Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 262, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 547, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.552
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1550-0594 - ISSN (Online) 2169-5202
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • Neurofeedback Training Protocol Based on Selecting Distinctive Features to
           Treat or Reduce ADHD Symptoms

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Parham Jalali, Nasrin Sho’ouri
      Pages: 414 - 421
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Volume 52, Issue 6, Page 414-421, November 2021.
      Recent research has shown that electroencephalography (EEG) theta/beta ratio (TBR) in cases with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has thus far been reported lower than that in healthy individuals. Accordingly, utilizing EEG-TBR as a biomarker to diagnose ADHD has been called into question. Besides, employing known protocol to reduce EEG-TBR in the vertex (Cz) channel to treat ADHD via neurofeedback (NFB) has been doubted. The present study was to propose a new NFB treatment protocol to manage ADHD using EEG signals from 30 healthy controls and 30 children with ADHD through an attention-based task and to calculate relative power in their different frequency bands. Then, the most significant distinguishing features of EEG signals from both groups were determined via a genetic algorithm (GA). The results revealed that EEG-TBR values in children with ADHD were lower compared with those in healthy peers; however, such a difference was not statistically significant. Likewise, inhibiting alpha band activity and enhancing delta one in F7 or T5 channels was proposed as a new NFB treatment protocol for ADHD. No significant increase in EEG-TBR in the Cz channel among children with ADHD casts doubt on the effectiveness of using EEG-TBR inhibitory protocols in the Cz channel. Consequently, it was proposed to apply the new protocol along with reinforced beta-band activity to treat or reduce ADHD symptoms.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-08-02T12:53:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211033435
      Issue No: Vol. 52, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Functional (un-)Coupling: Impairment, Compensation, and Future Progression
           in Alzheimer's Disease

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jochen A. Mosbacher, Markus Waser, Heinrich Garn, Stephan Seiler, Carmina Coronel, Peter Dal-Bianco, Thomas Benke, Manfred Deistler, Gerhard Ransmayr, Florian Mayer, Guenter Sanin, Anita Lechner, Helmut K. Lackner, Petra Schwingenschuh, Dieter Grossegger, Reinhold Schmidt
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Functional (un-)coupling (task-related change of functional connectivity) between different sites of the brain is a mechanism of general importance for cognitive processes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), prior research identified diminished cortical connectivity as a hallmark of the disease. However, little is known about the relation between the amount of functional (un-)coupling and cognitive performance and decline in AD. Method: Cognitive performance (based on CERAD-Plus scores) and electroencephalogram (EEG)-based functional (un-)coupling measures (connectivity changes from rest to a Face-Name-Encoding task) were assessed in 135 AD patients (age: M = 73.8 years; SD = 9.0). Of these, 68 patients (M = 73.9 years; SD = 8.9) participated in a follow-up assessment of their cognitive performance 1.5 years later. Results: The amounts of functional (un-)coupling in left anterior-posterior and homotopic interhemispheric connections in beta1-band were related to cognitive performance at baseline (β = .340; p 
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-10-18T12:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211052208
       
  • Frontal Alpha Asymmetry in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Group
           Differences Among Individuals With and Without PTSD During an Inhibitory
           Control Task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Teresa López-Castro, Laura Martin, Sean Nickley, Tanya C. Saraiya, Robert D. Melara
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) as a marker of approach- and avoidance-related prefrontal activity in participants with and without trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated FAA in an inhibitory control paradigm (threatening vs nonthreatening cues) under 2 levels of cognitive demand (baseline: images constant within a block of trials; vs filtering: images varied randomly within a block) in 3 groups of participants: individuals with PTSD (n = 16), exposed to trauma but without PTSD (n = 14), and a control group without PTSD or trauma exposure (n = 15). Under low demand (baseline), both PTSD and trauma-exposed participants exhibited significantly greater relative left than right frontal brain activity (approach) to threatening than to nonthreatening images. Under high demand (filtering), no FAA differences were found between threatening and nonthreatening images, but PTSD participants revealed more relative left than right FAA, whereas trauma-exposed participants showed reduced left relative right FAA. In all conditions, healthy controls exhibited reduced left relative to right FAA and no differences between threatening and nonthreatening images. Study findings suggest dysfunctional prefrontal mechanisms of emotion regulation in PTSD, but adaptive prefrontal regulation in trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-10-16T07:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211046703
       
  • Discharges With Triphasic Morphology as Marker of the Risk of Death in
           Acute Encephalopathy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xavier Merchán-del-Hierro, Gabriel Persi, María C. Vulycher, Carla Chicco, Emilia M. Gatto, Nahuel Pereira-de-Silva
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction. In clinical practice, it is difficult to define the prognosis of patients with acute encephalopathy; a syndrome characterized by cognitive dysfunction and altered sensorium. Discharges with triphasic morphology (DTM) are an electroencephalographic pattern that might be useful to establish the risk of death. The aim of this study was to define the prognostic value of DTM regarding mortality in patients with acute encephalopathy. Methods. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study including patients with acute encephalopathy with and without DTM paired by age and gender in a 1:2 ratio. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) to determine the association between DTM and mortality. In addition, we calculated sensibility, specificity, and predictive values. Results. We included 72 patients, 24 with DTM and 48 without DTM. Mortality was higher in patients with DTM (41.6% vs 14.5%, P  =  .01). Factors associated with a higher risk of death were DTM (OR  =  4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-13, P  =  .01) and sequential organ failure assessment score (OR  =  1.3, 95% CI 1.04-1.67, P  =  .02). A higher Glasgow coma scale score was associated with a lower risk of death (OR  =  0.65, 95% CI 0.51-0.83, P  =  .001). The sensibility and specificity of DTM were 59% and 75%, respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.36 and 0.55. Discussion. Our results revealed high mortality in patients with acute encephalopathy and DTM. This electroencephalographic pattern was associated with 4 times higher risk of death. However, its usefulness for predicting death was limited.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T04:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211046702
       
