Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 262, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 547, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
British Journal of Pain
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.579
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 31  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2049-4637 - ISSN (Online) 2049-4645
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • Honorary authorship in high-impact journals in anaesthesia and pain
           medicine

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Roshni HS Matawlie, Jamie RJ Arjun Sharma, Judith D de Rooij, Geetanjali Sardjoe Mishre, Frank JPM Huygen, Pravesh S Gadjradj
      Pages: 246 - 248
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 246-248, August 2021.
      Enlisting an author on a published paper, whose input was insufficient, is called honorary authorship. The aim of this study is to assess the proportion of honorary authorship in the field of pain medicine. Data were collected from seven high-impact journals. Corresponding authors were sent a survey regarding their awareness on authorship guidelines, the decision-making in authorship and specific contributions made to the surveyed article. We identified two types of honorary authorship: (1) self-perceived honorary authorship, which is measured by asking the corresponding author if honorary authorship was present according to their opinion and (2) International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-defined honorary authorship, which is honorary authorship based on the guidelines. In total, 1051 mails were sent and 231 responded, leading to a response rate of 22.0%. 81.3% of the respondents were familiar with the ICMJE authorship guidelines, while 59.6% were aware of the issue of honorary authorship. 13.3% of the respondents were employed at a department in which the senior member is automatically included on all manuscripts. The ICMJE-defined honorary authorship was 40%, while self-perceived honorary authorship was 13.5%. There seems to be a high awareness of the ICMJE guidelines among corresponding authors in the field of Pain Medicine. Despite this high awareness, a high proportion of journal articles had honorary authorship, suggesting that authorship guidelines fail to be applied in a significant proportion of the literature.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-17T08:47:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211023526
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • What to do about . . . authorship'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gary J Macfarlane
      Pages: 249 - 250
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 249-250, August 2021.

      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T09:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211023073
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Exploring patient satisfaction of a joint-consultation clinic for
           trigeminal neuralgia: Enabling improved decision-making

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jolyon Poole, Valeria Mercadante, Sanjeet Singhota, Karim Nizam, Joanna M Zakrzewska
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundTrigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a relatively rare condition which has a profound impact not only on the patient but also on those around them. There is no cure for TN, and the management of the condition is complex. The most effective forms of treatment are either through medication, neurosurgery, or combination of the two. Each option has risks and implications for the patient. As with all clinical decisions, it is important for patients to understand and be fully informed of the treatments available to them. A London UK unit adopted a joint-consultation clinic approach where the patient meets with both physician and neurosurgeon at the same time to discuss treatment options. The purpose of this evaluation is to understand patients’ level of satisfaction with the joint-consultation clinic and evaluate utilisation of a clinical decision-making tool.MethodPatients who had attended the joint-consultation clinic over a period of 12 months were invited to participate in a telephone or paper survey (N = 55). Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.ResultsForty-one patients (77% response rate) participated in the survey, and the results were overwhelmingly positive for the joint-consultation clinic regarding satisfaction. The benefits were broad ranging including increased understanding, collaboration and confidence in decision-making.ConclusionsA joint-consultation clinic comprising a neurosurgeon and a physician for the treatment of TN is valued by patients who become better informed and able to make decisions about their care. Positive application of clinical decision-making aids in this situation offers potential across specialities.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-10-19T09:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211045877
       
  • “Prevalence of chronic pain following resection of pelvic bone tumours:
           A single centre prospective observational survey”

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sumitra Bakshi, Meenal Rana, Ashish Gulia, Ajay Puri, Tadala SS Harsha, Shashank Tiwari, Aparna Gotur
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundHemipelvectomy is a major surgery most often performed for pelvic malignancy. These complex surgeries often involve dissection around major neurovascular bundle and resection of tumour being bone along with involved tissues. This may result in short and long term morbidities. There is very little literature about incidence of chronic pain after pelvic resections. We conducted a prospective study at a tertiary cancer hospital to assess the prevalence of chronic pain post hemipelvectomy.MethodThis is a single centre prospective observational study conducted over 30 months. Pain scores were recorded using Brief pain inventory (BPI) and pain detect questionnaire. The quality of life was assessed using musculoskeletal tumour society (MSTS) score. Intra-operative details like extent of surgical resection, nerves spared, details of intra-operative and post-operative analgesia were retrieved from the patient files. Data were analysed using SPSS 21 version.ResultsNeuropathic pain post hemipelvectomy was uncommon. The prevalence of mild to moderate somatic pain was around 30%. Functional limitation was minimal as assessed by BPI and MSTS score. A high incidence of numbness was seen to persist in and around the area of surgical incision (50%).ConclusionThis is first study to report the incidence of chronic pain post hemipelvectomy done for pelvic tumour resections. Despite the extensive nature of resection involved, there is a low prevalence of neuropathic pain in this population. However, incidence of persistent somatic pain is high and there is a need for further studies for evaluating the causality
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T06:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211047143
       
  • Decreasing incidence of complex regional pain syndrome in the Netherlands:
           a retrospective multicenter study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tjitske D Groenveld, Emily Z Boersma, Taco J Blokhuis, Frank W Bloemers, Jan Paul M Frölke
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS) is a symptom-based diagnosis of which the reported incidence varies widely. In daily practice, there appears to be a decrease in incidence of CRPS after a distal radius fracture and in general.Questions/purposes:The aim of this study was to assess the trend in the incidence of CRPS after a distal radius fracture and in general in the Netherlands from 2014 to 2018.Methods:The incidence of CRPS after a distal radius fracture was calculated by dividing the number of confirmed cases of CRPS after distal radius fracture by the total number of patients diagnosed with a distal radius fracture. Medical records of these patients were reviewed. Hospital-based data were used to establish a trend in incidence of CRPS in general. A Dutch national database was used to measure the trend in the incidence of CRPS in the Netherlands by calculating annual incidence rates: the number of new CRPS cases, collected from the national database, divided by the Dutch mid-year population.Results:The incidence of CRPS after distal radius fracture over the whole study period was 0.36%. Hospital data showed an absolute decrease in CRPS cases from 520 in 2014 to 223 in 2018. National data confirmed this with a decrease in annual incidence from 23.2 (95% CI: 22.5–23.9) per 100,000 person years in 2014 to 16.1 (95% CI: 15.5–16.7) per 100,000 person years in 2018.Conclusion:A decreasing trend of CRPS is shown in this study. We hypothesize this to be the result of the changing approach towards CRPS and fracture management, with more focus on prevention and the psychological aspects of disproportionate posttraumatic pain.Level of Evidence:level 3 (retrospective cohort study).
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T04:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211041935
       
