural system design retains the advantages of the truss and arch structure. Additionally, the rise-span ratio of the main arch can be smaller in the new system design, so the rise height is smaller, which can decrease construction difficulty. The underlying mechanical principles of the new bridge were explained. A new type of railway deck arch bridge with a 650 m span was designed, and the finite element method was used to analyze its stiffness, strength, stability, and dynamic properties and the corresponding effects of the arch-axis coefficient, rise-span ratio, and span length on the mechanical properties. An experiment was carried out on a new deck arch bridge and a conventional deck arch bridge with the same span (10 m) to compare their performance. The results showed that the new deck arch bridge exhibited good mechanical properties while being inexpensive and easy to construct, which makes it suitable for high-speed railway bridges.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-26T02:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211042779
       
  • Tensile behavior of stud connectors in high strength concrete

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      Authors: Fuhai Li, Hao Gao, Yilin Jiang, Tao Wen, Yulin Zhan, Zhao Chen, Dong Shen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Stud connectors are commonly used in steel-concrete composite structures. As high strength concrete (HSC) will be applied in the construction of a composite structure, it is needed to study the performance of stud connectors in HSC. In this study, tension (pull-out) tests were conducted on the studs with different combinations of diameters-d(13, 16, and 19 mm) and effective embedment depths-hef (40, 60, and 80 mm) in HSC with a 28-day compressive strength of 88 MPa. Based on the experimental results, the concrete breakout failure mode dominates and only the scenario with the smallest diameter and largest hef is controlled by steel failure mode. Because of high strength, the steel failure occurs at smaller hef/d in HSC than normal concrete. In the concrete breakout failure mode, brittle load–displacement behaviors are presented and the angle of the breakout cone ranges from 30∼35°, which is close to the concrete capacity design (CCD) method. Also, the ultimate tensile strength (Nu), stiffness, and pre-peak ductility are dependent on hef and diameter. The existing prediction models (CCD method and variable angle cone method) both overestimate the Nu in HSC, which is due to its lower ratio tensile/compressive strength than normal concrete. Considering the mechanism of how the breakout cone is formed, a modified reduced_CCD method is proposed for predicting Nu of studs in HSC.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-25T02:59:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211029731
       
  • Serviceability performance of fiber-reinforced lightweight aggregate
           concrete beams with CFRP bars

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      Authors: Yijia Sun, Tao Wu, Xi Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Six lightweight aggregate concrete (LWC) beams reinforced with carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars were tested under a four-point bending load with different steel fiber contents, reinforcement ratios, and clear span lengths to investigate their flexural behavior and serviceability performance. The test results showed that using steel fiber–reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete (SFLWC) and increasing the reinforcement ratio enhanced the serviceability performance of the beams. The incorporation of 0.6% by volume of steel fibers reduced the midspan deflection by 22.70%–36.87% at the same load level in service stage. At service load, all the CFRP-reinforced beams exhibited conservative deflections when compared to the deflection limits recommended by ACI 440.1 R and GB 50608, and satisfied the crack width limit of 0.7 mm. Comparing the measured maximum crack widths with the corresponding predictions revealed that the bond-dependent coefficient value of 1.4 specified in ACI 440.1 R was reasonable yet conservative. Moreover, an energy-based method was adopted to quantify the influence of the fibers on the beam stiffness. On this basis, a rational deflection model for SFLWC beams reinforced with CFRP bars was suggested.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T10:28:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211043333
       
  • Assessment on the deflection amplification factor of steel
           buckling-restrained bracing frames

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      Authors: Mussa Mahmoudi, Mohammad Jalili Sadr Abad
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers in the field of earthquake engineering are always looking for new ways to improve the seismic behavior of structures. The buckling-restrained brace (BRB) is one of these exciting innovations that are employed to increase the ductility capacity of traditional steel braced frames. Understanding the nonlinear response of these novel systems in estimating maximum displacements due to an earthquake has been of significant importance for structural designers. Accordingly, this research is carried out to study of deflection amplification factor (Cd) in BRBs, which have recently been presented in seismic design provisions as one of the seismic lateral-resisting systems. To this end, five 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, and 15-story BRBs are modeled in the software framework of OpenSees. Ground motion simulation is performed by selecting several scaled earthquake records, and the values of elastic and ultimate displacements of structural systems are computed through pushover and nonlinear time-history analyses. The results showed that the deflection amplification factor suggested within famous building codes (such as ASCE-7-16) compared to the obtained values is, in some cases, for certainty; conversely, it is underestimated under some conditions. In fact, the findings indicate that the magnitude of Cd in these systems is strongly related to the height of the building.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T03:37:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211043983
       
  • Parametric study on mechanical properties of basalt leno textile applied
           as concrete reinforcement

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      Authors: Xiaofei Zhang, Xin Wang, Zheqi Peng, Zhongguo Zhu, Zhishen Wu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the mechanical properties of the basalt leno textile applied as concrete reinforcement were experimentally investigated considering different parameters including the impregnation materials, geometrical characteristics (the number of yarns, yarn structure, and yarn spacing), and loading rate. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, and failure mode were examined. Furthermore, the force mechanism of impregnated leno textile under tensile load was analyzed. The experimental results showed that the textile with a stiff impregnation material exhibited a higher strength and modulus than that with a flexible material. The leno textile with the straight yarn had a better performance than those with the twisted yarns. Besides, the constraint of the weft yarns is obvious to the textile in the warp direction, while the warp yarn makes no contributions to the bearing capacity of textile in the weft direction. The weft yarn spacing had a significant impact on mechanical properties of the textile in the warp direction. Furthermore, the loading rate of approximately 1.2 mm/min was suggested to determine the maximum force of the impregnated basalt leno textile. A tensile strength model was proposed considering the effects of the impregnation material, consistent deformation, torsion damage, and twisted angle.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T02:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211042787
       
  • Experimental investigation and strength model of RC deep beams externally
           bonded by CFRP

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      Authors: Saeed Ahmad, Ayub Elahi, Rana Faisal Tufail, Muhammad Zahid, Saad Bin Tariq
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents an experimental study on shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams using externally applied carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) jackets. A total of 18 RC deep beams were tested using a four-point bending load. The examined parameter included span to depth ratio with or without CFRP strengthening. CFRP strips were applied perpendicular to the probable crack pattern as observed during testing for un-strengthened beams. The properties that is cracking behavior, ultimate strength, deflection, and energy dissipation capacity of beams were evaluated and discussed. The test results showed enhancement in shear strength up to 17% with CFRP. An increase in depth of RC deep beams caused a decrease in the rate of enhancement in shear strength for CFRP strengthened beams as compared to that observed in their counterparts. The experimental test results were compared with the existing design guidelines to assess their application for RC deep beams strengthened with CFRP. A strength equation based on regression analysis was developed to predict the experimental shear strength of RC deep beams strengthened with CFRP. This study showed that the RC deep beams strengthened with CFRP can effectively be used in structural engineering applications with enhanced shear strength and energy absorption capacity.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T11:42:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211010583
       
  • Peak strength prediction of reinforced concrete columns in different
           failure modes based on gene expression programming

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      Authors: Iman Mansouri, Süleyman İpek, Esra Mete Guneyisi, Chao-Lie Ning
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The peak strength of reinforced concrete (RC) columns plays an important role in the appraisal of inelastic seismic performance. It depends on various parameters related to the geometry, reinforcement detail, material property, confinement effect, and loading condition. In applications, it is usually a prior condition to classify the failure modes of RC columns for predicting the peak strength accurately. Yet, classifying the failure modes of RC columns in an accurate way is a difficult task due to the complexity of the shear transfer mechanism. Thus, there is a need to develop a peak strength prediction model for RC columns failing in different modes directly. In this study, an attempt has been made by implementing the gene expression programming (GEP) method to realize this purpose. The experimental data required for the implementation of the GEP method are based on extensive results of RC columns tested in quasi-static cyclic loading. To validate the efficiency of the developed model, a detailed comparison against existing equations is conducted. The comparative results indicate that the developed model produces a rational prediction for the peak strength of RC columns in various failure modes. Based on the developed model, the peak strength can be predicted in a unified way for both ductile and non-ductile RC columns, which is beneficial for the seismic evaluation of existing structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-21T12:35:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026216
       
  • Experimental study on flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams
           with U-shaped steel under secondary load

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      Authors: Qingli Lin, Yiyan Lu, Wenshui Tang, Dongshan Lei
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes a new method to strengthen reinforced concrete (RC) beams with U-shaped steel, which can achieve rapid construction and great improvement in the flexural performance of RC beams. To investigate the influence of secondary load defined as newly applied loads after strengthening on the strengthening effect, a total of nine specimens were tested under four-point bending, including a reference beam, a strengthened beam under initial load, and seven strengthened beams under secondary load. The initial loading degree, the thickness of the bottom plate, and the height of the steel box were the main variables considered in this study. Testing results showed that compared with the reference beam, the flexural performance of strengthened beams was significantly enhanced, indicating the good joint performance of the U-shaped steel and the RC beams. Among the three main variables, the initial loading degree was found to have a minimal effect on the flexural performance while the thickness of the bottom plate and the height of the steel box had considerable influence, with the latter having a more pronounced effect. Testing results also showed that most of the strengthened beams experienced flexural failures, which were reflected by steel web peeling and buckling, and concrete crushing. Moreover, a formula was derived for calculating the flexural capacity of strengthened beams under secondary load. The results from the derived formula were found to be in good agreement with those from experiments.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T05:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211036959
       
  • Prestressed concrete wall system with friction devices: Seismic
           performance and direct displacement–based seismic design

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      Authors: Gang Xu, Tong Guo, Aiqun Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      It is convenient to use the inelastic displacement ratio spectra and residual displacement ratio spectra to predict the maximum inelastic displacement and residual displacement of building structures based on linear elastic analysis directly. The prestressed concrete wall system with friction devices (PCW-FD system) can be simulated by single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model with self-centering behavior. To investigate the seismic performance of PCW-FD system, the SDOF models with fully and non-fully self-centering behavior are analyzed firstly, and it is concluded that the hysteresis parameters (strength reduction coefficient, post-yield stiffness coefficient, energy dissipation coefficient, and period) have significant influence on the seismic responses (such as constant relative strength inelastic displacement ratio, constant relative strength residual displacement ratio, maximum absolute acceleration, the hysteretic energy, and site classifications) during short period, and the trends of the seismic responses are similar at different site classifications. Then a large amount of the result data is summarized, and the constant relative strength inelastic displacement ratio spectra and the constant relative strength residual displacement ratio spectra with enough precision (the correlation coefficients are 0.957 and 0.947, respectively) are established by conducting regression analysis. Finally, the direct displacement–based seismic design method is improved and verified to be suitable for PCW-FD system.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T03:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211042783
       
  • Damping estimation using free decays response in short telecom structures

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      Authors: Jose A Jimenez Capilla, Ying Wang, James Mark William Brownjohn
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The constant changes to which telecommunications have accustomed us in recent decades oblige a similar adaptation in other branches of engineering. Structures such as monopoles and short lattice towers are becoming increasingly wind-sensitive and dynamically active with the introduction of 5G technology, which will require new larger and heavier antenna equipment. Expert consultants agree the need to revise the current accounting for structural damping that has not changed in design codes after more than 30 years. A complete set of full-scale field tests is presented to obtain reliable structural damping values in short communications structures. The described methodology analyses free-decaying responses obtained after excitation of the main analysed cantilevered modes in the time domain. A standardized acquisition system based on local accelerometers and an external innovative system using the Video GaugeTM system are required to obtain the desired responses, which use curve-fitting and the eigensystem realization algorithm to estimate modal properties such as the corresponding modal structural damping. The results obtained using the presented methodology agree on higher values of structural damping for both damping estimators and perfectly converge with consultant feedback, which suggested over-conservative (i.e. low) values of structural damping as compared to the conventional values used in civil engineering.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T11:58:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211042780
       
  • Experimental investigations of interference effects on wind pressures of
           tall buildings

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      Authors: Huayi Peng, Zhe Liu, Hongjun Liu, Kun Lin, Gang Hu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The interference effects between two tall buildings on building surface wind pressures are studied by using wind tunnel experiments. Different breadth ratios (Br = Binterfering/Bprincipal), depth ratios (Dr = Dinterfering/Dprincipal), and relative locations of the two buildings are tested. The results show that the interference effects on mean wind pressures on the windward face and the right face are more considerable than those on the other two faces. The windward face mainly shows the shielding effect, while the right face exhibits the amplification effect. The surface interference factors (SIF) of windward and right faces under different breadth ratios and depth ratios have clear correlation with the reference values (Br = Dr = 1.0), and a series of correlation formulas are obtained. The SIF values of the windward face in tandem arrangement and the maximum and minimum interference factors of the right face in parallel arrangement are formulated. The most prominent local peak pressure under different cases mainly concentrates in the side edge and upper edge of the windward face, the left upper corner, left lower corner, and the upper-middle part of the right face.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T11:22:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211042777
       
  • Combined effects of sulfate attack under drying–wetting cycles and
           loading on the fatigue behavior of concrete