  • Investigation of Patients With Eye Closure Sensitive Epilepsy With
           Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Feyza Yıldırım, Zeynep Aydin, Zakir Sakcı, Ays¸e Destînâ Yalçın
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction and aim: A proportion of patients diagnosed with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) experience eye-closure sensitivity (ECS), the underlying pathogenesis of which is unknown. In this study, we compare magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings of healthy volunteers with patients diagnosed with GGE, with and without ECS, to detect possible explanatory differences between groups. Materials and methods: A total of 33 patients diagnosed with GGE: 17 with ECS and 16 without, and 12 healthy volunteers are included. MRS measurements of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were made of bilateral occipital lobes and thalamus, and values of patients with GGE were compared with those of normal controls, and within subgroups with different clinical variables, using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Left occipital NAA and NAA/Cr levels were found to be significantly higher in the ECS group than in the control group. In the ECS epilepsy group, a significant moderate positive correlation was noted between left thalamic Cr and duration of drug therapy (r = .539, P = .047) and left thalamic Cr and age at epilepsy onset (r = .564, P = .036). Additionally, left thalamic NAA and NAA/Cr levels were observed to be lower in GGE patients compared to healthy subjects, although not to a statistically significant degree. Conclusion:The differences in MRS-measurable metabolites in the left occipital lobe in those with ECS epilepsy suggest an association between the ECS mechanism and the left occipital lobe. Our results also support the multifocal thalamocortical pathway disorder in the pathophysiology of GGE based on the observation of cellular dysfunction in the thalamus.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T11:04:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211040953
       
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment: Diagnosis and Subtypes

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      Authors: Nicholas I. Bradfield
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical diagnosis based on subjective cognitive decline, objective cognitive impairment, and relative preservation of activities of daily living. The diagnosis may be established via clinical interview, collateral history from an informant, and psychometric examination. Various consensus groups have proposed criteria for MCI in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular cognitive impairment. These diagnostic criteria have subtle but important differences. Criteria for subjective decline vary according to whether memory is impaired or whether impairment in any cognitive domain is sufficient. There are also differences with respect to whether the subjective decline is noted by the patient, a carer, or a clinician. The precise thresholds for classifying objective cognitive impairment also vary between various diagnostic criteria. There are also differences in the description of functional abilities. Once established, the diagnosis of MCI may be refined to 1 of 4 subtypes based on the pattern of cognitive impairment. The 4 subtypes are defined according to whether or not memory is impaired and whether 1 or more cognitive domains are impaired. Once a diagnosis of MCI has been made, the patient and their family should be counseled about social and legal implications as well as strategies for reducing the risk of progression to dementia. The main utilities of MCI as a nosology are to understand the natural history of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD, to identify those at increased risk of progressing to develop dementia, and to identifying individuals for putative treatments.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T11:06:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211042708
       
  • What Can We Tell About the Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy on the
           Human Hippocampus'

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      Authors: Akihiro Takamiya, Taishiro Kishimoto, Masaru Mimura
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective antidepressant treatment, although its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Since 2010, several structural magnetic resonance imaging studies based on a neuroplastic hypothesis have consistently reported increases in the hippocampal volume following ECT. Moreover, volume increases in the human dentate gyrus, where neurogenesis occurs, have also been reported. These results are in line with the preclinical findings of ECT-induced neuroplastic changes, including neurogenesis, gliogenesis, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis, in rodents and nonhuman primates. Despite this robust evidence of an effect of ECT on hippocampal plasticity, the clinical relevance of these human hippocampal changes continues to be questioned. This narrative review summarizes recent findings regarding ECT-induced hippocampal volume changes. Furthermore, this review also discusses methodological considerations and future directions in this field.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T06:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211044066
       
  • A Rare Cause of Epilepsy: Ulegyria Revisited in a Series of 10 Patients

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      Authors: Aylin Bican Demir, Pinar Eser, Ahmet Bekar, Bahattin Hakyemez, İbrahim Bora
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction. Ulegyria results from perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in term infants. The specific mushroom-shaped configuration of ulegyria results from small atrophic circumvolutions at the bottom of a sulcus underlying an intact gyral apex. Clinically, ulegyria is generally associated with epilepsy. Here, we aimed to delineate the characteristics of patients with ulegyria and the epileptic seizures they experience. Material and methods. Medical records including radiology and pathology reports, video-electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis, operative notes, hospital progress and outpatient clinic notes were reviewed retrospectively in a total of 10 ulegyria patients. Results. Patients ages ranged between 24 and 58 years (mean, 32 ± 9.8 years). Past medical history was confirmed for neonatal asphyxia in 2 (20%). Neurological examination was remarkable for spastic hemiparesis in 1 (10%) patient with perisylvian ulegyria and for visual field deficits in 2 patients (20%) with occipital ulegyria. Ulegyria most commonly involved the temporoparietal region (n = 5, 50%) followed by the perisylvian area (n = 2, 20%). Except the one with bilateral perisylvian ulegyria, all patients had unilateral lesions (n = 9, 90%). Hippocampal sclerosis accompanied ulegyria in 2 patients (20%). All patients experienced epileptic seizures. Mean age at seizure onset was 8.8 ± 5.4 years (range, 2-20 years). Interictal scalp EEG and EEG-video monitoring records demonstrated temporoparietal and frontotemporal activities in 5 (50%) and 2 (20%) patients, respectively. The seizures were successfully controlled by antiepileptic medication in 8 patients (n = 8, 80%). The remaining 2 patients (%20) with concomitant hippocampal sclerosis required microsurgical resection of the seizure foci due to medically resistant seizures. Discussion. Ulegyria is easily recognized with its unique magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and clinical presentation in the majority of cases. It is highly associated with either medically resistant or medically controllable epileptic seizures. The treatment strategy depends on the age at onset and extends of the lesion that has a significant impact on the severity of the clinical picture.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T10:29:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211043308
       
  • Association Between the Visual N1-P2 Complex and Neuroticism

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      Authors: Bowen Xiu, Christopher Andanty, Nasia Dai, Clement C. Zai, Ariel Graff, Heather McNeely, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Vincenzo De Luca
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with impaired attention, memory, and error detection. Thus, the present study investigated the visual N100 and P200 event-related potentials components associated with attention using a 2-back working memory task in healthy neurotic and nonneurotic participants, evaluated using the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory. A total of 35 healthy participants were asked to perform the 2-back task while recording electroencephalographic activity from 64 electrodes on the scalp. Analysis of the N100 and P200 amplitude and latency in high neuroticism and low neuroticism subjects showed an increased P200 amplitude and latency for high neuroticism subjects in the frontal and parietal regions, respectively. However, there were no significant performance differences between the high and low neuroticism subjects for the 2-back working memory task. Therefore, the results suggest that neuroticism is associated with the P200 component elicited in the context of a working memory task.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T03:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211039937
       
  • Detection of ADHD From EEG Signals Using Different Entropy Measures and
           ANN