  • Correlates of post-dural puncture headache and efficacy of different
           treatment options: a monocentric retrospective study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Akel Azzi, Elie Saliba, Jean-Claude Stephan, Hala Saba, Souheil Hallit, Souheil Chamandi
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a severe positional headache that appears usually within 72 hours after inadvertent dural puncture, secondary to cerebrospinal fluid leakage. It is treated first by conservative treatment (including bed rest, hydration, caffeine and simple analgesia) and then by invasive procedures such as blood patch. This study aims to evaluate factors associated with PDPH among a sample of Lebanese patients and assess the rate of success of different treatment modalities administered in a specific sequence: conservative treatment first, then ultrasound-guided bilateral greater occipital nerve block (GONB) if failure of conservative treatment and finally epidural blood patch (EBP) if failure of GONB.Methods:A retrospective case–control study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2019 in the Notre-Dame des Secours University Hospital. Out of a total of 10,051 procedures, 18 cases were diagnosed with PDPH and were matched based on gender, age and procedure type to a control group of patients who did not develop PDPH randomly selected (72 patients).Results:Higher body mass index (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 0.77) was significantly associated with lower odds of PDPH, whereas the presence of previous chronic headache (ORa = 5.56) was significantly associated with higher odds of PDPH. Seven out of 18 (38.89%) had their pain symptoms/headache resolved on conservative treatment. Out of the remaining 11 patients, 6 (33.33%) had their symptoms resolved on GONB with a significant decrease in the pain score 48 hours after GONB compared to baseline (5.55 vs 9.73; p = 0.007). Five patients (27.78%) had their symptoms resolved using a blood patch, with a significant decrease in the pain score after blood patch compared to baseline (3.00 vs 9.80; p = 0.041).Conclusion:Our preliminary data suggest that ultrasound-guided GONB is a minimally risky and efficacious technique for those who fail to respond to conservative treatment.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-09-04T05:16:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211042401
       
  • Rapid design and implementation of a virtual pain management programme due
           to COVID-19: a quality improvement initiative

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Deborah Williams, Gregory Booth, Helen Cohen, Anthony Gilbert, Andrew Lucas, Chloe Mitchell, Gayatri Mittal, Hasina Patel, Tamsin Peters, Mia Phillips, Will Rudge, Roxaneh Zarnegar
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted the delivery of face-to-face pain services including pain management programmes in the United Kingdom with considerable negative impact on patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. We aimed to develop and implement a remotely delivered pain management programme (PMP) using video-conferencing technology that contains all the core components of a full programme: the ‘virtual PMP’ (vPMP). By reporting on the process of this development, we endeavour to help address the paucity of literature on the development of remote pain management programmes.Methods:The vPMP was developed by an inter-disciplinary group of professionals as a quality improvement (QI) project. The Model for Improvement Framework was employed with patient involvement at the design phase and at subsequent improvements. Improvement was measured qualitatively with frequent and repeated qualitative data collection leading to programme change. Quantitative patient demographic comparisons were made with a patient cohort who had been on a face-to-face PMP pathway.Results:Sixty-one patients on the PMP waiting list were contacted and 43 met the criteria for the programme. Fourteen patients participated in three vPMP cycles. Patient involvement and comprehensive stakeholder consultation were essential to a robust design for the first vPMP. Continued involvement of patient partners during the QI process led to rapid resolution of implementation problems. The most prominent issues that needed action were technical challenges including training needs, participant access to physical and technological resources, participant fatigue and concerns about adequate communication and peer support.Conclusion:This report demonstrates how a remotely delivered PMP, fully in line with national guidance, was rapidly developed and implemented in a hospital setting for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. We also discuss the relevance of our findings to the issues of cost, patient experience, patient preferences and inequities of access in delivering telerehabilitation for chronic pain.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-09-04T05:13:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211039252
       
  • Cognitive impairment and pain relief following hip fractures: a case
           control study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Raiyyan Aftab, Divyansh Dixit, Simon Williams, Laurence Baker, David Raindle Clarke, Christopher Jack
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Hip fractures represent a significant workload of both emergency and orthopaedic departments within the National Health Service (NHS). Pain relief is key in treating hip fractures as highlighted by both National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) and British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma (BOAST) guidelines. However, the literature shows that patients with cognitive impairment tend to have inconsistent pain management, leading to worse outcomes. We conducted a case–control study looking at 296 patients who presented with hip fractures to a major trauma centre between 1 December 2019 and 30 May 2020. Cognition was assessed using pre-recorded Abbreviated Mental Test Scores (AMTS). There was no significant difference between pain relief provided to patients with or without cognitive impairment in both the pre-hospital (p = 0.208) and Accident & Emergency (A&E) (p = 0.154) setting. A larger proportion of patients in A&E did not receive any pain relief (18.6% versus 42.2%). Pre-hospital, the higher the pain score, the stronger the analgesia given (R = 0.435, p = 0.000). This relationship was present in both the cognitively impaired (R = 0.572, p = 0.000) and cognitively intact groups (R = 0.390 p = 0.000). Strength of analgesia and pain scores did not correlate in A&E (R = 0.014, p = 0.826). Cognition did not impact the time to analgesia both pre-hospital (p = 0.291) and in A&E (p = 0.332); however, patients waited significantly longer to receive pain relief in A&E (29.61 minutes versus 150.28 minutes). Fascia-iliaca blocks were administered to 58.4% of the cohort, with no significant difference noted between cognition status. Overall, cognition does not impact pain management both pre-hospital and in A&E. There is still room for improvement, particularly in the assessment of pain in the cognitively impaired. A possible solution is the utilisation of the Bolton Pain Assessment Tool, a validated pain assessment tool for the cognitively impaired that has been utilised in the trauma setting with good effect.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-09-03T04:52:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211041146
       
