Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 262, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 547, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
ASN Neuro
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.534
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1759-0914 - ISSN (Online) 1759-9091
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • Innate Immunity and Cell Death in Alzheimer's Disease

    • Authors: SangJoon Lee, Hyun-Jeong Cho, Jin-Hyeob Ryu
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The innate immune system plays key roles in controlling Alzheimer's disease (AD), while secreting cytokines to eliminate pathogens and regulating brain homeostasis. Recent research in the field of AD has shown that the innate immune-sensing ability of pattern recognition receptors on brain-resident macrophages, known as microglia, initiates neuroinflammation, Aβ accumulation, neuronal loss, and memory decline in patients with AD. Advancements in understanding the role of innate immunity in AD have laid a strong foundation to elucidate AD pathology and devise therapeutic strategies for AD in the future. In this review, we highlight the present understanding of innate immune responses, inflammasome activation, inflammatory cell death pathways, and cytokine secretion in AD. We also discuss how the AD pathology influences these biological processes.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211051908
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • The Mesencephalic Periaqueductal Gray, a Further Structure Involved in
           Breathing Failure Underlying Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    • Authors: Anna M. Lavezzi, Riffat Mehboob
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), an area of gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius, in the pathogenetic mechanism of SIDS, a syndrome frequently ascribed to arousal failure from sleep. We reconsidered the same samples of brainstem, more precisely midbrain specimens, taken from a large series of sudden infant deaths, namely 46 cases aged from 1 to about 7 months, among which 26 SIDS and 20 controls, in which we already highlighted significant developmental alterations of the substantia nigra, another mesencephalic structure with a critical role in breath and awakening regulation. Specific histological and immunohistochemical methods were applied to examine the PAG cytoarchitecture and the expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of catecholaminergic neurons. Hypoplasia of the PAG subnucleus medialis was observed in 65% of SIDS but never in controls; tyrosine hydroxylase expression was significantly higher in controls than in SIDS. A significant correlation was found between these findings and those related to the substantia nigra, demonstrating a link between these neuronal centers and the brainstem respiratory network and a common involvement in the sleep-arousal phase failure leading to SIDS.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T07:01:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211048260
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Identification of miRNAs That Mediate Protective Functions of Anti-Cancer
           Drugs During White Matter Ischemic Injury

    • Authors: Selva Baltan, Ursula S. Sandau, Sylvain Brunet, Chinthasagar Bastian, Ajai Tripathi, Hung Nguyen, Helen Liu, Julie A. Saugstad, Yalda Zarnegarnia, Ranjan Dutta
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      We have previously shown that two anti-cancer drugs, CX-4945 and MS-275, protect and preserve white matter (WM) architecture and improve functional recovery in a model of WM ischemic injury. While both compounds promote recovery, CX-4945 is a selective Casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor and MS-275 is a selective Class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Alterations in microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate some of the protective actions of these drugs. In this study, we aimed to (1) identify miRNAs expressed in mouse optic nerves (MONs); (2) determine which miRNAs are regulated by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD); and (3) determine the effects of CX-4945 and MS-275 treatment on miRNA expression. RNA isolated from MONs from control and OGD-treated animals with and without CX-4945 or MS-275 treatment were quantified using NanoString nCounter® miRNA expression profiling. Comparative analysis of experimental groups revealed that 12 miRNAs were expressed at high levels in MONs. OGD upregulated five miRNAs (miR-1959, miR-501-3p, miR-146b, miR-201, and miR-335-3p) and downregulated two miRNAs (miR-1937a and miR-1937b) compared to controls. OGD with CX-4945 upregulated miR-1937a and miR-1937b, and downregulated miR-501-3p, miR-200a, miR-1959, and miR-654-3p compared to OGD alone. OGD with MS-275 upregulated miR-2134, miR-2141, miR-2133, miR-34b-5p, miR-153, miR-487b, miR-376b, and downregulated miR-717, miR-190, miR-27a, miR-1959, miR-200a, miR-501-3p, and miR-200c compared to OGD alone. Interestingly, miR-501-3p and miR-1959 were the only miRNAs upregulated by OGD, and downregulated by OGD plus CX-4945 and MS-275. Therefore, we suggest that protective functions of CX-4945 or MS-275 against WM injury maybe mediated, in part, through miRNA expression.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T04:14:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211042220
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Role of EphrinA3 in HIV-1 Neuropathogenesis

    • Authors: Chitra Mohinder Singh Singal, Paritosh Jaiswal, Anuradha Mehta, Kanza Saleem, Pankaj Seth
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Glial cells perform important supporting functions for neurons through a dynamic crosstalk. Neuron–glia communication is the major phenomenon to sustain homeostatic functioning of the brain. Several interactive pathways between neurons and astrocytes are critical for the optimal functioning of neurons, and one such pathway is the ephrinA3–ephA4 signaling. The role of this pathway is essential in maintaining the levels of extracellular glutamate by regulating the excitatory amino acid transporters, EAAT1 and EAAT2 on astrocytes. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and its proteins cause glutamate excitotoxicity due to excess glutamate levels at sites of high synaptic activity. This study unravels the effects of HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) from clade B on ephrinA3 and its role in regulating glutamate levels in astrocyte–neuron co-cultures of human origin. It was observed that the expression of ephrinA3 increases in the presence of HIV-1 Tat B, while the expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2 was attenuated. This led to reduced glutamate uptake and therefore high neuronal death due to glutamate excitotoxicity. Knockdown of ephrinA3 using small interfering RNA, in the presence of HIV-1 Tat B reversed the neurotoxic effects of HIV-1 Tat B via increased expression of glutamate transporters that reduced the levels of extracellular glutamate. The in vitro findings were validated in autopsy brain sections from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients and we found ephrinA3 to be upregulated in the case of HIV-1-infected patients. This study offers valuable insights into astrocyte-mediated neuronal damage in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T04:03:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211044359
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • 2021 ASN Virtual Meeting Abstracts

    • Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.

      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T02:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211039028
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Forelimb Motor Skills Deficits Following Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury:
           Underlying Dopaminergic and Neural Oscillatory Changes in Rat Primary
           Motor Cortex

    • Authors: Omid Salimi, Hamid Soltani Zangbar, Soheila Hajizadeh Shadiabad, Meysam Ghorbani, Tahereh Ghadiri, Abbas Ebrahimi Kalan, Hasan Kheyrkhah, Parviz Shahabi
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The loss of spinal sensorimotor pathways following spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce retrograde neurodegeneration in the primary motor cortex (M1). However, the effect of thoracic SCI on forelimb motor skills has not been studied clearly. So, herein we aimed to examine the effects of the thoracic SCI model on forelimb motor skills learning, parallel with dopaminergic and oscillatory changes in hindlimb and forelimb areas (HLA and FLA) of M1 in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly subjected to laminectomy (Control) or contusion SCI at the thoracic (T10) level. Oscillatory activity and motor skills performance were evaluated for six consecutive days using local field potential (LFP) recording and skilled forelimb reaching task, respectively. Dopamine (DA) levels and expression of dopamine receptors (D1R and D2R) were determined in HLA and FLA by ELISA and western blotting. LFP recording results showed a sustained increase of LFP power in SCI rats compared with uninjured rats through skilled reaching training. Also, the SCI group had a lower reaching performance and learning rate in contrast to the Control group. Biochemical analysis of HLA and FLA showed a reduction in DA levels and expression of D1R and D2R after SCI. According to these findings, thoracic SCI causes aberrant changes in the oscillatory activity and dopaminergic system of M1, which are not restricted to HLA but also found in FLA accompanied by a deficit in forelimb motor skills performance.Summary statement: The reorganization of the primary motor cortex, following spinal cord injury, is not restricted to the hind limb area, and interestingly extends to the forelimb limb area, which appears as a dysfunctional change in oscillations and dopaminergic system, associated with a deficit in motor skills learning of forelimb.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T03:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211044000
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • A Protective Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily-15 in Intracerebral
           Hemorrhage-Induced Secondary Brain Injury