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      Authors: R. Catherine Joy, S. Thomas George, A. Albert Rajan, M.S.P. Subathra
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent behavioral, cognitive, neurodevelopmental pediatric disorder. Clinical evaluations, symptom surveys, and neuropsychological assessments are some of the ADHD assessment methods, which are time-consuming processes and have a certain degree of uncertainty. This research investigates an efficient computer-aided technological solution for detecting ADHD from the acquired electroencephalography (EEG) signals based on different nonlinear entropy estimators and an artificial neural network classifier. Features extracted through fuzzy entropy, log energy entropy, permutation entropy, SURE entropy, and Shannon entropy are analyzed for effective discrimination of ADHD subjects from the control group. The experimented results confirm that the proposed techniques can effectively detect and classify ADHD subjects. The permutation entropy gives the highest classification accuracy of 99.82%, sensitivity of 98.21%, and specificity of 98.82%. Also, the potency of different entropy estimators derived from the t-test reflects that the Shannon entropy has a higher P-value (>.001); therefore, it has a limited scope than other entropy estimators for ADHD diagnosis. Furthermore, the considerable variance found from potential features obtained in the frontal polar (FP) and frontal (F) lobes using different entropy estimators under the eyes-closed condition shows that the signals received in these lobes will have more significance in distinguishing ADHD from normal subjects.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-08-23T02:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211036788
       
  • Neurophysiology of Gambling Behavior and Internet Use Vulnerability: A
           Comparison Between Behavioral and EEG Measures

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      Authors: Michela Balconi, Laura Angioletti
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      The present research explored electrophysiological activity (EEG) related to problematic internet use (PIU) vulnerability in a nonclinical population. Vulnerability to PIU was assessed through internet addiction test (IAT) in a sample of 23 participants. Moreover, they underwent a behavioral Iowa gambling task (IGT) for testing decision-making functioning and N2 event-related potentials (ERPs) component was monitored during an attentional inhibitory Go/NoGo task performance with addiction-related background pictures (videogames, online gambling, and neutral stimuli). IAT measure positively correlated with both IGT index and N2 variation at the Go/NoGo task. High-IAT young participants showed specific responses to internet addiction-related cues (pictures representing online gambling) in terms of ERPs amplitude of N2pc for Go trials in Pz. Findings suggested an early attentional facilitation effect for specific addiction-related stimuli, online gambling-related stimuli, suggesting a selective attention bias for salient stimuli in this population. While higher levels of IAT do not seem to correspond to a deficit in decision-making abilities, the selective attention mechanisms show to be partially biased in response to the salience of external cues.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T11:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211038469
       
  • Altered Brain Networks in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An
           Electroencephalography Analysis

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      Authors: Sue In Choi, Jung Bin Kim
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background. Limited data are available regarding brain networks in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we investigated brain networks in COPD using graph theoretical analysis of electroencephalography data. Methods. Thirty-eight patients with COPD and 38 healthy controls underwent scalp electroencephalography. We calculated graph measures including average degree, characteristic path length, global efficiency, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and modularity and compared them between patients and controls. Results. Average degree, global efficiency, local efficiency, and clustering coefficients were lower, while characteristic path length and modularity were higher in patients with COPD than in controls in the alpha band (P 
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T03:16:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211035942
       
  • Retrospective Analysis of EEG in Patients With COVID-19: EEG Recording in
           Acute and Follow-up Phases

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      Authors: Isabel Sáez-Landete, Adriana Gómez-Domínguez, Beatriz Estrella-León, Alba Díaz-Cid, Olga Fedirchyk, Marta Escribano-Muñoz, Antonio Pedrera-Mazarro, Guillermo Martín-Palomeque, Guillermo Garcia-Ribas, Fernando Rodríguez-Jorge, Gloria Santos-Pérez, Daniel Lourido-García, Ignacio Regidor-BaillyBailliere
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background. Interest in electroencephalographic (EEG) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) findings has been growing, especially in the search for a specific-features EEG of encephalopathy. Methods. We made a retrospective analysis of 29 EEGs recorded in 15 patients with COVID-19 and neurological symptoms. We classified the EEGs as “Acute EEG” and “follow-up EEG.” We did a statistical analysis between voltage and respiratory status of the patient, stay or not in the intensive care unit (ICU), days of stay in the ICU, sedative drugs, pharmacological treatment, type of symptoms predominating, and outcome. Results. We found EEG abnormalities in all patients studied. We observed the amplitude of background
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T03:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211035923
       
  • Exploring Ripple Waves in the Human Brain

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      Authors: Shunsuke Takagi
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Ripples are brief (
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T03:12:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211034371
       
  • Psychomotor Speed Predicts Outcome in Patients with Acute Meningitis and
           Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Study

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      Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Soyeon An, Min-Ju Kim, Hyun-Woo Kim, Sang-Ahm Lee
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background and Purpose. Although acute meningitis and encephalitis are known to cause cognitive dysfunction, the prognostic values of neuropsychological and neurophysiological tests in predicting clinical outcomes are seldom studied. We investigated specific neurocognitive dysfunction and event-related potentials (ERPs), which can predict functional outcomes in patients with acute meningitis and encephalitis. Methods. We enrolled consecutive adult patients with acute meningitis and encephalitis and performed neuropsychological tests and ERP studies using a passive auditory oddball paradigm at enrollment. Patient functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 (GOS6) months after discharge. Results. Twenty-two patients were included in the study. Among 21 patients who performed neuropsychological tests, Korean-Trail Making Test-Elderly's version, Part A time (TMT-A time) correlated with GOS6, which remained significant even after controlling for age. We identified a significant association between TMT-A time and P3a latency. Post-hoc analysis showed that patients with longer TMT-A time (≥23 s) tended to have longer P3a latency than those with shorter TMT-A time. Conclusions. Decreased psychomotor speed predicted poor clinical outcomes. Because TMT-A time can be performed at the bedside in a relatively short time, this might be a useful neuropsychological biomarker to predict or monitor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, passive oddball P3a may be useful in patients with more severe disease who are unable to perform the TMT task.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-07-13T04:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211031137
       
  • Effect of Painful Electrical Stimuli on Readiness Potential in the Human
           Brain

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      Authors: Burcu Dilek, Michihiro Osumi, Satoshi Nobusako, Sinem Burcu Erdoğan, Shu Morioka
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      The readiness potential (RP), which is a slow negative electrical brain potential that occurs before voluntary movement, can be interpreted as a measure of intrinsic brain activity originating from self-regulating mechanisms. Early and late components of the RP may indicate clinical-neurophysiological features such as motivation, preparation, intention, and initiation of voluntary movements. In the present study, we hypothesized that electrical pain stimuli modulate the preparatory brain activity for movement. The grand average evoked potentials were measured at sensory motor regions with EEG during an experimental protocol consisting of painful and nonpainful stimuli. Our results demonstrated that painful stimuli were preceded by an enhanced RP when compared to non-painful stimuli at the Cz channel (p 
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T04:57:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211030137
       