  • Direct application of ropivacaine-soaked gauze to sciatic nerve after
           necrotizing fasciitis exposes underlying muscles and nerves

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Christina Ratto, Yisi D Ji, Joseph McDowell
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia with significant morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of literature published on the benefits of regional anaesthesia in patients with necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities.Case Presentation:This study demonstrates novel approaches to management of pain in a patient with necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity. A 47-year-old male with polysubstance use disorder was found to have necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity. Surgical debridement included 15% of his total body surface area and resultant exposure of his sciatic nerve. A ropivacaine-soaked gauze was applied directly to the exposed sciatic nerve. Femoral and lateral cutaneous nerve blocks were performed to facilitate necessary surgical dressing changes and physical therapy.Conclusion:This report details techniques used in postoperative pain management to facilitate surgical dressing changes after extensive debridement of an extremity for necrotizing fasciitis. The use of local anaesthetic-soaked gauze may be a useful adjunct in certain scenarios.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T12:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211042402
       
  • Opioid use after outpatient elective general surgery: quantifying the
           burden of persistent use

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Collin Clarke, Andrew McClure, Laura Allen, Luke Hartford, Julie Ann Van Koughnett, Daryl Gray, Patrick B Murphy, Chris Vinden, Ken Leslie, Kelly N Vogt
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose:Surgery is a major risk factor for chronic opioid use among patients who had not recently been prescribed opioids. This study identifies the rate of, and risk factors for, persistent opioid use following laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open inguinal hernia repair in patients not recently prescribed opioids.Methods:This retrospective population-based cohort study included all patients who had not been prescribed opioids in the 6 months prior to undergoing open inguinal hernia repair or laparoscopic cholecystectomy from January 2013 to July 2016 in Ontario. Opioid prescription was identified from the provincial Narcotics Monitoring System and data were obtained from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. The primary outcome was persistent opioid use after surgery (3, 6, 9 and 12 months). Associated risk factors and prescribing patterns were also examined.Results:Among the 90,326 patients in the study cohort, 80% filled an opioid prescription after surgery, with 11%, 9%, 5% and 1% filling a prescription at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Significant variability was identified in the type of opioid prescribed (41% codeine, 31% oxycodone, 18% tramadol) and in regional prescribing patterns (mean prescription/region range, 135–225 oral morphine equivalents). Predictors of continued opioid use included age, female gender, lower income quintile and being operated on by less experienced surgeons.Conclusion:Most patients who undergo elective cholecystectomy and hernia repair will fill a prescription for an opioid after surgery, and many will continue to fill opioid prescriptions for considerably longer than clinically anticipated. There is important variability in opioid type, regional prescribing patterns and risk factors that identify strategic targets to reduce the opioid burden in this patient population.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T12:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211032907
       
  • A non-injected opioid analgesia protocol for acute pain crisis in
           adolescents and adults with sickle cell disease

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Paul Telfer, Jonathan Bestwick, James Elander, Arlene Osias, Nosheen Khalid, Imogen Skene, Ruben Nzouakou, Joanne Challands, Filipa Barroso, Banu Kaya
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Initial management of the acute pain crisis (APC) of sickle cell disease (SCD) is often unsatisfactory, and might be improved by developing a standardised analgesia protocol. Here, we report the first stages in developing a standard oral protocol for adolescents and adults. Initially, we performed a dose finding study to determine the maximal tolerated dose of sublingual fentanyl (MTD SLF) given on arrival in the acute care facility, when combined with repeated doses of oral oxycodone. We used a dose escalation algorithm with two dosing ranges based on patient’s weight (50 kg). We also made a preliminary evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the protocol. The study took place in a large tertiary centre in London, UK. Ninety patients in the age range 14–60 years were pre-consented and 31 treatment episodes were evaluated. The first 21 episodes constituted the dose escalation study, establishing the MTD SLF at 600 mcg (>50 kg) or 400 mcg (
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T06:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211033814
       
  • Development of an interdisciplinary specialist facial pain management
           programme

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John Tetlow, Christian Ainsley, Hannah Twiddy, Graham Derbyshire, Rajiv Chawla
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Aims:This article aims to describe the development of a specialist chronic facial pain (CFP) management programme within an already well-established pain management service, including the content from a multidisciplinary perspective, and present preliminary descriptive 6-month outcomes from patients who have attended the programme.Methods:
      Authors used their clinical experience of working with people who have a diagnosis of CFP. They researched available literature, liaised with CFP support organisations and visited an existing UK-based CFP programme. Programme content was designed based on findings. The roles of pain interdisciplinary team members involved in delivering the programme are described, as well as a brief description of the structure of the programme and programme sessions provided by each discipline.Results:Clinical outcomes from programme participants were collected at assessment, end of treatment and 6 months post-treatment, which measured relevant outcomes for a pain management programme (PMP). Outcomes from 36 participants at both end of programme and 6 months following completion of programme demonstrate promising improvements. Qualitative data from patient satisfaction questionnaires completed at the end of programme suggest that providing a CFP-specific programme was beneficial for participants, with the main critique being that the programme sessions should be longer than 45 minutes.Conclusion:Attending a CFP-specific programme demonstrated positive 6-month changes in relevant outcome measures for people with CFP. With a small sample size, there is a need for further research into the effectiveness. It would also be beneficial to compare outcomes from the usual PMP treatment with people who have CFP, with outcomes from a CFP-specific programme.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T10:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211027607
       