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      Authors: Ping Zhang, Song Ren, Yunfeng Zhao, Le Wang, Nengzeng Long, Fan Chen, Chun Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Concrete structures often undergo both fatigue loading and environmental impacts during their useful lifetime. This study aims to explore the fatigue properties of concrete subjected to sulfate attacks under drying–wetting cycles and loading. The coupled influences of major cycle number and sodium sulfate solution on the residual deformation, elastic modulus, and damage variable were investigated by uniaxial cyclic loading tests. Moreover, the phase composition of concrete samples was examined by X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the concrete residual deformation and damage variable could be classified into initial and stable stages, while the elastic modulus fluctuated within a certain range. The fatigue strength of concrete was found to increase with an increase in the major cycle number and sodium sulfate concentration in the early stages, whereas the fatigue performance of concrete decreased as the major cycle number and sodium sulfate concentration increased in the later stage. The degree of influence of major cycle number and sodium sulfate concentration on the fatigue properties of concrete differed in each stage. These findings can contribute to understand the variation pattern of concrete properties in complicated environments and provide an important reference for associated construction projects.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T08:12:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211042774
       
  • Role of dynamic water rivulets in the excitation of rain–wind-induced
           cable vibration: A critical review

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      Authors: Donglai Gao, Wenjie Li, Haiquan Jing, Jian Wang, Jintuan Wu, Wenli Chen, Li Hui
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      It has been more than 30 years since Hikami Y and Shiraishi N (1988) Rain–wind-induced vibrations of cable-stayed bridges. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 29: 409–418 first reported the rain–wind-induced vibration (RWIV) of stay cables in the construction stage of Meikonishi Bridge, Japan. After that, considerable research efforts have been devoted to understanding the RWIV of stay cables, and the role of the upper rivulet has been gradually realized and studied. This study presents a selective review on recent progress of RWIV and its controversial excitation mechanism. The available knowledge and up-to-date understanding of this complex fluid-structure interaction are presented in some detail. The formation, dynamics of water rivulet, and its role in affecting the near-wall boundary layer properties and in the excitation scenario of RWIV are of particular interest in this study. Finally, some limitations of previous studies are concluded, with some perspective suggestions for further study of excitation mechanism of RWIV.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T08:30:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211040136
       
  • Behavior of ultra-high-performance concrete columns subjected to axial
           compressive load

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      Authors: Kaize Ma, Yudong Ma, Guohua Xing, Boquan Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A constitutive model of confined ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) was developed based on the theoretical and regression analyses. This constitutive model could be applied to finite element analysis (FEA) according to the comparison of plastic damage analysis and load–displacement curves. A total of 25 stirrup-confined UHPC columns were created through FEA modeling. The variables included stirrup spacing, stirrup configuration, steel fiber volume, and longitudinal reinforcement ratio. The load–displacement curves and the plastic damage region of the UHPC columns were illustrated and analyzed. Moreover, parametric analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of the aforementioned parameters. The improvement in the bearing capacity and ductility of the UHPC columns resulting from the reduction in stirrup spacing and increase in steel fiber volume indicated that the columns were significantly influenced by the stirrup spacing, stirrup configuration, and steel fiber volume.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-23T10:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211038440
       
  • Behaviour of simply supported RC skew slabs stiffened with shallow beams

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      Authors: Madhu Sharma, Harvinder Singh, Naveen Kwatra
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Skew slab is the most common structural element that finds numerous applications in practice, especially when there is any space constraint that prevents the selection of either square or rectangular slab. Due to its geometry, this type of slab behaves differently in comparison to the rectangular slabs and it is a very time-consuming process to predict the moment field in such type of slabs. It becomes still more complicated when some beam system is used to meet the prescribed serviceability criterion. A set of mathematical expressions is presented in the paper that could be of help to predict the moment field being induced in skew slabs under external loads. The outcome of the proposed expressions is validated experimentally as well as numerically; a good agreement is observed in the results. An illustrative example is also presented in the paper to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed expressions.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T11:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211022071
       
  • Experimental investigation of wind loads on wind turbine blade under
           various turbulent flows

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      Authors: Yi Li, Qian Song, Qiu-Sheng Li, Di-Ling Wang, Xiao-Peng Wu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      For investigation of the effects of turbulence intensity (TI) on the wind loads on wind turbine blade, a 1:20 scaled model of a typical 3D wind turbine blade is designed and used for the pressure measurement test in a wind tunnel. Five uniform flows with different turbulence intensities are simulated in the wind tunnel test. The mean and root-mean-square (RMS) wind pressure coefficients, base moment coefficients, and their power spectral densities are presented and discussed in detail. Combined with the dynamic properties of the blade structure, wind-induced displacements at the tip of the blade are calculated by the random vibration theory. The results show that the increasing of TI amplifies the aerodynamic loads on the blade in terms of RMS wind pressure coefficients and RMS bending moment coefficients. Large wind-induced displacement of the wind turbine blade may be stimulated by high TI even under the feathering condition. This article aims to further the understanding of wind loads on wind turbine blades and provide useful information for the wind-resistant design of wind farms established in regions with high turbulence levels.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T10:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211040137
       
  • Adaptive control of damaged structures by using smart tunable liquid
           column gas damper considering dynamic soil–structure interaction

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      Authors: Fereidoun Amini, Nazanin Nazmdar Shahri
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Liquid column dampers are adjusted based on the characteristics of the host structure and the type of external forces. It is assumed in most studies that the structure is rigidly connected to the ground, and the characteristics of the structure are invariant during external excitations. The performance of passive dampers may lose, or structural displacements may be increased by changing these conditions. This study presented a new method to find the optimal control forces for structures equipped with smart tuned liquid column gas damper (TLCGDs), considering variable characteristics of the structure and the soil–structure interaction. The proposed method calculates the gas pressure inside the columns by regularly adjusting and updating the frequency and damping of the TLCGD. The unknown or changed soil–structure characteristics are estimated by a system identification method, and damper parameters are determined through an optimization algorithm. The method was tested on 3- 9- and 10-story shear buildings under harmonic and earthquake excitation. According to the results, the smart damper more effectively reduced the structural displacement.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-17T01:39:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211036963
       
  • Review of piezoelectric impedance based structural health monitoring:
           Physics-based and data-driven methods

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      Authors: Xingyu Fan, Jun Li, Hong Hao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Vibration based structural health monitoring methods are usually dependent on the first several orders of modal information, such as natural frequencies, mode shapes and the related derived features. These information are usually in a low frequency range. These global vibration characteristics may not be sufficiently sensitive to minor structural damage. The alternative non-destructive testing method using piezoelectric transducers, called as electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique, has been developed for more than two decades. Numerous studies on the EMI based structural health monitoring have been carried out based on representing impedance signatures in frequency domain by statistical indicators, which can be used for damage detection. On the other hand, damage quantification and localization remain a great challenge for EMI based methods. Physics-based EMI methods have been developed for quantifying the structural damage, by using the impedance responses and an accurate numerical model. This article provides a comprehensive review of the exciting researches and sorts out these approaches into two categories: data-driven based and physics-based EMI techniques. The merits and limitations of these methods are discussed. In addition, practical issues and research gaps for EMI based structural health monitoring methods are summarized.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T06:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211038444
       
  • Investigations on a mega–sub isolation system under near-fault
           ground motions

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      Authors: Xiangxiu Li, Ping Tan, Aiwen Liu, Xiaojun Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The failure mechanism of the mega–sub isolation system under near-fault ground motions is studied in this article. 90 suites of near-fault ground motions collected from 23 earthquakes are adopted to investigate the ground motion intensity indices applicable for the mega–sub isolation system. Then, the sensitivities of the stochastic responses to the structural parameters are analyzed to determine the representative random structural parameters. Furthermore, considering the uncertainties of ground motion characteristics and structural parameters, the seismic fragility is analyzed by the response surface method in order to obtain the failure mechanism of this system under near-fault ground motions. Results show that different intensity indices have various correlation coefficients with the peak responses of the mega–sub isolation system. The correlations of acceleration-related intensity indices are the worst, whereas the correlations of displacement-related intensity indices show high linearity. The sensitivities of the structural responses are weaker to the sub-structure story stiffness but more sensitive to the sub-structure story mass and the stiffness and damping ratio of the isolation layer. The failure probability of the sub-structure is higher than that of the mega-structure under near-fault ground motion. While in the collapse state, the failure probability of the isolation layer is greater than that of the sub-structure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T11:45:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026227
       
  • Computational analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to fire
           using a multilayered finite element formulation

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      Authors: Batoma Sosso, Fabian M Paz Gutierrez, Péter Z Berke
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fire is a critical risk in reinforced concrete (RC) structures and appropriate structural resistance against it has to be ensured. In this contribution, an approach using corotational layered beam finite elements is employed in which the cross-section temperature is derived from a low-cost closed form model, as opposed to the more commonly used fully computational thermal analysis. The effect of geometrical and material nonlinearities (constitutive behavior fitted to experimental data for concrete and steel), material degradation as a function of temperature rise, and the contributions of thermal, transient, and creep strains are incorporated in the structural analysis. The computational results are favorably compared to experimental data from the literature for an RC beam and for a larger RC frame. Taking benefit of the layered beam formulation offering local insight into the cross-sectional and material behavior, the relationship between the structural degradation and data extracted from the cross-sectional behavior is successfully established. Noteworthy originalities of the contribution are the use of ultimate strain and its evolution as a function of temperature for both materials and the explanation of the observed structural response in fire conditions from cross-sectional data.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T08:16:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211029732
       
  • Numerical and analytical investigation on the moment and deformation
           capacity of interior slab-column connections without shear reinforcement

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      Authors: Ming Tang, Wei-Jian Yi, Hui Chen, Yue-Fan Wu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, nonlinear finite element analyses of reinforced concrete interior slab-column connections were performed to investigate their punching shear behavior under gravity and lateral loads without shear reinforcement. A numerical model based on the concrete damaged plasticity (CDP) model in ABAQUS was developed with suitable constitutive models for concrete and reinforcements using eight-node brick elements with reduced integration and three-dimensional truss elements, respectively. The model was calibrated in comparison with the test results of an interior slab-column connection without shear reinforcement. Moreover, the validity of the calibrated model was verified using other test results. Then, a parametric study was conducted to examine the influence of different design variables on the unbalanced moment and deformation capacity of slab-column connections. Finally, based on the existing experimental data and finite element analysis results obtained in this work, formulas for calculating the ultimate unbalanced moment and drift ratio were proposed using the nonlinear fitting method. The proposed formulas were compared with the existing methods provided by other national codes and researchers, verifying the rationality of the proposed formulas.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T11:08:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211036957
       
  • An investigation of the structural nonlinearity effects on the building
           seismic risk assessment under mainshock–aftershock sequences in Tehran
           metro city

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      Authors: Ali Khansefid
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This research attempts to investigate the effects of neglecting the nonlinear behavior of structures on the estimated seismic risk assessment of buildings under mainshock–aftershock (MA) sequences. In this regard, the Tehran metro city is selected as a building site due to its high seismicity level. Three separate 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings are considered and designed based on international design codes. The earthquake hazard scenarios containing mainshock–aftershock sequences are modeled randomly using a synthetic stochastic methodology for this region. Next, by implementing the Monte Carlo simulation method, buildings performances are obtained for a large number of different scenarios, and consequently, the lifetime direct losses imposed on the buildings are evaluated. To investigate the effect of structural nonlinearity, the described process is performed in two distinct scenarios: one of them assumes that the buildings behave linearly, while the other one allows the structures to respond nonlinearly. Finally, the level of dependency of calculated lifetime seismic risk to this parameter and also the contribution of different sources of losses, including physical damage, business interruption, and casualty losses, are investigated considering the aftershocks effect.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T04:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211038446
       
  • Post-fire performance of steel reinforced concrete columns with different
           steel sections

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      Authors: Meisam Hassani, Mohammad Safi, Reza Rasti Ardakani, Amir Saedi Daryan
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the post-fire performance of steel reinforced concrete composite (SRC) columns used in building construction using experimental compression tests. Four conventional steel sections as I-shaped, Cross, Box, and Plus were considered as the steel core. For fire loading, all fabricated columns were subjected to five target temperatures, including 25°, 250°, 500°, 700°, and 900°C, and then the cooling phase of the columns was done under natural conditions. Then using pressure jacks, the compressive behavior including strength and axial deformation of each of them was measured, and force-deformation curves were plotted and investigated for each SRC column. The results of these tests showed that the compressive strength and the elasticity modulus of the columns decrease at higher temperatures. Also, the effect of the steel core was examined on the compressive strength. Among the tested sections, SRC columns with the Box-steel core showed a more recovery in its compressive strength and elasticity modulus, and hence, its performance was better than SRC columns with the other steel cores. Moreover, SRC columns with the Plus-steel core indicated the weakest compressive strength and elasticity modulus. Finally, some equations were proposed for the prediction of the compressive strength and elasticity modulus of SRC columns at different temperatures by applying gene expression programming (GEP modeling) to the results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T04:06:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211036958
       
  • A deep neural network-based vehicle re-identification method for bridge
           load monitoring