  • A Preliminary Study of Abnormal Centrality of Cortical Regions and
           Subsystems in Whole Brain Functional Connectivity of Autism Spectrum
           Disorder Boys

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      Authors: Bo Chen
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      The abnormal cortices of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) brains are uncertain. However, the pathological alterations of ASD brains are distributed throughout interconnected cortical systems. Functional connections (FCs) methodology identifies cooperation and separation characteristics of information process in macroscopic cortical activity patterns under the context of network neuroscience. Embracing the graph theory concepts, this paper introduces eigenvector centrality index (EC score) ground on the FCs, and further develops a new framework for researching the dysfunctional cortex of ASD in holism significance. The important process is to uncover noticeable regions and subsystems endowed with antagonistic stance in EC-scores of 26 ASD boys and 28 matched healthy controls (HCs). For whole brain regional EC scores of ASD boys, orbitofrontal superior medial cortex, insula R, posterior cingulate gyrus L, and cerebellum 9 L are endowed with different EC scores significantly. In the brain subsystems level, EC scores of DMN, prefrontal lobe, and cerebellum are aberrant in the ASD boys. Generally, the EC scores display widespread distribution of diseased regions in ASD brains. Meanwhile, the discovered regions and subsystems, such as MPFC, AMYG, INS, prefrontal lobe, and DMN, are engaged in social processing. Meanwhile, the CBCL externalizing problem scores are associated with EC scores.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T04:29:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211026282
       
  • Comparison of the Clinical and Treatment Characteristics of Patients
           Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy for Catatonia Indication in the
           Context of Gender

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      Authors: Zozan Parsanoglu, Ozlem Devrim Balaban, Sakir Gica, Ozge Canbek Atay, Ozan Altin
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to compare in the context of gender both clinical diagnosis and disease-related differences and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-related differences in data and efficacy in hospitalized patients with catatonic signs and symptoms. Data from 106 patients who received ECT with catatonia indication were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical data of male (n = 58) and female (n = 48) patients were compared. Hospitalization documents and outpatient files, sociodemographic and clinical data form, Clinical Global Improvement scores used by the ECT unit in the follow-up of patients who received ECT were used in the study. It was seen that the mean age of women at the onset of ECT was higher than in men and the presence of prolonged seizures was more common than men. In men, it was found out that the average number of sessions with the onset of clinical response to treatment was higher than the average of women. The distribution of diagnoses by gender showed that the presence of schizophrenia diagnosis in men and of bipolar disorder in women were significantly more frequent compared to the opposite sex. It was found out that there were no significant differences between genders in terms of response rate to ECT. Our study is important for being the first study in the literature investigating the gender differences in ECT used for catatonia. However, gender is not a distinctive factor in the effectiveness of treatment, there are some important differences between male and female patients showing signs and symptoms of catatonia and undergoing ECT.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T02:36:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211025889
       
  • Clinical use of Electroencephalography in the Assessment of Acute Thermal
           Pain: A Narrative Review Based on Articles From 2009 to 2019

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      Authors: Chloé Savignac, Don Daniel Ocay, Yacine Mahdid, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Catherine E. Ferland
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, no practical system has successfully been able to decode and predict pain in clinical settings. The inability of some patients to verbally express their pain creates the need for a tool that could objectively assess pain in these individuals. Neuroimaging techniques combined with machine learning are seen as possible candidates for the identification of pain biomarkers. This review aimed to address the potential use of electroencephalographic features as predictors of acute experimental pain. Twenty-six studies using only thermal stimulations were identified using a PubMed and Scopus search. Combinations of the following terms were used: “EEG,” “Electroencephalography,” “Acute,” “Pain,” “Tonic,” “Noxious,” “Thermal,” “Stimulation,” “Brain,” “Activity,” “Cold,” “Subjective,” and “Perception.” Results revealed that contact-heat-evoked potentials have been widely recorded over central areas during noxious heat stimulations. Furthermore, a decrease in alpha power over central regions was revealed, as well as increased theta and gamma powers over frontal areas. Gamma and theta rhythms were associated with connectivity between sensory and affective regions involved in pain processing. A machine learning analysis revealed that the gamma band is a predominant predictor of acute thermal pain. This review also addressed the need of supplementing current spectral features with techniques that allow the investigation of network dynamics.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T05:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211026280
       
  • Using Bilateral tDCS to Modulate EEG Amplitude and Coherence of Men With
           Opioid Use Disorder Under Methadone Therapy: A Sham-controlled Clinical
           Trial

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      Authors: Hossein Mostafavi, Mohsen Dadashi, Alireza Faridi, Fatemeh Kazemzadeh, Zakaria Eskandari
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Objective. This study aimed to investigate the effect of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the electroencephalography (EEG) amplitude and coherence in male patients with opioid use disorder (OUD), who were under methadone therapy. It compares the effects of active versus sham tDCS. Methods. This is a double-blind sham-controlled clinical trial. Participants were 30 male patients with OUD; they were divided into 3 groups of left anode/right cathode tDCS, right anode/left cathode tDCS, and sham tDCS. Their brainwave activity was measured by quantitative EEG before study and then active groups underwent tDCS (2 mA, 20 min) applied over their right/left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 10 consecutive days. After stimulation, they were re-assessed. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS, MATLAB, and NeuroGuide v.2 applications. Results. After active tDCS, a significant decrease in amplitude of slow brain waves (delta, theta, and alpha) in prefrontal, frontal, occipital, and parietal areas, and an increase in the coherence of beta, delta, and theta frequency bands in the parietal, central, and temporal regions of addicts were reported. In the sham group, there was a significant decrease in the amplitude of the alpha wave and in the coherence of delta and theta waves. Conclusion. The active tDCS over the right/left DLPFC, as a noninvasive and complementary treatment, can modulate the amplitude and coherence of brainwaves in patients with OUD.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T03:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211022100
       
  • Depression Diagnosis Modeling With Advanced Computational Methods:
           Frequency-Domain eMVAR and Deep Learning