    • Authors: Gui-Li Yang, Shizhao Wang, Shu Zhang, Ye Liu, Xiao Liu, Dong Wang, Huijie Wei, Jianhua Xiong, Zhi-Song Zhang, Zengguang Wang, Lu-Yuan Li, Jianning Zhang
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Destabilization of blood vessels by the activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been considered the main causes of aggravated secondary brain injury. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor superfamily-15 (TNFSF15; also known as vascular endothelial growth inhibitor), an inhibitor of VEGF-induced vascular hyper-permeability, when overexpressed in transgenic mice, exhibits a neuroprotective function post-ICH. In this study, we set-up a collagenase-induced ICH model with TNFSF15-transgenic mice and their transgene-negative littermates. We observed less lesion volume and neural function perturbations, together with less severe secondary injuries in the acute phase that are associated with brain edema and inflammation, including vascular permeability, oxidative stress, microglia/macrophage activation and neutrophil infiltration, and neuron degeneration, in the TNFSF15 group compared with the littermate group. Additionally, we show that there is an inhibition of VEGF-induced elevation of MMP-9 in the perihematomal blood vessels of the TNFSF15 mice following ICH, concomitant with enhanced pericyte coverage of the perihematomal blood vessels. These findings are consistent with the view that TNFSF15 may have a potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of secondary injuries in the early phase of ICH.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T03:10:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211038441
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Glycogen Phosphorylase Isoform Regulation of Ventromedial Hypothalamic
           Nucleus Gluco-Regulatory Neuron 5′-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and
           Transmitter Marker Protein Expression

    • Authors: Md. Main Uddin, Mostafa M. H. Ibrahim, Karen P. Briski
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Brain glycogen is remodeled during metabolic homeostasis and provides oxidizable L-lactate equivalents. Brain glycogen phosphorylase (GP)-brain (GPbb; AMP-sensitive) and -muscle (GPmm; norepinephrine-sensitive) type isoforms facilitate stimulus-specific control of glycogen disassembly. Here, a whole animal model involving stereotactic-targeted delivery of GPmm or GPbb siRNA to the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) was used to investigate the premise that these variants impose differential control of gluco-regulatory transmission. Intra-VMN GPmm or GPbb siRNA administration inhibited glutamate decarboxylate65/67 (GAD), a protein marker for the gluco-inhibitory transmitter γ--aminobutyric acid (GABA), in the caudal VMN. GPbb knockdown, respectively overturned or exacerbated hypoglycemia-associated GAD suppression in rostral and caudal VMN. GPmm siRNA caused a segment-specific reversal of hypoglycemic augmentation of the gluco-stimulatory transmitter indicator, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In both cell types, GP siRNA down-regulated 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) during euglycemia, but hypoglycemic suppression of AMPK was reversed by GPmm targeting. GP knockdown elevated baseline GABA neuron phosphoAMPK (pAMKP) content, and amplified hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPK expression in each neuron type. GPbb knockdown increased corticosterone secretion in eu- and hypoglycemic rats. Outcomes validate efficacy of GP siRNA delivery for manipulation of glycogen breakdown in discrete brain structures in vivo, and document VMN GPbb control of local GPmm expression. Results document GPmm and/or -bb regulation of GABAergic and nitrergic transmission in discrete rostro-caudal VMN segments. Contrary effects of glycogenolysis on metabolic-sensory AMPK protein during eu- versus hypoglycemia may reflect energy state-specific astrocyte signaling. Amplifying effects of GPbb knockdown on hypoglycemic stimulation of pAMPK infer that glycogen mobilization by GPbb limits neuronal energy instability during hypoglycemia.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T03:08:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211035020
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Astrocytic Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Supraoptic Cellular Activity in the
           Adaptive Response of Lactating Rats to Chronic Social Stress

    • Authors: Dongyang Li, Haitao Liu, Hongyang Wang, Shuwei Jia, Xiaoran Wang, Shuo Ling, Guichuan Chen, Xiaoyu Liu, Yu-Feng Wang
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Maternal social stress among breastfeeding women can be adapted in chronic process. However, neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying such adaptation remain to be identified. Here, we report the effects of 2 hr/day unfamiliar male rat invasion (UMI) stress on maternal behaviors in lactating rats during postpartum day 8 (UMI8) to postpartum day 12 (UMI12). Rat dams at UMI8 presented signs of maternal anxiety, depression, and attacks toward male intruder. These changes partially reversed at UMI12 except the sign of anxiety. In the supraoptic nucleus (SON), UMI12 but not UMI8 significantly increased the expression of c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2. At UMI8 but not UMI12, length of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, astrocytic cytoskeletal element) filaments around oxytocin (OT) neurons was significantly longer than that of their controls; the amount of GFAP fragments at UMI12 was significantly less than that at UMI8. Expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, enzyme for H2S synthesis) at UMI12 was significantly higher than that at UMI8. CBS expression did not change significantly in the somatic zone of the SON but decreased significantly at the ventral glia lamina at UMI8. In brain slices of the SON, aminooxyacetate (a CBS blocker) significantly increased the expression of GFAP proteins that were molecularly associated with CBS. Aminooxyacetate also reduced the firing rate of OT neurons whereas Na2S, a donor of H2S, increased it. The adaptation during chronic social stress is possibly attributable to the increased production of H2S by astrocytes and the subsequent retraction of astrocytic processes around OT neurons.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T06:49:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211043087
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Microglial- and Astrocyte-Specific Expression of Purinergic Signaling
           Components and Inflammatory Mediators in the Rat Hippocampus During
           Trimethyltin-Induced Neurodegeneration

    • Authors: Milorad Dragić, Nataša Mitrović, Marija Adžić, Nadežda Nedeljković, Ivana Grković
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The present study examined the involvement of purinergic signaling components in the rat model of hippocampal degeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) intoxication (8 mg/kg, single intraperitoneal injection), which results in behavioral and neurological dysfunction similar to neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase1/CD39) and ecto-5′ nucleotidase (eN/CD73) activity, their cell-specific localization, and analyzed gene expression pattern and/or cellular localization of purinoreceptors and proinflammatory mediators associated with reactive glial cells. Our study demonstrated that all Iba1+ cells at the injured area, irrespective of their morphology, upregulated NTPDase1/CD39, while induction of eN/CD73 has been observed at amoeboid Iba1+ cells localized within the hippocampal neuronal layers with pronounced cell death. Marked induction of P2Y12R, P2Y6R, and P2X4-messenger RNA at the early stage of TMT-induced neurodegeneration might reflect the functional properties, migration, and chemotaxis of microglia, while induction of P2X7R at amoeboid cells probably modulates their phagocytic role. Reactive astrocytes expressed adenosine A1, A2A, and P2Y1 receptors, revealed induction of complement component C3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-kB, and proinflammatory cytokines at the late stage of TMT-induced neurodegeneration. An increased set of purinergic system components on activated microglia (NTPDase1/CD39, eN/CD73, and P2X7) and astrocytes (A1R, A2AR, and P2Y1), and loss of homeostatic glial and neuronal purinergic pathways (P2Y12 and A1R) may shift purinergic signaling balance toward excitotoxicity and inflammation, thus favoring progression of pathological events. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the involvement of purinergic signaling components in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders that could be target molecules for the development of novel therapies.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-09-27T12:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211044882
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Nitric Oxide Induces a Janus Kinase-1-Dependent Inflammatory Response in
           Primary Murine Astrocytes

