Publisher: Sage Publications   (Total: 1166 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 1166 Journals sorted alphabetically
AADE in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Abstracts in Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Academic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Accounting History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Radiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.754, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Radiologica Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.939, CiteScore: 2)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 1.397, CiteScore: 2)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 1)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.313, CiteScore: 0)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258, SJR: 0.566, CiteScore: 2)
Adult Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.791, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.614, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 156, SJR: 0.272, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Affilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.496, CiteScore: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Agrarian South : J. of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Air, Soil & Water Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Alexandria : The J. of National and Intl. Library and Information Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AlterNative : An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 0)
Alternative Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.351, CiteScore: 1)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Educational Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 2.913, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.67, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Cosmetic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.646, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Health Promotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.65, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Lifestyle Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.431, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.777, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.972, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.949, CiteScore: 6)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.313, CiteScore: 1)
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.062, CiteScore: 2)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356, SJR: 6.333, CiteScore: 6)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.849, CiteScore: 2)
Animation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.634, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.096, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.225, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of the ICRP     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.341, CiteScore: 7)
Anthropological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.635, CiteScore: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian J. of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.17, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.489, CiteScore: 2)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.29, CiteScore: 1)
Arthaniti : J. of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 1)
Asia Pacific Media Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Asia-Pacific J. of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific J. of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian and Pacific Migration J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.305, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
ASN Neuro     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.534, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.519, CiteScore: 3)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.433, CiteScore: 1)
Australian & New Zealand J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.801, CiteScore: 2)
Australian and New Zealand J. of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 546, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.497, CiteScore: 1)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 355, SJR: 1.739, CiteScore: 4)
Autism & Developmental Language Impairments     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Avian Biology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.401, CiteScore: 1)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.877, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Behavioral Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblical Theology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research for Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.81, CiteScore: 2)
Biomarkers in Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Informatics Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioscope: South Asian Screen Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 0)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 3)
Bone and Tissue Regeneration Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Neuroscience Advances     Open Access  
Brain Science Advances     Open Access  
Breast Cancer : Basic and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.823, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Music Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
British J. of Pain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.579, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Politics and Intl. Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
British J. of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.337, CiteScore: 1)
British J.ism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 1)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cahiers Élisabéthains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.209, CiteScore: 4)
Canadian Association of Radiologists J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.463, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Canadian J. of Nursing Research (CJNR)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Canadian J. of Occupational Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.626, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.769, CiteScore: 3)
Canadian J. of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Pharmacists J. / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Cancer Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Growth and Metastasis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.64, CiteScore: 1)
Capital and Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Cartilage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.889, CiteScore: 3)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.023, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.581, CiteScore: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Child Maltreatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.22, CiteScore: 3)
Child Neurology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Childhood     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
Childhood Obesity and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
China Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 2)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Christian Education J. : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.672, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.808, CiteScore: 2)
Chronic Stress     Open Access  
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 1)
Clin-Alert     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.49, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.73, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.552, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Blood Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Ear, Nose and Throat     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Endocrinology and Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.776, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Trauma and Intensive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Nursing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.487, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.281, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.322, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.399, CiteScore: 2)
Clothing and Textiles Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Collections : A J. for Museum and Archives Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Communication and the Public     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.458, CiteScore: 1)
Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.171, CiteScore: 3)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.451, CiteScore: 1)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291, SJR: 3.772, CiteScore: 3)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Assessment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.519
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 19  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1073-1911 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3489
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • The English Version of the Schema Inventory for Children: Psychometric
           Evaluation of a Measure of Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Primary
           School-Aged Sample

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Quincy J. J. Wong, Kelsie A. Boulton, Natasha Reyes, Jin Han, Michelle Torok
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are proposed to be maladaptive ways of thinking and feeling that develop from adverse experiences and basic needs not being met in childhood or adolescence. Once developed, EMSs increase vulnerability to psychopathology. Psychometric evaluations of EMS measures in children are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the English version of the Schema Inventory for Children (SIC) in a community sample of youth aged 8 to 13 years. The SIC and measures of positive and negative automatic thoughts, social phobia symptoms, and depressed mood were administered to participants. Although a correlated 11-factor model was expected for the SIC, the optimal factor structure was a correlated six-factor model. EMS subscales corresponding to these six factors had acceptable internal consistency, and they had positive associations with the measures of negative automatic thoughts, social phobia symptoms, and depressive mood, as well as negative associations with the measure of positive automatic thoughts. These results indicate that EMSs in children may not be as differentiated as they are in adults. The results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the English version of the SIC, justifying its use in contexts requiring the assessment of EMSs in children.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T11:23:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211051281
       
  • Measurement to Improve Treatment Delivery: A Commentary on the HiTOP
           Measure Development Project

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shannon Sauer-Zavala
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The focus on this commentary will be on how dimensional models of psychopathology, particularly HiTOP model, have the potential to significantly streamline treatment efforts and increase the likelihood that evidence-based interventions are more widely integrated in clinical practice. The approach to assessment adopted by the HiTOP consortium is likely to have an outsized impact on whether these innovations are adopted in routine clinical practice. Toward that end, I provide suggestions for a measurement strategy that can maximize clinical utility. In particular, the tension between creating items that reflect all phenomena at the sign/symptom level to refine our understanding of relationships among psychopathological constructs and creating a measure that is suitable for clinical practice is explored.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T10:05:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211050952
       
  • Cross-validating the Dot Counting Test Among an Adult ADHD Clinical Sample
           and Analyzing the Effect of ADHD Subtype and Comorbid Psychopathology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dayna A. Abramson, Daniel J. White, Tasha Rhoads, Dustin A. Carter, Nicholas D. Hansen, Zachary J. Resch, Kyle J. Jennette, Gabriel P. Ovsiew, Jason R. Soble
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study cross-validated the dot counting test (DCT) as a performance validity test (PVT) in an adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) clinical population and examined the effect of ADHD subtype and psychiatric comorbidity on accuracy for detecting invalidity. DCT performance was assessed among 210 consecutive adult ADHD referrals who underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were classified into valid (n = 175) or invalid (n = 35) groups based on seven independent criterion PVTs. The invalid group had significantly worse DCT performance than the valid group using both the standard and unrounded scoring procedure ([math]). Classification accuracy was excellent, with 54.3% sensitivity/92% specificity at optimal cut-scores of ≥14 (rounded) and ≥13.38 (unrounded). Nonsignificant DCT performance differences emerged based on ADHD subtype or the presence/absence of comorbid psychopathology. The DCT functions well as a nonmemory-based PVT in an ethnoracially diverse ADHD population, supporting its clinical utility for detecting invalid neurocognitive performance during ADHD evaluations.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T10:04:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211050895
       
  • Applicability and Efficiency of a Computerized Adaptive Test for the
           Washington Assessment of the Risks and Needs of Students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cihan Demir, Brian F. French
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Washington Assessment of the Risks and Needs of Students (WARNS) is a computer-based assessment created to help courts, schools, and youth service providers determine an adolescent’s risks and needs that may lead to truancy, drop out, or delinquency from school. Users are advised to consider the WARNS total score to work with youth. A total score estimate based on fewer items than the full item set may result in less respondent burden, administration time, and fatigue, while not hindering accurate decisions. This simulation study examined the applicability and efficiency of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to estimate a WARNS total score under a unidimensional item response theory model. The results demonstrate that the CAT provides an accurate estimate of students’ risks and needs and reduces the number of items administered for each examinee compared with the existing version. Future directions and limitations of CAT development with the WARNS are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T12:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211047892
       