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      Authors: Caglar Uyulan, Sara de la Salle, Turker T. Erguzel, Emma Lynn, Pierre Blier, Verner Knott, Maheen M. Adamson, Mehmet Zelka, Nevzat Tarhan
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based automated depression diagnosis systems have been suggested for early and accurate detection of mood disorders. EEG signals are highly irregular, nonlinear, and nonstationary in nature and are traditionally studied from a linear viewpoint by means of statistical and frequency features. Since, linear metrics present certain limitations and nonlinear methods have proven to be an efficient tool in understanding the complexities of the brain in the identification of underlying behavior of biological signals, such as electrocardiogram, EEG and magnetoencephalogram and thus, can be applied to all nonstationary signals. Various nonlinear algorithms can be used in the analysis of EEG signals. In this research paper, we aim to develop a novel methodology for EEG-based depression diagnosis utilizing 2 advanced computational techniques: frequency-domain extended multivariate autoregressive (eMVAR) and deep learning (DL). We proposed a hybrid method comprising a pretrained ResNet-50 and long-short term memory (LSTM) to capture depression-specific information and compared with a strong conventional machine learning (ML) framework having eMVAR connectivity features. The following 8 causality measures, which interpret the interaction mechanisms among spectrally decomposed oscillations, were used to extract features from multivariate EEG time series: directed coherence (DC), directed transfer function (DTF), partial DC (PDC), generalized PDC (gPDC), extended DC (eDC), delayed DC (dDC), extended PDC (ePDC), and delayed PDC (dPDC). The classification accuracies were 84% with DC, 85% with DTF, 95.3% with PDC, 95.1% with gPDC, 84.8% with eDC, 84.6% with dDC, 84.2% with ePDC, and 95.9% with dPDC for the eMVAR framework. Through a DL framework (ResNet-50 + LSTM), the classification accuracy was achieved as 90.22%. The results demonstrate that our DL methodology is a competitive alternative to the strong feature extraction-based ML methods in depression classification.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T01:50:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211018545
       
  • The Processing of Visual Signals in Major Depressive Disorder

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      Authors: Christian Valt, Dorothea Huber, Sofia Kontaxi, Joachim Frank, Matthias Nörtemann, Birgit Stürmer
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      The balanced processing of the internal mental world and the external world is a crucial aspect of everyday well-being. An extensive control of the internal emotional and cognitive world that often results in an internal expression of distress is a common feature of internalizing disorders. However, how depression affects the processing of the external world is still an open question. We, therefore, tested the processing of visual signals in major depressive disorder (MDD). To this end, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 38 MDD patients and 38 controls, while they performed a response-choice task with informative feedback and a passive viewing task. MDD patients differed significantly from controls in the early information processing of visual stimuli. The vertex positive potential (VPP) evoked by feedback in the response-choice task and pictures in the passive viewing task were smaller in MDD patients than in controls. This outcome suggests that depression might subtract attentional resources from external signal processing, with potential consequences in various cognitive domains.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T03:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211019916
       
  • Relation Between Sensorimotor Rhythm During Motor Attempt/Imagery and
           Upper-Limb Motor Impairment in Stroke

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      Authors: Shugeng Chen, Xiaokang Shu, Jie Jia, Hewei Wang, Li Ding, Zhijie He, Sandra Brauer, Xiangyang Zhu
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Motor attempt (MA)/motor imagery (MI)-based brain–computer interface (BCI) is a newly developing rehabilitation technology for motor impairment. This study aims to explore the relationship between electroencephalography sensorimotor rhythm and motor impairment to provide reference for a BCI design. Twenty-eight stroke survivors with varying levels of motor dysfunction and spasticity status in the subacute or chronic stage were enrolled in the study to perform MA and MI tasks. Event-related desynchronization (ERD)/event-related synchronization (ERS) during and immediately after motor tasks were calculated. The Fugl–Meyer assessment scale (FMA) and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) were applied to characterize upper-limb motor dysfunction and spasticity. There was a positive correlation between FMA total scores and ERS in the contralesional hemisphere in the MI task (P 
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T03:56:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211019917
       
  • Early Detection of Cerebral Herniation by Continuous
           Electroencephalography and Quantitative Analysis

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      Authors: Faisal Alsallom, Charles Casassa, Keerthana Akkineni, Lu Lin
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) and quantitative analysis of EEG (qEEG) are used in various circumstances such as detecting seizures, identifying acute or delayed cerebral ischemia, monitoring sedative therapy, or assessing prognosis. The authors report 2 cases: (1) Case #1 was a patient with unilateral cerebral edema and uncal herniation with asymmetric cEEG and qEEG changes detected an hour before clinical examination changes were noted and (2) Case #2 was a patient with diffuse cerebral edema and trans-tentorial herniation with symmetric cEEG and qEEG changes detected an hour before clinical examination changes were noted. These cases demonstrate the ability of cEEG and qEEG in early detection of different types of cerebral herniation. qEEG can be utilized by intensive care unit (ICU) staff not trained in EEG interpretation as a surveillance method to detect cerebral herniation, which may provide an opportunity for early intervention in high-risk patients.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T03:56:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211018535
       
  • Efficacy of Brain–Computer Interface and the Impact of Its Design
           Characteristics on Poststroke Upper-limb Rehabilitation: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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      Authors: Salem Mansour, Kai Keng Ang, Krishnan P.S. Nair, Kok Soon Phua, Mahnaz Arvaneh
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background. A number of recent randomized controlled trials reported the efficacy of brain–computer interface (BCI) for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation compared with other therapies. Despite the encouraging results reported, there is a significant variance in the reported outcomes. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of different BCI designs on poststroke upper-limb rehabilitation. Methods. The effect sizes of pooled and individual studies were assessed by computing Hedge’s g values with a 95% confidence interval. Subgroup analyses were also performed to examine the impact of different BCI designs on the treatment effect. Results. The study included 12 clinical trials involving 298 patients. The analysis showed that the BCI yielded significant superior short-term and long-term efficacy in improving the upper-limb motor function compared to the control therapies (Hedge’s g = 0.73 and 0.33, respectively). Based on our subgroup analyses, the BCI studies that used the intention of movement had a higher effect size compared to those used motor imagery (Hedge’s g = 1.21 and 0.55, respectively). The BCI studies using band power features had a significantly higher effect size than those using filter bank common spatial patterns features (Hedge’s g = 1.25 and − 0.23, respectively). Finally, the studies that used functional electrical stimulation as the BCI feedback had the highest effect size compared to other devices (Hedge’s g = 1.2). Conclusion. This meta-analysis confirmed the effectiveness of BCI for upper-limb rehabilitation. Our findings support the use of band power features, the intention of movement, and the functional electrical stimulation in future BCI designs for poststroke upper-limb rehabilitation.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T10:30:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211009065
       
  • Lateralized Periodic Discharges in a Patient With Dural Arteriovenous
           Fistula: SPECT and DWI Studies Suggest They are Ictal