    • Authors: John D. Nowery, Rylee N. Cisney, Jacob W. Feldmann, Gordon P. Meares
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Nitric oxide (NO) is a versatile free radical that has been implicated in many biological processes (i.e., vasodilation, neurotransmission, and smooth muscle relaxation). High levels of NO, such as those produced by inducible NO synthase, are associated with innate immunity as well as tissue damage and disease pathology. Previous studies have characterized many stimuli that lead to NO production following central nervous system (CNS) infection, ischemia, and during neurodegeneration, but less is known about the effects of NO on the CNS resident astrocytes. Previously, excessive NO has been shown to impair protein folding leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and initiation of the unfolded protein response. Previous studies have shown that ER stress drives activation of protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK) and Janus kinase-1 (JAK1) leading to inflammatory gene expression. We hypothesized that NO drives inflammatory processes within astrocytes through a similar process. To test this, we examined the effects of exogenous NO on primary cultures of murine astrocytes. Our data suggest that NO promotes a pro-inflammatory response that includes interleukin-6 and several chemokines. Our data show that NO induces phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha; however, this and the inflammatory gene expression are independent of PERK. Knockdown of JAK1 using small interfering RNA reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators. Overall, we have identified that NO stimulates the integrated stress response and a JAK1-dependent inflammatory program in astrocytes.Summary statement: Murine astrocytes in culture respond to NO with increased expression of stress and inflammatory genes. The inflammatory stress response is independent of the ER stress-activated kinase PERK and is, in part, mediated by JAK1.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:52:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211033650
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • 17β-Estradiol Attenuates Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Blood–Brain
           Barrier Injury and Oxidative Stress Through SRC3-Mediated PI3K/Akt
           Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model

    • Authors: Han Xiao, Jianyang Liu, Jialin He, Ziwei Lan, Mingyang Deng, Zhiping Hu
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Estrogen is neuroprotective in brain injury models, and steroid receptor cofactor 3 (SRC3) mediates estrogen signaling. We aimed to investigate whether and how SRC3 is involved in the neuroprotective effects of 17ß-estradiol (E2) in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Ovariectomized female mice were treated with E2 after autologous blood injection-induced ICH. Brain damage was assessed by neurological deficit score, brain water content, and oxidative stress levels. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity was evaluated by Evan's blue extravasation and claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin levels. SRC3 expression and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were examined in ICH mice treated with E2. The effect of SRC3 on E2-mediated neuroprotection was determined by examining neurological outcomes in SRC3-deficient mice undergone ICH and E2 treatment. We found that E2 alleviated ICH-induced brain edema and neurological deficits, protected BBB integrity, and suppressed oxidative stress. E2 enhanced SRC3 expression and PI3K-/Akt signaling pathway. SRC3 deficiency abolished the protective effects of E2 on ICH-induced neurological deficits, brain edema, and BBB integrity. Our results suggest that E2 suppresses ICH-induced brain injury and SRC3 plays a critical role in E2-mediated neuroprotection.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T03:21:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211038443
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Emerging Role of Ferroptosis in the Pathogenesis of Ischemic Stroke: A New
           Therapeutic Target'

    • Authors: Zhong-Qi Bu, Hai-Yang Yu, Jue Wang, Xin He, Yue-Ran Cui, Jia-Chun Feng, Juan Feng
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of high morbidity, mortality, and disability worldwide; however, the treatment methods are limited and do not always achieve satisfactory results. The pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is complex, defined by multiple mechanisms; among them, programmed death of neuronal cells plays a significant role. Ferroptosis is a novel type of regulated cell death characterized by iron redistribution or accumulation and increased lipid peroxidation in the membrane. Ferroptosis is implicated in many pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this review, we summarize current research findings on ferroptosis, including possible molecular mechanisms and therapeutic applications of ferroptosis regulators, with a focus on the involvement of ferroptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of ischemic stroke. Understanding the role of ferroptosis in ischemic stroke will throw some light on the development of methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this devastating disease.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T02:54:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211037505
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Restoration of KCC2 Membrane Localization in Striatal Dopamine D2
           Receptor-Expressing Medium Spiny Neurons Rescues Locomotor Deficits in HIV
           Tat-Transgenic Mice

    • Authors: Aaron J. Barbour, Sara R. Nass, Yun K. Hahn, Kurt F. Hauser, Pamela E. Knapp
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      People infected with HIV (PWH) are highly susceptible to striatal and hippocampal damage. Motor and memory impairments are common among these patients, likely as behavioral manifestations of damage to these brain regions. GABAergic dysfunction from HIV infection and viral proteins such as transactivator of transcription (Tat) have been well documented. We recently demonstrated that the neuron specific Cl− extruder, K+ Cl− cotransporter 2 (KCC2), is diminished after exposure to HIV proteins, including Tat, resulting in disrupted GABAAR-mediated hyperpolarization and inhibition. Here, we utilized doxycycline (DOX)-inducible, GFAP-driven HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice to further explore this phenomenon. After two weeks of Tat expression, we found no changes in hippocampal KCC2 levels, but a significant decrease in the striatum that was associated with hyperlocomotion in the open field assay. We were able to restore KCC2 activity and baseline locomotion with the KCC2 enhancer, CLP290. Additionally, we found that CLP290, whose mechanism of action has yet to be described, acts to restore phosphorylation of serine 940 resulting in increased KCC2 membrane localization. We also examined neuronal subpopulation contributions to the noted effects and found significant differences. Dopamine D2 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were selectively vulnerable to Tat-induced KCC2 loss, with no changes observed in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs. These results suggest that disinhibition/diminished hyperpolarization of dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs can manifest as increased locomotion in this context. They further suggest that KCC2 activity might be a therapeutic target to alleviate motor disturbances related to HIV.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-08-27T04:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211022089
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Mitochondrial and Organellar Crosstalk in Parkinson’s Disease

    • Authors: Bipul Ray, Abid Bhat, Arehally Marappa Mahalakshmi, Sunanda Tuladhar, Muhammed Bishir, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, Ramesh Chandra, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Saravana Babu Chidambaram, Meena Kishore Sakharkar
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is a well-established pathological event in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Proteins misfolding and its impaired cellular clearance due to altered autophagy/mitophagy/pexophagy contribute to PD progression. It has been shown that mitochondria have contact sites with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), peroxisomes and lysosomes that are involved in regulating various physiological processes. In pathological conditions, the crosstalk at the contact sites initiates alterations in intracellular vesicular transport, calcium homeostasis and causes activation of proteases, protein misfolding and impairment of autophagy. Apart from the well-reported molecular changes like mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired autophagy/mitophagy and oxidative stress in PD, here we have summarized the recent scientific reports to provide the mechanistic insights on the altered communications between ER, peroxisomes, and lysosomes at mitochondrial contact sites. Furthermore, the manuscript elaborates on the contributions of mitochondrial contact sites and organelles dysfunction to the pathogenesis of PD and suggests potential therapeutic targets.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-07-26T03:53:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211028364
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Oxytocin Modulation of Maternal Behavior and Its Association With
           Immunological Activity in Rats With Cesarean Delivery