  • Does pain sensitivity correlate with gastrointestinal symptoms in
           runners' An observational survey study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alex Ehlert, Patrick B Wilson
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:Heightened pain sensitivity is common in functional gut disorders, but no research has examined whether it corresponds to exercise-associated gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. We sought to explore whether scores on a questionnaire of pain sensitivity would correlate with GI symptoms during running.Design:This is a cross-sectional study.Subjects:The study involves 290 (137 male, 153 female) distance runners.Methods:Runners completed a survey inquiring about demographic, anthropometric and training information and rated GI symptoms at rest and during runs. In addition, the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) was used to quantify pain sensitivity across all items (PSQ-Total) and on items typically rated as minor (PSQ-Minor). Spearman rho correlations were utilized to assess the associations between pain sensitivity and GI symptoms. Partial correlations were used to evaluate the associations after controlling for age, gender, running experience, body mass index and sleep problems.Results:PSQ scores weakly correlated with several GI symptoms at rest (rho = 0.13–0.20; p 
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T05:50:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211028265
       
  • Development of a hybrid sleep and physical activity improvement
           intervention for adults with osteoarthritis-related pain and sleep
           disturbance: a focus group study with potential users

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Whibley, Kevin Stelfox, Alasdair L Henry, Nicole KY Tang, Anna L Kratz
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:Suboptimal sleep and physical activity are common among people living with osteoarthritis (OA) and simultaneous improvements in both may have a beneficial impact on pain. This study aimed to gather perspectives of people living with OA on important aspects to incorporate in a hybrid sleep and physical activity improvement intervention for OA pain management.Design:Qualitative study using two rounds of two focus groups.Setting and participants:Focus groups were conducted with adults living with OA-related chronic pain and sleep disturbances. Eighteen people attended focus groups in January 2020 and, of these, 16 attended subsequent focus groups in February 2020.Methods:Discussion at the first round of focus groups informed generation of prototype intervention materials that were shared, discussed and refined at the second round of focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes and sub-themes from the data.Results:Three themes, each with three sub-themes, were identified: facilitators of engagement with the intervention (sub-themes: motivational language, accountability and education); barriers to engagement (sub-themes: suboptimal interaction with healthcare practitioners, recording behaviour as burdensome/disruptive and uncertainty about technique) and characteristics of a physical activity intervention component (sub-themes: tailored, sustainable and supported).Conclusion:We have identified important aspects to incorporate into the design and delivery of a hybrid sleep and physical activity improvement intervention for OA pain management. Insights will be incorporated into intervention materials and protocols, with feasibility and acceptability assessed in a future study.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T10:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211026049
       
  • Collaboration between adult patients and practitioners when making
           decisions about prescribing opioid medicines for chronic non-cancer pain
           in primary care: a scoping review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nirlas Shantilal Bathia, Robyn E McAskill, Jennie E Hancox, Roger D Knaggs
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Long-term opioid therapy (>12 months) is not effective for improving chronic non-cancer pain and function. Where patients are not experiencing pain relief with long-term opioids, the opioid should be tapered and discontinuation considered. Practitioners may find it challenging to tell patients experiencing pain that they are better off reducing or not taking medicines that do not help. This review aims to ascertain what is published about: (1) the interaction and (2) the nature of the relationship between practitioners and patients when prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain in primary care.Method:A scoping review of English-language qualitative, quantitative or mixed-method studies in databases including: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, BNI, CINALH EMCARE and HMIC. The identified papers were reviewed to provide a descriptive summary of the literature.Results:The review identified 20 studies. The studies used a range of methods including interviews, focus groups, audio and video recordings of clinical consultations, telephone survey and data from patient records. One study reported that researchers had engaged with a patient advisory group to guide their research. Patients expressed the importance of being treated as individuals, not being judged and being involved in prescribing decisions. Practitioners expressed difficulty in managing patient expectations and establishing trust. Opioid risk and practitioner suspicion shape opioid prescribing decisions. There is a paucity of literature about how precisely practitioners overcome interactional challenges and implement personalised care in practice.Conclusion:The studies in this review ascertain that practitioners and patients often find it challenging to achieve shared decisions in opioid review consultations. Effective communication is essential to achieve good clinical practice. Collaborative research with PPI partners should be aimed at identifying communication practices that support practitioners to achieve shared decisions with patients when reviewing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211025560
       