  • The Gambling Disorders Identification Test (GDIT): Psychometric Evaluation
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Olof Molander, Peter Wennberg, Anne H Berman
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The novel gambling disorder identification test (GDIT) was recently developed in an international Delphi and consensus process. In this first psychometric evaluation, gamblers (N = 603) were recruited from treatment- and support-seeking contexts (n = 79 and n = 185), self-help groups (n = 47), and a population sample (n = 292). Participants completed self-report measures, a GDIT retest (n = 499), as well as diagnostic semistructured interviews assessing gambling disorder (GD; n = 203). The GDIT showed excellent internal consistency reliability (α = .94) and test–retest reliability (6-16 days, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded factor loadings supporting the three proposed GDIT domains of gambling behavior, gambling symptoms, and negative consequences. Receiver operator curves and clinical significance indicators were used to estimate GDIT cut-off scores in relation to recreational (
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T11:37:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211046045
       
  • A Comparison of Parent, Teacher, and Youth Ratings on the Inventory of
           Callous–Unemotional Traits

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tatiana M. Matlasz, Paul J. Frick, Julia E. Clark
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The current study compared the validity of self-, parent-, and teacher-report versions of the Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits (ICU), a widely used measure of callous–unemotional (CU) traits, at several different ages. Participants (N = 236, 60.6% girls) were children in Grades 3, 6, and 8 (Mage = 11.55, SD = 2.23) from a public school system in the southern United States. We tested the association of all three ICU versions with several validators: parent- and teacher-reported conduct problems, peer nominations of characteristics associated with CU traits, and sociometric peer nominations of social preference. Results revealed an interaction between the ICU version and grade in the overall level of CU traits reported, with teacher-report leading to the highest ratings in sixth grade and being higher than parent-report in third grade. Furthermore, the validity of the different versions of the ICU varied somewhat across grades. Specifically, findings support the validity of both teacher- and self-report in third grade, but self-report was the only version to show strong validity in the eighth grade.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T11:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211047893
       
  • Assessment of HiTOP Constructs Across the Population: A Commentary on the
           HiTOP Measure Development Project

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Edelyn Verona
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The set of articles in this issue demonstrates the promise of the HiTOP collaborative effort in advancing a viable alternative dimensional taxonomy of psychopathology. Besides transcending the limitations of our current taxonomic system and categorical diagnoses, the potential contributions of HiTOP should extend to also critically examining long-standing notions of psychopathology and mental wellness, evaluating the ability of symptom measures to capture the various manifestations of disorder in the population, and questioning the emphasis on predominant Western cultural norms as a basis for our definitions of psychopathology and their measurement. This commentary addresses the extent to which the implementation of the measurement studies featured in the special issue centered these goals, drawing on the work of scholars from within and outside the fields of psychiatry and clinical psychology, some who have taken a critical view of these fields. The hope is that we work to challenge some basic assumptions and increase self-reflection, with an eye toward reducing bias and mental health disparities.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T11:55:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211048240
       
  • Quantifying Severity of Preschool-Aged Children’s Internalizing
           Behaviors: A Daily Diary Analysis

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      Authors: Sara J. Bufferd, Thomas M. Olino, Lea R. Dougherty
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A subset of preschool-aged children meets criteria for impairing and persistent anxiety and depression. However, the overlap between normative emotional development and impairing symptoms complicates assessments of internalizing problems in early childhood. Given the benefits of early identification/prevention and avoiding overpathologizing typical development, empirical information is needed to norm expression of internalizing behaviors. In this 14-day online diary study, 609 primary caregivers of 3- to 5-year-old children reported the frequency of children’s daily separation and social anxiety and depressive behaviors and impairment. Item response theory analyses quantified specific frequencies at which each behavior was psychometrically severe/rare. Patterns varied for each behavior; for example, distress when anticipating separation had to occur at least 10 times and sadness at least 35 times over 14 days to be considered severe. Most social anxiety behaviors had to occur approximately every other day to be considered severe. Parameters did not vary by child age or sex, and behaviors were significantly associated with impairment. These data provide empirical information for refining internalizing behavior assessment in preschool-aged children and can be used as benchmarks by child practitioners to assess the extent to which frequencies fall in the range of developmentally typical behavior versus those that may be more severe.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-25T11:29:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211046661
       
  • Development and Validation of a Shortened Form of SELweb EE, a Web-Based
           Assessment of Children’s Social and Emotional Competence

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      Authors: Clark McKown, Maria Kharitonova, Nicole M. Russo-Ponsaran, Beyza Aksu-Dunya
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This article describes the development and validation of a shortened form of SELweb EE, a web-based assessment for social–emotional skills in the early elementary grades. Using a Rasch approach, in the first study, we used data from two archival data sets to reduce the number of items in three subtests to create short forms that maintained item fit, item difficulty, item discrimination, and test information function range. In the second study, we created and administered a short form of SELweb EE to a demographically diverse cross-validation sample of 22,683 students. We evaluated the shortened assessment subtests’ score reliability, fit to a hypothesized factor structure, and association with age and other variables to evaluate criterion-related validity. Findings from this study suggest that score reliabilities, factor structure, and criterion-related validity for the short form are similar to corresponding properties of the long form. In addition, using a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the short form of SELweb EE demonstrated evidence of configural, metric, and scalar invariance across sex, ethnicity, and language. Shortening SELweb EE reduced the mean administration duration from 36 to 24 minutes. This reduction substantially increases its usability and feasibility while maintaining its psychometric merit.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-18T11:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211046044
       
  • Effects of Repeated Administration and Comparability of Alternate Forms
           for the Global Neuropsychological Assessment (GNA)

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      Authors: Alan Smerbeck, Lauren Olsen, Lindsay F. Morra, Jeremy Raines, David J. Schretlen, Ralph H. B. Benedict
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Global Neuropsychological Assessment (GNA) is an extremely brief battery of cognitive tasks assessing episodic memory, processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and mood. It can be given in under 15 minutes, has five alternate forms, and does not require an examinee to be literate. The purpose of this study was to quantify practice effects over repeated administrations and assess comparability of the GNA’s five alternate forms, preparing the battery for repeated administration in research and clinical settings. Forty participants each completed all five GNA forms at weekly intervals following a Latin square design (i.e., each form was administered at every position in the sequence an equal number of times). In a cognitively intact population, practice effects of 0.56 to 1.06 SD were observed across GNA measures when comparing the first and fifth administration. Most GNA tests showed nonsignificant interform differences with cross-form means differing by 0.35 SD or less, with the exception of modest but statistically significant interform differences for the GNA Story Memory subtest across all five forms. However, post hoc analysis identified clusters of two and three Story Memory alternate forms that were equivalent.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T11:38:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211045125
       
  • Multimethod Support for Using the Big Five Framework to Organize Social
           and Emotional Skills