    • Authors: Tong Li, Shu-Wei Jia, Dan Hou, Xiaoran Wang, Dongyang Li, Yang Liu, Dan Cui, Xiaoyu Liu, Chun-Mei Hou, Ping Wang, Colin H. Brown, Yu-Feng Wang
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide produced in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei, is not only essential for lactation and maternal behavior but also for normal immunological activity. However, mechanisms underlying OT regulation of maternal behavior and its association with immunity around parturition, particularly under mental and physical stress, remain unclear. Here, we observed effects of OT on maternal behavior in association with immunological activity in rats after cesarean delivery (CD), a model of reproductive stress. CD significantly reduced maternal interests to the pups throughout postpartum day 1-8. On postpartum day 5, CD decreased plasma OT levels and thymic index but increased vasopressin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. CD had no significant effect on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels. In the hypothalamus, CD decreased corticotropin-releasing hormone contents in the PVN but increased OT contents in the PVN and SON and OT release from hypothalamic implants. CD also increased c-Fos expression, particularly in the cytoplasm of OT neurons. Lastly, CD depolarized resting membrane potential and increased spike width while increasing the variability of the firing rate of OT neurons in brain slices. Thus, CD can increase hypothalamic OT contents and release but reduce pituitary release of OT into the blood, which is associated with depressive-like maternal behavior, increased inflammatory cytokine release and decreased relative weight of the thymus.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T06:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211014731
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Metabolism-Based Gene Differences in Neurons Expressing
           Hyperphosphorylated AT8− Positive (AT8+) Tau in Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Authors: Audra York, Angela Everhart, Michael P. Vitek, Kirby W. Gottschalk, Carol A. Colton
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Metabolic adaptations in the brain are critical to the establishment and maintenance of normal cellular functions and to the pathological responses to disease processes. Here, we have focused on specific metabolic pathways that are involved in immune-mediated neuronal processes in brain using isolated neurons derived from human autopsy brain sections of normal individuals and individuals diagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Laser capture microscopy was used to select specific cell types in immune-stained thin brain sections followed by NanoString technology to identify and quantify differences in mRNA levels between age-matched control and AD neuronal samples. Comparisons were also made between neurons isolated from AD brain sections expressing pathogenic hyperphosphorylated AT8- positive (AT8+) tau and non-AT8+ AD neurons using double labeling techniques. The mRNA expression data showed unique patterns of metabolic pathway expression between the subtypes of captured neurons that involved membrane based solute transporters, redox factors, and arginine and methionine metabolic pathways. We also identified the expression levels of a novel metabolic gene, Radical-S-Adenosyl Domain1 (RSAD1) and its corresponding protein, Rsad1, that impact methionine usage and radical based reactions. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify specific protein expression levels and their cellular location in NeuN+ and AT8+ neurons. APOE4 vs APOE3 genotype-specific and sex-specific gene expression differences in these metabolic pathways were also observed when comparing neurons from individuals with AD to age-matched individuals.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T09:28:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211019443
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Melatonin Protects Against Ischemic Brain Injury by Modulating PI3K/AKT
           Signaling Pathway via Suppression of PTEN Activity

    • Authors: Yuanyuan Ran, Lin Ye, Zitong Ding, Fuhai Gao, Shuiqing Yang, Boyan Fang, Zongjian Liu, Jianing Xi
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide with limited therapeutic options. Melatonin can attenuate ischemic brain damage with improved functional outcomes. However, the cellular mechanisms of melatonin-driven neuroprotection against post-stroke neuronal death remain unknown. Here, distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) was performed in C57BL/6j mice to develop an ischemic stroke in vivo model. Melatonin was injected intraperitoneally immediately after ischemia, and 24 and 48 hours later. Melatonin treatment, with 5 to 20 mg/kg, elicited a dose-dependent decrease in infarct volume and concomitant increase in sensorimotor function. At the molecular level, phosphorylation of PTEN and Akt were increased, whereas PTEN activity was decreased in melatonin treated animals 72 hours after dMCAO. At the cellular level, oxygenglucose deprivation (OGD) challenge of neuronal cell line Neuro-2a (N2a) and primary neurons supported melatonin’s direct protection against neuronal cell death. Melatonin treatment reduced LDH release and neuronal apoptosis at various time points, markedly increased Akt phosphorylation in neuronal membrane, but significantly suppressed it in the cytoplasm of post-OGD neurons. Mechanistically, melatonin-induced Akt phosphorylation and neuronal survival was blocked by Wortmannin, a potent PIP3 inhibitor, exposing increased PI3K/Akt activation as a central player in melatonin-driven neuroprotection. Finally, PTEN knock-down through siRNA significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt activation and cell survival following melatonin treatment, suggesting that melatonin protection against ischemic brain damage, is at least partially, dependent on modulation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling axis.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T03:57:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211022888
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Neuronal Pentraxin 1 Promotes Hypoxic-Ischemic Neuronal Injury by
           Impairing Mitochondrial Biogenesis via Interactions With Active Bax[6A7]
           and Mitochondrial Hexokinase II

    • Authors: Md Al Rahim, Shabarish Thatipamula, Giulio M. Pasinetti, Mir Ahamed Hossain
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key mechanism of cell death in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1) has been shown to play crucial roles in mitochondria-mediated neuronal death. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of NP1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains obscure. Here, we report that NP1 induction following HI and its subsequent localization to mitochondria, leads to disruption of key regulatory proteins for mitochondrial biogenesis. Brain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mtDNA-encoded subunit I of complex IV (mtCOX-1) expression was increased post-HI, but not the nuclear DNA-encoded subunit of complex II (nSDH-A). Up-regulation of mitochondrial proteins COXIV and HSP60 further supported enhanced mtDNA function. NP1 interaction with active Bax (Bax6A7) was increased in the brain after HI and in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal cultures. Importantly, NP1 colocalized with mitochondrial hexokinase II (mtHKII) following OGD leading to HKII dissociation from mitochondria. Knockdown of NP1 or SB216763, a GSK-3 inhibitor, prevented OGD-induced mtHKII dissociation and cellular ATP decrease. NP1 also modulated the expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, following HI. Together, we reveal crucial roles of NP1 in mitochondrial biogenesis involving interactions with Bax[6A7] and mtHKII in HI brain injury.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T05:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211012888
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Aspergillus versicolor Inhalation Triggers Neuroimmune, Glial, and
           Neuropeptide Transcriptional Changes

    • Authors: Thatcher B. Ladd, James A. Johnson, Christen L. Mumaw, Hendrik J. Greve, Xiaoling Xuei, Ed Simpson, Mark A. Barnes, Brett J. Green, Tara L. Croston, Chandrama Ahmed, Angela Lemons, Donald H. Beezhold, Michelle L. Block
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Increasing evidence associates indoor fungal exposure with deleterious central nervous system (CNS) health, such as cognitive and emotional deficits in children and adults, but the specific mechanisms by which it might impact the brain are poorly understood. Mice were exposed to filtered air, heat-inactivated Aspergillus versicolor (3 × 105 spores), or viable A. versicolor (3 × 105 spores) via nose-only inhalation exposure 2 times per week for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Analysis of cortex, midbrain, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum tissue from mice exposed to viable A. versicolor spores for 1, 2, and 4 weeks revealed significantly elevated pro-inflammatory (Tnf and Il1b) and glial activity (Gdnf and Cxc3r1) gene expression in several brain regions when compared to filtered air control, with the most consistent and pronounced neuroimmune response 48H following the 4-week exposure in the midbrain and frontal lobe. Bulk RNA-seq analysis of the midbrain tissue confirmed that 4 weeks of A. versicolor exposure resulted in significant transcriptional enrichment of several biological pathways compared to the filtered air control, including neuroinflammation, glial cell activation, and regulation of postsynaptic organization. Upregulation of Drd1, Penk, and Pdyn mRNA expression was confirmed in the 4-week A. versicolor exposed midbrain tissue, highlighting that gene expression important for neurotransmission was affected by repeated A. versicolor inhalation exposure. Taken together, these findings indicate that the brain can detect and respond to A. versicolor inhalation exposure with changes in neuroimmune and neurotransmission gene expression, providing much needed insight into how inhaled fungal exposures can affect CNS responses and regulate neuroimmune homeostasis.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T05:27:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211019886
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • B and T Lymphocyte Densities Remain Stable With Age in Human Cortex