  • Opioid dependence disorder and comorbid chronic pain: comparison of groups
           based on patient-attributed direction of the causal relationship between
           the two conditions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cassie Higgins, Blair H Smith, Keith Matthews
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Chronic pain is highly prevalent in treatment-seeking opioid-dependent patients; therefore, this comorbid presentation is an important clinical consideration for both addiction and pain specialists. The objectives of the present study were to examine whether the direction of causal attribution of opioid dependence disorder and chronic pain resulted in two distinct clinical populations, and, if so, to compare treatment received during the 5-year follow-up period.Methods:Participants comprised opioid-dependent patients with chronic pain who reported a perceived causal relationship, in either direction, between the development of these two conditions (n = 252). A range of health- and addiction-related instruments were used at study inception. Treatment characteristics were obtained for the follow-up period from national health registers.Results:Those reporting that pain caused opioid dependence disorder (n = 174; 69%) were characterised by poorer pain-related health, more illicit cannabinoid use (p = 0.031), more frequent illicit use of opioid analgesics (p = 0.025) and they were in receipt of higher doses of prescribed opioid analgesics. Those reporting that opioid dependence disorder caused pain (n = 78; 31%) were characterised by poorer overall physical health (p = 0.002), more severe psychiatric symptoms and more overall drug use (p = 0.001).Conclusion:Two distinct clinical populations were identified, determined by how participants perceive the causal relationship between opioid dependence disorder and chronic pain. These two populations have differing clinical profiles and treatment requirements: those reporting that pain caused opioid dependence disorder were characterised by poorer pain-related health and more illicit use of drugs with analgesic properties; and those reporting that opioid dependence disorder caused pain were characterised by more overall use of substances, multiple substance use and more intravenous substance use and poorer general health. Identifying the causal direction, where such a relationship exists, could help addiction and pain services to develop more effective, individualised treatment strategies.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T05:43:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211026339
       
  • Effectiveness of caregiver interventions for people with cancer and
           non-cancer-related chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Toby O. Smith, Matthew Pearson, Matthew J Smith, Jessica Fletcher, Lisa Irving, Sarah Lister
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:People with chronic pain frequently have difficulties in completing everyday tasks to maintain independence and quality of life. Informal caregivers may provide support to these individuals. However, the effectiveness of interventions to train and support these individuals in caregiving remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence to determine the effectiveness of caregiver interventions to support informal caregivers of people with chronic pain.Methods:A systematic review of published and unpublished literature databases was undertaken (9 April 2021). Trials reporting clinical outcomes of caregiver interventions to train informal caregivers to support community-dwelling people with chronic pain were included. Meta-analysis was undertaken and each outcome was assessed using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation.Results:Twenty-seven studies were eligible (N = 3427 patients). Twenty-four studies assessed patients with cancer pain and three with musculoskeletal pain. No other patient groups were identified. There was very low-quality evidence that caregiver interventions were beneficial for caregiver health-related quality of life (standardised mean difference = 0.26, 95% confidence interval = 0.01 to 0.52; N = 231). There was moderate-quality evidence that caregiving interventions were effective in reducing pain in the short-term (standardised mean difference = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = −0.29 to −0.03). There was low-quality evidence that caregiving interventions had no beneficial effect over usual care for psychological outcomes, fatigue, coping or physical function in the long-term.Conclusion:Caregiving interventions may be effective for patients and caregivers but only in the shorter-term and for a limited number of outcomes. There is insufficient evidence examining the effectiveness of caregiver interventions for people with non-cancer-related pain.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-17T08:42:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211022771
       
  • Complementary and alternative medicine use among older adults with
           musculoskeletal pain: findings from the European Social Survey (2014)
           special module on the social determinants of health

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ann-Marie Morrissey, Aoife O’Neill, Kieran O’Sullivan, Katie Robinson
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:This study describes the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among older adults who report being hampered in daily activities due to musculoskeletal pain. The characteristics of older adults with debilitating musculoskeletal pain who report CAM use is also examined.Methods:Cross-sectional European Social Survey Round 7 data from 21 countries were examined for participants aged 55 years and older, who reported musculoskeletal pain that hampered daily activities in the past 12 months.Results:Of the 4950 older adult participants reporting musculoskeletal pain that hampered daily activities, the majority (63.5%) were from the West of Europe, reported secondary education or less (78.2%), and reported at least one other health-related problem (74.6%). In total, 1657 (33.5%) reported using at least one CAM treatment in the previous year. Manual body-based therapies (MBBTs) were most used, including massage therapy (17.9%) and osteopathy (7.0%). Alternative medicinal systems (AMSs) were also popular with 6.5% using homoeopathy and 5.3% reporting herbal treatments. A general trend of higher CAM use in younger participants was noted. CAM use was associated with physiotherapy use, female gender, higher levels of education, being in employment and living in West Europe. Those reporting multiple health problems were more likely to use all CAM treatments, except MBBT.Conclusion:A third of older Europeans with musculoskeletal pain report CAM use in the previous 12 months. Certain subgroups with higher rates of CAM use could be identified. Clinicians should comprehensively and routinely assess CAM use among older adults with musculoskeletal pain.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T06:20:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211023293
       
  • Acupuncture (superficial dry-needling) as a treatment for chronic
           postherpetic neuralgia – a randomized clinical trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Martin Sollie, Robert Pind, Christoffer Bing Madsen, Jens Ahm Sørensen
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Postherpetic neuralgia is a painful condition where finding sufficient treatment poses a great challenge. Acupuncture is often used as an alternative treatment for these pains, yet no randomized trials, using a sham-placebo have been performed to confirm its effect. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture compared to sham-acupuncture when treating chronic postherpetic dermal pain.Methods:We performed a sham-controlled double-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT) with two arms. The intervention group received superficial dry-needling, and the control group received sham acupuncture using blunted needles. Twenty-six patients received two treatments. They filled out questionnaires at baseline and 1 month after treatment: (1) average and maximum pain (Numeric Rating Scale), (2) neuropathic pain (Neuropathic Pain Scale Inventory) and (3) Quality of Life (QoL) (Short-form 36).Results:Thirteen patients were allocated to the intervention group and 15 to the control group. We did not detect any significant changes in levels of pain and neuropathic pain. One QoL parameter, regarding emotional problems, reached a level of statistical significance. The sham-blinding was successful. This is the first RCT on the effect of acupuncture (superficial dry-needling) on postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), using a sham procedure as control. We observed no significant changes or tendencies in the measured levels of pain. One QoL parameter had significant improvement in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion:In conclusion, acupuncture was not superior to treatment with sham acupuncture. Though individual patients may experience some pain relief from acupuncture, our results do not support the routine use of this type of acupuncture to treat PHN.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T06:20:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211023075
       