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      Authors: Kate E. Walton, Dana Murano, Jeremy Burrus, Alex Casillas
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A challenge in the field of social and emotional learning is the lack of consensus regarding a framework to delineate key social and emotional skills (SE skills). Taking a conceptual approach, some have argued that the Big Five model from personality psychology offers a comprehensive framework to organize SE skills; however, little research has been done to empirically support this. In two studies—one using a factor analytic, data-driven approach, and one using an expert consensus approach—we provide multimethod evidence suggesting that there is a significant degree of overlap between SE skills and the Big Five, and we conclude that the Big Five can be used to organize SE skills.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T11:37:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211045744
       
  • Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD): Factor Structure and
           Validation of the Self-Report Version in Community and Forensic Samples of
           Portuguese Youth

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      Authors: Diana Ribeiro da Silva, Ruben Sousa, Daniel Rijo, Beatriz Mendez, Siny Tsang, Randall T. Salekin
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD) was developed as a measure to assess the multifaceted model of psychopathic traits in children/youth (i.e., grandiose–manipulative [GM], callous–unemotional [CU], and daring–impulsive [DI] traits) in addition to Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms. This study aims to test the psychometric properties of the PSCD-self-report version across community (n = 648; 52.9% female) and forensic male youth (n = 258) from the Portuguese population. Results supported a general factor and four specific factors (GM, CU, DI, CD), which was invariant across gender and sample type. Evidence for reliability, construct, and temporal validity were also found. Overall, the PSCD appears to be a promising measure for assessing psychopathic traits in youth from both community and forensic settings, which may contribute to the discussion around the conceptualization, assessment, predictive value, and clinical usefulness of the multifaceted model of psychopathy in youthful populations, particularly in its association with CD.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T10:45:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211044534
       
  • Psychometric Evaluation of the Moral Injury Events Scale in Two Canadian
           Armed Forces Samples

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      Authors: Rachel A. Plouffe, Bethany Easterbrook, Aihua Liu, Margaret C. McKinnon, J. Don Richardson, Anthony Nazarov
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Moral injury (MI) is defined as the profound psychological distress experienced in response to perpetrating, failing to prevent, or witnessing acts that transgress personal moral standards or values. Given the elevated risk of adverse mental health outcomes in response to exposure to morally injurious experiences in military members, it is critical to implement valid and reliable measures of MI in military populations. We evaluated the reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the factor structure of the commonly used Moral Injury Events Scale (MIES) across two separate active duty and released Canadian Armed Forces samples. In Study 1, convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated through correlations between MIES scores and depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, anger, adverse childhood experiences, and combat experiences. Across studies, internal consistency reliability was high. However, dimensionality of the MIES remained unclear, and model fit was poor across active and released Canadian Armed Forces samples. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T01:19:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211044198
       
  • Do You See What I See': Researcher–Participant Agreement on
           Single-Item Measures of Emotion Regulation Behaviors in Borderline
           Personality Disorder

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      Authors: Nicole E. Stumpp, Matthew W. Southward, Shannon Sauer-Zavala
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study a range of behaviors related to psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether brief measures of coping behaviors accurately capture the intended responses. In this secondary analysis of a single-case experimental design, eight individuals with borderline personality disorder (Mage = 21.57, 63% female, 63% Asian American) completed daily diary entries for 12 weeks, along with hourly EMA entries on 2 days. Participants provided qualitative descriptions of their behaviors and classified them into one of five functional categories. Independent researchers also classified each qualitative description into the same categories. Overall, agreement between participants and researchers was low, Krippendorff’s α = .47, 95% confidence interval [0.43, 0.52]. The type of emotion experienced, researcher confidence, and word count of responses affected agreement. Generating items that capture the breadth of possible behaviors, are brief enough for frequent administration, and are consistently understood by participants is an important continued challenge in EMA research.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-11T02:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211044216
       
  • Development and Validation of Two Abbreviated Intraminority Gay Community
           Stress Scales

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      Authors: Anthony J. Maiolatesi, Satyanand Satyanarayana, Richard Bränström, John E. Pachankis
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Social stressors stemming from within the gay community might render gay and bisexual men vulnerable to mental health problems. The 20-item intraminority Gay Community Stress Scale (GCSS) is a reliable measure of gay community stress, but the scale’s length limits its widespread use in sexual minority mental health research. Using three independent samples of gay and bisexual men, the present research developed two abbreviated versions of the GCSS using nonparametric item response modeling and validated them. Results indicated that eight items provided maximal information about the gay community stress construct; these items were selected to form the eight-item GCSS. The eight-item GCSS reproduced the factor structure of the parent scale, and gay community stress scores obtained from it correlated with other identity-specific social stress constructs and mental health symptoms. Associations between gay community stress and mental health symptoms remained significant even after controlling for related identity-specific stressors, general life stress, and relevant demographics. A four-item version was also developed and assessed, showing good structural, convergent, criterion, and incremental validity and adequate reliability. The eight- and four-item versions of the GCSS offer efficient measures of gay community stress, an increasingly recognized source of stress for gay and bisexual men.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T05:21:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211042933
       
  • Perceived Causal Problem Networks: Reliability, Central Problems, and
           Clinical Utility for Depression

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      Authors: Lars Klintwall, Martin Bellander, Matti Cervin
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Personalized case conceptualization is often regarded as a prerequisite for treatment success in psychotherapy for patients with comorbidity. This article presents Perceived Causal Networks, a novel method in which patients rate perceived causal relations among behavioral and emotional problems. First, 231 respondents screening positive for depression completed an online Perceived Causal Networks questionnaire. Median completion time (including repeat items to assess immediate test–retest reliability) was 22.7 minutes, and centrality measures showed excellent immediate test–retest reliability. Networks were highly idiosyncratic, but worrying and ruminating were the most central items for a third of respondents. Second, 50 psychotherapists rated the clinical utility of Perceived Causal Networks visualizations. Ninety-six percent rated the networks as clinically useful, and the information in the individual visualizations was judged to contain 47% of the information typically collected during a psychotherapy assessment phase. Future studies should individualize networks further and evaluate the validity of perceived causal relations.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T09:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211039281
       
  • Development of an Empathy Rating Scale for Young Children

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      Authors: Eva R. Kimonis, Natasha Jain, Bryan Neo, Georgette E. Fleming, Nancy Briggs
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Empathy is critical to young children’s socioemotional development and deficient levels characterize a severe and pervasive type of Conduct Disorder (i.e., with limited prosocial emotions). With the emergence of novel, targeted early interventions to treat this psychopathology, the critical limitations of existing parent-report empathy measures reveal their unsuitability for assessing empathy levels and outcomes in young children. The present study aimed to develop a reliable and comprehensive parent-rated empathy scale for young children. This was accomplished by first generating a large list of empathy items sourced from both preexisting empathy measures and from statements made by parents during a clinical interview about their young child’s empathy. Second, this item set was refined using exploratory factor analysis of item scores from parents of children aged 2 to 8 years (56.6% male), recruited online using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. A five-factor solution provided the best fit to the data: Attention to Others’ Emotions, Personal Distress (i.e., Emotional Contagion/Affective Empathy), Personal Distress–Fictional Characters, Prosocial Behavior, and Sympathy. Total and subscale scores on the new “Measure of Empathy in Early Childhood” (MEEC) were internally consistent. Finally, this five-factor structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis and model fit was adequate. With further research into the validity of MEEC scores, this new rater-based empathy measure for young children may hold promise for assessing empathy in early childhood and advancing research into the origins of empathy and empathy-related disorders.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-28T10:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211038629
       