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      Authors: Nese Dericioglu, Bilge Volkan, Rahsan Gocmen, Anil Arat
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) are unilateral electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms, recurring at regular intervals. There has been a long-lasting debate about whether they represent ictal or interictal phenomena. Very few patients in the literature have been investigated with multimodal functional imaging techniques. Here, we present a 58-year-old male patient with symptomatic epilepsy who had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the right temporo-parietal area and dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) over the left fronto-parietal region. He developed acute speech disturbances and altered mental status after a generalized tonic–clonic seizure. Video-EEG monitoring (VEEGM) demonstrated LPDs over the left fronto-central area, overlapping in part with the dAVF. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) sequences revealed restricted diffusion compatible with cytotoxic edema, whereas single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) indicated hyperperfusion in the same region, leading to the conclusion that he was having possible nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). An increase in antiseizure medications led to gradual improvement in clinical status and the disappearance of LPDs.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T01:49:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211012352
       
  • Lateralized Periodic Discharges During Remifentanil Infusion

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      Authors: Janaarththanan Sakathevan, Karthik Somasundaram, Sandra C. Chinyere, Cristina Rodríguez-Viña, David Martín-López
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) are a common electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern in the neurointensive care unit setting. LPDs are typically observed in association with acute structural lesions of the brain with different etiologies. There are no reports describing a link between the occurrence of LPDs and the administration of remifentanil. Remifentanil is a rapid-acting pure μ-opioid receptor agonist, which is indicated to provide analgesia and sedation in mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units. We present a case of an 84-year-old man with neuroglycopenia who developed LPDs while sedated with remifentanil. We report, for the first time, a potential relationship between remifentanil and the induction of LPDs.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T01:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211010624
       
  • A Review of Network and Computer Analysis of Epileptiform Discharge Free
           EEG to Characterize and Detect Epilepsy

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      Authors: Caitlin West, Wessel Woldman, Katy Oak, Brendan McLean, Rohit Shankar
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives. There is emerging evidence that network/computer analysis of epileptiform discharge free electroencephalograms (EEGs) can be used to detect epilepsy, improve diagnosis and resource use. Such methods are automated and can be performed on shorter recordings of EEG. We assess the evidence and its strength in the area of seizure detection from network/computer analysis of epileptiform discharge free EEG. Methods. A scoping review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance was conducted with a literature search of Embase, Medline and PsychINFO. Predesigned inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied to selected articles. Results. The initial search found 3398 articles. After duplicate removal and screening, 591 abstracts were reviewed, 64 articles were selected and read leading to 20 articles meeting the requisite inclusion/exclusion criteria. These were 9 reports and 2 cross-sectional studies using network analysis to compare and/or classify EEG. One review of 17 reports and 10 cross-sectional studies only aimed to classify the EEGs. One cross-sectional study discussed EEG abnormalities associated with autism. Conclusions. Epileptiform discharge free EEG features derived from network/computer analysis differ significantly between people with and without epilepsy. Diagnostic algorithms report high accuracies and could be clinically useful. There is a lack of such research within the intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism populations, where epilepsy is more prevalent and there are additional diagnostic challenges.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T04:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211008285
       
  • Generalized Rhythmic Delta Activity Frontally Predominant Differentiates
           Dementia With Lewy Bodies From Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease
           Dementia: A Conventional Electroencephalography Visual Analysis

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      Authors: Lucia Zinno, Anna Negrotti, Chiara Falzoi, Giovanni Messa, Matteo Goldoni, Stefano Calzetti
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction. An easily accessible and inexpensive neurophysiological technique such as conventional electroencephalography may provide an accurate and generally applicable biomarker capable of differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease-associated dementia (PDD). Method. We carried out a retrospective visual analysis of resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recording of 22 patients with a clinical diagnosis of 19 probable and 3 possible DLB, 22 patients with probable AD and 21 with PDD, matched for age, duration, and severity of cognitive impairment. Results. By using the grand total EEG scoring method, the total score and generalized rhythmic delta activity frontally predominant (GRDAfp) alone or, even better, coupled with a slowing of frequency of background activity (FBA) and its reduced reactivity differentiated DLB from AD at an individual level with an high accuracy similar to that obtained with quantitative EEG (qEEG). GRDAfp alone could also differentiate DLB from PDD with a similar level of diagnostic accuracy. AD differed from PDD only for a slowing of FBA. The duration and severity of cognitive impairment did not differ between DLB patients with and without GRDAfp, indicating that this abnormal EEG pattern should not be regarded as a disease progression marker. Conclusions. The findings of this investigation revalorize the role of conventional EEG in the diagnostic workup of degenerative dementias suggesting the potential inclusion of GRDAfp alone or better coupled with the slowing of FBA and its reduced reactivity, in the list of supportive diagnostic biomarkers of DLB.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T02:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059421997147
       
  • How Should Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation be Used in Populations
           With Severe Alcohol Use Disorder' A Clinically Oriented Systematic
           Review

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      Authors: Zoé Bollen, Valérie Dormal, Pierre Maurage
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background and rationale. Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is a major public health concern, given its massive individual, interpersonal, and societal consequences. The available prevention and treatment programs have proven limited effectiveness, as relapse rates are still high in this clinical population. Developing effective interventions reducing the appearance and persistence of SAUD thus constitutes an experimental and clinical priority. Among the new therapeutic approaches, there is a growing interest for noninvasive neuromodulation techniques, and particularly for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an adjunctive treatment in neuropsychiatric disorders, including SAUD. Methods. We propose a systematic review, based on preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, evaluating the available evidence on the effectiveness of tDCS to improve clinical interventions in SAUD. Results. We provide an integrative overview of studies applying tDCS in clinical populations with SAUD, together with a standardized methodological quality assessment. We show that the currently available data remain inconsistent. Some data suggested that tDCS can (1) reduce craving, relapse or alcohol-cue reactivity and (2) improve cognitive control and inhibition. However, other studies did not observe any beneficial effect of tDCS in SAUD. Conclusions. Capitalizing on the identified strengths and shortcomings of available results, we present evidence-based clinical guidelines to integrate tDCS in current clinical settings and to combine it with neurocognitive training.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T01:56:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211001212
       
  • Quantitative Electroencephalography Findings in Patients With Diabetes
           Mellitus