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      Authors: Yufeng Zhang, Junxin Xie, Jiayi Peng, Hui Li, Yong Huang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The accurate tracking of vehicle loads is essential for the condition assessment of bridge structures. In recent years, a computer vision method that is based on multiple sources of data from monitoring cameras and weight-in-motion (WIM) systems has become a promising strategy in bridge vehicle load identification for structural health monitoring (SHM) and has attracted increasing attention. The implementation of vehicle re-identification, namely, the identification of the same vehicle from images that were captured at different locations or time instants, is the key topic of this study. In this study, a vehicle re-identification method that is based on HardNet, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) specialized in picking up local image features, is proposed. First, we obtain the vehicle point feature positions in the image through feature detection. Then, the HardNet is employed to encode the point feature image patches into deep learning feature descriptors. Re-identification of the target vehicle is achieved by matching the encoded descriptors between two images, which are robust toward scaling, rotation, and other types of noises. A comparison study of the proposed method with three published vehicle re-identification methods is performed using vehicle image data from a real bridge, and the superior performance of our proposed method is demonstrated.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T10:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033956
       
  • Wind tunnel tests and dynamic analysis of wind-induced response of a
           transmission tower on a hill

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      Authors: Jian Guo, Changliang Xiao, Jiantao Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A hill with a lattice transmission tower presents complex wind field characteristics. The commonly used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are difficult to analyze the wind resistance and dynamic responses of the transmission tower due to structural complexity. In this study, wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations are conducted to analyze the wind field of the hill and the dynamic responses of the transmission tower built on it. The hill models with different slopes are investigated by wind tunnel tests to measure the wind field characteristics, such as mean speed and turbulence intensity. The study shows that the existence of a transmission tower reduces the wind speed on the leeward slope significantly but has little effect on the windward slope. To study the dynamic behavior of the transmission tower, a hybrid analysis procedure is used by introducing the measured experimental wind information to the finite element tower model established using ANSYS. The effects of hill slope on the maximum displacement response of the tower are studied. The results show that the maximum value of the response is the largest when the hill slope is 25° compared to those when hill slope is 15° and 35°. The results extend the knowledge concerning wind tunnel tests on hills of different terrain and provide a comprehensive understanding of the interactive effects between the hill and existing transmission tower regarding to the wind field characteristics and structural dynamic responses.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T06:24:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033960
       
  • Research on flexural behavior of composite box continuous girder with
           corrugated steel webs and trusses

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      Authors: Jucan Dong, Yiyan Chen, Qingxiong Wu, Aoxiang Hu, Ruijuan Jiang, Chengwei Wang, Zhaojie Tong, Hua Song, Tianhua Xu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new type of composite structure, the composite box girder with corrugated steel webs (CSWs) and trusses, is proposed recently. In order to investigate the structural behavior under positive and negative bending moments, flexural tests of the continuous girder were carried out, and the failure modes, deformation patterns, strain distribution, and development of the concrete cracks were investigated. Finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of the range of concrete in the steel tube and the thickness of CSWs on the flexural behavior. The experimental and numerical results show that the test beam has a good ductility and integrity under flexural load. The contribution of CSWs to the flexural bearing capacity is very small and can be neglected. Besides, the plane section assumption is still valid when only top concrete slab and bottom steel tubes are concerned. The concrete filled in bottom steel tubes increases the stiffness and the bearing capacity of the girder. Equations to calculate the flexural bearing capacity under positive and negative bending moments were put forward and then verified with experimental results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-27T03:12:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033957
       
  • Performance of axially restrained carbon and stainless steel perforated
           beams at elevated temperatures

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      Authors: Mohamed A Shaheen, Sheida Afshan, Andrew SJ Foster
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article compares the fire performance of axially restrained perforated carbon and austenitic stainless steel composite beams with circular and rectangular web openings. Finite element models, validated against experimental tests from the literature, were used to perform parametric analysis. The beams were analysed under various levels of load ratio and axial restraint stiffness covering the ranges which may exist in practice. It is concluded that austenitic stainless steel perforated beams show a more ductile fire response compared to carbon steel beams of similar geometry. It is shown that despite stainless steel’s higher thermal expansion, the beams exhibit lower thermal-induced peak compressive forces than carbon steel beams giving rise to lower levels of thermal-induced compressive force on the adjacent cold structures. The load ratio was found to determine the relative survivability of stainless steel and carbon steel beams, where at load ratios lower than 0.6, stainless steel beams show superior fire resistance than their carbon steel counterparts. The article also assesses the applicability and accuracy of the Steel Construction Institute method for the design of carbon and stainless steel perforated beams, and recommendations for future improvements are made.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T02:59:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033965
       
  • Axial behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer–confined recycled
           aggregate concrete-filled steel tube slender square columns

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      Authors: Jiongfeng Liang, Siqi Lin, Mizan Ahmed
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)–confined recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tube (RACFT) columns is barely studied. Especially, that of slender specimens has not been investigated so far. In this article, an experimental test of FRP-confined RACFT slender square columns was conducted to study the influences of recycled aggregate (RA) replacement ratios, FRP thicknesses, and wrapping schemes on their axial behavior. Results in this article suggest that the RA replacement ratio barely affects the initial stiffness of load-deflection curves of specimens. Moreover, the specimen with a higher RA replacement ratio has a lower axial stress but larger strain at the peak point. The external FRP jackets (either partial or full wrap) can effectively improve the performance of axially loaded RACFT columns, and the improvement of ductility due to the increase of the FRP thickness is more significant than that of axial compressive strength. Additionally, it was found that the axial strength and ultimate axial strain decrease with increasing slenderness ratios. Furthermore, the influences of slenderness ratios on the behavior of such columns are more significant for the column with a larger length-to-width ratio. Finally, a design model for FRP-confined RACFT slender square columns is developed, which can predict the results of the present test accurately.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T05:05:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033964
       
  • Finite element analysis on eccentric compression of reinforced concrete
           columns strengthened by prestressed polyethylene terephthalate straps and
           angle steel

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      Authors: Jianhui Si, Jiebin Chen, Shixiong Qiu, Shuyang Feng, Wenjing Guo
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To overcome the lagged strain and insufficient stiffness of conventional reinforced structures, this article proposes a reinforcement method realized by combining prestressed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) straps and angle steel. This combined reinforcement method relies on the active restraint force provided by the PET straps and the vertical bearing capacity provided by the angle steel to improve the bearing capacity and ductility of reinforced structures. This article introduces the experimental process applied to the combined reinforced columns. Thereafter, a finite element simulation model of the columns strengthened by prestressed PET straps and angle steel was established on the basis of the experiment. A plastic damage model was used for the concrete. An ideal elastoplastic model was used for the PET straps, angle steel, and steel bars. In the finite element simulation analysis, a multiparameter analysis was conducted on the eccentric distance, packaging distance, and packaging method. The research results showed that as the packing spacing of the PET straps decreases, the confinement area of the column increases, and the load-bearing capacity and ductility of the specimens increase to some extent. With the increase in the eccentricity, the increase in the bearing capacity of the combined reinforced column is less. Nevertheless, there is significant improvement in the ductility performance. Considering the economy and reinforcement effects, the mesh packing method produces the best results. This article introduces parameters such as the restraint stress of the PET straps and the utilization rate of the angle steel. A calculation formula for the small-eccentric bearing capacity of the combined reinforced column was established, providing a theoretical basis for engineering applications.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T04:34:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033961
       
  • Shape memory alloy-spring damper for seismic control and its application
           to bridge with laminated rubber bearings

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      Authors: Sasa Cao, Jiang Yi
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study introduces a shape memory alloy (SMA)-spring damper which is composed of SMA bars and elastic springs arranged in perpendicular. The damper depicts a curved flag-shape hysteretic behavior that is endowed with self-centering capacities and large deformation capabilities but uses reduced amount of SMA material. A design procedure is proposed to apply the SMA-spring damper to the bridge with laminated rubber bearings which would slide under seismic excitations. Analytical results validate the effectiveness of SMA-spring dampers in seismic control of the bridge: (1) The damper provides trivial stiffness to the bridge at small displacement, and the isolation efficiency of the bridge is maintained; (2) large horizontal force is provided for the structures at large deformation of the bearings, which alleviates the excessive displacement of bearings and prevents span collapse; and (3) the damper helps recenter the bearings and reduce the residual displacement of the bridge.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T04:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033955
       
  • Identification of modal parameters from non-stationary responses of
           high-rise buildings

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      Authors: Lunhai Zhi, Feng Hu, Qiusheng Li, Zhixiang Hu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A key issue in the control, health monitoring, and condition assessment of civil structures is the estimation of structural modal parameters based on measured structural responses. However, field measurements of structural responses from civil structures under strong wind or earthquake excitations usually exhibit non-stationary feature and therefore cannot be adequately deal with by traditional modal identification methods. In this study, a novel procedure is integrated for modal parameter identification of civil structures from non-stationary structural responses on the basis of the variational mode decomposition (VMD) technique. First, the VMD algorithm is applied to decompose measured vibration signals into individual mode components. Then, the random decrement technique (RDT) is employed to obtain free vibration response of each mono component. Next, normalized Hilbert transform (NHT) is used to estimate modal natural frequency and damping ratio. The performance of the developed approach is evaluated using simulated non-stationary responses of a frame structure, and the identified results are validated. The effects of crucial factors such as levels of noise involved in structural response and data length on the modal parameter estimations are examined through detailed parametric study. Furthermore, the approach is applied to modal identification based on field measured non-stationary responses of a high-rise building during Typhoon Nida. The case study illustrates that the integrated method is an efficient tool for estimating the modal parameters of civil structures from non-stationary structural responses.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T04:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211033959
       
  • Novel method for identifying residual prestress force in simply supported
           concrete girder-bridges

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      Authors: Marco Bonopera, Kuo-Chun Chang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Testing methods are required for estimating prestress losses in Prestressed Concrete (PC) girder-bridges. They mainly include destructive approaches which cause significant damages. Conversely, dynamic nondestructive methods are unsuitable. Given these findings, a novel method for identifying residual prestress force in simply supported PC girder-bridges was implemented. Following the vertical load application in a three-point bending, the method estimates the prestress force by measuring the vertical deflection at a quarter or, alternatively, at the midspan of the PC girder-bridge. The method also requires information regarding its flexural rigidity. Particularly, the initial tangent Young’s modulus must be evaluated by compression tests on cores drilled at its quarter and midspan cross-sections after three-point bending. In absence of the geometric and/or material properties, the flexural rigidity can be estimated according to free vibrations. Secondly, the method comprises a reference solution, or a finite element model of the PC girder-bridge, in which the prestress force is unknown. Thirdly, the measured deflection becomes a parameter of the prestress force identification process. Accurate identifications are obtained when the deflection, under a higher vertical load, was precisely measured and the flexural rigidity was determined using reference solution and initial tangent Young’s modulus. In this article, the novel method was simulated on a simply supported PC beam-bridge subjected to time-dependent prestress losses for ≈9.5 months in the laboratory.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-15T04:15:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211022067
       
  • Numerical analysis of concentrically loaded hexagonal concrete-filled
           steel tubular short columns incorporating concrete confinement

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      Authors: Mizan Ahmed, Qing Quan Liang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Hexagonal concrete-filled steel tubular (HCFST) columns have been used to carry large loads in tall composite buildings. Their behavior and strength are different from those of circular and square concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns due to the confinement effect. This article describes a computational modeling method of nonlinear fiber analysis recognizing the concrete confinement for the response simulation of HCFST short columns subjected to axial compression. New constitutive relations of confinement for quantifying the confining stresses on the concrete confined by the hexagonal steel tube and the residual concrete strength are developed by means of analyzing existing test data. The computational modeling program written is verified by existing experimental data and then employed to ascertain the behavior of HCFST columns with important parameters. The current design standards for CFST circular columns are used to determine the strengths of HCFST columns to evaluate their applicability to the design of HCFST columns. Proposed is a new simple design equation for computing the axial capacities of HCFST columns. The computational model and the design equation proposed are shown to be accurate, and effective simulation and design tools for HCSFT stub columns that are loaded concentrically in comparisons with the current design codes.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T01:39:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211029735
       
  • Shear capacity distribution of reinforced concrete beams: An information
           theoretic entropy approach

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      Authors: N J Yogalakshmi, K Balaji Rao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Using the concept of information theoretic entropy, the probability density function (pdf) of shear capacity of the reinforced concrete beam with stirrup reinforcement is determined. Entropy, expressed in terms of Shannon functional, is maximized subjected to the statistical moment and normalization constraints of pdf of shear capacity. The statistical moments of shear capacity distribution are obtained using second-order approximation of shear capacity equation. The pdf so determined has strong statistical mechanics interpretation of maximum entropy principle. Also, a procedure for goodness-of-fit test has been proposed, for the given data, using the information theoretic entropy as a measure of goodness-of-fit. In the present investigation, beams of three different ranges of shear span to effective depth ratios are considered. The mechanics-based shear capacity equations, presented earlier by authors along with associated modelling errors, are used for estimating the statistical moments of shear capacity distribution. The computationally efficient approach of determination of maximum entropy distribution presented in this article can be viewed as an alternate to the process of determination of pdf using brute force Monte Carlo simulation approach.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T01:35:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211029734
       
  • Flexural strengthening of pre-cracked RC slabs with prestressed NSM CFRP
           laminates and evaluation of strain loss