  • Adaptation of the Devaluation–Discrimination Scale Into Turkish: A
           Comprehensive Psychometric Analysis

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      Authors: Ertuğrul Şahin, Nursel Topkaya
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Devaluation–Discrimination Scale (DDS) is among the most frequently used stigma scales for measuring the perception of social stigma related to mental illness. The DDS is also frequently employed to test predictions of modified labeling theory and is modified to use for specific disorders, such as depression, substance abuse, and alcohol use disorders. Although modified versions of the DDS have been subjected to psychometric analyses, the original has never undergone a full psychometric evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish adaptation of the original DDS, with all positively keyed items, across seven studies in Turkish student and community samples (N = 1,907). The results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that a one-dimensional factor structure adequately explained the covariation among DDS items in a sample of college students. Moreover, the single-factor structure of the DDS was corroborated, and invariant across sex, age, educational level, mental health diagnosis status, and previous help-seeking experience among Turkish adults. The convergent and divergent validity of DDS scores also were supported by significant correlations in the hypothesized directions with self-stigma (r = .26), social stigma (r = .46), attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (r = −.24), and intention to seek psychological help scores (r = −.24). The results of the reliability analyses suggested that the DDS has good temporal stability in a 1-month time interval (r = .83, intraclass correlation coefficient = .83) and possesses high to excellent internal consistency reliabilities ranging from .88 to .92 across five studies. The examination of the distribution of total DDS scores indicated that there were no floor and ceiling effects in DDS scores across five different samples. The Turkish adaptation of the original DDS may be used as a valid and reliable scale to measure the devaluation and discrimination perceptions of college students and adults against people with mental illness.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-28T10:32:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211039284
       
  • A Systematic Review of Parenting Scales Measurement Invariance/Equivalence
           of by Race and Ethnicity: Recommendations for Inclusive Parenting Research
           

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      Authors: Violeta J. Rodriguez, Dominique L. La Barrie, Miriam C. Zegarac, Anne Shaffer
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The limited inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities in the development and validation of parenting measures limits our understanding of whether parenting constructs are valid in racial and ethnic minorities. Tests of measurement invariance/equivalence (MI/E) of parenting measures can help evaluate the validity of parenting constructs among racial/ethnic minorities. This systematic review summarized studies on MI/E of parenting constructs by race/ethnicity and evaluated the strength of the evidence. A literature search was conducted using various databases and references to retrieve studies from the United States. Indeed, 10 studies were identified that tested for MI/E of eight parenting scales by race/ethnicity. Only one scale showed moderate evidence of MI/E, five showed weak evidence of MI/E, and two showed no evidence of MI/E. Most studies (80%) used factor analytic methods to test for MI/E, but only two studies (20%) examined all levels of invariance. These findings show that differences exist in how racial/ethnic minorities perceive parenting constructs. Further research is needed to develop more inclusive parenting measures, to protect against the ways in which biased measures may pathologize or misrepresent parenting practices among racial/ethnic minorities.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T04:50:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211038630
       
  • A Validation Study of the BRIEF-2 Among Kindergarteners and First Graders
           At-Risk for Behavior Problems

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      Authors: Michelle M. Cumming, Daniel V. Poling, Yuxi Qiu, Andy V. Pham, Ann P. Daunic, Nancy Corbett, Stephen W. Smith
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Early identification of executive dysfunction and timely school-based intervention efforts are critical for students at risk for problematic behaviors during early elementary school. The original Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) was designed to measure real-world behavioral manifestations of executive functioning, neurocognitive processes critical for school success. With the updated BRIEF-2, independent validation is needed with kindergarten and first grade students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Thus, using item level analyses, we examined the factor structure of the BRIEF-2 Teacher Rating form with 1,112 students. Results indicated little evidence for the original three-index model and supported a modified two-index model, with a Cognitive Regulation Index and an overall Behavior–Emotion Regulation Index. Criterion related validity indicated positive relationships with performance-based executive functioning (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders) and later internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We discuss implications of findings for early identification and school-based intervention efforts, as well as future research.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-23T06:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211032289
       
  • Evaluation of Various Detection Strategies in the Assessment of
           Noncredible Memory Performance: Results of Two Experimental Studies

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      Authors: Iulia Crişan, Florin Alin Sava, Laurenţiu Paul Maricuţoiu, Mugur Daniel Ciumăgeanu, Otilia Axinia, Lucian Gîrniceanu, Laura Ciotlăuş
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:This article investigates the accuracy of individual and combined indicators based on different strategies for detecting noncredible performance as part of a new test for the continuous assessment of short-term memory.Method:In two independent studies, we assessed three groups of simulators, cognitively impaired patients, and nonimpaired community members with four tasks separated by a distractor.Results:Pairwise comparisons between receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves revealed significant differences between two clusters of indicators: mean recognition, inconsistent responses in recognition, and false positives (area under the ROC curves> .800) proved more accurate than delayed recall and false negatives (area under the ROC curves < .800) in discriminating simulators from patients. Likewise, both studies revealed that adding the false positives indicator based on cued recall to mean recognition incrementally improved classification accuracy (including sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value ) compared with the recognition indicator alone.Conclusions:Our results support the association of two distinct indicators for the assessment of noncredible performance, of which one should be a forced-choice indicator.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-23T06:26:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211040105
       
  • Increasing the Utility of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic
           Personality–Lexical Rating Scale (CAPP-LRS): Instrument Adaptation and
           Simplification

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      Authors: Katherine B. Hanniball, Richard Hohn, Erin K. Fuller, Kevin S. Douglas
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality–Lexical Rating Scale (CAPP-LRS) is a self-report instrument designed to index psychopathy according to the CAPP psychopathy framework. Developed with the expressed goal of advancing the state of knowledge regarding the specific features of psychopathy, the CAPP model and associated instruments have garnered increasing attention and support in the field. Despite the conceptual strength of the CAPP model, the advanced lexical structure of its primary research tool (the CAPP-LRS) has led researchers to question the utility of the instrument for use with some populations of interest (e.g., forensic/correctional and adolescent/young adult samples). The aim of the present work was to address this issue by creating a lexically simplified, though functionally equivalent, version of the CAPP-LRS to increase accessibility to critically relevant populations. A set of two studies (N = 602) describes the adaptation protocol and the initial validation of the modified instrument.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T09:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211040108
       
  • Measurement Invariance of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire Among
           Injured Patients Who Received a Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use

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      Authors: Dylan K. Richards, Osvaldo F. Morera, Frank J. Schwebel, Matthew R. Pearson, Craig A. Field
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      We tested measurement invariance of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ) to evaluate its utility in assessing the stages of change in the context of brief intervention for alcohol use in opportunistic settings. Participants (N = 596) were patients admitted from three Level I trauma centers who were randomly assigned to one of three brief alcohol interventions. The RCQ was administered at baseline and 3-month follow-up. The RCQ was scalar invariant across biological sex and partially scalar invariant across race/ethnicity and alcohol use severity. Hispanic participants were higher on contemplation and action and Black participants were higher on action than White participants. Hazardous drinkers were lower in precontemplation and higher in contemplation and action than nonhazardous drinkers. The RCQ was scalar invariant across intervention conditions and time. Brief motivational intervention with a booster increased action from baseline to 3 month. These findings provide further support for the use of the RCQ.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T04:48:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211040106
       