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      Authors: Özden Öksüz, Mehmet Güven Günver, Mehmet Kemal Arıkan
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Objective. Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes structural central nervous system (CNS) impairment, and this situation can be detected by quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) findings before cognitive impairment is clinically observed. The main aim of this study is to uncover the effect of DM on brain function. Since QEEG reflects the CNS functioning, particularly in cognitive aspects, we expected electrophysiological clues to be found for prevention and follow-up in DM-related cognitive decline. Since a majority of the psychiatric population have cognitive dysfunction, we have given particular attention to those people. It was stated that a decrease was observed in the posterior cortical alpha power due to the hippocampal atrophy by several previous studies and we hypothesize that decreased alpha power will be observed also in DM. Methods. This study included 2094 psychiatric patients, 207 of whom were diagnosed with DM and 1887 of whom were not diagnosed with DM, and QEEG recordings were performed. Eyes-closed electroencephalography data were segmented into consecutive 2 s epochs. Fourier analysis was performed by averaging across 2 s epochs without artifacts. The absolute alpha power in the occipital regions (O1 and O2) of patients with and without DM was compared. Results. In the DM group, a decrease in the absolute alpha, alpha 1, and alpha 2 power in O1 and O2 was observed in comparison with the control group. It was determined that the type of psychiatric diagnosis did not affect QEEG findings. Conclusion. The decrease in absolute alpha power observed in patients diagnosed with DM may be related to the CNS impairment in DM. QEEG findings in DM can be useful while monitoring the CNS impairment, diagnosing DM-related dementia, in the follow-up of the cognitive process, constructing the protocols for electrophysiological interventions like neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation and monitoring the response to treatment.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T03:55:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059421997657
       
  • Electroencephalographic Evaluation in Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Géssika Araújo de Melo, Marcela Laís Lima Holmes Madruga, Nelson Torro
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction. The evaluation of individuals with fibromyalgia is challenging. Electroencephalography is a promising resource for identifying physiological biomarkers in fibromyalgia, contributing to its diagnosis. Objective. To review studies involving the use of electroencephalography to evaluate individuals with fibromyalgia. Method. A systematic review of studies published in the PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases from 2001 to 2020 was conducted. The keywords used were electroencephalogram, electroencephalography, and fibromyalgia. The database search complied with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Results. A total of 136 articles were identified after a database search using the keywords “fibromyalgia” AND “electroencephalography”, and 131 articles were found using the keywords “fibromyalgia” AND “electroencephalogram” (EEG). In the end, 20 articles remained after applying the exclusion criteria. The data was organized into subcategories related to the form of use, protocols, electroencephalographic findings in patients with fibromyalgia, and the EEG analysis method. Conclusion. Electroencephalography is a promising method for identifying and characterizing biomarkers for fibromyalgia.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T03:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059421997128
       
  • The Vagus Nerve Somatosensory-evoked Potential in Neural Disorders:
           Systematic Review and Illustrative Vignettes

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      Authors: Juan S. Leon-Ariza, Mario A. Mosquera, Vitaly Siomin, Angelo Fonseca, Daniel S. Leon-Ariza, Mayra A. Gualdron, Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Objective. To review the scientific publications reporting vagal nerve somatosensory-evoked potential (VSEP) findings from individuals with brain disorders, and present novel physiological explanations on the VSEP origin. Methods. We did a systematic review on the papers reporting VSEP findings from individuals with brain disorders and their controls. We evaluated papers published from 2003 to date indexed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scielo databases. We extracted the following information: number of patients and controls, type of neural disorder, age, gender, stimulating/recording and grounding electrodes as well as stimulus side, intensity, duration, frequency, and polarity. Information about physiological parameters, neurobiological variables, and correlation studies was also reviewed. Representative vignettes were included to add support to our conclusions. Results. The VSEP was studied in 297 patients with neural disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment, subjective memory impairment, major depression, and multiple sclerosis. Scalp responses marked as the VSEP showed high variability, low validity, and poor reproducibility. VSEP latencies and amplitudes did not correlate with disease duration, unified PD rating scale score, or heart function in PD patients nor with cerebrospinal fluid β amyloid, phosphor-τ, and cognitive tests from patients with mental disorders. Vignettes demonstrated that the VSEP was volume conduction propagating from muscles surrounding the scalp recording electrodes. Conclusion. The VSEP is not a brain-evoked potential of neural origin but muscle activity induced by electrical stimulation of the tragus region of the ear. This review and illustrative vignettes argue against assessing the parasympathetic system using the so-called VSEP.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T02:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211001221
       
  • Is Palinopsia in Migraineurs a Phenomenon of Impaired Habituation of
           Visual Cortical Neurons'

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      Authors: Jayantee Kalita, Usha K. Misra, Mritunjai Kumar, Robin Bansal, Ravi Uniyal
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Palinopsia in migraine has been reported recently, which may be due to the dysexcitability of visual cortical neurons. In this cross-sectional study, we report the correlation of neuronal dysexcitability with palinopsia using pattern shift visual evoked potential (PSVEP) in 91 migraineurs and 25 healthy controls. The presence of palinopsia was evaluated using a novel objective method, and revealed more frequent palinopsia in the migraineurs compared to the controls (53 of 91 [58.2%] vs 3 of 25 [12%]; P 
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T04:35:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059421991707
       
  • Emotion Recognition Deficits in Psychiatric Disorders as a Target of
           Non-invasive Neuromodulation: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Yuji Yamada, Takuma Inagawa, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background. Social cognition deficits are a core feature of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorder, and deteriorate the functionality of patients. However, no definite strategy has been established to treat social cognition (eg, emotion recognition) impairments in these illnesses. Here, we provide a systematic review of the literature regarding transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of social cognition deficits in individuals with psychiatric disorders. Methods. A literature search was conducted on English articles identified by PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases, according to the guidelines of the PRISMA statement. We defined the inclusion criteria as follows: (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs), (2) targeting patients with psychiatric disorders (included in F20-F39 of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD-10]), (3) evaluating the effect of tDCS or rTMS, (4) reporting at least one standardized social cognition test. Results. Five papers (3 articles on tDCS and 2 articles on rTMS) met the inclusion criteria which deal with schizophrenia or depression. The significant effects of tDCS or rTMS targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the emotion recognition domain were reported in patients with schizophrenia or depression. In addition, rTMS on the right inferior parietal lobe was shown to ameliorate social perception impairments of schizophrenia. Conclusions. tDCS and rTMS may enhance some domains of social cognition in patients with psychiatric disorders. Further research is warranted to identify optimal parameters to maximize the cognitive benefits of these neuromodulation methods.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T03:45:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059421991688
       
