Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 545, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

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Antitrust Bulletin
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0003-603X - ISSN (Online) 1930-7969
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • Introduction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rex Ahdar
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T03:23:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211044905
       
  • The Centrality of Rivalry

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      Authors: Rex Ahdar
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this article is to argue that the old-fashioned idea of rivalry remains central to the concept of effective competition and, in turn, to the promotion of the competitive process. Rivalry was the core meaning of competition among the early economists. The concern with vigorous, sustained actual rivalry may have been lost sight of, but it ought not to have been. Rivalry cannot of course be the exhaustive focus for many other factors and influences affect the level of effective competition. But a searching rivalry inquiry provides a valuable initial screen. By reemphasizing the primacy of rivalry, we may also foster the ability of competition law to act not just as a key driver of economic efficiency and growth, but also as a pro-democratic vehicle to check powerful private centers of economic power.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T04:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211045435
       
  • Partial Price-Fixing and Semi-Collusion

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      Authors: Chris Noonan
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Many cartels do not directly fix the price of products. Instead, the participants may agree on a starting price for negotiations or the price of a component of the overall price. Antitrust investigations reveal that cartel agreements are also often very imperfectly implemented. Antitrust law in the United States and the European Union has typically taken a robust approach to these practices even where economic analysis might be unable to show that such practices always or almost always harm consumer welfare. The decision of the New Zealand Supreme Court in Lodge Real Estate Ltd. v. Commerce Commission offers a New Zealand perspective on the concept of a price-fixing agreement and imperfect collusion. The Court, this article argues, reached the correct decision in Lodge. The decision, however, evidences a pragmatic judgment, rather than the confident deployment of economic learning or foreign case law within the statutory framework of the Commerce Act 1986. The language of sections 30 and 30A of the Act was borrowed from an Australian statute, which in turn had attempted to capture the state of United States price-fixing law in the 1970s. A more formalistic and pre-Chicago approach to antitrust is evident in the language, much of which was inspired by United States v. Socony-Vacuum Oil Co. The case also highlights some of the distinctive features of the competition law in New Zealand. The reluctance to develop to guide in the application of the general provisions of the Commerce Act and requiring a demonstration of an effect on price on the facts may mark a departure from the body of pricing case law in the United States and the European Union and risks undermining the per se prohibition of cartel conduct in the Commerce Act. Without the same depth and breadth of cartel case law, the adoption of a more flexible approach to anticompetitive agreements evident in some decisions in the United States and the European Union could have different effects in a smaller jurisdiction.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T02:43:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211045434
       
  • Labor Noncompete Agreements: Tool for Economic Efficiency or Means to
           Extract Value from Workers'

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      Authors: David J. Balan
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A number of theoretical arguments have been offered in favor of noncompete provisions in labor agreements. While there has been considerable empirical research on the effects of those provisions, there has been little direct evaluation of the arguments themselves. In this article, I lay out and evaluate three commonly heard arguments, namely, (1) the voluntary nature of labor agreements justifies a strong inference that the terms of those agreements, including noncompete provisions, are beneficial for both workers and firms and that they are economically efficient, 2(A) noncompetes facilitate efficient knowledge transfer from firms to workers, and 2(B) noncompetes encourage efficient firm-sponsored investment in worker training. These arguments, though not entirely without merit, mostly do not survive close scrutiny, and in fact such scrutiny reveals strong arguments that point in the opposite direction. In addition, noncompetes may cause important additional harms that are not measured in conventional economic research.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T02:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211045443
       
  • The Coca-Cola Company/Coca-Cola Beverages Africa Merger: Lessons for
           Robust Regional Competition Enforcement

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      Authors: Grace Nsomba
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article uses the Coca-Cola Company/Coca-Cola Beverages Africa merger to illustrate the important role that competition policy should continue to play in the regional and continental integration agenda. The case provides an illustrative example that the structure and reach of firms play a pivotal role in the dynamics of value chains, as well as on the extent to which market power can potentially be exerted within and across countries. Competitive rivalry is necessary for innovation and lower prices, but the playing field needs to be leveled in order for entrants and smaller rivals to make and realize investments, build capabilities, and participate effectively. Competition reforms that take a bottom-up approach and account for the varying levels of development of countries play an integral role in opening up markets for entrants and small rivals, which in turn allow for the objectives of the African Continental Free Trade Area to be realized.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T03:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211045436
       