    • Authors: Kacey Berry, Daniela S. Farias-Itao, Lea T. Grinberg, Edward D. Plowey, Julie A. Schneider, Roberta D. Rodriguez, Claudia K. Suemoto, Marion S. Buckwalter
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      One hallmark of human aging is increased brain inflammation represented by glial activation. With age, there is also diminished function of the adaptive immune system, and modest decreases in circulating B- and T-lymphocytes. Lymphocytes traffic through the human brain and reside there in small numbers, but it is unknown how this changes with age. Thus we investigated whether B- and T-lymphocyte numbers change with age in the normal human brain. We examined 16 human subjects in a pilot study and then 40 human subjects from a single brain bank, ranging in age from 44–96 years old, using rigorous criteria for defining neuropathological changes due to age alone. We immunostained post-mortem cortical tissue for B- and T-lymphocytes using antibodies to CD20 and CD3, respectively. We quantified cell density and made a qualitative assessment of cell location in cortical brain sections, and reviewed prior studies. We report that density and location of both B- and T-lymphocytes do not change with age in the normal human cortex. Solitary B-lymphocytes were found equally in intravascular, perivascular, and parenchymal locations, while T-lymphocytes appeared primarily in perivascular clusters. Thus, any change in number or location of lymphocytes in an aging brain may indicate disease rather than normal aging.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-05-30T10:07:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211018117
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Gut Microbiota and Parkinson’s Disease: Implications for Faecal
           Microbiota Transplantation Therapy

    • Authors: Yongbo Kang, Xing Kang, Hongfang Zhang, Qingqing Liu, Hao Yang, Weiping Fan
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Parkinson's disease (PD) ranks the second place among neurodegenerative diseases in terms of its morbidity, which affects 1-2% people aged over 65 years. In addition to genetics, some environmental factors may exert vital parts in PD occurrence as well. At present, more and more studies are conducted to elucidate the association between gut microbial dysbiosis and the incidence of PD. Gut microbial dysbiosis has a certain effect on both the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS), which indicates that there is a gut-microbiota-brain axis that induces CNS disorders. Some gut microbial strains are suggested to suppress or weaken the neuroinflammation- and gut-inflammation-immune responses, which suggests the protective and pathogenic effects of certain gut microbial species on PD progression. Therefore, gut microbiome may contain plenty of targets for preventing and managing PD. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may serve as a direct and useful treatment for PD in the future. Nonetheless, there is little available scientific research in this field. The present work reviewed the latest research to examine the association of gut microbiota with PD, and the future prospects of FMT treatment.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T11:09:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211016217
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Cerebrovascular Diseases Pathology and
           Possible Therapeutic Targets

    • Authors: Rongrong Bai, Yue Lang, Jie Shao, Yu Deng, Reyisha Refuhati, Li Cui
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Cerebrovascular diseases are pathological conditions involving impaired blood flow in the brain, primarily including ischaemic stroke, intracranial haemorrhage, and subarachnoid haemorrhage. The nucleotide-binding and oligomerisation (NOD) domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain (PYD)-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a protein complex and a vital component of the immune system. Emerging evidence has indicated that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in cerebrovascular diseases. The function of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases remains an interesting field of research. In this review, we first summarised the pathological mechanism of cerebrovascular diseases and the pathological mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome in aggravating atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular diseases. Second, we outlined signalling pathways through which the NLRP3 inflammasome participates in aggravating or mitigating cerebrovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), ROS/thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and purinergic receptor-7 (P2X7R) signalling pathways can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome; activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome can aggravate cerebrovascular diseases by mediating apoptosis and pyroptosis. Autophagy/mitochondrial autophagy, nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), interferon (IFN)-β, sirtuin (SIRT), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) reportedly alleviate cerebrovascular diseases by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, we explored specific inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome based on the two-step activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which can be developed as new drugs to treat cerebrovascular diseases.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T11:09:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211018100
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Secreted TSG-6 Is
           Anti-Inflammatory and Promote Tissue Repair After Spinal Cord Injury

    • Authors: Ziling Liao, Wei Wang, Weiyue Deng, Yuying Zhang, Aishi Song, Sihao Deng, Huifang Zhao, Shusheng Zhang, Zhiyuan Li
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes patients paralysis and hard to recover. The therapeutic effects of current clinical drugs are accompanied by side effects. In recent years, stem cell therapy has attracted the attention of researchers. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) have been widely used in various diseases due to their excellent paracrine function. TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6), a secretion factor of stem cells, may play an important role in hucMSCs in the treatment of SCI. So we conducted an experiment to explore its effect. We first observed that the expression of TSG-6 increased in SCI rats after injected with hucMSCs. Then, we used siRNA to knowdown the expression of TSG-6. We treated SCI rats with TSG-6-knockdown hucMSCs. Without TSG-6 expression, hucMSCs treatment made the tissue recovery worse and the number of Nissl bodies less. Meanwhile, neutrophils infiltrated more in the damaged parts. Our research also proved that TSG-6 may help demyelination recovering and alleviate astrocytes gathering in the injury sites. Our study revealed that hucMSCs secreted TSG-6 may decrease the degeneration of myelin sheath, reduce inflammation, decrease neuron loss and promote tissue repair. These results provided a new therapeutic factor for the treatment of SCI.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T04:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211010628
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • PET Imaging of Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor Standard Uptake Value
           Increases After Controlled Cortical Impact, a Rodent Model of Traumatic
           Brain Injury

    • Authors: Benjamin M. Aertker, Akshita Kumar, Fanni Cardenas, Franciska Gudenkauf, David Sequeira, Alan R. Prossin, Amit K. Srivastava, Charles S. Cox, Supinder S. Bedi
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a chronic, life threatening injury for which few effective interventions are available. Evidence in animal models suggests un-checked immune activation may contribute to the pathophysiology. Changes in regional density of active brain microglia can be quantified in vivo with positron emission topography (PET) with the relatively selective radiotracer, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor 28 (11 C-PBR28). Phenotypic assessment (activated vs resting) can subsequently be assessed (ex vivo) using morphological techniques. To elucidate the mechanistic contribution of immune cells in due to TBI, we employed a hybrid approach involving both in vivo (11 C-PBR28 PET) and ex vivo (morphology) to elucidate the role of immune cells in a controlled cortical impact (CCI), a rodent model for TBI. Density of activated brain microglia/macrophages was quantified 120 hours after injury using the standardized uptake value (SUV) approach. Ex vivo morphological analysis from specific brain regions using IBA-1 antibodies differentiated ramified (resting) from amoeboid (activated) immune cells. Additional immunostaining of PBRs facilitated co-localization of PBRs with IBA-1 staining to further validate PET data. Injured animals displayed greater PBR28suv when compared to sham animals. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated elevated density of amoeboid microglia/macrophages in the ipsilateral dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, thalami and injury penumbra of injured animals compared to sham animals. PBR co-stained with amoeboid microglia/macrophages in the injury penumbra and not with astrocytes. These data suggest the technologies evaluated may serve as bio-signatures of neuroinflammation following severe brain injury in small animals, potentially enabling in vivo tracking of neuroinflammation following TBI and cellular-based therapies.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-05-07T03:51:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211014135
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Antioxidant Blend of Curcumin and Broccoli Seed Extract Exhibits
           Protective Effect on Neurodegeneration and Promotes Drosophila Lifespan