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      Authors: M.R. Mostakhdemin Hosseini, Salvador J.E. Dias, Joaquim A.O. Barros
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The strengthening intervention of RC structures often involves already cracked concrete. To evaluate the effect of the level of damage prior to the strengthening (pre-cracks) on the behavior of the flexurally strengthened RC slabs with prestressed NSM CFRP laminates, an experimental research was carried out. Two pre-cracking levels of damage were analyzed and, for each one, three levels of prestress were tested (0%, 20% and 40%). The obtained results showed that the strengthening of damaged RC slabs with prestressed NSM CFRP laminates results in a significant increase on the load carrying capacity at serviceability limit states. Pre-cracked RC slabs strengthened with prestressed NSM CFRP laminates presented a load carrying capacity almost similar to the corresponding uncracked strengthened slabs. To determine the effective prestress level in CFRP laminates, the variation of strain over the length of the CFRP and over time was experimentally recorded. The prestress transfer length was also evaluated. The experimental results revealed that the transfer length of CFRP laminates was less than 150 mm, and the maximum value of strain loss out of transfer length (around 14%) was measured close to the cracked section of the damaged RC slabs. Significant part of strain loss in CFRP laminates occurred during 24 h after releasing the prestress load.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-03T10:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211010585
       
  • Cracking behavior and energy consumption of Steel Fiber Concrete Encased
           Steel beams

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      Authors: Chao Xu, Kai Wu, Ping zhou Cao, Shi-qi Lin, Zhuo Chen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Steel Fiber Concrete Encased Steel (SFCES) beams were subjected to bending to investigate the effect of steel fibers on the behavior of Steel Reinforced Concrete beams with or without steel reinforcement. 18 SFCES beams reinforced with steel fibers, steel reinforcement, or both were cast. The parameters considered in the experiment were (a) the volume percentage of steel fiber (0%, 1%, and 2%), (b) the shear span to depth ratio(s/d = 2.5 and 3.5), (c) the stirrups spacing (180 mm and 360 mm), and (d) the presence or absence of longitudinal reinforcement (2Φ8+2Φ10).The cracking load, crack development, energy dissipation capacity, and ductility of the specimens were investigated. The results illustrate that the cracking load Fc, the total energy consumption, and the energy ductility increase with increasing steel fiber volume, and the average improvement with a steel fiber volume increase of 1% can reach 36.5%, 21.2%, and 28.67%, respectively. However, this strengthening effect of steel fibers was weakened due to the addition of steel reinforcement. The influence of the steel fiber volume and reinforcement configuration on each stage of energy consumption was mainly concentrated in the elastic (E1) and failure stages (E3). Finally, mathematical equations were proposed to predict the cracking load and crack width of the SFCES specimens, which were verified by comparing the predictions with the experiment results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T05:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211029740
       
  • Carbon fiber reinforced polymer strengthened reinforced concrete square
           columns under pre-existing eccentric loads

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      Authors: Nima Kian, Masood Farzam, Mohammad Rezaie Oshtolagh
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Numerous experimental studies have been conducted on the behavior of strengthened columns, mostly with glued layers of FRP before load application, and rarely under the pre-existing load. Results confirm a good efficiency of strengthening in the compression-controlled region of the columns, as mentioned in design codes and guides such as ACI 440.2R-17. However, their behavior in the tension-controlled region is still a challenging subject. Moreover, when the eccentricity is large enough, the efficiency of the strengthening method needs more attention. This study aimed at strengthening six RC columns in the tension-controlled region under the pre-existing load condition. Furthermore, tested specimens were verified using a nonlinear finite element analysis performed in ATENA software. Moreover, some identical strengthened specimens, which were not subjected to pre-existing load during strengthening, were modeled to capture the effect of pre-existing loads. The results of the analyses were in good agreement with experimental data. Comparison of numerical results obtained for columns strengthened without pre-existing load, and under pre-existing load showed that pre-existing loading significantly reduced the efficiency of FRP jacketing. Also, assuming a linear variation of confinement pressure in the tension-controlled region of the interaction diagram results in good agreement with attained results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T01:07:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211029730
       
  • Numerical investigation on moment redistribution of continuous reinforced
           concrete beams under local fire conditions

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      Authors: Zhe Li, Fa-xing Ding, Shanshan Cheng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a numerical investigation on the mechanical behaviours, such as the fire resistance, the moment redistribution and the failure mode, of continuous reinforced concrete beams with two spans and three spans under the standard fire of ISO-834. Firstly, a 3D finite element model was established and validated against the fire test beam. Secondly, the three stages associated with the fire time of fire behaviour for the continuous reinforced concrete beams were divided and explained. An index of the moment redistribution amplitude was modified and used to evaluate the fire performance of continuous reinforced concrete beams. A series of parametric analyses for continuous reinforced concrete beams with two spans were conducted in order to investigate the influence of some parameters such as the load ratio, the load position, the support condition and the sectional size. Finally, the distributions of the vertical deflection and the plastic hinge within beam spans and the failure modes for continuous reinforced concrete beams with three spans under local fire conditions were discussed emphatically.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T07:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026226
       
  • Structural form and experimental research of truss arch bridge with
           multi-point elastic constraints

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      Authors: Chen Qiu, Xiaoli Xie, Mulin Pang, Huilan Song
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      With the increase of the arch bridge span, the mechanical properties of arch bridges will decrease rapidly. In order to solve this problem, triangular net is set between the arch rib and girder to form a kind of truss arch bridge in which arch rib acts as top chord, girder acts as lower chord, triangular net acts as web member, and hangers provide elastic restrains at several points. The triangle stability of the truss can improve linear stiffness of arch rib and girder, which will thus improve the mechanical properties of arch bridges. A test bridge with a span of 50 m was built to prove the superiority of the truss arch bridge with multi-point elastic constraints (MTAB). Structural stresses and displacements were obtained through dead load experiments, and the mechanical properties of the structure were calculated through the finite element (FE) software. It is turned out that, compared with the conventional through arch bridge (CTAB), the mechanical performance of the MTAB is greatly improved. The test values of structural stresses and displacements match calculation values well. Moreover, with the same steel consumption, the more layers of the triangular net, the better the mechanical properties of the structure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:28:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020384
       
  • Upgrading of isolated bridges with space-bar energy-dissipation devices:
           Shaking table test

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      Authors: Jelena Ristic, Zoran Brujic, Danilo Ristic, Radomir Folic, Milos Boskovic
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The results of the experimental research program realized on a bridge model constructed by using the seismically isolated system upgraded with space-bar devices (USI-SB) are presented in the paper. The installed adaptable system for seismic protection of bridges utilizes double spherical rolling seismic bearings (DSRSB) as seismic isolators, while the qualitative improvement of seismic performances is achieved through the use of novel adjustable multi-directional space-bar energy dissipation (SB-ED) devices. The experimental program consisted of quasi-static testing of isolation and energy dissipation devices under the cyclic loading and extensive shaking-table testing of a large-scale bridge model with installed USI-SB system. For both types of devices, a very stable all-directional response during cycling tests, as well as the favorable hysteretic behavior of the energy dissipation devices along the entire range of applied large displacements were registered. In the dynamic testing, the system showed high seismic response modification performances needed for the efficient protection, exhibiting its large potential in the qualitative improvement of seismic performances of isolated bridges.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211013918
       
  • Finite element analysis of ballastless track slabs reinforced with
           fiber-reinforced polymer bars

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      Authors: Yang Yang, Guan-Jun Zhang, Gang Wu, Da-fu Cao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fiber-reinforced polymer–reinforced ballastless track slabs not only improve the insulation performance but also have advantages in their mechanical properties. The objective of the article is to propose a corresponding design method of the ballastless track slabs considering different parameters by a finite element analysis model. The deformation performance of the ballastless track slabs, as well as the prediction results of several models, was studied considering the different prestress levels, reinforcement ratios, and prestressed materials. The results show that ACI 440.4R-04 and Bischoff models are suggested for predicting the deflection of a ballastless track slab when the prestress level is between 30% and 60% and the Brown and Bartholomew model is suitable for those with a prestress level below 30%.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T08:45:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211027314
       
  • Bond and flexural performance of basalt fiber–reinforced polymer
           bar–reinforced seawater sea sand glass aggregate concrete beams

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      Authors: Zhiqiang Dong, Gang Wu, Hong Zhu, Yang Wei, Xiao-Ling Zhao, Xinxing Shao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes a new type of basalt fiber–reinforced polymer (BFRP) bar–reinforced seawater sea sand glass aggregate concrete (SSGC) beam with broad application prospects in ocean engineering. Crushed tempered glasses were utilized as coarse aggregates in the concrete mixture to realize the efficient and harmless recycling of waste glass. First, the bond behaviors between the BFRP bars and SSGC with different glass aggregate replacement ratios were investigated. Then, four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the flexural performance of the SSGC beams completely reinforced with BFRP bars. Based on this, the tested flexural strengths were compared with the calculated strengths to evaluate whether the existing specifications were still applicable to the design of the BFRP bar–reinforced SSGC beams. Test results showed that although the compressive strength of the SSGC gradually decreased with increased glass aggregate content, the bond performance between BFRP bars and SSGC did not follow the same degradation pattern. There were no obvious differences in the form of the bond–slip curves between BFRP bars and different types of SSGC. With increasing glass aggregate content, the ultimate bearing capacity and energy consumption of BFRP bar–reinforced SSGC beams decreased. All calculated ultimate flexural capacities were higher than the experimental values, which shows that the application of existing specifications to BFRP bar–reinforced SSGC beams needs to be studied further.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T01:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026228
       
  • Experimental and analytical investigations on flexural behavior of bamboo
           beams strengthened with steel bars

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      Authors: Kang Zhao, Yang Wei, Shaocong Yan, Si Chen, Fenghui Dong
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The embedding of steel bars is proposed to enhance the load-bearing performance of bamboo beams. Based on laboratory tests, the bending behavior of bamboo beams reinforced with steel bars or prestressed steel bars was analyzed using finite element software. Comparing the finite element simulation results with those measured in tests, it can be found that the load–displacement curves coincide with each other, and the strain development processes in the mid-span are basically the same. The prediction by the finite element simulation has good accuracy. The embedding of steel bars and prestressed steel bars can effectively improve the ultimate bearing capacity (up to 27.0%), bending stiffness at the serviceability limit state (up to 42.61%), ductility (up to 22.9%), and material utilization efficiency (up to 34.1%) for the bamboo beams. The embedding of steel bars makes the bamboo in the compression zone of the beams develop with higher efficiency, and applying the prestress for steel bars can produce reverse bending deformation and reduce the actual deflection for the reinforced bamboo beam under service load. Under the same reinforcement ratio, the prestress level has a relatively small influence on the ultimate bearing capacity (up to 4.5%) and stiffness (up to 4.5%) of the reinforced beam.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T09:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026230
       
  • Response modification factors for dual moment-resisting frames with
           vertical links: Multilevel approach

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      Authors: Vahid Mohsenian, Nima Gharaei-Moghaddam, Iman Hajirasouliha
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the growing applications of the performance-based design concepts for seismic design of structures, the response modification factors for structural systems proposed by the current design codes and standards do not generally consider different hazard and performance levels. Therefore, these factors are not directly applicable for performance-based design purposes. As a step to address this shortcoming, the present study aims to propose multilevel response modification factors for multistory dual moment-resisting frames equipped with eccentric braces and vertical links corresponding to different seismicity levels and performance targets. The concept of demand and capacity response modification factors is introduced, and these parameters are calculated for moment-resisting frame structures with 3-, 5-, and 7-stories before and after the addition of vertical steel shear links. It is shown that the calculated capacity response modification factors for the dual frames equipped with vertical links are generally higher than the demand response modification factors proposed by the design code for such systems under the design basis earthquake hazard level. This indicates the efficiency of the eccentric braces with the vertical links in improving the seismic reliability and performance of the moment-resisting steel frames. Based on the results of this study, the demand response modification factor for the studied dual lateral load-resisting system is calculated to be in the range of 7–10.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T01:49:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026220
       
  • Flexural behavior of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams with recycled
           coarse aggregates

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      Authors: Haiyan Zhang, Keyue Wan, Bo Wu, Zhonghao Hu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Geopolymer recycled aggregate concrete (GRAC) is a new green construction material, which uses geopolymer as the binder and recycled concrete as aggregates. To compare the flexural performance of GRAC and ordinary recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams, static loading tests were conducted on seven GRAC beams and three RAC beams. The effects of the replacement ratio of recycled aggregates (RAs), the replacement patterns, and the reinforcement ratio on the flexural behavior of GRAC beams are evaluated. The test data show that the replacement ratio has no significant effect on the cracking pattern, failure mode, or bending capacity of GRAC beams, but the replacement pattern does have an effect. Under a given replacement ratio, replacing only the larger fraction of natural aggregates (NA) with RA improves the concrete strength and crack resistance of both RAC and GRAC beams, compared to that using same replacement percentage for all fractions. Due to the lower elastic modulus and strength of GRAC prepared in this study, the GRAC beams have lower height of neutral axis and greater deflection than RAC beams at the same load level and possess slightly lower cracking load, bending capacity, and ductility. The bending capacity of GRAC beams can be predicted by the formulas proposed for ordinary reinforced concrete beams in the Chinese code GB50010-2010, ACI 318-11, or BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 codes, but the safety margin is generally lower than that of ordinary reinforced concrete beams.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T01:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026224
       
  • An enhanced symbiotic organisms search algorithm for design optimization
           of trusses with frequency constraints