  • Applying the PAI Treatment Process Index to PAI-As Completed by
           Adolescents in a Residential Program

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      Authors: Nora E. Charles, Paula N. Floyd, Margaret R. Bullerjahn, Lydia Sigurdson, Christopher T. Barry
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Treatment Process Index (TPI) is a measure of treatment amenability based on an index of factors related to poor treatment outcomes (e.g., hostility, lack of social support, and poor impulse control). In this study, the formula used to calculate the TPI for the adult PAI was applied to PAI-Adolescent (PAI-As) protoocols completed by 372 adolescents (mean age: 16.8 years; 80% male) during a 22-week residential program for at-risk youth. The number of disciplinary infractions received during the program was used as an indicator of the participants’ response to the program. Average PAI-A scale scores and TPI scores were higher than those previously reported for community samples, but lower than those found in clinical samples. TPI scores were positively associated with disciplinary infractions, particularly nonaggressive infractions, when controlling for demographic factors and other clinically relevant variables. Results suggest that the the TPI has relevance for adolescents completing the PAI-A.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-14T05:44:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211038061
       
  • Construct Validity of the E-LSRP in a Correctional Sample

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      Authors: Martin Sellbom, Jaiden S. Butler, Tayla T. C. Lee, Andrea M. Loucaides, Tracy L. Masterson, Dustin B. Wygant
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Expanded–Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (E-LSRP) was developed by Christian and Sellbom to improve on the psychometric properties of scores on the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. The current study investigated the construct validity of scores on the E-LSRP in 393 male inmates. Results provided support for the reliability and construct validity of E-LSRP scores. Specifically, confirmatory factor analysis results demonstrated support for a three-factor model. Additionally, correlation and multiple regression results provided evidence supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of E-LSRP scores against scores on measures assessing psychopathy-related personality traits (e.g., antagonism, disinhibition) and symptoms of internalizing disorders, respectively. Overall, these findings extend those of previous research by establishing that E-LSRP scores demonstrate validity in assessing psychopathy in correctional settings and thus, may be a useful tool for the assessment of psychopathy in these settings.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T09:47:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211038619
       
  • Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of the PHQ-9 and GAD-7

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      Authors: Clarissa W. Ong, Benjamin G. Pierce, Keith P. Klein, Chloe C. Hudson, Courtney Beard, Thröstur Björgvinsson
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Intraindividual change over time is commonly used to estimate treatment effectiveness. However, patients may not respond similarly to a scale after treatment, rendering pre–post change an unreliable metric. The current objective was to investigate longitudinal measurement invariance of the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale–7 among 4,323 patients completing a partial hospital program. We used confirmatory factor analysis to determine (1) factor structure at pretreatment and posttreatment and (2) longitudinal invariance, accounting for dependent observations, using both classical and approximate measurement invariance approaches. Results indicated a two-factor solution for both scales. Longitudinal invariance was not established for either scale, thus, using raw score differences from the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale–7 for measuring symptom change over time may be problematic. The most longitudinally consistent items captured somatic as opposed to affective/cognitive symptoms. We discuss the potential use of these measures for diagnostic screening and between-group comparisons and suggest alternative ways to monitor client progress over time. Limitations included a majority White sample and uniqueness of a partial hospital setting.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-10T09:01:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211035833
       
  • Psychometric Validation of a Combined Assessment for Anxiety and
           Depression in Primary Care in Mozambique (CAD-MZ)

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      Authors: Jennifer M. Belus, Alberto Muanido, Vasco F. J. Cumbe, Maria Nelia Manaca, Bradley H. Wagenaar
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study sought to validate a combined assessment for major depression and generalized anxiety, administered by health providers in a primary care setting in Mozambique. Patients attending a primary care visit (N = 502) were enrolled in the study and completed the Patient Health Questionniare–9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7, and six items identified in a global systematic qualitative review of depression that were not captured in existing measures (e.g., social isolation, “thinking too much,” and “heart problems”). A separate trained mental health provider conducted the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0, adapted for Mozambique, to establish clinical diagnoses. Item response theory, factor analysis, and receiver operating characteristics were all used to identify the best screening items. Eight items were identified for the final screener: four items from the Patient Health Questionniare–9, two from the Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7, and two from the global depression literature. A cut-score of 7 was found to consistently increase the diagnostic likelihood of having a particular disorder. Overall, findings indicate good clinical utility of the screener in primary care in Mozambique.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-06T04:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211032285
       
  • Psychometric Analysis of the Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents in
           Samples of Polish and U.S. Young Adults: Examining the Factor Structure,
           Measurement Invariance, Item Functioning, and Convergent Validity

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      Authors: Katarzyna Adamczyk, Nicholas M. Morelli, Chris Segrin, Jian Jiao, Jung Yeon Park, Miguel T. Villodas
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study explored whether the Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (DAS-A), which was originally developed in the United States to assess dating anxiety in adolescents, is appropriate for use in samples of young adults from Poland and the United States. The factor structure, measurement invariance across country, gender and relationship status, degree of precision across latent levels of the DAS and the functioning of individual items, and convergent validity were examined in a sample of 309 Polish and 405 U.S. young adults. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the original three-factor measurement model of the DAS. Invariance tests revealed factor loadings and item thresholds that differed across subgroups, supporting partial metric and partial scalar invariance. The MIRT analysis showed that all items adequately discriminated participants with low and high anxiety. Dating anxiety latent factor correlations with mental health and interpersonal competence were significant in the expected negative directions. The results call for careful interpretation of research involving the DAS in cultural, gender, and relationship status groups, particularly when the primary goal is to compare mean levels of dating anxiety. Further development of the scale is recommended before it can be used across country, gender, and relationship status groups.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T11:36:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211017659
       
  • Differential Item Functioning in the WHODAS 2.0 Scale in Schizophrenia: An
           Application of the Rasch Trees Method Based on Demographic and Clinical
           Covariates

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      Authors: Ángela I. Berrío, Juana Gómez-Benito, Georgina Guilera
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Identifying disability score differences in people with schizophrenia according to sociodemographic and clinical variables can help design better rehabilitation or care programs, but in order to compare the scores, it is necessary to confirm the measurement invariance. This study analyses differential item functioning (DIF) in the WHODAS 2.0 (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule) by applying two procedures based on Rasch trees (TREE-PCM and PCM-IFT). A total of 352 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder aged between 18 and 55 years took part. Sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, and education) and clinical (depressive symptomatology, and presence of positive and negative symptoms) covariates were analysed in each of the WHODAS 2.0 domains. The TREE-PCM did not detect DIF, while with PCM-IFT an item with DIF was detected for the age variable. Although the findings suggest that only one item presents DIF, this refers to important issues when assessing functioning in patients with schizophrenia and should be reviewed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T04:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211036746
       