    • Authors: Jingjing Cheng, Honglei Wang, Mark Bartlett, Douglas Stevenson, Yufeng Pan, Margaret S. Ho, Yiping Ren
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Antioxidants and related compounds are anti-inflammatory and exhibit great potential in promoting human health. They are also often considered to be important elements in the process of neurodegeneration. Here we describe a antioxidant blend of Curcumin and Broccoli Seed Extract (BSE). Flies treated with the blend exhibit extended lifespan. RNA-seq analysis of samples from adult fly brains reveals a wide array of new genes with differential expression upon treatment with the blend. Interestingly, abolishing expression of some of the identified genes in dopaminergic (DA) neurons does not affect DA neuron number. Taken together, our findings reveal an antioxidant blend that promotes fly longevity and exhibits protective effect over neurodegeneration, demonstrating the importance of antioxidants in health and pathology.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T03:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211015033
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Restoration of Noradrenergic Function in Parkinson’s Disease Model

    • Authors: Kui Cui, Fan Yang, Turan Tufan, Muhammad U. Raza, Yanqiang Zhan, Yan Fan, Fei Zeng, Russell W. Brown, Jennifer B. Price, Thomas C. Jones, Gary W. Miller, Meng-Yang Zhu
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Dysfunction of the central noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems is the primary neurobiological characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Importantly, neuronal loss in the locus coeruleus (LC) that occurs in early stages of PD may accelerate progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, restoring the activity and function of the deficient noradrenergic system may be an important therapeutic strategy for early PD. In the present study, the lentiviral constructions of transcription factors Phox2a/2b, Hand2 and Gata3, either alone or in combination, were microinjected into the LC region of the PD model VMAT2 Lo mice at 12 and 18 month age. Biochemical analysis showed that microinjection of lentiviral expression cassettes into the LC significantly increased mRNA levels of Phox2a, and Phox2b, which were accompanied by parallel increases of mRNA and proteins of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the LC. Furthermore, there was considerable enhancement of DBH protein levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as enhanced TH protein levels in the striatum and substantia nigra. Moreover, these manipulations profoundly increased norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in the striatum, which was followed by a remarkable improvement of the spatial memory and locomotor behavior. These results reveal that over-expression of these transcription factors in the LC improves noradrenergic and dopaminergic activities and functions in this rodent model of PD. It provides the necessary groundwork for the development of gene therapies of PD, and expands our understanding of the link between the LC-norepinephrine and dopamine systems during the progression of PD.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-05-04T04:00:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211009730
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • The Contribution of Astrocyte and Neuronal Panx1 to Seizures Is Model and
           Brain Region Dependent

    • Authors: Price Obot, Libor Velíšek, Jana Velíšková, Eliana Scemes
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Pannexin1 (Panx1) is an ATP release channel expressed in neurons and astrocytes that plays important roles in CNS physiology and pathology. Evidence for the involvement of Panx1 in seizures includes the reduction of epileptiform activity and ictal discharges following Panx1 channel blockade or deletion. However, very little is known about the relative contribution of astrocyte and neuronal Panx1 channels to hyperexcitability. To this end, mice with global and cell type specific deletion of Panx1 were used in one in vivo and two in vitro seizure models. In the low-Mg2+ in vitro model, global deletion but not cell-type specific deletion of Panx1 reduced the frequency of epileptiform discharges. This reduced frequency of discharges did not impact the overall power spectra obtained from local field potentials. In the in vitro KA model, in contrast, global or cell type specific deletion of Panx1 did not affect the frequency of discharges, but reduced the overall power spectra. EEG recordings following KA-injection in vivo revealed that although global deletion of Panx1 did not affect the onset of status epilepticus (SE), SE onset was delayed in mice lacking neuronal Panx1 and accelerated in mice lacking astrocyte Panx1. EEG power spectral analysis disclosed a Panx1-dependent cortical region effect; while in the occipital region, overall spectral power was reduced in all three Panx1 genotypes; in the frontal cortex, the overall power was not affected by deletion of Panx1. Together, our results show that the contribution of Panx1 to ictal activity is model, cell-type and brain region dependent.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T03:56:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211007273
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • High-Throughput Sequencing of BACHD Mice Reveals Upregulation of
           Neuroprotective miRNAs at the Pre-Symptomatic Stage of Huntington’s

    • Authors: Isabella G. Olmo, Roenick P. Olmo, André N. A. Gonçalves, Rita G. W. Pires, João T. Marques, Fabíola M. Ribeiro
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic disorder marked by transcriptional alterations that result in neuronal impairment and death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation and fine-tuning of gene expression. Several studies identified altered miRNA expression in HD and other neurodegenerative diseases, however their roles in early stages of HD remain elusive. Here, we deep-sequenced miRNAs from the striatum of the HD mouse model, BACHD, at the age of 2 and 8 months, representing the pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages of the disease. Our results show that 44 and 26 miRNAs were differentially expressed in 2- and 8-month-old BACHD mice, respectively, as compared to wild-type controls. Over-representation analysis suggested that miRNAs up-regulated in 2-month-old mice control the expression of genes crucial for PI3K-Akt and mTOR cell signaling pathways. Conversely, miRNAs regulating genes involved in neuronal disorders were down-regulated in 2-month-old BACHD mice. Interestingly, primary striatal neurons treated with anti-miRs targeting two up-regulated miRNAs, miR-449c-5p and miR-146b-5p, showed higher levels of cell death. Therefore, our results suggest that the miRNAs altered in 2-month-old BACHD mice regulate genes involved in the promotion of cell survival. Notably, over-representation suggested that targets of differentially expressed miRNAs at the age of 8 months were not significantly enriched for the same pathways. Together, our data shed light on the role of miRNAs in the initial stages of HD, suggesting a neuroprotective role as an attempt to maintain or reestablish cellular homeostasis.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T04:15:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211009857
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Paeonol inhibits the progression of intracerebral haemorrhage by mediating
           the HOTAIR/UPF1/ACSL4 axis

    • Authors: Zheng-Long Jin, Wen-Ying Gao, Shao-Jun Liao, Tao Yu, Qing Shi, Shang-Zhen Yu, Ye-Feng Cai
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating subtype of stroke with high morbidity and mortality. It has been reported that paeonol (PAN) inhibits the progression of ICH. However, the mechanism by which paeonol mediates the progression of ICH remains unclear. To mimic ICH in vitro, neuronal cells were treated with hemin. An in vivo model of ICH was established to detect the effect of paeonol on ferroptosis in neurons during ICH. Cell viability was tested by MTT assay. Furthermore, cell injury was detected by GSH, MDA and ROS assays. Ferroptosis was examined by iron assay. RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to detect gene and protein expression, respectively. The correlation among HOTAIR, UPF1 and ACSL4 was explored by FISH, RNA pull-down and RIP assays. Paeonol significantly inhibited the ferroptosis of neurons in ICH mice. In addition, paeonol significantly reversed hemin-induced injury and ferroptosis in neurons, while this phenomenon was notably reversed by HOTAIR overexpression. Moreover, paeonol notably inhibited ferroptosis in hemin-treated neuronal cells via inhibition of ACSL4. Additionally, HOTAIR bound to UPF1, and UPF1 promoted the degradation of ACSL4 by binding to ACSL4. Furthermore, HOTAIR overexpression reversed paeonol-induced inhibition of ferroptosis by mediating the UPF1/ACSL4 axis. Paeonol inhibits the progression of ICH by mediating the HOTAIR/UPF1/ACSL4 axis. Therefore, paeonol might serve as a new agent for the treatment of ICH.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T04:15:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211010647
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Rodent Models to Analyze the Glioma Microenvironment

    • Authors: Susann Hetze, Ulrich Sure, Manfred Schedlowski, Martin Hadamitzky, Lennart Barthel
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Animal models are still indispensable for understanding the basic principles of glioma development and invasion. Preclinical approaches aim to analyze the treatment efficacy of new drugs before translation into clinical trials is possible. Various animal disease models are available, but not every approach is useful for addressing specific questions. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in the nature of glioma. In addition to providing an overview, this review evaluates available rodent models in terms of usability for research on the glioma microenvironment.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T04:05:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211005074
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Characterization of the Expression of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 11 (Vps11)
           in Mammalian Oligodendrocytes