  • Designing an AfCFTA-Driven Continent-Wide Competition Policy Around the
           Regional Economic Communities

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      Authors: Fiona Okadia, Emmanuel Wa-Kyendo, Melody Njeru, Darmi Jattani, Leo Kemboi
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) Agreement will lead to liberalization of trade in Africa, thus expanding the market for African products and services. Expansion of markets necessitates development of a regulatory framework that will promote healthy competition among businesses and protect consumers’ welfare. The Agreement recognizes this fact and has set out the Competition Protocol among the key enablers of its success. Since the regional economic communities (RECs) are the building blocks of the continental wide free trade area, the analysis of their regional competition regime is paramount for providing insight that will guide the development of the Competition Protocol. This article responds to this need by analyzing Africa’s four largest RECs and providing policy proposals on how the continental competition policy should be fashioned. Specifically, this article looks at the RECs’ institutional structure, principles, and carries out a legal, economic, and political analysis on the same. It examines how these laws relate to the three elements (abuse of dominance, anticompetitive mergers, and acquisitions) of competition policy and the challenges that they pose in achieving AfCFTA’s goal. It also looks into the challenges that affect trade and fair competition in the region. Finally, it offers proposals on the competition framework that bridge the gap between the AfCFTA Agreement objectives and the African economic, political, and legal realities.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T03:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211045749
       
  • The Vodafone/Sky Decision and Vertical Mergers in New Zealand

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      Authors: Paul Scott
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As Professor Ahdar’s text shows, New Zealand’s competition law has undergone an evolution. Views on various practices have changed and this led to academic disagreements. One area, however, has been free from any controversy and that is vertical mergers. The reason is not uniformity of philosophy—but rather more prosaic. New Zealand has not had any cases. This changed with the Vodafone/Sky merger. This article discusses the Commerce Commission’s decision to decline the merger and how it is in line with current thinking on vertical mergers.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T03:42:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211044907
       
  • The Politics and Practice of New Zealand Competition Law

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      Authors: Matt Sumpter
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      There is a wind of change blowing through global competition law and policy. Four or five years ago, there were signs a front was coming. Progressive commentators were fretting about years of seemingly unchecked market concentration. They were asking whether greater antitrust intervention might soothe rising inequality, prop up wages, and even disband aggregated political power. Some from the vanguard of this movement now occupy the most influential positions in the global antitrust endeavor. In this article, I locate New Zealand’s experience within the international normative debate over the law’s objectives by reference to the country’s modern economic history. And I explain how policy translates into practice at the enforcement coal face in New Zealand. In doing so, I observe that the country’s competition agency, the Commerce Commission, is failing in its duty to investigate and prosecute exclusionary conduct in the jurisdiction.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-21T03:27:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211044900
       
  • Intro to Antitrust and Race Symposium

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      Authors: Hal Singer, Ted Tatos
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-20T03:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211032773
       
  • Introduction

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      Authors: Cornelius Dube
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T07:35:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211045442
       
  • Racist Antitrust, Antiracist Antitrust

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      Authors: John Mark Newman
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      If the tumultuous 2010s yielded one consistent theme, it is frustration with inequality coalescing into collective action. In response, progressive enforcers and commentators have begun to explore whether the antitrust laws—enacted in an attempt to counter concentrated power during a previous Gilded Age—might play a role in addressing systemic racialized inequality. This essay contributes to that ongoing conversation by historicizing a pair of antitrust cases: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and Superior Court Trial Lawyers Association. The first is an admirable example of antiracist antitrust. The second is its opposite. Together, these two decisions represent divergent paths. Which has the contemporary antitrust enterprise followed' The Supreme Court’s most recent substantive decision in the area, Ohio v. American Express, suggests both room for hope and reason for concern. The essay concludes by offering four recommendations for how antitrust can retake the high road. Antitrust can and should help to address—rather than exacerbate—structural inequality.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-26T09:18:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211031675
       