  • Reliability, Factor Validity, and Neuropsychological Correlates of the
           Child Concentration Inventory–2 in a Community Sample of Italian
           Adolescents

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      Authors: Antonella Somma, Stephen P. Becker, Caterina Leitner, Andrea Fossati
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) has been less frequently studied in adolescents compared with school-aged youth, few studies have examined youth self-report of SCT, and no study has examined SCT in Italy. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory–Version 2 (CCI-2), a youth self-report measure of SCT, in 452 Italian adolescent high school students (37.8% female; mean age = 15.92 years). Adolescents were administered Italian translations of the CCI-2 and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS). School performance variables (i.e., teacher-rated grades and teachers’ disciplinary ratings) were also collected. A random subsample (n = 88) of participants was also administered the Mackworth Clock Test, a short version of the Attention Network Test, and the Stop-Signal Task. In our study, all CCI-2 items showed adequate convergent–discriminant validity, and the CCI-2 scale score showed adequate internal consistency reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested the adequacy of a one-factor model of the CCI-2 items, which showed to be invariant across sex. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the dissociability of SCT from ADHD-Inattention and ADHD-Impulsivity. SCT was significantly and negatively associated with adolescents’ average school grades, whereas ADHD was also significantly and negatively associated with adolescents’ disciplinary ratings. In the random subsample, the CCI-2 total score was positively, significantly, and uniquely associated with overall reaction time on the Attention Network Task, but not other neurocognitive variables. This study provides further support for the reliability and validity of self-reported SCT in adolescence.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-08-02T04:41:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211033349
       
  • Psychometric Evaluation of the Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire:
           Item Response Theory Analyses

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      Authors: Prathiba Natesan Batley, Ateka A. Contractor, Nicole H. Weiss, Sidonia E. Compton, Matthew Price
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire (PRBQ) assesses extent of engagement in posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs). Given PRBQ’s recent development with limited psychometric investigations, we used item response theory to examine (a) item analysis, (b) person fit, and (c) differential item functioning (DIF) across gender-based groups and two different samples. One sample included 464 participants reporting potentially traumatic experiences (Mechanical Turk [MTurk], recruited online), and the other sample included 171 trauma-exposed women reporting current intimate partner violence and substance use (recruited in-person). All PRBQ items contributed to the RSDB scale, and all PRBQ items and the PRBQ scale provided maximum information for high levels of the RSDB latent trait. Seven and 11 items were conceptualized as low information items in the MTurk and intimate partner violence samples, respectively. Eight MTurk participants’ responses did not fit the overall pattern of responses as expected. Seven items were flagged for DIF between the two samples, and eight items were flagged for DIF between men and women in the MTurk sample. However, all effect sizes were
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-31T04:46:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211036760
       
  • Arousing Motives or Eliciting Stories' On the Role of Pictures in a
           Picture–Story Exercise

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      Authors: Philipp Schäpers, Stefan Krumm, Filip Lievens, Nikola Stenzel
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Picture–story exercises (PSE) form a popular measurement approach that has been widely used for the assessment of implicit motives. However, current theorizing offers two diverging perspectives on the role of pictures in PSEs: either to elicit stories or to arouse motives. In the current study, we tested these perspectives in an experimental design. We administered a PSE either with or without pictures. Results from N = 281 participants revealed that the experimental manipulation had a medium to large effect for the affiliation and power motive domains, but no effect for the achievement motive domain. We conclude that the herein chosen pictures cues function differentially across motives, as they aroused the affiliation and power motives, but not the achievement motive.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T05:27:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211036191
       
  • The Structure of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20): A Meta-Analytic
           Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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      Authors: Ulrich Schroeders, Fiona Kubera, Timo Gnambs
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Alexithymia is defined as the inability of persons to describe their emotional states, to identify the feelings of others, and a utilitarian type of thinking. The most popular instrument to assess alexithymia is the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Despite its widespread use, an ongoing controversy pertains to its internal structure. The TAS-20 was originally constructed to capture three different factors, but several studies suggested different factor solutions, including bifactor models and models with a method factor for the reversely keyed items. The present study examined the dimensionality of the TAS-20 using summary data of 88 samples from 62 studies (total N = 69,722) with meta-analytic structural equation modeling. We found support for the originally proposed three-dimensional solution, whereas more complex models produced inconsistent factor loadings. Because a major source of misfit stems from translated versions, the results are discussed with respect to generalizations across languages and cultural contexts.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-27T04:47:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211033894
       
  • How Universal Is a Construct of Loneliness' Measurement Invariance of
           the UCLA Loneliness Scale in Indonesia, Germany, and the United States

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      Authors: Joevarian Hudiyana, Tania M. Lincoln, Steffi Hartanto, Muhammad A. Shadiqi, Mirra N. Milla, Hamdi Muluk, Edo S. Jaya
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-20) and its short version (ULS-8) are widely used to measure loneliness. However, the question remains whether or not previous studies using the scale to measure loneliness are measuring the construct equally across countries. The present study examined the measurement invariance (MI) of both scales in Germany, Indonesia, and the United States (N = 2350). The one-, two-, and three-factor structure of the ULS-20 did not meet the model fit cut-off criteria in the total sample. The ULS-8 met the model fit cut-off criteria and has configural, but not metric invariance because two items unrelated to social isolation were not MI. The final six items (ULS-6) exclusively related to social isolation had complete MI. Participants from the United States scored highest in the ULS-6, followed by participants from Germany and then Indonesia. We conclude that the ULS-6 is an appropriate measure for cross-cultural studies on loneliness.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-24T05:11:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211034564
       
  • Development and Initial Validation of a Scale Assessing Suicide-Specific
           Rumination: The Suicide Rumination Scale

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      Authors: Megan L. Rogers, Keyne C. Law, Claire Houtsma, Raymond P. Tucker, Michael D. Anestis, Thomas E. Joiner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide-specific rumination, a repetitive mental fixation on one’s suicidal thoughts and intentions, may influence the transition from suicidal thoughts to behaviors. Research on suicide-specific rumination has been hindered by the lack of an independent measurement tool. This article presents the development and validation of a self-report measure of suicide-specific rumination across several samples with lifetime suicidal ideation (Sample 1: N = 494 students; Sample 2: N = 219 community members; Sample 3: N = 128 adults at high risk for suicide). The Suicide Rumination Scale (SRS) item pool was reduced from a pool of 41 items to 8 items that are highly discriminant and of varying levels of difficulty. The SRS demonstrated measurement invariance, convergent validity, and nonredundancy with related measures. Importantly, the SRS differentiated suicide attempters from ideators, suggesting its potential clinical relevance. Overall, these findings suggest that the SRS is a valid and incrementally useful measure of suicide-specific rumination.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T11:09:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211033897
       
  • Compliance in Ambulatory Assessment Studies: Investigating Study and
           Sample Characteristics as Predictors