  • What is the content of virtually delivered pain management programmes for
           people with persistent musculoskeletal pain' A systematic review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gregory Booth, Deborah Williams, Hasina Patel, Anthony W Gilbert
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction:Virtual consultations (VC) have been embraced by healthcare organisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. VC allows continuation of patient care while adhering to government advised restrictions and social distancing measures. Multidisciplinary pain management programmes (PMPs) are a core element of many pain services and utilising virtual methods to deliver PMPs has allowed them to continue to provide care. This systematic review aimed to explore the content of existing virtually delivered PMPs and discuss if and how these findings can be used to guide clinical delivery.Methods:Eligible studies included adults (aged ⩾18 years) with persistent musculoskeletal pain and any virtually delivered intervention that was described as a PMP or that had components of PMPs. Databases were searched from inception until July 2020. We performed a content analysis comparing existing interventions with established evidence-based clinical guidelines published by the British Pain Society (BPS). Intervention reporting quality was assessed using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist: an established checklist developed to improve the completeness of the reporting of interventions.Results:Eight studies were included. One intervention included six of the seven components recommended by the BPS; none included all seven. ‘Skills training and activity management’ was present in all eight interventions; ‘education’ and ‘cognitive therapy methods’ were present in six interventions; ‘graded activation’ and ‘methods to enhance acceptance, mindfulness and psychological flexibility’ were present in four interventions; ‘physical exercise’ was present in two interventions and ‘graded exposure’ was present in one intervention. None of the studies described all 12 items of the TIDieR checklist adequately enough for replication.Conclusion:Published virtual PMPs partially meet established clinical guidelines. Future virtual PMPs should be based on evidence-based clinical guidelines, and more research is needed to explore the effectiveness of virtually delivered PMPs and each recommended component.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T06:19:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211023074
       
  • Placebo and nocebo effects in youth: subjective thermal discomfort can be
           modulated by a conditioning paradigm utilizing mental states of low and
           high self-efficacy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ella Weik, Regula Neuenschwander, Karin Jensen, Tim F Oberlander, Christine Tipper
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction:Conditioning is a key mechanism of placebo and nocebo effects in adults, but little is known about these effects in youth. This study investigated whether personalized verbal cues evoking a sense of high or low self-efficacy can induce conditioned placebo and nocebo effects on subjective discomfort of noxious heat in youth.Methods:In a structured interview, 26 adolescents (13–18 years) described personal situations in which they experienced a sense of high, low or neutral self-efficacy. Participants were then asked to recall these memories during a conditioning paradigm, in which a high thermal stimulus applied to the forearm was repeatedly paired with a low self-efficacy cue and a low thermal stimulus with a high self-efficacy cue. In a testing phase, high, low and neutral self-efficacy cues were paired with the same moderate temperature. We hypothesized that conditioned high and low self-efficacy cues would induce conditioned placebo and nocebo responses to moderate temperatures.Results:Moderate temperatures were rated as more uncomfortable when paired with the conditioned low compared with the neutral self-efficacy cue (nocebo effect). While in the whole-group analysis, there was no significant difference between ratings of moderate thermal stimuli paired with high compared with neutral self-efficacy cues (placebo effect), a sub-group of participants with a greater range of emotional valence between high and neutral self-efficacy cues revealed a significant placebo effect. The strength of the nocebo effect was associated with higher anxiety and lower hope.Conclusion:Conditioned associations using internal self-efficacy states can change subjective discomfort of thermal sensations.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T10:30:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211020042
       
  • The efficacy of botulinum toxin type-A for intractable chronic migraine
           patients with no pain-free time

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dominic Atraszkiewicz, Rieko Ito, Anish Bahra
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Aim:This is a retrospective report of the efficacy of botulinum toxin-A, Botox® (Allergan), in intractable chronic migraine patients non-responsive to previous pharmacological management and with largely no pain-free time, including those with new onset daily persistent headache.Methods:Thirty-three patients, all with severe Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6 scores at baseline, received 3-monthly injections of Botox® as per Phase III REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PRE-EMPT) protocol over a maximum 33-month period. Response criteria were a sustained reduction of HIT-6 scores below 60.Results:Four patients had headache on at least 20 days a month; the remaining patients had daily headache with no pain-free time, including nine patients with new onset persistent migraine. There was a significant reduction in HIT-6 scores following Botox® therapy (x̅ = −5.45, p = 0.000920). Twenty-one percent of the cohort exhibited a sustained reduction in HIT-6 scores below 60. The number of headache days and pain-free time did not change in five of the six responders, but disability improved. There was no difference between patients with episodic migraine evolving to chronic as opposed to those with chronic migraine from onset.Conclusion:This report suggests that Botox® treatment is efficacious in intractable chronic migraine without pain-free time. The HIT-6 is a reliable and practical parameter to assess disability in this patient group. Use of such validated parameters should be considered with greater weight in future International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) guidelines for controlled clinical trials.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T05:04:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211014544
       