  • Role of Quantitative EEG and EEG Reactivity in Traumatic Brain Injury

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      Authors: Jian Wang, Li Huang, Xinhua Ma, Chunguang Zhao, Jinfang Liu, Daomiao Xu
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study aimed to explore the effectiveness of quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) and EEG reactivity (EEG-R) to predict the prognosis of patients with severe traumatic brain injury.MethodsThis was a prospective observational study on severe traumatic brain injury. Quantitative EEG monitoring was performed for 8 to 12 hours within 14 days of onset. The EEG-R was tested during the monitoring period. We then followed patients for 3 months to determine their level of consciousness. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score was used. The score 3, 4, 5 of GOS were defined good prognosis, and score 1 and 2 as poor prognosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to assess the association of predictors with poor prognosis.ResultsA total of 56 patients were included in the study. Thirty-two patients (57.1%) awoke (good prognosis) in 3 months after the onset. Twenty-four patients (42.9%) did not awake (poor prognosis), including 11 cases deaths. Univariate analysis showed that Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, the amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), the relative band power (RBP), the relative alpha variability (RAV), the spectral entropy (SE), and EEG-R reached significant difference between the poor-prognosis and good-prognosis groups. However, age, gender, and pupillary light reflex did not correlate significantly with poor prognosis. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only RAV and EEG-R were significant independent predictors of poor prognosis, and the prognostic model containing these 2 variables yielded a predictive performance with an area under the curve of 0.882.ConclusionsQuantitative EEG and EEG-R may be used to assess the prognosis of patients with severe traumatic brain injury early. RAV and EEG-R were the good predictive indicators of poor prognosis.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T06:53:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059420984934
       
  • Loudness Dependence of Auditory-evoked Potentials, a Marker of Central
           Serotonergic Activity, is Affected by Fasting and Selective Uptake of Food
           

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      Authors: Christoph Bamberg, Vera Flasbeck, Georg Juckel, Martin Brüne
      First page: 391
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Serotonin is an important neuromodulator involved in many physiological processes including mood and satiety. In the brain, serotonin is manufactured from tryptophan, as serotonin itself cannot cross the blood–brain barrier. Previous research has shown that blood-tryptophan levels increase upon ingestion of carbohydrates and decrease upon protein consumption. How this translates into serotonin availability is as yet under-researched. Therefore, we examined the effect of fasting versus consuming carbohydrates or protein on central serotonergic activity using a repeated-measures crossover design in a sample of 37 healthy men. The loudness dependence of auditory-evoked potentials (LDAEP) serves as a noninvasive method to study central serotonergic activity. Blood-glucose levels and mood changes were also monitored before and after the nutritional intervention. The intervention had a significant nutrition-specific effect on LDAEP and blood-glucose levels. A significant difference emerged between the fasting condition and satiety, with LDAEP being lower during satiety, irrespective of the type of food. Thus, this indicator of serotonergic activity increased after food consumption, which was further related to mood improvement. Moreover, the LDAEP differed between the 2 measurements only for the carbohydrate testing day, suggesting that LDAEP can be selectively modulated by the type of nutrition consumed. Our data further indicate a high intraindividual stability of LDAEP, as the electrophysiological signals were very similar in the fasting condition across the 2 testing days. Together, these findings demonstrate that the LDAEP can serve as a biological marker for central serotonergic activity, while at the same time being sensitive to nutritional changes.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T03:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15500594211000925
       
  • Differences of EEG Frequency and Spatial Parameters in Depressive Female
           Adolescents With Suicidal Attempts and Non-suicidal Self-injuries

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      Authors: Andrey F. Iznak, Ekaterina V. Iznak, Elena V. Damyanovich, Igor V. Oleichik
      First page: 406
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Background. Both non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSIs) and suicidal attempts (SAs) in adolescence represent significant risk factors for consequent suicide, but neurophysiological markers and predictors of these two forms of auto-aggressive behavior have been studied insufficiently. Objective. The aim of the study was to identify the differences of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency and spatial parameters between depressive female adolescents with solely NSSI, and with combined NSSI + SA behavior in their history. Methods. The study included 45 female depressive in-patients aged 16-25 years. Baseline resting EEG spectral power, asymmetry, and coherence were analyzed in 8 narrow frequency sub-bands. Results. In the NSSI + SA subgroup (n = 24), the spectral power of parietal–occipital alpha-2 (9-11 Hz) was higher than in the NSSI subgroup, its focus was localized in the right hemisphere, and alpha-3 (11-13 Hz) spectral power was higher than alpha-1 (8-9 Hz). In the NSSI subgroup (n = 21) alpha-1 spectral power was higher than alpha-3, and foci of alpha-2 and alpha-3 were localized in the left hemisphere. EEG coherence was also higher in the NSSI + SA subgroup than in the NSSI subgroup, especially in frontal–central–parietal regions. Conclusions. The spatial distribution of the EEG frequency components in the NSSI + SA subgroup reflects the greater activation of the left hemisphere that is more typical for the EEG of individuals with an increased risk for suicide. In the NSSI subgroup, the right hemisphere is relatively more activated, and EEG coherence is lower, which is more typical for EEG in depressive disorders. The results obtained suggested the use of EEG to clarify the degree of suicidal risk in depressive female adolescents with NSSI.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T01:57:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059421991685
       
  • Salzburg Criteria, A Useful Tool in Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus
           Diagnosis: A Retrospective Study

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      Authors: Adriana Gómez Domínguez, Raidili C. Mateo Montero, Alba Díaz Cid, Antonio J. P. Mazarro, Ignacio R. Bailly-Bailliere, Isabel M. S. Landete, Guillermo M. Palomeque
      First page: 422
      Abstract: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) has been traditionally a challenging electroencephalographic (EEG) diagnosis. For this reason, Salzburg consensus criteria (SCC) have been proposed to facilitate correct diagnosis. Methods. We retrospectively reanalyzed 41 cases referred to our department (from 2016 to 2018) under the suspicion of NCSE. In this study, we compared the original description (standard criteria) versus the updated description (SCC) of the same EEG. Results. Originally, 15 patients were diagnosed as NCSE (37%) and 26 patients as no NCSE (63%), using the standard criteria. Then, we analyzed EEGs according to the SCC, which led to the following results: 9 patients fulfilled the criteria for definite NCSE (22%), 20 patients were diagnosed as possible NCSE (49%) and 12 patients were diagnosed as no NCSE (29%). Subsequently, when we analyze the outcome of possible NCSE cases, we note that 50% of these patients presented mild-poor outcome (neurological deficits, deceased). Indeed, we observed worse outcomes in patients previously diagnosed as no NCSE and untreated, specifically post-anoxic cases. Conclusions. Salzburg criteria seem to be a useful tool to support NCSE diagnosis, introducing the category of possible NCSE. In our study, we observed that it contributes to improving the prognosis and management of the patients. However, more prospective studies are needed to demonstrate the accuracy of SCC.
      Citation: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T09:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1550059421991710
       
 
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