    • Authors: Robert P. Skoff, Denise Bessert, Shreya Banerjee, Xixia Luo, Ryan Thummel
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      A founder mutation in human VPS11 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 11) was recently linked to a genetic leukoencephalopathy in Ashkenazi Jews that presents with the classical features of white matter disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). The neurological deficits include hypomyelination, hypotonia, gradual loss of vision, and seizures. However, the cells expressing the mutation were not identified. Here we describe, using immunocytochemistry, the strong expression of Vps11 in mouse oligodendrocytes and, specifically, its localization with Myelin Associated Glycoprotein (MAG) in the inner tongue of myelin. In longitudinal sections of myelin, it forms a bead-like structure, alternating with Myelin Basic Protein (MBP). Immunofluorescent staining with Vps11 and neurofilament proteins indicates the absence of Vps11 in axons in vivo. Finally, changes in Vps11 expression are associated with altered proteolipid protein (PLP) levels based upon mice with duplications or deletions of the Plp1 gene. To determine potential functional contributions of Vps11, we combined Vps11 with Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor-α (PDGFRα) in vitro and in vivo: in both conditions, co-localization of the two proteins was frequently found in round vesicles of OPCs/oligodendrocytes, suggesting retrograde transport for degradation by the endolysosomal system. Neuron-to-glial communication has been invoked to explain degenerative changes in myelin followed by degenerative changes in axons, and vice versa; but to our knowledge, no specific proteins in retrograde transport from the myelin inner tongue to oligodendrocyte perikarya have been identified. The identification of mutations in VPS11 and its localization at the axon-myelin interface should open new avenues of research.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T04:05:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211009851
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • LncRNA TUG1 Demethylated by TET2 Promotes NLRP3 Expression, Contributes to
           Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Inflammatory Injury

    • Authors: Min Yin, Wei-Ping Chen, Xiao-Ping Yin, Jiang-Long Tu, Na Hu, Zheng-Yu Li
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      LncRNA TUG1 has not yet been reported in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methylcytosine dioxygenase TET2 is involved in ischemic damage. This study aimed to investigate the effects of TUG1 demethylated by TET2 on I/R-induced inflammatory response and identified its possible mechanisms.We found that TUG1 expression was significantly upregulated in oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells. Using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice, we observed a similar effect. We also found that I/R injury could downregulate miR-200a-3p and upregulate NLRP3 and TET2. The knockdown of TUG1 could alleviate OGD/R-induced inflammatory response through upregulating miR-200a-3p and downregulating NLRP3 and other pro-inflammatory molecules. miR-200a-3p inhibition can partially reverse the effects of TUG1 silencing. Further experiments confirmed that TUG1 sponged miR-200a-3p to diminish miR-200a-3p and promote NLRP3 dependent inflammatory responses. Mechanically, knockdown of TET2 induced low levels of TUG1 and high levels of miR-200a-3p in both SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cells. IL-18, IL-1β, NLRP3, Caspase-1, and GSDMD-N were highly downregulated in OGD/R-induced SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cells after TET2 knockdown. TUG1 overexpression could reverse this effect. All the data indicated that TET2 could demethylate TUG1 and contribute to the inflammatory response. In additional experiments using the MCAO mice model, we confirmed knockdown of TET2 attenuated I/R-induced inflammatory response and brain injuries via decreasing TUG1 and increasing miR-200a-3p to inhibit NLRP3 expression. The demethylation of TUG1 by TET2 might aggravate I/R-induced inflammatory injury via modulating NLRP3 by miR-200a-3p. Our data confirmed that TET2 contributed to I/R-induced inflammatory response via the demethylation of TUG1 and regulated TUG1/miR-200a-3p/NLRP3 pathway.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T03:41:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211003247
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • SAN 2019 Abstract Book for ASN Neuro MAY 2020

    • Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.

      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T04:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091420979851
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Knockdown of Annexin-A1 Inhibits Growth, Migration and Invasion of Glioma
           Cells by Suppressing the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    • Authors: Liqing Wei, Li Li, Li Liu, Ru Yu, Xing Li, Zhenzhao Luo
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      ANXA1, which can bind phospholipid in a calcium dependent manner, is reported to play a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the role and mechanism of ANXA1 involved in the occurrence and development of malignant glioma are still not well studied. Therefore, we explored the effects of ANXA1 on normal astrocytes and glioma cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion and the underlying mechanisms. We found that ANXA1 was markedly up-regulated in glioma cell lines and glioma tissues. Down-regulation of ANXA1 inhibited normal astrocytes and glioma cell proliferation and induced the cell apoptosis, which suggested that the consequences of loss of Annexin 1 are not specific to the tumor cells. Furthermore, the siRNA-ANXA1 treatment significantly reduced tumor growth rate and tumor weight. Moreover, decreasing ANXA1 expression caused G2/M phase arrest by repressing expression levels of cdc25C, cdc2 and cyclin B1. Interestingly, ANXA1 did not affect the expressions of β-catenin, GSK-3β and NF-κB, the key signaling molecules associated with cancer progression. However, siRNA-ANXA1 was found to negatively regulate phosphorylation of AKT and the expression and activity of MMP2/-9. Finally, the decrease of cell proliferation and invasiveness induced by ANXA1 down-regulation was partially reversed by combined treatment with AKT agonist insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Meanwhile, the inhibition of glioma cell proliferation and invasiveness induced by ANXA1 down-regulation was further enhanced by combined treatment with AKT inhibitor LY294002. In summary, these findings demonstrate that ANXA1 regulates proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T05:14:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17590914211001218
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Intermittent Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Significantly Increases Cortical
           Infarct Size and Impairs Autophagy

    • Authors: Ashley E. Russell, John Z. Cavendish, Ali Rai, Mya Vannoy, Ahmad H. Dakhlallah, Heng Hu, Xuefang Ren, Amal Amer, Candice M. Brown, Clay B. Marsh, James W. Simpkins, Duaa Dakhlallah
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Globally, stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Traditional risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, and obesity do not fully account for all stroke cases. Recent infection is regarded as changes in systemic immune signaling, which can increase thrombosis formation and other stroke risk factors. We have previously shown that administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 30-minutes prior to stroke increases in infarct volume. In the current study, we found that animals intermittently exposed to LPS have larger cortical infarcts when compared to saline controls. To elucidate the mechanism behind this phenomenon, several avenues were investigated. We observed significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNA, especially in the ipsilateral hemisphere of both saline and LPS exposed groups compared to sham surgery animals. We also observed significant reductions in expression of genes involved in autophagy in the ipsilateral hemisphere of LPS stroke animals. In addition, we assessed DNA methylation of autophagy genes and observed a significant increase in the ipsilateral hemisphere of LPS stroke animals. Intermittent exposure to LPS increases cortical infarct volume, downregulates autophagy genes, and induces hypermethylation of the corresponding CpG islands. These data suggest that intermittent immune activation may deregulate epigenetic mechanisms and promote neuropathological outcomes after stroke.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T04:03:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091421991769
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Regulation of GFAP Expression

    • Authors: Michael Brenner, Albee Messing
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Expression of the GFAP gene has attracted considerable attention because its onset is a marker for astrocyte development, its upregulation is a marker for reactive gliosis, and its predominance in astrocytes provides a tool for their genetic manipulation. The literature on GFAP regulation is voluminous, as almost any perturbation of development or homeostasis in the CNS will lead to changes in its expression. In this review, we limit our discussion to mechanisms proposed to regulate GFAP synthesis through a direct interaction with its gene or mRNA. Strengths and weaknesses of the supportive experimental findings are described, and suggestions made for additional studies. This review covers 15 transcription factors, DNA and histone methylation, and microRNAs. The complexity involved in regulating the expression of this intermediate filament protein suggests that GFAP function may vary among both astrocyte subtypes and other GFAP-expressing cells, as well as during development and in response to perturbations.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T04:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091420981206
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • The Potential Roles of Redox Enzymes in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus
           on Thioredoxin