  • Antitrust as Antiracism: Antitrust as a Partial Cure for Systemic Racism
           (and Other Systemic “Isms”)

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      Authors: Joshua P. Davis, Eric L. Cramer, Reginald L. Streater, Mark R. Suter
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We usually think of antitrust law as addressing violations of free market norms, not equality norms. The two, however, may be related. Systemic racism (and other systemic “isms”) is about power and its abuse. So is antitrust law. Moreover, antitrust may be able to fill gaps left by antidiscrimination law. In particular, antitrust law can address: entire markets, not just individual firms or discrete actions; power imbalances from differences in capital, not just disparities in compensation; financial allocations between owners and workers, not just between workers; and legal violations that shrink total worker pay and do not just distort its allocation.Antitrust law also relies on centrist free market principles. Those may be less controversial than tackling issues of race directly. To be sure, in part for that reason, antitrust laws are limited. They can at best remedy a small portion of the potential wrongs caused by systemic racism. But antitrust may nevertheless contribute valuably to systemic racial equality. It also may provide a model for how antidiscrimination law might be reframed to make it more effective in that regard.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T09:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211023620
       
  • Stick Versus Carrot: Comparing Structural Antitrust and Behavioral
           Regulation Outcomes

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      Authors: Sumit K. Majumdar
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Debates on whether structural antitrust remedies or behavioral regulatory remedies should be used to implement institutional mandates are long-standing. Historical data for an entire population of firms for a fourteen-year period have been used, in a natural experiment format, to evaluate the impacts of both (a) structural antitrust policy (stick) and (b) behavioral regulation (carrot), for (i) exactly the same efficiency outcome, (ii) for the same firms, and (iii) at the same time. The results indicate that the stick has been less effective than the carrot. Implementation of regulations has had a significantly larger economic impact relative to implementing structural antitrust remedies on firm efficiency. Fiscally, annual incremental gains generated by the regulatory approach versus the antitrust approach have been over US$2 billion. Behavioral institutional design, implementation, and outcome assessments could be based on dynamic evolutionary process ideas situated within a managed incentive regulation framework. Given recent clamor for actions against technology companies, the facts suggest that behavioral regulations could constrain unacceptable firm behaviors and the results question contemporary antitrust remedies’ relative efficacy.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T10:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211023463
       
  • Oscar Robertson, Antitrust, and the Fight Against Monopsony Power in the
           NBA

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      Authors: David Berri
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Labor markets in sports have historically been dominated by the monopsony power enjoyed by owners. In the 1970s, Oscar Robertson argued in front of Congress that “…it’s terribly wrong for anyone to limit anyone’s ability to earn more money.” The data make it clear that Robertson’s wages—and the wages of other National Basketball Association (NBA) players—were indeed limited by the NBA’s reserve clause. Robertson, though, didn’t just make speeches. As the head of the NBA’s Player Association, he delayed a merger between the American Basketball Association and NBA and eventually created the NBA’s free agent market. His work dramatically increased the wages paid to NBA players. These victories, though, didn’t last forever. The many limits today on player wages in the NBA’s labor market suggest that Robertson’s fight has largely been forgotten by today’s NBA players.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T09:25:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X211023622
       
  • The New Competition Regime in India: Prospects and Challenges

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      Authors: Beena Saraswathy
      First page: 155
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T07:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997047
       