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      Authors: Mohammad H Makiabadi, Mahmoud R Maheri
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An enhanced symbiotic organisms search (ESOS) algorithm is developed and presented. Modifications to the basic symbiotic organisms search algorithm are carried out in all three phases of the algorithm with the aim of balancing the exploitation and exploration capabilities of the algorithm. To verify validity and capability of the ESOS algorithm in solving general optimization problems, the CEC2014 set of 22 benchmark functions is first optimized and the results are compared with other metaheuristic algorithms. The ESOS algorithm is then used to optimize the sizing and shape of five benchmark trusses with multiple frequency constraints. The best (minimum) mass, mean mass, standard deviation of the mass, total number of function evaluations, and the values of frequency constraints are then compared with those of a number of other metaheuristic solutions available in the literature. It is shown that the proposed ESOS algorithm is generally more efficient in optimizing the shape and sizing of trusses with dynamic frequency constraints compared to other reported metaheuristic algorithms, including the basic symbiotic organisms search and its other recently proposed improved variants such as the improved symbiotic organisms search algorithm (ISOS) and modified symbiotic organisms search algorithm (MSOS).
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T01:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026219
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study on the internal pressure induced by the
           transient local failure of low-rise building roofs

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      Authors: Yangjin Yuan, Yimin Dai, Shu Jiang, Taiting Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A case study on the internal pressure induced by a local failure on the vulnerable gable roof of a low-rise building was extensively conducted experimentally and numerically. Five roof opening configurations were tested in the wind tunnel under three different boundary layer conditions, based on 1:40 scaled models. The effects of opening shape, opening position, opening ratio, building internal volume, and wind speed on peak transient and steady-state internal pressures were studied. The study results indicate that the peak transient and steady-state internal pressures and the corresponding transient overshoot ratio all increase with an increasing opening ratio. The peak steady-state internal pressure is little affected by the approaching wind speed; while the peak transient internal pressure coefficient shows a significant linear relationship with the wind speed. The coupling effect of vortex shedding and Helmholtz resonance in double building volume compensation situation may cause larger fluctuating internal pressure. Both the vortex shedding and Helmholtz resonance reduce the internal pressure coherence to some extent. The agreement between the numerical and experimental results is much better for the mean internal pressure than that for fluctuating internal pressure or peak internal pressure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-15T09:57:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211022069
       
  • Predicting the effect of weathering and corrosion on the bond properties
           of bamboo- and steel-reinforced cement-stabilized rammed earth blocks

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      Authors: Satya Sai Deep Raavi, Deb Dulal Tripura
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, the effect of weathering and corrosion on the bond properties of bamboo- and steel-reinforced cement-stabilized rammed earth blocks was investigated. The treated, untreated bamboo and steel reinforcement types were considered under regular and weathered categories. Reinforcement of 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm diameters were used along with 10% of cement as stabilizer. A total of 90 reinforced cement-stabilized rammed earth blocks were prepared and tested for bond strength. The investigation shows that the bond force and bond strength of all the blocks reduced due to weathering and corrosion of reinforcement. In case of blocks with bamboo reinforcement only, a minor reduction in bond properties (bond force and bond strength) was identified, but in case of blocks with steel reinforcement, a major reduction in bond properties was identified. All the blocks failed by either lateral splitting, pullout or pullout along with lateral splitting. However, the pullout failure was observed only in the blocks with weathered or corroded reinforcement, making it clear that the mode of failure was influenced by the type and physical condition of the reinforcement. Based on the results obtained, it was not advisable to use of corroded steel (CS) bars as reinforcement in rammed earth. However, considering the bond properties, treated bamboo can be a potential and economical alternative to CS. A series of statistical analysis was performed using the test data to predict the bond properties correlating perimeter, diameter, type and condition of reinforcement. The regression equations generated from statistical analysis represent a strong correlation between the actual and predicted values and can be used for predicting the bond properties of rammed earth accurately.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-15T09:48:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211026222
       
  • Analytical and experimental study on Van der Pol-type and Rayleigh-type
           equations for modeling nonlinear aeroelastic instabilities

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      Authors: Guangzhong Gao, Ledong Zhu, Hua Bai, Wanshui Han, Feng Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An empirical modeling of nonlinear aerodynamic force during aeroelastic instabilities, that is, vortex-induced vibration (VIV), galloping and flutter, is necessary in the estimation of vibration responses. Previous works on single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models suggest that nonlinear forms (Van der Pol or Rayleigh types) differ from section to section, which causes difficulty in practical application. Analytical evidences in this study have clarified that Van der Pol-type and Rayleigh-type models are equivalent in the amplitude-dependent aerodynamic damping; their difference lies in the higher-order harmonic responses. An identification algorithm of aerodynamic parameters is proposed to improve the robustness of aerodynamic parameters and guarantee the equivalence of both model types. Wind-tunnel tests of typical aeroelastic instabilities indicate that higher-order harmonic responses are small for VIV, galloping, and early-stage flutter instability when compared with the fundamental components due to weak nonlinearity. Van der Pol-type and Rayleigh-type models are both applicable until the flutter amplitude grows excessively large. It is clear that both model types are suitable for any section shape when use the proposed method of aerodynamic identification, and thus can be treated as a universal model for estimating the vibration amplitudes of nonlinear aeroelastic instabilities.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T07:34:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211022056
       
  • Flexural behaviour of ECC and ECC–concrete composite beams reinforced
           with hybrid FRP and steel bars

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      Authors: Fang Yuan, Ren Hu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Owing to the good ductility of steel and high strength and excellent corrosion resistance of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP), concrete beams reinforced with hybrid steel and FRP bars exhibit better ductility than FRP-reinforced concrete beams as well as higher load-carrying capacities and better corrosion resistance than steel-reinforced concrete beams. However, the inherent brittleness of concrete in tension results in steel corrosion because of wide cracks and accelerated fracture of FRP reinforcement because of crack-induced stress concentration. This study investigated the effects of ultra-high ductile engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) on the flexural behaviour of hybrid steel and FRP-reinforced beams. Six hybrid-reinforced beams with various reinforcement ratios, matrix types and ECC pouring positions were tested in four-point bending. The flexural behaviours of the beams in terms of failure modes, crack patterns and developments, load versus deformation relationships and ductility are discussed herein in detail. We observed that substituting ECC with concrete results in a higher load-carrying capacity and better ductility of the hybrid reinforced beams owing to the excellent characteristics of ECC materials. When a layer of ECC is poured in the tension zone, the average crack width and crack spacing along the beam decrease; therefore, the longitudinal reinforcements can be adequately protected.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T07:33:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020389
       
  • Nonlinear hysteretic parameter identification using improved artificial
           bee colony algorithm

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      Authors: Renzhi Yao, Yanmao Chen, Li Wang, Zhongrong Lu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Hysteresis is a common phenomenon arising in many engineering applications. It describes a memory-based relation between the restoring force and the displacement. Identification of the hysteretic parameters is central to practical application of the hysteretic models. To proceed so, a noteworthy thing is that the hysteretic models are often complex and non-differentiable so that getting the gradients is never straightforward and therefore, the swarm-based algorithm is often preferable to inverse hysteretic parameter identification. Along these lines, an improved artificial bee colony algorithm is developed in this paper for general hysteretic parameter identification. On the one hand, several hysteretic models along with the extensions to tackle the degradation and pinching behaviours are considered and how to model a structure with hysteretic components is also elaborated. As a result, the governing equation for the direct problem is established. On the other hand, the differential evolution mechanism is introduced to improve the original artificial bee colony algorithm. Numerical examples are conducted to testify the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method in nonlinear hysteretic parameter identification.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T08:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020405
       
  • A strength and deformation model for prestressed lightweight concrete
           slabs under two-way shear

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      Authors: A Deifalla
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Prestressed concrete slabs (PCS) are one of the top choices in many applications, which is due to their significantly improved performance compared to conventional normal-weight concrete slabs (NCS). However, very limited models exist for the two-way shear behavior of PCS, in particular, lightweight ones (PLCS). In this study, a two-way shear mechanical behavior model is developed for PCS, that accounts for all effective parameters and capable of predicting both strength and deformation. An experimental database of PCS was compiled from the literature with emphasis on lightweight concrete. A mechanical model developed by the author for lightweight concrete slabs (LCS) was adapted and modified in order to include the effect of prestressing in terms of the following components: (1) the membrane compression stress; (2) the prestressing eccentricity; and (3) the prestressing vertical component. The extended model was used to predict the behavior of PLCS and prestressed normal-weight concrete slabs (PNCS), which was compared to that using selected design codes and models. The model predicted the rotation accurately and consistently compared to the experimentally measured rotation. The strength predicted using the proposed model was better than existing ones concerning experimentally measured strength, yet it was found to be reasonably safe. However, conclusions are limited to the experimental database.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T04:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020408
       
  • Behaviour of concrete composite slabs with truss type shear connectors of
           different orientation angle

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      Authors: Askok Kumar Kanchanadevi, Karusala Ramanjaneyulu, Voggu Srinivas
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Concrete composite slab system with pre-cast bottom segment and cast-in-situ top segment is gaining importance due to wide-ranging applications in buildings, bridges and industrial flooring, etc. These slabs may also be subjected to repeated loading during its service life and hence, it is essential to evaluate their static and fatigue behaviour under flexural loading. In present study, at first, experimental investigations are conducted to evaluate the performance of composite slabs with truss type shear connectors with two orientation angles, namely, 45° and 60°. The composite slab specimens are subjected to four-point bending. The load-versus-displacement responses obtained for the composite slabs are compared with that of control full slab. It is observed that the composite slab with 45° shear connector showed better performance when compared to composite slab with 60° shear connector in terms of load-displacement response, rotation, ductility and energy absorption and also found to be efficient in terms of area of steel crossing the interface. Further, numerical investigations are also carried out to assess load transfer mechanism of truss type shear connectors at different significant events. The force flow mechanism of truss type shear connectors is brought out clearly. From the numerical investigations on composite slabs with different orientation angles, it is observed that composite slab with 45° shear connector exhibited superior performance over other orientation angles in terms of better force flow mechanism and lesser area of steel crossing the interface. Further, fatigue performance of composite slab with 45° shear connector is evaluated and compared with the fatigue performance of control slab. It could be observed that the composite slab with 45° truss type shear connector showed better fatigue performance when compared to the control slab.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T06:36:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020406
       
  • Linear model to describe the working of a three layers CLT strip slab:
           Experimental and numerical validation

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      Authors: Martina Sciomenta, Angelo Di Egidio, Chiara Bedon, Massimo Fragiacomo
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Experimental out-of-plane, four-points bending tests were performed on two series of three-layered Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels made of Calabrian Beech and Calabrian Beech and Corsican Pine respectively. The predominant failure mechanism was rolling shear alongthe innerlayer and the glue line. A linear elastic model of a three-layered, CLT panel was developed to describe the stress distribution in CLT slabs in bending, with a focus on their load-bearing performance before the propagation of cracks. In the analytical model, each timber layer was defined as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The two glue lines were modeled using extensional springs, infinitely rigid in the direction perpendicular to the beam’s axis, and with a defined stiffness in the tangential direction. The outer layers are assumed axially flexible whilethe innerone is regarded as axially rigid. The results of the proposed model were thus compared and validated with the experimental evidence and with additional FE numerical predictions given by 3D numerical simulations carried out in Abaqus.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T06:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020403
       
  • Damage evaluation of a PCCP joint with a localized soil void and broken
           wires

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      Authors: Haizhen Li, Xin Feng, Bozhi Chen, Lin Zhao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      During the service life of a pipeline, the surrounding soil may erode locally around the pipe due to seepage and leakage, making the pipe partially unsupported and weakening the pipe–soil interaction. The presence of soil voids provides the possibility for broken wires and further accelerates damage. In this paper, the stress and strain of PCCP joint in service under a localized soil void and with broken wires were investigated using the general finite element software ABAQUS, and the structural damage of the pipe joint under superimposed defects was evaluated. The numerical model contained two PCCP segments, a flexible joint and the surrounding soil. The preliminary study suggests that the superimposed defects of a soil void and broken wires can cause increased damage to the PCCP joint. With the addition of the soil void, the micro cracks of both the concrete core and mortar coating transform into visible cracks, and the relative wire breakage rate with coupling defects is reduced by approximately 36% to reach the elastic limit state of the pipe. The findings of this research highlight the importance of good pipe–soil interactions and could provide a theoretical reference for damage assessment and further repair strategies.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T06:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020400
       
  • Study on human-induced vibration of a cable-stayed bridge without
           backstays located in abrupt valley

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      Authors: Yanru Wu, Junxin Li, Qing Sun
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This research aims to assess the pedestrian comfort and to control human-induced vibration of an arch tower cable-stayed bridge without backstays located in canyon. Dynamic simulations of human-induced vibration were carried out with a mode-by-mode approach, and the results indicated that a total of seven lateral and vertical modes of the bridge may suffer from excessive vibrations at the design crowd density. Based on the periodic walking force, the structure response under pedestrian loads was evaluated performing dynamic analyses with two Finite Element models of the footbridge. A single tuned mass damper (STMD) control system was developed for control of human-induced vibration, which consisted of four tuned mass dampers mounted on the mid-span of bridge to enhance damping ratios of lively modes. The results indicate that the maximum acceleration for the first-order lateral and second-order vertical vibration at the design crowd density exceed the associated threshold values referring to the comfort level 1 (CL1) Criteria. The critical pedestrian number of lateral dynamic instability estimated by the Dallard’s empirical formula is much smaller than the dynamic design pedestrian number; and the Dallard’s empirical formula is applicable to estimate the critical pedestrian number of lateral dynamic instability for this bridge by comparing with Pedroe Inês footbridge. The damping ratios for both the vertical and lateral modes increase appreciably after installing the tuned mass dampers and no evidence of large-amplitude vibrations has been observed, leading to the realization of satisfactory comfort levels, which can provide reference for vibration reduction design of this kind of bridge.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T06:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211020397
       