    • Authors: Jinjing Jia, Xiansi Zeng, Guangtao Xu, Zhanqi Wang
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing studies have demonstrated the critical importance for redox proteins mediating neuronal protection in models of AD. This review briefly describes some of the risk factors contributing to AD, specifically highlighting the important roles of oxidative stress in the pathology of AD. Then this article concisely introduces the dysregulation and functions of two main redox enzymes, peroxiredoxins and glutaredoxins, in AD models. This review emphasizes the neuroprotective role of the third redox enzyme thioredoxin (Trx), an important multifunctional protein regulating cellular redox status. This commentary not only summarizes the alterations of Trx expression in AD patients and models, but also reviews the potential effects and mechanisms of Trx, Trx-related molecules and Trx-inducing compounds against AD. In conclusion, Trx has a potential neuroprotection in AD and may be very promising for clinical therapy of AD in the future.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T03:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091421994351
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Sex Effect on Cardiac Damage in Mice With Experimental Autoimmune

    • Authors: Ruixia Wu, Yue Su, Quan Yuan, Linlin Li, Jimusi Wuri, Xiaoxuan Liu, Tao Yan
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Recent clinical study suggested that MS patient exhibited acute heart failure. Further, 12-lead electrocardiographic study showed a longer QTc interval in both MS patient and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) Lewis rat. However, there is limited study regarding the effect of sex on cardiac injury in EAE. To our knowledge, sex effect on cardiac damage in mice with EAE has not yet been published. Herein, we examined the role of the immune system in mediating cardiac dysfunction after EAE in female and male mice. Neurological function was subsequently evaluated and cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography at multiple time points after EAE. EAE mice exhibited severe neurological deficit and significant cardiac dysfunction, including decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) at 1 and 2 months after EAE induction. Meanwhile male EAE presented increased expression of the oxidative stress (e.g., nicotinamaide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2; NOX-2) in heart, as well as cardiac hypertrophy, increased left ventricle (LV) mass and more severe cardiac fibrosis compared with male control mice. In addition, male EAE mice showed significantly increased cardiac canonical inflammatory mediator (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MCP-1, transforming growth factor-β; TGF-β and toll-like receptor 2; TLR-2) compared with female EAE mice at 2 months after EAE induction. In conclusion, EAE increases inflammatory factor expression and aggravates cardiac dysfunction in male mice compared with female mice, which may contribute to different cardiac outcome in EAE mice.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T04:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091421991771
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Reviewer List 2020

    • Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.

      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T04:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091421994019
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • miRNAs in Microglia: Important Players in Multiple Sclerosis Pathology

    • Authors: Alexander D. Walsh, Linda T. Nguyen, Michele D. Binder
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system and important regulators of brain homeostasis. Central to this role is a dynamic phenotypic plasticity that enables microglia to respond to environmental and pathological stimuli. Importantly, different microglial phenotypes can be both beneficial and detrimental to central nervous system health. Chronically activated inflammatory microglia are a hallmark of neurodegeneration, including the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS). By contrast, microglial phagocytosis of myelin debris is essential for resolving inflammation and promoting remyelination. As such, microglia are being explored as a potential therapeutic target for MS. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding ribonucleic acids that regulate gene expression and act as master regulators of cellular phenotype and function. Dysregulation of certain miRNAs can aberrantly activate and promote specific polarisation states in microglia to modulate their activity in inflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, miRNA dysregulation is implicated in MS pathogenesis, with circulating biomarkers and lesion specific miRNAs identified as regulators of inflammation and myelination. However, the role of miRNAs in microglia that specifically contribute to MS progression are still largely unknown. miRNAs are being explored as therapeutic agents, providing an opportunity to modulate microglial function in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. This review will focus firstly on elucidating the complex role of microglia in MS pathogenesis. Secondly, we explore the essential roles of miRNAs in microglial function. Finally, we focus on miRNAs that are implicated in microglial processes that contribute directly to MS pathology, prioritising targets that could inform novel therapeutic approaches to MS.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T05:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091420981182
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • A Simplified Method for the Histochemical Detection of Iron in Paraffin
           Sections: Intracellular Iron Deposits in Central Nervous System Tissue

    • Authors: Steven M. LeVine, Hao Zhu, Sarah E. Tague
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      Although all cells contain iron, most histochemical methods fail to reveal the presence of iron within many cells of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly neurons. Previously, a sensitive method was developed that limited the extraction of iron in paraffin sections, and this method revealed staining within neurons. However, the staining was often too robust making it difficult to discern discrete intracellular structures. In 1970, a study incorporated acetone in an iron histochemical procedure to facilitate the demarcation of staining features. In the present study, both acetone and limits to iron extraction were included in a simplified staining procedure. This procedure was applied to paraffin sections of CNS tissue from CISD2 deficient and littermate control mice. Discrete nuclear and cytoplasmic staining features were detected in all mice. Although widely present in neurons, punctate cytoplasmic staining was particularly prominent in large neurons within the hindbrain. Evaluation of extended depth of focus images, from serial focal planes, revealed numerous stained cytoplasmic structures. Additionally, the simplified staining procedure was applied to paraffin sections from Alzheimer’s disease and control cases. Despite suboptimal processing conditions compared to mouse tissue, discrete staining of cytoplasmic structures was revealed in some neurons, although many other neurons had nondescript staining features. In addition, initial findings revealed iron deposited within some vessels from patients with Alzheimer’s disease. In summary, since paraffin sections are commonly used for histological preparations, this simplified histochemical procedure could facilitate the study of iron in various CNS conditions by revealing staining details often missed by other procedures.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-01-12T04:13:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091420982169
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
  • Role of G-Substrate in the NO/cGMP/PKG Signal Transduction Pathway for
           Photic Entrainment of the Hamster Circadian Clock

    • Authors: Santiago Andrés Plano, María Soledad Alessandro, Laura Lucía Trebucq, Shogo Endo, Diego Andrés Golombek, Juan José Chiesa
      Abstract: ASN Neuro, Volume 13, Issue , January-December 2021.
      The mammalian circadian clock at the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) entrains biological rhythms to the 24-h cyclic environment, by encoding light-dark transitions in SCN neurons. Light pulses induce phase shifts in the clock and in circadian rhythms; photic signaling for circadian phase advances involves a nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway, increasing the expression of Period (Per) genes. Effectors downstream of PKG remain unknown. Here we investigate the role of G-substrate (GS), a PKG substrate, in the hamster SCN. GS and phosphorylated G-substrate (p-GS) were present in a subset of SCN cells. Moreover, GS phosphorylation (p-GS/GS ratio) increased in SCN homogenates after light pulses delivered at circadian time (CT) 18 and intraperitoneal treatment with sildenafil, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase). On the other hand, intracerebroventricular treatment with the PKG inhibitor KT5823, reduced photic phosphorylation of GS to basal levels. Since p-GS could act as a protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) inhibitor, we demonstrated physical interaction between p-GS and PP2A in SCN homogenates, and also a light-pulse dependent decrease of PP2A activity. Intracerebroventricular treatment with okadaic acid, a PP2A inhibitor, increased the magnitude of light-induced phase advances of locomotor rhythms. We provide evidence on the physiological phosphorylation of GS as a new downstream effector in the NO/cGMP/PKG photic pathway in the hamster SCN, including its role as a PP2A inhibitor.
      Citation: ASN Neuro
      PubDate: 2021-01-12T04:13:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1759091420984920
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
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Heriot-Watt University
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