  • Inbound M&As in India: Issues and Challenges

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      Authors: K. S. Chalapati Rao, Biswajit Dhar
      First page: 158
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The economic reforms of 1991 drastically transformed India’s approach toward foreign direct investment (FDI). The focus has been on attracting increasingly large amounts of FDI. There were no regulations on mergers and acquisitions for two decades, and when they were finally introduced in 2011 under the Competition Act, 2002, they were rendered ineffective by setting high thresholds, providing exemptions, and by narrowly focusing on competition. As a result, major domestic companies as also emerging leaders were taken over. Many foreign companies gained strong hold in the economy without adding capacities. The domestic private corporate sector lagged far behind in various respects. Belying the expectations of the policy makers, it invested far too inadequately in research and development. This article argues that India should not continue its reliance on FDI to achieve the goal of creating an internationally competitive manufacturing sector. India should do more than establishing an FDI review mechanism. Cross-border acquisitions must be subjected to strict scrutiny by a specialized agency. Proactive and coordinated measures must be devised to encourage domestic enterprises. Special attention must be given to providing long-term risk capital.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T09:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997017
       
  • Economic Reforms and Market Competition in India: An Assessment

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      Authors: Beena Saraswathy
      First page: 184
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The announcement of New Industrial Policy in July 1991 marked a paradigm shift in the overall macroeconomic policies followed in India from greater control and regulations to the free rein of market forces. Subsequently, there has been a paradigm shift in the competition regulation in India, with the establishment of the Competition Commission of India. The underlying motive behind the regulatory changes has been to increase competition in all spheres of economic activities. Given this background, the present study intends to assess whether the changes in policy regimes could bring out the desired output in terms of heightened competition in various spheres of the manufacturing sector, specifically across various subsectors in the manufacturing sector. These are important not only from a consumer point of view but also to identify the areas of concern for vigilant policy implementation. Using multiple indicators of concentration, we find that despite the increase in competition across various subsectors, concentration levels remain high for many subsectors. We observed high levels of concentration in seven of the twenty-nine subsectors studied and in another three high-moderate concentration levels noticed.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T09:32:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997019
       
  • IPR Regime and Antitrust Implications of Mergers and Acquisitions: With a
           Focus on Software and Pharmaceutical Sector

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      Authors: P. L. Beena
      First page: 203
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article seeks to analyze the trends and patterns of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) during the Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights regime and addresses the antitrust issues related to innovation and competition in the framework of competition policy. Empirical evidence supports the view that enhancing size in terms of corporate control of equity, product market share, and innovation market share could be the motivations for the M&A phenomenon in the sector such as software and pharmaceuticals. These sectors were able to extract relatively more profit margin as compared to the manufacturing sector. This article further observes anticompetitive practices in terms of pricing and abuse of dominance in these two industries. The study argues for introducing regulatory mechanisms in the competition policy which could address the antitrust implications of M&As that are engaged in by knowledge-based firms and start-ups. This is because such acquisitions can reduce the incentives to innovate or change the innovative and competitive dynamics in the relevant market.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T05:11:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997021
       
  • Innovation, Patents, and Competition in Modern Agriculture: A Case Study
           of Bayer and Monsanto Merger

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      Authors: Reji K. Joseph
      First page: 214
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The use of digital technologies to aid the agronomic decision making of farmers characterizes modern agriculture. Digital farming is expected to enhance the market power of leading innovative firms in the seed industry, which is already having a high level of concentration. The merger of two leading innovative firms—Bayer and Monsanto—is to be seen in this context. This article examines the emerging anticompetitive considerations from the deal and the contribution of the Competition Commission of India in alleviating such considerations while approving the deal. It is found that threats were emerging in three areas—traits and seeds, nonselective herbicides, and digital farming platforms. To eliminate the anticompetitive effects of the deal, both the companies were required to divest their research and development intensive trait, seed, and nonselective herbicide businesses. They were also required to license the proprietary active ingredients of nonselective herbicides, if the use of their seeds was linked to the application of such herbicides, on fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory (FRAND) terms. They were also required to license the agronomic data, collected from India, and used in their digital platforms, to potential users on FRAND terms.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T09:56:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997022
       
  • Application of Economic and Quantitative Tools for Merger Analysis in
           India