  • Effects of maximum particle size of coarse aggregates and steel fiber
           contents on the mechanical properties and impact resistance of recycled
           aggregate concrete

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      Authors: DongTao Xia, ShaoJun Xie, Min Fu, Feng Zhu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete has become a new type of green concrete material. The maximum particle size of coarse aggregates and steel fiber contents affect the mechanical properties and impact resistance of recycled aggregate concrete. However, such studies are rare in literature. The present paper shortens the gap through experimental study. A total of 144 specimens of 12 kinds of concrete mixtures were tested, which adopted different steel fiber volume admixtures (0%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%) and recycled coarse aggregates in different maximum particle sizes (9.5, 19, 31.5 mm) replacing 30% natural coarse aggregate. The compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and impact resistance of the 12 concrete mixtures were tested. The results showed that the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and impact resistance of recycled aggregate concrete increased first and then decreased with the increase of the maximum particle size. The recycled aggregate concrete with the maximum particle size of 19 mm had the highest mechanical properties and impact resistance. Besides, with the increase of steel fiber content, the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and impact resistance of recycled aggregate concrete showed an increasing trend. Considering a large amount of experimental data and the coupling effect of steel fiber contents and the maximum particle size of coarse aggregates, the Weibull distribution function was introduced to analyze the impact test results and predict the number of resistance to impact under different failure probabilities. The results showed that the number of blows of the recycled aggregate concrete followed a two-parameter Weibull distribution, and the estimated value of the number of resistance to impact for failure increased with the increase of the failure probability.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T06:25:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211017998
       
  • Statistical analysis of the bonding properties of the fabric-reinforced
           cementitious matrix for strengthening masonry structures

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      Authors: Lei Jing, Shiping Yin, Farhad Aslani, Shuang Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) has been extensively studied and applied for the strengthening of masonry structures. Special attention needs to be given to the bonding properties between the FRCM and masonry substrate for strengthening applications. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the bonding properties based on the available literature. First, the collected test results were discussed in terms of the interfacial failure mode. Second, the factors influencing the ultimate bond load were analysed based on the different failure modes, and a corresponding prediction formula was further determined via regression analysis for interfacial debonding and slippage failures. Then, the characteristic values of the ultimate bond load were determined via a probabilistic method. Finally, the fracture energy for the slippage failure at the fabric-matrix interface was analysed, and a corresponding prediction formula was obtained via regression analysis. Additionally, some of the collected test results present higher dispersion due to the large variability of the FRCM material properties and the differences in the testing procedures used by different institutions. More studies are needed to improve the reliability of the proposed procedure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T06:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211017994
       
  • Flexural performance of reinforced concrete beams made by innovative
           post-filling coarse aggregate process

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      Authors: Jinqing Jia, Qi Cao, Lihua Zhang, Jiayu Zhou
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Concrete made by post-filling coarse aggregate process could reduce the cement content greatly compared with traditional concrete placement method. Thus, it not only lowers the production cost of concrete through lower usage of cement but also reduces the CO2 emissions to the environment. In this paper, the compressive and tensile strength of post-filling coarse aggregate concrete with different post-filling ratios (PFRs) (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%) and concrete strength grades (C30, C40, C50) were first studied. Then the flexural performance of nineteen concrete beams with different concrete strength, post-filling ratios, reinforcement ratios was investigated. The experimental results showed that the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the post-filling coarse aggregate concrete increased with the increase of the post-filling ratio of coarse aggregate, reaching the peak value at the filling ratio of 20%. It indicated that there was no obvious difference in the failure mode as well as middle-span deflections between post-filling coarse aggregate concrete (PFCC) beams and ordinary concrete (OC) beams. Ductile failure was observed for all nineteen specimens. Results demonstrated that the cracking load, yield load, and ultimate load of the post-filling coarse aggregate concrete beams all reached the peak value at the post-filling ratio of 20%. In addition, the theoretical predictions of cracking loads and ultimate load carrying capacities matched the experimental results in satisfactory agreement.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T06:18:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211009320
       
  • Bond performance between SFCBs and grouted sleeves for precast concrete
           structures

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      Authors: Yunlou Sun, Zeyang Sun, Liuzhen Yao, Yang Wei, Gang Wu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A precast concrete structure reinforced by steel-fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bars (SFCBs) shows good durability and controllable post-yield stiffness, which makes this kind of structure suitable for marine infrastructure. The connection technology is one of the critical issues of a precast concrete structure with hybrid reinforcement. This paper presents an experimental study on the bond-slip testing (27 pullout specimens) of composite bars connected by a grouted deformed pipe splice (GDPS) connector with different bond lengths. The reinforcement included SFCBs and pure FRP bars. The test results showed that the failure modes could be classified into three categories: rebar pullout before or after the inner steel bar yielded, rupture of the FRP wrapped on the SFCB, and mixed failure of bar pullout with a partial fiber fracture. The average bond strength of the ordinary steel bar was approximately 146.8% that of the SFCB connector with the same anchored length. When the anchored length of the SFCB specimen was 15d (d: bar diameter), the specimen could be fully anchored to fracture. An explicit hardening bond-slip model considering the post-yield stiffness of the SFCB was used to predict the bond-slip behavior of the GDPS connector, and the experimental and analytical results agreed well with each other, which demonstrates that the proposed model could provided a reference for the analysis and design of connectors for SFCB-reinforced precast concrete structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T01:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211001505
       
  • Torsion-based layout optimization of shear walls using multi-objective
           water cycle algorithm

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      Authors: Hamid Dehnavipour, Hossein Meshki, Hosein Naderpour
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In shear wall-based buildings, locating the shear wall in plan has an important role in the resistance of seismic loading. In this article, the minimum torsion is considered as one of the main goals for optimal layout of shear walls, unlike the common method that accepts a certain torsion limit. The method presented is in accordance with the principles of design codes with emphasis on reaching the least possible torsion effect. By using a multi-objective function, based on the Pareto solutions, the torsion function behaves against the cost of a structure subjected to constraints of flexural strength, shear strength, and drift. This approach has the ability to layout shear walls in irregular plans and those which have high architectural limits. Also, it can fulfill the main goal of a structural engineer in order to satisfy the requirements of an architectural plan and obtain its minimum torsion effect as well. This method has been applied to various types of regular and irregular plans according to the classification of seismic design codes. Results show that besides minimizing the cost, the torsion effect reaches the minimum possible value considered by the seismic design code, as compared with other methods.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T11:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211017999
       
  • Structural behavior of GFRP reinforced recycled aggregate concrete columns
           with polyvinyl alcohol and polypropylene fibers

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      Authors: Umer Rafique, Ather Ali, Ali Raza
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the axial compressive behavior of GRFC columns by fabricating five circular columns (1150 mm high and 250 mm in cross-section) and testing them under axial concentric loading. Two different kinds of fibers, that is, polyvinyl alcoholfibers (PVA) and polypropylene fibers (PPF) were incorporated into the concrete. Two types of transverse confinement (GFRP hoops and GFRP spirals) were provided. The efficiency of GFRP hoops was explored by providing them at the spacing of 75 mm, 150 mm, and 250 mm, respectively. The efficiency of GFRP spirals was examined by keeping the spacing of 38 mm and 75 mm, respectively. The GRFC columns confined with GFRP spirals portrayed higher axial strength and higher ductility indices. Furthermore, an extensive finite element modeling (FEM) was performed by considering the effect of hybrid fibers using a modified concrete damaged plastic (CDP) model. The proposed FEM captured the axial response and cracking behavior of GRFC columns with high accuracy. This study also proposed a new empirical model for capturing the axial strength of GRFC columns by considering the influence of GFRP bars and lateral confinement of GFRP hoops/spirals.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T11:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211017997
       
  • Numerical and analytical study on the mechanical properties of a connector
           with long-fiber and metal laminated bolts for prefabricated construction

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      Authors: Xiaoming Zhang, Danni Ren, Xin Liu, Sujun Guan, Xindi Yu, Jinxinag Chen, Chunlong Nie
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To improve the mechanical performances of joints in prefabricated construction, a type of connection structure with long-fiber and metal laminated bolts (referred to as a fiber-metal connector) is proposed and investigated by simulation and theoretical methods. The results include the following: (1) The fiber layer in bolts can form a second stiffness during rotation. This mechanical characteristic improves the bearing capacities and energy dissipation ability of the connector relative to the conventional metal connector, which are expected to effectively limit the elastoplastic rotational displacement of a structure. (2) For the reason, the fiber layer can bear load in the plastic phase due to its high-strength characteristic in the length direction. (3) A bilinear model for the bearing curve of the fiber-metal connector is proposed, and equations for optimization of fiber layer thickness are obtained with a target on bearing capacity and energy dissipation ability which are approximately higher 30% and 13% than that of the conventional metal connector, respectively. This research is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the application of this fiber-metal connector in engineering and improve the safety of prefabricated structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T11:28:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211007377
       
  • Experimental studies on bolted glubam connections

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      Authors: R.Z. Yang, Y. Xiao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports tensile and compressive test results of bolted glubam (glued laminated bamboo) connections. The tensile tests were carried out with two types of specimens designed for tensile loadings in the longitudinal and transverse directions in relevance to the orientations of the bidirectional bamboo strips (fibers). In each direction, the specimens were further divided into nine groups according to different combination conditions of end and edge spacings. Compressive tests were executed for three groups of bolted glubam connections, with varying thickness of the main board and bolting conditions. The tensile experiments show that the failure of the specimens is strongly influenced by the loading directions. Recommended end distance and side distance are provided, whereas the load carrying capacity is analyzed. Based on the compressive testing results, failure modes and load displacement relationships are analyzed, in which the yield bearing capacity is shown to be close to that given by the equations in existing design specifications for timber structure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T06:43:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211017996
       
  • Fatigue reliability evaluation of aging prestressed concrete bridge
           accounting for stochastic traffic loading and resistance degradation

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      Authors: Yuan Luo, Hui Zheng, Haiping Zhang, Yang Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fatigue damage accumulation is a critical factor resulting in the failure of prestressed concrete (PC) bridges. The fatigue damage is usually caused by the coupled effect of cyclic vehicle loading and environmental corrosion. This study investigated probabilistic fatigue damage on aging PC bridges considering both stochastic traffic loading and corrosion. A stochastic traffic model was derived based on long-term monitoring data aiming to simulate fatigue stress spectra of critical rebar. The effect of cracks on the fatigue stress spectra was investigated in order to model the fatigue stress state more realistically. A three-stage traffic growth model was established based on traffic volume histories of three highways in China. A fatigue limit state function considering traffic growth and corrosion effect was deduced for fatigue reliability assessment of PC bridges. Numerical results show that the stress amplitude of rebar considering cracks is 1.53 times greater than the rebar with no-cracks, resulting in a decrease of fatigue life by 68 years. In addition, the three-stage traffic growth models lead to 25 years shorter fatigue life than the one considering a linear traffic growth model. Finally, the corrosion effect results in a fatigue life of 44 years. The numerical results provide a theoretical basis for fatigue life estimation and maintenance of aging PC bridges.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T06:42:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211017995
       
  • An experimental study of the axial compression performance of two-part
           precast concrete columns

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      Authors: Bo Wu, Zhikai Wei
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Recycled lump concrete (RLC) made with demolished concrete lumps (DCLs) and fresh concrete (FC) provides a solution for effective waste concrete recycling. To promote the development of precast RLC structures, this study tested a new type of connection for precast concrete columns: connecting the upper and the lower halves of columns with bent longitudinal reinforcements and structural adhesive. In this work the behavior of precast RLC columns with the new connection was studied under axial compression. The axial compressive strength of nine two-part columns was tested. The effects of the degree of bending in the longitudinal reinforcement, the replacement ratio of DCLs and the stirrup spacing were investigated. Tests showed that: (1) the failure mode of precast concrete columns is different from that of cast-in-place columns; (2) when the strength of the waste concrete is close to that of the fresh material, there is no significant difference in the axial compression performance of either precast or cast-in-place columns; (3) the bent longitudinal reinforcement causes the axial load bearing capacity of precast concrete columns to be 4.2%–12.3% lower than that of a similar cast-in-place column; (4) reducing the stirrup spacing has little effect on a precast column’s axial load bearing capacity and ductility; (5) when using Chinese and American codes to predict the axial load bearing capacity of the column, the predicted value should be multiplied by a reduction factor.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T05:16:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211015923
       
  • Bond position function between deformed steel bars and early-age
           cementitious grout