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      Authors: Charlotte Ottenstein, Linda Werner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Ambulatory assessment (AA) studies are becoming more and more popular. However, it can be challenging to motivate participants to comply with study protocols. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible predictors of compliance in AA studies with diverse samples and study designs. To do so, we extracted compliance information, study characteristics, and sample characteristics from 488 previously published studies. The average compliance across the studies was rather high. The total number of measurement occasions and the number of study days were negatively related to the compliance rate. Moreover, a higher percentage of healthy controls in clinical studies was associated with a higher compliance rate. By contrast, other study characteristics (e.g., the amount of financial compensation) and sample characteristics (clinical vs. healthy sample) were not related to compliance. The findings have implications for the design of future AA studies.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T10:26:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211032718
       
  • Examining an Alternative Scoring Procedure for a Clinical Working Memory
           Measure

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      Authors: Daniel S. Weitzner, Matthew Calamia, Benjamin D. Hill, Emily M. Elliott
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Digit Span test is a widely used working memory measure. However, when using standardized scoring procedures, previous studies have demonstrated inconsistent relationships between Digit Span subtests and working memory measures frequently used in cognitive psychology experiments. Partial scoring involves awarding credit for all digits recalled in the correct serial location, whereas traditional scoring involves only awarding credit for a trial if all digits are recalled in the correct serial location. The current study compared the traditional all-or-nothing scoring method and the partial scoring method on Digit Span with other working memory measures and with measures of general fluid intelligence. The results showed that when differences were found, partial scoring was associated with stronger relationships with Digit Span Backwards but weaker relationships with Digit Span Forward and Sequencing compared with traditional scoring. These results support previous findings identifying differences between the Digit Span subtests and the utility of examining traditional scoring procedures.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T10:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211032270
       
  • Examining the Structural and External Validity of the Adult Concentration
           Inventory for Assessing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Adults

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      Authors: Joseph W. Fredrick, G. Leonard Burns, Joshua M. Langberg, Stephen P. Becker
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Adult Concentration Inventory (ACI) is an adult self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) developed following a meta-analysis identifying items distinguishing SCT from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention. To date, only one study conducted in college students has examined the structural and external validity of the ACI. The current study evaluated the convergent and discriminative validity of the ACI in a community sample of adults, in addition to testing unique associations with internalizing symptoms, daily life executive functions, and sleep. Adults (N = 286; Mage = 44.45; 83.6% female) completed ratings of SCT, ADHD symptom dimensions, and external correlates. An a priori two-factor model with cross-loadings found 10 of the 16 SCT items to have high loadings on the SCT factor and low loadings on the ADHD inattention factor. SCT was uniquely associated with higher internalizing symptoms, time management and self-organization difficulties, poorer sleep quality, shorter sleep duration, lower sleep efficiency, and more daytime sleepiness. These findings replicate and extend support for the ACI in assessing SCT in adults.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T06:36:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211027224
       
  • Measurement Invariance of Disorder-Specific and Transdiagnostic Measures
           of Repetitive Negative Thinking

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      Authors: Sarah Shihata, Andrew R. Johnson, David M. Erceg-Hurn, Peter M. McEvoy
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Repetitive negative thinking is conceptualized to be a transdiagnostic process linked to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Prior research distinguishes between disorder-specific exemplars (worry, rumination) and transdiagnostic measures of repetitive negative thinking with differences across disorders reported. However, establishing the measurement invariance of these measures is necessary to support meaningful comparisons across clinical groups.Method:Bayesian structural equation modelling was used to assess the approximate invariance of the Ruminative Response Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire across individuals with a principal diagnosis of either depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder.Results:All scales demonstrated approximate measurement invariance across the three disorder groups. The depressive disorder group reported a higher level of rumination than the generalized anxiety disorder group (Δµ = 0.25, 95% Credibility Interval [0.06, 0.45]), with no difference between the generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder groups. The depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder groups did not differ in their levels of trait repetitive negative thinking, but the social anxiety disorder group was markedly lower than the generalized anxiety disorder group (Δµ = −0.21 [−0.37, −0.05]). Similarly, levels of worry did not differ between the generalized anxiety disorder and depressive disorder group but were lower in the social anxiety disorder group than the generalized anxiety disorder group (Δµ = −0.23 [−0.41, −0.06]).Conclusions:The Ruminative Response Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire are measuring trait repetitive negative thinking in a consistent manner across individuals with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder. This supports their use in transdiagnostic contexts and indicates that it is appropriate to directly compare the scores on these measures between diagnostic groups.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T06:38:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211028657
       
  • An Examination of the Factor Structure of the Multidimensional
           Psychological Flexibility Inventory

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      Authors: Kelsey N. Thomas, Joseph R. Bardeen, Tracy K. Witte, Travis A. Rogers, Natasha Benfer, Kate Clauss
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Multidimensional Psychological Flexibility Inventory (MPFI), a 60-item self-report measure, assesses the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Hexaflex. The factor structure of the MPFI was examined in this study. In a community sample of adults (N = 827), four models (correlated six-factor, one-factor, higher order, and bifactor) were tested for each of the constructs of interest (i.e., psychological flexibility and psychological inflexibility). All models, with the exception of the one-factor, provided adequate fit to the data. Differences between the three adequate fitting models were trivial in magnitude. Additional statistical indices from the bifactor models indicated that the general factors accounted for the large majority of reliable variance. The majority of the domain-specific factors evidenced redundancy with their respective general factors. Results from a series of structural regressions indicated that the domain-specific factors did not provide additional incremental utility above and beyond the general factors in predicting two relevant clinical constructs (i.e., health anxiety and depression). These results provide support for the use of the MPFI Flexibility and Inflexibility total scores, but not subscale scores. The MPFI may require further refinement to either greatly reduce the length of the measure, or to ensure that subscales have incremental utility.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T01:08:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211024353
       
  • The Agony of Choice: Acceptance, Efficiency, and Psychometric Properties
           of Questionnaires With Different Numbers of Response Options

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      Authors: Markus Müssig, Jeanette Kubiak, Boris Egloff
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Questionnaires are one of the most important tools in psychological assessment, yet the impact of different numbers of response options on psychometric properties of questionnaires is limited. This study extends existing research by analyzing respondents’ acceptance of and the efficiency of different numbers of response options and replicate findings on reliability and validity. We studied these questions in 540 respondents who filled out the Big Five Inventory–2 and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Two response options, 11 response options and the visual analog scale showed disadvantages in acceptance compared with the original number of response options. The completion time increased by 1.7s per item when moving from 2 to 11 response options. Cronbach’s alpha (but not ordinal alpha based on polychoric covariance) was lowest for two response options. Validity was unaffected. Overall, compared with the typical choice of five or seven response options, fewer or more response options resulted in disadvantages.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-03T12:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211029379
       
  • The Clinical Utility of the NAB Judgment Subtest Among Individuals
           Diagnosed With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Within a Forensic Inpatient
           Setting

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      Authors: Scott Roye, C. Adam Coffey, Stephen R. Nitch, David M. Glassmire, Dominique I. Kinney
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Executive functioning (EF) has been identified as a significant predictor in determining competence to stand trial. Individuals deemed incompetent to stand trial are provided a limited time frame before conservatorship is considered, thus, treatment providers practicing within inpatient facilities have a responsibility to efficiently identify factors that may lead to prolonged hospitalizations, in order to avoid delays in a defendant’s legal proceedings. Although previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Total Index Score in predicting length of stay (LOS), the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Judgment subtest provides a measure of executive function, which is a domain not captured by the RBANS. The current study examined the relationship between both the RBANS and NAB Judgment performance as predictors of LOS among 63 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders undergoing competency restoration treatment. Additionally, sensitivity analyses were used to determine cutoff scores for individuals requiring additional competency services. Results indicated that the NAB Judgment subtest was more predictive of LOS than the RBANS Total Index Score. Additionally, a raw score of ≤9 on NAB Judgment was indicative of increased LOS. These results highlight the utility of the NAB Judgment subtest within a forensic inpatient setting.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T06:10:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211027637
       