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      Authors: Ramji Tamarappoo, Neha Malhotra Singh
      First page: 225
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article assesses how the use of economic analysis and quantitative tools has evolved in merger assessments in India and draws a comparison with practices in two of the advanced jurisdictions, the United States and the European Union. In addition, this article identifies the trends and the gaps that still persist in India, in terms of the adoption of analytical approaches in merger analysis.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T09:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997024
       
  • M&As by Business Groups and Market Competition: A Study of Tata Steel

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      Authors: Beena Saraswathy
      First page: 236
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the involvement of business groups in consolidation activity. An important component of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act was “the concentration of economic power in the hands of a few” which has been de-emphasized as per the amendment made in 1991. The new Competition Act mainly deals with the case-by-case analysis of market competition rather than ownership concentration. The competition regulation in its current form is mainly focusing on the concept of “economic efficiency” and not addressing the “social fairness” concept. The involvement of business groups in consolidation activities results in multiplier effects as they are already part of a diversified and well-structured umbrella of business with horizontal and vertical linkages. This article observes the active involvement of big business groups in mergers and acquisitions (M&As) activity across various product lines. Further, many such M&As are leading to capacity expansion not only in various overlapping products (i.e., horizontal linkages) but also in the vertical line of business, in which the affiliate firms of the group are engaged. This may be beneficial to the group as a whole since the cost of intermediary inputs supplied to various affiliate firms can be reduced. The study points to consider the “ownership and group effect” and the resulting synergy creation more carefully while assessing competition.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T09:57:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997027
       
  • The Role of Competition Reforms in Unlocking International Trade: Evidence
           from Africa’s Proposed Tripartite Free Trade Area

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      Authors: Cornelius Dube
      First page: 252
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This study applies an econometric approach to estimate the impact of competition reform adoption and tightening on international trade, using Africa’s envisaged Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) as a case study. An index measuring the extent to which competition regimes have been tightened and enforced between 2001 and 2016 in the TFTA countries is constructed. A gravity model of international trade, based on generalized method of moments, is then estimated to establish how exports are influenced by this competition index measure after controlling for other traditional gravity model variables. The results show that increasing competition reforms by 1% is associated with an increase in bilateral exports into the TFTA by 0.16%. However, if competition reforms in the importing country increase by 1%, then an approximate decline in bilateral exports of 0.46% would result. This underlines the role of competition enforcement in enhancing national competitiveness.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T09:58:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997046
       
  • Excessive Data Collection as a Form of Anticompetitive Conduct: The German
           Facebook Case

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      Authors: Anne C. Witt
      First page: 276
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In a high-profile decision of February 6, 2019, the German Federal Cartel Office prohibited Facebook’s data collection policy as an abuse of dominance for infringing its users’ constitutional right to privacy. The case triggered a remarkable interinstitutional dispute between the key players in German competition law. Conflicting rulings by the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court and the German Federal Court of Justice further illustrate how deeply divided the antitrust community is on the role of competition law in regulating excessive data collection and other novel types of harm caused by dominant digital platforms. This contribution discusses the original prohibition decision, the ensuing court orders, and legislative reform proposals in the broader context of European Union and U.S. competition law.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T09:33:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997028
       
  • Economic Reality at the Core of Apple

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      Authors: Tirza J. Angerhofer, Roger D. Blair
      First page: 308
      Abstract: The Antitrust Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In Apple, Inc. v. Pepper, the Supreme Court failed to recognize the economic reality at play which sparked considerable confusion and debate about the continued vitality of Illinois Brick. Apple used proprietary technology and threats to both iPhone owners and app developers to compel them to conduct their business in Apple’s App Store. In so doing, Apple created a presumably unlawful bottleneck. This enabled Apple to impose a 30% ad valorem tax on each transaction. The tax, that is, the antitrust damage, is borne by both the iPhone owners and the app developers according to the relative elasticities of the demand and supply. Distributing damages in this way leads to effective antitrust enforcement that does not reward the wrongdoer with ill-gotten gains nor lead to duplicative damages and complex apportioning. Our analysis clarifies the economic reality of the Apple case and provides useful guidance for handling future bottleneck cases.
      Citation: The Antitrust Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T09:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0003603X21997030
       
 
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