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      Authors: Gang Peng, Ditao Niu, Xiaopeng Hu, Xiao Wu, Yong Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Pullout tests for the deformed steel bars in early-aged cementitious grout by considering the variables of testing ages, cover thicknesses, and diameters of steel bar were conducted, and the local bond stress–slip relationship at different positions of the anchorage length of steel bar was studied. Results indicated that, with the increase of testing age, the load-slip curves exhibited a higher ultimate load and had steeper ascending and descending branches; however, the slippage at the ultimate load exhibited a decreasing trend. Moreover, with the increase of cover thickness and diameter of steel bar, the ultimate load of pullout specimens increased obviously, while the corresponding slips generally had no obvious correlations. According to an analysis of the measured rebar strain, the distributions of the steel stress and bond stress as well as the relative slip along the embedded length were obtained under different external loads. Steel stress transfer and bond stress distribution parameters were introduced to characterize the nonuniformity of the distributions of the steel stress and bond stress along the steel bar, and the effects of the testing age, cover thickness, and diameter of steel bar on these two parameters were analyzed. Results showed that the both of these two parameters increased with the increasing tensile load, testing age, and cover thickness and with the decreasing diameter of steel bar. Thereafter, the local bond stress-slip relationships along the anchorage length and position functions reflecting the variations of these relationships were proposed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T05:13:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211015743
       
  • Using of recycled clay brick/fine soil to produce sodium hydroxide alkali
           activated mortars

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      Authors: Radhwan Alzeebaree, Arass Omer Mawlod, Alaa Mohammedameen, Anıl Niş
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In the study, the recycled clay brick powder/fine soil powder-based sodium hydroxide alkali-activated mortar (AAM) specimens were prepared by mixing different percentages (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, and 100/0, respectively) to investigate the mechanical and durability performance of sustainable AAM specimens for the possible utilization instead of OPC. The constant ratio of glass powder was used in the production of AAM to increase the alkalinity and improve the mechanical properties of alkali-activated mortar. Also, the influences of sodium hydroxide molarity concentrations (8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 M) on the performance of AAM specimens were studied. The compressive strength, water absorption, and water sorptivity tests were conducted on the AAM specimens and the relationships between the investigated parameters were analyzed. The obtained results revealed that the fine soil powder replacement with clay brick powder improved the compressive strength, and reduced water absorption and water sorptivity up to 80% replacement ratios, and the superior mechanical and durability performance was obtained in the 80% fine soil powder-based AAM specimens. For the higher fine soil powder replacement ratio (100%), the performances of the AAM specimens were found to be adversely affected. Besides, the concentration of NaOH solution significantly influenced the material performances of the fine soil powder-based AAMs and 12 M NaOH concentration performed superior mechanical and durability performance. The strength enhancement of the AAMs was found to be significant after 90 days of ambient curing period.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T05:11:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211015742
       
  • Static bearing capacity investigation of grouted square hollow section
           sleeve connection

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      Authors: Zhiyun He, Tong Zhang, Tao Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As a pilot research for an aimed beam-column joint of steel prefabricated prefinished volumetric construction (PPVC) buildings, this study investigates the axial static bearing capacity of grouted square hollow section (SHS) sleeve connections via carrying out experimental tests. Ten specimens with different dimensions were tested to failure under monotonic axial compressive loading and their loading-displacement curves were measured and recorded. The effect of the grouted length, the shear-key spacing, and the grout strength to the bearing capacity of the grouted SHS sleeve connections are investigated in this study. It is found that the axial static bearing capacity of the specimens tested increases approximately in a linear manner with the grouted length increases and can reach the bearing capacity of the outer tube’s cross-section when the grouted length is sufficient. Besides, the benefits brought by the increment of the grout strength to the axial bearing capacity of the grouted SHS sleeve connection may depend on other parameters such as the shear-key size and spacing, the gap between two tubes, and the thickness of the outer tube. Therefore, more experimental tests are required to understand the effect of the grout strength comprehensively.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-11T04:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211012575
       
  • Optimal depth selection of composite tubular-floor trusses based on cost
           estimation

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      Authors: Hashem AlHendi, Mohammad Mahmoud, Murude Celikag
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The significance of this study initiates from the need to produce a selection guidance on the span range, span-to-depth ratio and scheme of the composite floor truss system to provide optimum performance and cost effectiveness for a particular application area. With this objective a parametric study was designed, based on three parallel chord trusses (Pratt, Howe, and Warren) using Rectangular Hollow Structural Shapes, a constant panel size of 2.5 m, four composite floor European-profiles and a range of load intensities. Hence, the span-to-depth ratios, RS/D, and dead-to-live load ratios, RDL/LL, were ranged from 3 to 27 and 0.84 to 3.22, respectively, for each truss type. The optimization was performed by using the design results of RFEM (2018) software for approximately 675 composite floor trusses with the objective of selecting optimal depth for each truss model. In addition, this paper attempts to introduce a cost function by considering the material, fabrication and painting costs and comparative figures allowing the design to be tailored with a focus on cost reduction. Accordingly, for all truss types, span-to-depth ratio of 9 to 12 with a span range of 7 to 23 m provides the most cost effective solution. Structural steel and the welding process are the two parameters that are found to have the highest impact on total cost.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T09:29:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211009324
       
  • Research on seismic behavior of special-shaped CFST column to H-section
           steel beam joint

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      Authors: Yu Cheng, Yuanlong Yang, Binyang Li, Jiepeng Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the seismic behavior of joint between special-shaped concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) column and H-section steel beam, a pseudo-static test was carried out on five specimens with scale ratio of 1:2. The investigated factors include stiffening types of steel tube (multi-cell and tensile bar) and connection types (exterior diaphragm and vertical rib). The failure modes, hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, stress distribution, and joint shear deformation of specimens were analyzed to investigate the seismic behaviors of joints. The test results showed the connections of exterior diaphragm and vertical rib have good seismic behavior and can be identified as rigid joint in the frames with bracing system according to Eurocode 3. The joint of special-shaped column with tensile bars have better seismic performance by using through vertical rib connection. Furthermore, a finite element model was established and a parametric analysis with the finite element model was conducted to investigate the influences of following parameters on the joint stiffness: width-to-thickness ratio of column steel tube, beam-to-column linear stiffness ratio, vertical rib dimensions, and axial load ratio of column. Lastly, preliminary design suggestions were proposed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T05:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211007392
       
  • Corrigendum to Initial response mechanism and local contact stiffness
           analysis of the floating two-stage buffer collision-prevention system
           under ship colliding

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      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T09:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433221999124
       
  • Experimental and numerical assessment of CHS-RHS T-joints with chords
           subjected to axial tensile forces

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      Authors: João Batista da Silva Neto, Gabriel Vieira Nunes, Arlene Maria Cunha Sarmanho, Daniel José Rocha Pereira, Messias Júnio Lopes Guerra, Vinícius Nicchio Alves
      First page: 2593
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Hollow steel sections are widely used in the construction industry due to their mechanical properties. Joints used in these structures are the subject of research because of their singular and critical behavior. Joints containing chords with more slender cross-sections and axially loaded are still a challenge for design, especially in joints with circular hollow sections (CHS) in the braces and rectangular hollow sections (RHS) in the chords. In this context, this work aimed to study joints formed by a combination of CHS braces subjected to compression loads and RHS chords axially loaded with tension, welded as T-joints. Experimental tests, a numerical model using finite elements, and a parametric analysis were developed. A new equation for the chord stress function was proposed, including joints containing chords with semi-compact sections in tension. The joint resistance values obtained through the numerical models were compared with the equations from ISO 14346:2013 and with the proposed equation. It was observed that, for the numerical models with geometric properties inside the normative validity ranges of ISO 14346:2013, the mean rate of analytical by numerical joint resistance results was equal to 68%, using either the normative or the proposed equation. In the same way, for models outside the current validity ranges, either the proposed equation or the modified equation from ISO 14346:2013 could be used to design CHS-RHS T-joints with the geometric and material properties analyzed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T05:02:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211003286
       
  • Effects of shear keys and track system on the behavior of simply-supported
           bridges for high-speed trains subjected to transverse earthquake
           excitations

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      Authors: Dongliang Meng, Shizai Chen, Menggang Yang, Shangtao Hu
      First page: 2607
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      China railway track system II (CRTS-II) slab ballastless track is usually constructed on high-speed railway (HSR) bridges to ensure the rail smoothness and the running safety of high-speed trains, but the use of the longitudinal continuous track system would significantly alter the dynamic characteristics of the bridges and therefore influence the bridge seismic responses. The pounding at shear keys has also been identified as one of the critical factors affecting the seismic behavior of bridges. To investigate the effects of shear keys and CRTS-II track system on the seismic behavior of HSR simply-supported bridges subjected to transverse earthquake excitations, detailed 3D finite element models are developed by using ABAQUS. The seismic responses calculated from the bridges with and without considering shear keys are firstly compared. The result shows that the shear keys can effectively limit the development of pier-girder relative displacement and thus decrease the potential of girder dislocation. However, large pounding forces would be generated between the shear keys and bearing pads and transferred to bridge piers, which will amplify the seismic responses of the bridge piers. The result of seismic analyses of multiple-span simply-supported bridges with and without considering the track system shows that the track system will significantly influence the distribution of seismic forces among the bridge spans. For a bridge with equal pier heights, considering the track system will reduce the seismic responses of side spans (close to subgrade) but will increase those of the middle spans. Whereas an opposite trend is found for bridges with high middle piers and short side piers.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T05:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211007398
       
  • Improved analysis method for structural members subjected to blast loads
           considering strain hardening and softening effects

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      Authors: Liuliang Cui, Xihong Zhang, Hong Hao
      First page: 2622
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In analysis and design of structures subjected to blast loading, equivalent Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) method is commonly recommended in design guides. In this paper, improved analysis method based on SDOF models is proposed. Both flexural and direct shear behaviors of structures subjected to blast load are studied using equivalent SDOF systems. Methods of deriving flexural and direct shear resistance functions are introduced, of which strain hardening and softening effects are considered. To collocate with the improved SDOF models, the improved design charts accounting for strain hardening and softening are developed through systematical analysis of SDOF systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed analysis method, a model validation is made through comparing the predictions with laboratory shock tube testing results on reinforced concrete (RC) columns. It is found that compared to the conventional approach with elastic and elastic-perfectly-plastic model, the elastic-plastic-hardening model provides more accurate predictions. Additional non-dimensional design charts considering various levels of elastic-plastic-hardening/softening resistance functions are developed to supplement those available in the design guides with elastic-perfectly-plastic resistance function only, which provide engineers with options to choose more appropriate resistance functions in design analysis.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T05:57:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211007382
       
  • A mechanism-based assessment framework for masonry arch bridges under
           scour-induced support rotation

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      Authors: Jofin George, Arun Menon
      First page: 2637
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Increase in the frequency of flash floods owed to climate change, excessive sand mining, and urbanisation of watersheds has accelerated the need to quantify the structural effect of scour-induced structural damages in masonry arch bridges. The structural effects of scour-induced rotation are unaddressed in literature. In this context, a mechanism-based framework based on limit state principles is developed for masonry arch bridges subjected to scour-induced rotation. Critical collapse mechanisms caused by scour-induced rotation are identified, and analysis framework is developed using rigid-body kinematics. The spectrum of bridges under consideration is classified into subsets, and an assessment scheme is developed using fragility curves as a function of scouring location as well as bridge typology.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T04:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211009325
       
  • The effect of the TMD on the vibration of an offshore wind turbine
           considering three soil-pile-interaction models

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      Authors: Mouafo Teifouet Armand Robinson, Zhenyu Wang
      First page: 2652
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper we propose the use of the power series method and the Newmark-Beta algorithm to study the mitigation by the tuned mass damper (TMD) of an offshore wind turbine(OWT). The monopile of the OWT is taken as slender beam buried in a homogeneous soil while the tower is considered as tapered slender beam. Mathematically, both monopile and tower are modeled as elastic Euler-Bernoulli beams, with a point mass at the tower top representing the rotor nacelle assembly (RNA). First of all, the power series method is utilized to calculate the first natural frequencies of AF and CS models. The obtained results are compared with the first natural frequency of DS model obtained from FEM-Abaqus with good satisfaction. Next, the obtained mode shapes are used to establish the system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) governing the dynamic of OWT subjected to a TMD. Afterwards, the Newmark-Beta algorithm is employed to solve the ODE. Accuracy of the introduced approach is verified by setting a comparison between our results with those obtained using FEM-Abaqus. Finally, the influence of several parameters on the performance of TMD is shown in some plots.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T04:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211008316
       
  • Damping effect on seismic input energy and its verification by shake table
           tests

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      Authors: Ahmet Gullu, Ercan Yuksel, Cem Yalcin, Oral Buyukozturk
      First page: 2669
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Seismic input energy per unit mass (EI/m) imparted into a structure is a function of earthquake (duration, frequency content, amplitude etc.), soil (shear velocity, dominant period etc.) and the structural (vibrational periods etc.) characteristics. Generally, the damping properties of the structure is assumed negligible for seismic input energy. Most of the existing spectral equations derived for SDOF systems generally use a constant damping ratio of 5%. In this study, the damping effect on EI/m is investigated experimentally and numerically on SDOF systems with distinct damping ratios. Experimental investigation and numerical computations proved that seismic input energy is very sensitive to variation of damping within the vicinity of fundamental frequencies. Specifically, up to 50% increment was observed in the plateau region of the input energy spectrum, where maximum EI/m values occur, by variation of damping from 2% to 10%. Hence, a novel damping modification factor (DMF), which could be utilized for existing energy spectra, is proposed in this paper. Validation studies of the proposed DMF are achieved through the various energy spectra found in the literature.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T04:55:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211010584
       