  • Pain in chronic prostatitis and the role of ion channels: a brief overview

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Asha Caroline Cyril, Reem Kais Jan, Rajan Radhakrishnan
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Prostatitis is the third most common urologic condition affecting more than half the male population at some point in their lives. There are different categories of prostatitis, of which approximately 90% of cases can be classified under the National Institute of Health (NIH) type III category (chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)) with no causative agents identified. CP/CPPS is associated with several symptoms, of which the most prominent being chronic pain. Despite its high incidence, pain management in patients with CP/CPPS has been poor, possibly due to the lack of understanding of aetiological factors and mechanisms underlying pain development.Methods:An extensive literature search of published articles on the molecular mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov and https://scholar.google.com). The terms used for the search were: prostatitis, pain mechanism in CP/CPPS, prostatitis pain models, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPVs), purinergic channels (P2X) in prostatitis pain mechanism and inflammatory mediators in CP/CPPS. The papers were identified based on the title and abstract, and after excluding the articles that did not emphasize the pain mechanism in CP/CPPS. Ninety-five articles (36 review and 59 original research papers) met our criteria and were included in the review.Results:A number of inflammatory mediator molecules and pain channels, including ASICs, transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPVs) and P2Xs have been investigated for their role in prostatitis pain pathology using various animal models.Conclusion:This review summarizes the pain mechanisms in CP/CPPS focusing on the inflammatory mediators, neurotransmitters, pain-transducing ion channels and small animal models developed for studying prostatitis.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T06:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211015265
       
  • Global, regional, and national consumption of controlled opioids: a
           cross-sectional study of 214 countries and non-metropolitan territories

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Georgia C Richards, Jeffrey K Aronson, Kamal R Mahtani, Carl Heneghan
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction:The consumption of opioids has increased globally since the 1990s. Previous studies of global opioid consumption have concentrated on morphine alone or a subset of opioids, with a focus on cancer pain and palliative care. In this study, we have determined the global, regional, and national consumption of all controlled opioids, including anaesthetics, analgesics, antidiarrheals, opioid substitution therapies, and cough suppressants.Methods:We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB). We calculated mean opioid consumption (mg/person) globally, regionally, and nationally for 2015–2017, where consumption refers to the total amount of controlled opioids distributed for medical purposes and excludes recreational use. We ranked countries by total consumption and quantified the types of opioids consumed globally.Results:Between 2015 and 2017, 90% of the world’s population consumed only 11% of controlled opioids. An average of 32 mg/person was consumed annually, but this was not equally distributed across the world. Consumption was the highest in Germany (480 mg/person), followed by Iceland (428 mg/person), the United States (398 mg/person) and Canada (333 mg/person). Oxycodone (35%) was the most heavily consumed controlled opioid globally, followed by morphine (15.9%), methadone (15.8%) and tilidine (14%).Conclusion:Large disparities persist in most of the world in accessing essential opioid medicines. Consumption patterns should continue to be monitored, and collaborative strategies should be developed to promote access and the appropriate prescribing of opioids in all countries and non-metropolitan territories.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T05:16:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211013052
       
  • A qualitative study with orthopaedic surgeons on pain catastrophizing and
           surgical outcomes: shifting from a medical towards a biopsychosocial model
           of surgery

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lorelle Dismore, Anna van Wersch, Aradhyula N Murty, Katherine Swainston
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Pain catastrophizing (PC) moderates surgical outcomes and behavioural interventions are recommended to optimise post-operative results. Less is known about surgeons’ experiences of providing care and their attitudes towards the use of interventions in practice.Objective:It is therefore invaluable to understand surgeons’ views on how best to support patients who may be at risk of suboptimal recovery. Eleven surgeons and three registrar orthopaedic practitioners took part in semi-structured interviews within a hospital setting. The surgical decision-making process, views of PC and the use of behavioural interventions in surgical practice were explored.Results:Thematic analysis identified five themes: pain expressions and pain behaviours affect the surgeons’ decision-making process, when pathologies and symptoms do not match, psychological factors pertaining to unsatisfactory outcomes, a service gap in surgical care and the acceptability of using a screening tool in surgical practice to identify patients at risk of suboptimal recovery.Conclusion:Orthopaedic surgeons face challenges in identifying who is likely to reach optimal versus suboptimal outcome. Surgeons are becoming increasingly aware of patient psychological distress being detrimental to outcomes, and they support the use of behavioural interventions to optimise post-operative outcomes or stop unnecessary treatments. The surgeons accept the use of a screening tool in surgical practice with better access to support services with input from allied health professionals. A screening tool may provide great utility for identifying at risk patients, to allow for modification of surgical patients care plans.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T09:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211004658
       
  • On pain – Virginia Woolf and the language of poets and patients

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Carsten Bantel, Peter Sörös
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Influenced by Virginia Woolf pain is traditionally believed to be a private object that defies language. However, our analysis of classical and contemporary works of British and American poets, in addition to our own clinical experiences, leads us to challenge this notion. In accordance with Wittgenstein we instead view pain as a concept and objective experience that should encourage interaction. Reasons why patients and healthcare providers often assume language to be insufficient to grasp the complexity of pain are manifold. Based on neuro-cognitive mechanisms we propose an important contributor might be that patients in pain speak a different language than their pain-free peers and doctors.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T04:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211009253
       
  • Evidence for the BUAS-test ability to diagnose lumbar radicular pain

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Boaz Gedaliahu Samolsky Dekel, Maria Cristina Sorella, Alessio Vasarri, Rita Maria Melotti
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Differential diagnosis of low back pain (LBP) is complex and a prominent issue at all health-care levels; guidance may come from patients’ history cues and clinical examination signs. Human and animal studies report that diagnosis of lumbar radicular pain (LRP) may come from evaluating subjective responses of injured lumbar nerves to a strain applied at the buttock. The Buttock Applied Strain (BUAS-test) test may guide the differential diagnosis of LBP. Following an ex-adiuvantibus criterion, clinical improvement of LRP, diagnosed with the BUAS-test and congruently treated, may support this test diagnostic ability.Methods:Among 258 LRP patients, who, upon first visit (V1), tested positive on the BUAS-test (with/without positive Straight Leg Raising Test, SLRT), the effect of gabapentin prescription on painDETECT (PD) questionnaire and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) outcomes was quantified in the follow-up visit (V2). To support BUAS-test diagnostic ability, we hypothesized that, at V2, >50% of the sample would present negative PD outcome, significant (t-test) and ⩾2 points V2-V1 differences for each of the BPI-item’s score. We used multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and χ2 analyses to evaluate the PD-V2 outcomes’ dependence upon independent variables.Results:Of the sample, 77% reported a negative PD-V2 outcome. V2-V1 differences of all BPI items were significant and >2 points. PD-V2 outcomes showed significant associations with SLRT-V1 and PD-V1, respectively, but not with gender, age group or pain site. MLR showed a significant relationship between SLRT-V1 and PD-V2 outcomes.Conclusion:Among LRP patients, diagnosed by the BUAS-test and treated with gabapentin, all prespecified endpoints were reached. These results may be considered a piece of ex-adiuvantibus evidence for the BUAS-test ability to diagnose LRP. While positive BUAS-test implies potential LRP, the co-presence with positive SLRT may imply a severer LRP condition. Further prospective research, in different settings and direct clinical measures, is needed.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:30:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20494637211005794
       