  • Shear response of steel fiber reinforced recycled concrete-filled steel
           tube columns

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      Authors: Zhenzhen Liu, Yiyan Lu, Shan Li, Jiancong Liao
      First page: 2684
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A comprehensive study of the shear characteristics of steel fiber reinforced recycled concrete-filled steel tube (SRCFST) columns is conducted. 50 CFST stub columns are tested with the variables of steel tube diameter-thickness ratio (D/t), shear span-to-depth ratio (λ), axial compression ratio (n), and concrete mix. Two types of cements, three recycled aggregate percentages, three water-cement ratios, and three steel fiber contents are considered in design of concrete mixes. The experimental results show that SRCFST columns present the coincident shear behavior of the ordinary CFST columns. As λ is increased, shear resistance shows a downtrend, while the flexural strength presents an increasing trend. Imposing axial compression or thickening steel tube contributes to an adequate safety margin in plastic period. Based on the contributions superposition method, a predicted model of the shear capacity of SRCFST columns is proposed in consideration of shear-span ratio, axial compression, and self-stress.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T05:26:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211009322
       
  • Experimental study on cold-formed steel lipped channel medium-long columns
           strengthened longitudinally by steel strips or steel bars

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      Authors: Jianfeng Chen, Xinxin Yang, Shen Yongkang, Mingqi Chen
      First page: 2705
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the existing methods of reinforcing cold-formed steel lipped channel column, this paper proposed that reinforced the cold-formed steel lipped channel column longitudinally with steel strips or steel bars for the first time. In order to study the influence of section forms and initial stress ratio on axial compression behavior of columns, a series of pin-pin ends axial compression tests were conducted. The experiment specimens contained 20 concentrically loaded specimens with two cross-section shapes, four initial stress ratios, respectively. It was shown that when reinforcing column longitudinally with the reinforcement, under axial compression, the ultimate bearing capacity of the specimens could significantly increase with little change in the quantity of steel. Moreover, the reinforcing effect of the column decreased linearly with an increase in the initial stress ratio (β) of the load-strengthened specimens. Here, unloading or partial unloading reinforcement was recommended, and the initial stress ratio should be lower than 0.3. Finally, the experimental results were compared with the calculation results for the axial bearing capacities of the column based on the current Chinese standard (GB50018-2002) and North American standard (AISI). It indicated that for the section prone to local-global interactive buckling, the result calculated by GB50018-2002 is more accurate, but has a large deviation in calculating the section prone to distortional buckling. Results of direct strength method of AISI are the opposite to the result of GB50018-2002.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T09:49:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211011550
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study of sandwich composites with Z-pins
           under quasi-static compression loading

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      Authors: Erdem Selver, Gaye Kaya, Hussein Dalfi
      First page: 2720
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to enhance the compressive properties of sandwich composites containing extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam core and glass or carbon face materials by using carbon/vinyl ester and glass/vinyl ester composite Z-pins. The composite pins were inserted into foam cores at two different densities (15 and 30 mm). Compression test results showed that compressive strength, modulus and loads of the sandwich composites significantly increased after using composite Z-pins. Sandwich composites with 15 mm pin densities exhibited higher compressive properties than that of 30 mm pin densities. The pin type played a critical role whilst carbon pin reinforced sandwich composites had higher compressive properties compared to glass pin reinforced sandwich composites. Finite element analysis (FE) using Abaqus software has been established in this study to verify the experimental results. Experimental and numerical results based on the capabilities of the sandwich composites to capture the mechanical behaviour and the damage failure modes were conducted and showed a good agreement between them.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T05:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211007399
       
  • Shear properties of a new type recycled aggregate concrete interlocking
           hollow block masonry with axial load

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      Authors: Jie Li, Hao Zhou, Wenwen Chen, Zhongfan Chen
      First page: 2735
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Comprehensively considering the positive contribution of energy conservation and the reduction of the construction skill requirement for workers, a new type of interlocking hollow block using recycled aggregates concrete (IHAC) with the compressive strength defined as MU10 was proposed, which could help improve more than 56% of the construction efficiency compared to common used concrete hollow blocks. In order to study the shear properties and promote its application in building engineering, the shear strength of 10 groups (three specimens for each group) of masonries considering different axial stress level and whether or not to use concrete in the grouting holes were studied, and the failure mode as well as the shear strength of the masonries were analyzed. And then, the calculation formulas for predicting the shear strength of the IHAC masonry were obtained by using the parameter fitting method based on the Coulomb failure theory, which could well reflect the parabolic shaped changing characteristic of the shear strength with the increasing of the axial stress, and the maximum difference was within 18% between the calculated and test results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T09:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211012568
       
  • An experimental and analytical investigation of reinforced concrete
           beam-column joints strengthened with a range of CFRP schemes applied only
           to the beam

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      Authors: Sarmad Abdulsahab Ali, John P. Forth
      First page: 2748
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the experimental and analytical behaviour of beam-column joints that are subjected to a combination of torque, flexural and direct shear forces, where different Carbon Fibre Polymer (CFRP) strengthening wraps have been applied only to the beam. These wrapping schemes have previously been determined by the research community as an effective method of enhancing the torsional capacities of simply supported reinforced concrete beams. In this investigation, four 3/4-scale exterior beam-column joints were subjected to combined monotonic loading; three different beam wrapping schemes were employed to strengthen the beam region of the joint. The paper suggests a series of rational formulae, based on the space truss mechanism, which can be used to evaluate the joint shear demand of the beams wrapped in these various ways. Further, an iterative model, based on the average stress-strain method, has been introduced to predict joint strength. The proposed analytical approaches show good agreement with the experimental results. The experimental outcomes along with the adopted analytical methods reflect the consistent influence of the wrapping ratio, the interaction between the combined forces, the concrete strut capacity and the fibre orientation on the joint forces, the failure mode and the distortion levels. A large rise in the strut force resulting from shear stresses generated from this combination of forces is demonstrated and leads to a sudden-brittle failure. Likewise, increases in the beams’ main steel rebar strains are identified at the column face, again influenced by the load interactions and the wrapping systems used.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-11T04:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211007371
       
  • Typical brick masonry walls reinforced with high-strength mortar and steel
           bars in the horizontal joints

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      Authors: Xinqiang Yao, Bin Liang, Hai Zhang, Ziliang Zhang, Zheng He
      First page: 2767
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Based on investigation of rural buildings in china, there are more than 20% of the masonry structures constructed in 1970s. Thus, the old blue bricks (OBB) and old red bricks (ORB), which demolished from the typical brick masonry structures was built in 1970s, was chosen in the test. During demolishing the OBB and ORB, the original mortar was destroyed. Thus, the 1:7.8 cement mortar was chosen instead of original mortars and the 1:5 cement mortar was chosen as the reinforcement mortar. In order to know the performant of the reinforcement methods, there are three-level test plan was put forward in the study. Firstly, the mechanical properties of OBB and ORB and mortars was tested; Secondly, the experiment tested the shear strength of the reinforced and unreinforced masonry specimens along mortar joints; Thirdly, there are four walls (OBB reinforced wall and unreinforced wall, ORB reinforced wall and unreinforced wall) have been made for the pseudo-static tests. This research conducted physical performance tests on masonry bricks, masonry components, and masonry walls of typical masonry structures. Through experiments, the shear capacity of the masonry structure reinforced by high-strength mortar and steel bars can be obtained.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-15T08:46:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211012238
       
  • Preliminary study on the threshold stiffness and residual displacement of
           the multangular-pyramid concave friction system (MPCFS) for seismic
           isolation

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      Authors: Xiong Wei, Jiang Li-Zhong, Li Yao-Zhuang
      First page: 2780
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, the threshold stiffness and residual displacement of the MPCFS are both investigated. The MPCFS has a higher threshold (breakaway) stiffness and no residual displacement after earthquakes or ambient vibrations, which makes it different from the conventional Curved Surface Slider (CSS). These two features can enable the MPCFS to be more stable when experiencing micro-to-small shakings, and always restore to its central point after earthquakes. With the aim of testifying the two features, a series of analytical simulations are conducted on a four-storey building model equipped with MPCFS. The analytical results are compared with that obtained with CSS. The simulation results validate the aforementioned virtues of MPCFS over the CSS. This indicates that MPCFS has great potential in the engineering practice of seismic isolation.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-15T08:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211009321
       
  • Experimental study on post-fire mechanical performances of high strength
           steel Q460

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      Authors: Lan Kang, Bin Wu, Xinpei Liu, Hanbin Ge
      First page: 2791
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A series of experimental tests for investigating the post-fire mechanical (PFM) and post-fire fracture (PFF) performances of high strength steel Q460 are reported in this paper. All Q460 coupon specimens are heated up to a designated temperature which is selected from 100 to 900°C and then cooled down naturally to room temperature. Tensile tests are conducted to obtain their completely full-range post-fire stress-strain curves and the corresponding mechanical properties. The obtained experimental results show that with an increase in the heating temperature, the post-fire yield strength and ultimate strength of the Q460 structural steel decrease particularly when the heating temperature is over 650°C, but the post-fire elongation enhances. Ductile fracture behaviour of the coupon specimens under axial tensile loading can also be observed through the tensile coupon tests. The obtained experimental data are compared with the other results found in the open literatures on Grade 460 high strength steel. Based on a wider range of experimental data sets, predictive equations for evaluating the PFM properties of Grade 460 high strength steel are proposed. The experimental results presented in this study will provide benchmark data for the future calibration of complex ductile fracture parameters applied in numerical simulation.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-17T04:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211010601
       
  • Experimental and numerical studies of T-shaped reinforced concrete members
           subjected to combined compression-bending-shear-torsion

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      Authors: Zhigang Yu, Deshan Shan
      First page: 2809
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The study of reinforced concrete members subjected to combined loads always has been an important research topic in the field of engineering, but the torsional behavior of T-shaped reinforced concrete members subjected to combined loads has yet to be determined. This paper is focused on providing a detailed explanation of the torsional behavior of T-shaped reinforced concrete members subjected to combined compression-bending-shear-torsion. From the perspective of experimental tests and numerical analyses, in this paper, we discuss the effects of combined loads on the torsion bearing capacity, the development of cracks and the failure mode, strains of key points in the concrete and longitudinal reinforcement, and the relation of torsion and angular displacement. We conducted experiments and numerical analyses of four groups of reinforced concrete members by using the main variables of the axial pressure ratio and the bending moment. Also, the experimental and calculated results are compared based on the elastic-plastic damage constitutive model of concrete. Based on the test data and the existing formula, we also extended the formula used to calculate the torsion bearing capacity and provided diagrams of the interaction when combined loads were applied. In addition, the results of this study highlight the turning point from torsion failure to compression-bending-torsion failure. The test results demonstrated that torsion capability increases in the specified range of axial pressure ratio and decreases as bending increases. The test results also indicate the importance of considering the effects of compression-shear-bending on the torsion bearing capacity in the engineering design.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T05:08:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211012577
       
  • An experimental and numerical study for investigating the promising
           stratified reinforced concrete slabs

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      Authors: Sameh Yehia, Tarek Aly, Osama Hassan
      First page: 2826
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      It is well known that through the structural design, the safety and economic considerations of the project represent major factors, which must be always in mind. From this point of view, the concept and idea of “Stratified Concrete” were developed. Stratified Concrete consists of two or more types of concrete; in particular, composite materials consisting of High Strength Concrete (HSC) and Normal Strength Concrete (NSC). This study showed the flexural behavior for stratified sections (HSC-NSC) by taking a short time lap (1 h) between the two mixes to get a good bond between them. An experimental program was conducted to investigate the flexural behavior of NSC (25 MPa), HSC (60 MPa), and three HSC-NSC with the effect of changing the thickness of the HSC layer of slabs (20, 40, 75 mm) that had subjected to double static loads. As well, these slabs’ experimental results were numerically verified. The most important achievement is the success of the idea of casting different strengths of concrete layers using a short time interval to improve the bending behavior of the slabs, and reach the superior thickness of the HSC layer, which represents almost a quarter of the slab thickness.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T05:11:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211012225
       
  • Experimental study on seismic performance of partially precast steel fiber
           high-strength concrete columns with high-strength steel bars

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      Authors: Jianwei Zhang, Deli Zhang, Xiangyu Li, Zhaoxv Shen
      First page: 2841
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To study the cyclic behavior of partially precast steel fiber high-strength concrete columns with high-strength steel bars, four full-sized square column specimens were fabricated and tested under constant axial load and horizontal cyclic load. The effects of the strength of precast concrete shell and the diameter of cast-in-place column core were analyzed in detail. The results show that partially precast steel fiber high-strength concrete columns have good seismic performance and deformation ability. Compared to the concrete column with lower strength of precast concrete shell, the concrete column with higher strength of precast concrete shell showed higher bearing capacity and energy dissipation capacity while lower ductility. Moreover, with the increase of the diameter of cast-in-place column core, the bearing capacity and the deformation ability of the specimen decreased. Finally, based on the experimental research and theoretical analysis, a calculation model for predicting the maximum bearing capacity was proposed, and the results obtained from the formulas were in good agreement with those from the experiments.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T05:12:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332211011551
       
 
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