  • Brainwave entrainment for the treatment of chronic pain: comment on Br J
           Pain 2020; 14: 161–70

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Flavio Frohlich, Justin Riddle, Gesar Ugen, Friedrich Lersch
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T04:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2049463721994614
       
  • Measuring ‘self’: preliminary validation of a short form of the Self
           Experiences Questionnaire in people with chronic pain

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lin Yu, Whitney Scott, Rupert Goodman, Lizzie Driscoll, Lance M McCracken
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Background:People with chronic pain often struggle with their sense of self and this can adversely impact their functioning and well-being. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy particularly includes a process related to this struggle with self. A measure for this process, the Self Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), was previously developed in people with chronic pain.Purpose:The aim of the current study was to validate a shorter version of the SEQ in people with chronic pain to reduce respondent burden and facilitate further research.Methods:Data from 477 participants attending an interdisciplinary pain management programme were included. Participants completed measures of treatment processes (self-as-context, pain acceptance, cognitive fusion and committed action) and outcomes (pain, pain interference, work and social adjustment and depression) at baseline and post-treatment. Confirmatory factor analysis was used for item reduction. Correlations between scores from the shorter SEQ and other process and outcome variables were calculated to examine validity. Change scores of the shorter SEQ and their correlations with changes in outcome variables were examined for responsiveness.Results:An eight-item SEQ (SEQ-8) scale including two factors, namely Self-as-Distinction and Self-as-Observer, emerged, demonstrating good reliability (Cronbach’s α = .87–.90) and validity ( r  = .14–.52). Scores from SEQ-8 significantly improved after the treatment (d = .15–21), and these improvements correlated with improvements in most outcomes.Conclusions:The SEQ-8 appears to be a reliable and valid measure of self. This shorter format may facilitate intensive longitudinal investigation into sense of self and functioning and well-being.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-02-20T05:17:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2049463721994863
       
  • A systematic review of the methods and drugs used for performing
           suprascapular nerve block injections for the non-surgical management of
           chronic shoulder pain

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Neil Smith, Ziheng Liew, Samantha Johnson, David R Ellard, Martin Underwood, Rebecca Kearney
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) injections are growing in popularity as a treatment option for people with chronic shoulder pain. The optimal method of injection and aftercare is unknown. This review describes the current methods and drugs used for performing SSNB injections in the non-surgical management of adults with chronic shoulder pain in order to inform future research in this area. Systematic searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE (OVID), AMED, Embase databases and the Cochrane Library were undertaken from inception to June 2020. Data on the method and drugs used for injection and aftercare were extracted and summarised for areas of commonality and discrepancy. We included 53 studies in this review. In total, eight different injection methods were reported within the included studies. Indirect surface land-marked methods were the most common method reported in 21 studies. Direct surface land-marked methods were reported in 12 studies. Ultrasound-guided methods used alone were reported in 16 studies. Both fluoroscopy and computed tomography methods used alone were reported in one study each. Electromyography was used in combination with other injection methods in nine studies. Wide variation in the composition of the injectate was observed between studies. Local anaesthetic was used within injectate preparations in all studies. Local anaesthetic used alone was reported in 20 studies, combined with steroid in 29 studies and combined with various other components in 5 studies. Physiotherapy following injection was reported in 26 studies. Reported details of physiotherapy varied considerably. This review identified substantial variation in the methods and drugs used to perform SSNB injection in clinical trials. Current literature demonstrates a wide range of methods used for SSNB injection administration. Consensus research defining standardised practice for SSNB injection is now needed to guide future clinical practice and research.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T05:15:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2049463721992091
       
  • Peoples’ experiences of painful diabetic neuropathy: are pain management
           programmes appropriate'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ben Davies, Fiona Cramp, Jeremy Gauntlett-Gilbert, Candida S McCabe
      Abstract: British Journal of Pain, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a painful complication of diabetes. This study aimed to explore: (1) strategies used by participants to manage impacts of PDN and (2) their perspectives on whether strategies from pain management programmes (PMPs) had applicability for PDN.Design:Participants were recruited through local National Health Service (NHS) diabetes and PDN clinics, and nationally from a diabetes support charity. One-to-one interviews were conducted. The transcribed data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.Results:Twenty-three people were interviewed who had PDN symptoms for mean 10 years. Four themes emerged from the data: seeking help and advice, pragmatic approach to management, perspectives on physical activity and perspectives on psychological coping strategies.Conclusion:Some participants were open to the strategies advised by PMP strategies. There were also strong opinions that no exercise or psychological approach could help with diabetes-related pain. It is possible PMPs as currently delivered need to be adapted to maximise engagement from people with PDN. Research is required to understand the healthcare priorities of people with PDN and whether these priorities can be mapped to existing management strategies.
      Citation: British Journal of Pain
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T06:33:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2049463721989753
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.236.232.99
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-