  • Self-Blame in Adolescents Who Have Been Sexually Abused: Factor Structure
           and Differential Correlates of Abuse-Specific and Global Measures

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      Authors: Caitlin Rancher, Renee McDonald, Akihito Kamata, Mindy Jackson, Ernest N. Jouriles
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Self-blame appraisals are frequently studied among adolescents following sexual abuse. However, the conceptualization and operationalization of self-blame varies across studies, with some examining self-blame specific to the abuse and others examining global self-blame. The present study examined the factor structure and theorized correlates of measures of self-blame appraisals among a sample of adolescents who had been sexually abused (N = 493, 91% female). Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a two-factor model, in which abuse-specific and global self-blame appraisals load onto separate factors, produced a superior model fit compared with a single-factor model, though the two factors were highly correlated. Abuse-specific and global self-blame appraisals are differentially associated with theorized correlates, such as experiencing coercion during the abuse. Taken together, the findings suggest that adolescents’ abuse-specific and global self-blame appraisals following sexual abuse are measuring distinct constructs.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T09:48:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211027632
       
  • Validation of the Social Media Disorder Scale in Adolescents: Findings
           From a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Sample

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      Authors: Maartje Boer, Gonneke W. J. M. Stevens, Catrin Finkenauer, Ina M. Koning, Regina J. J. M. van den Eijnden
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Large-scale validation research on instruments measuring problematic social media use (SMU) is scarce. Using a nationally representative sample of 6,626 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, the present study examined the psychometric properties of the nine-item Social Media Disorder scale. The structural validity was solid, because one underlying factor was identified, with adequate factor loadings. The internal consistency was good, but the test information was most reliable at moderate to high scores on the scale’s continuum. The factor structure was measurement invariant across different subpopulations. Three subgroups were identified, distinguished by low, medium, and high probabilities of endorsing the criteria. Higher levels of problematic SMU were associated with higher probabilities of mental, school, and sleep problems, confirming adequate criterion validity. Girls, lower educated adolescents, 15-year-olds, and non-Western adolescents were most likely to report problematic SMU. Given its good psychometric properties, the scale is suitable for research on problematic SMU among adolescents.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T09:46:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211027232
       
  • Psychometric Properties of the Coercion in Intimate Partner Relationships
           Scale

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      Authors: Kathleen D. Wilson, Patti A. Timmons Fritz
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Coercive control is defined as the systematic use of demands, threats, and surveillance behaviors to gain control over an individual. Content validity appears to be an issue for existing measures of coercive control tactics, as they do not assess all of these behaviors. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Demand, Threat, Surveillance, and Response to Demands subscales of the Coercion in Intimate Partner Relationships (CIPR) scale. Participants (N = 541) completed online measures of coercive control, physical intimate partner violence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Confirmatory factor analyses, linear regressions, and correlational analyses investigated the construct (i.e., concurrent, convergent, and discriminant) validity of the CIPR subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales and test–retest reliability were also examined. Results provided support for the validity and reliability of the CIPR. Implications and usage of the CIPR in research and practice are discussed. We report how we determined our sample size, all data exclusions, all manipulations, and all measures in the study.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T06:19:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211025628
       
  • Exploratory Graph Analysis of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
           in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

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      Authors: Pedro Henrique Ribeiro Santiago, Davi Manzini, Dandara Haag, Rachel Roberts, Lisa Gaye Smithers, Lisa Jamieson
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      In Australia, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been implemented in several national studies, including the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). However, three previous state-level validations indicated problems with instrument dimensionality, warranting further research. To address this gap, the current study employed exploratory graph analysis to investigate dimensionality of the caregiver-completed SDQ version 4 to 10 years in a nationally representative sample of Australian children. Data were from a dual cohort cross-sequential study (LSAC) that included more than 20,000 responses. Gaussian graphical models were estimated in each study wave and exploratory graph analysis applied. Structural consistency, item stability and network loadings were evaluated. The findings provided mixed support for the original SDQ five-factor structure. The Peer Problem scale displayed low structural consistency since items clustered with the Emotional Symptoms and Prosocial behavior, generating four-dimensional structures. Implications for future use of the SDQ version 4 to 10 years in Australia are provided.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T10:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211024338
       
  • Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Family Mediation: An
           Examination of Multiple Methodological Approaches Using Item Response
           Theory

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      Authors: Fernanda S. Rossi, Amy G. Applegate, Connie J. Beck, Christine Timko, Amy Holtzworth-Munroe
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Many divorcing/separating parties seeking mediation to resolve family-related issues report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization from the other party in the case. It is imperative that mediation staff screen parties for IPV so they can make informed decisions regarding how to proceed with mediation. Existing IPV screens for mediation have significant limitations. We examined three methodological approaches using item response theory that address these limitations by increasing the efficiency and clinical utility of an existing standardized IPV screen for mediation, the Mediator’s Assessment of Safety Issues and Concerns (N = 904 mediating parties). We identified three subsets of items, with initial evidence for their validity, focused on helping mediation staff identify high levels of IPV or parties at risk for potentially negative mediation outcomes or needing specialized safety accommodations in mediation. Clinical recommendations are provided indicating which approach is most promising to be used in mediation settings. Overall, findings help advance understanding of how item response theory methodology can enhance the precision of IPV screening in mediation.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T10:06:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211022843
       
  • Past Levels of Mental Health Intervention and Current Nondisclosure of
           Suicide Risk Among Men Older Than Age 50

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      Authors: Matthew C. Podlogar, Peter M. Gutierrez, Thomas E. Joiner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide risk screening depends heavily on accurate patient self-report. However, past negative experiences with mental health care may contribute to intentional nondisclosure of suicide risk during screening. This study investigated among 282 men older than age 50 whether likelihood for current explicit risk nondisclosure was associated with previous highest level of mental health care received. This sample was selected post hoc out of a larger sample of participants from higher risk and lower help-seeking populations (i.e., military service members and veterans, men older than age 50, and lesbian gay bisexual, transgender, and queer young adults), however, the other groups were underpowered for analysis. Among these men, history of psychiatric hospitalization was significantly associated with likelihood for explicit nondisclosure of current suicide risk, while history of receiving only outpatient therapy for suicidal thoughts or behaviors was significantly associated with likelihood for full reporting of suicide risk. Severity of suicidal ideation and internalized stigma against mental illness were significant indirect contributors to the effect. Although causality could not be determined, results suggest that a potential cost to consider for psychiatric hospitalization may be future nondisclosure of suicide risk. Conversely, outpatient interventions that appropriately manage suicidal thoughts or behaviors may encourage future full reporting of suicide risk and improve screening detection.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T10:04:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211023577
       
  • Adaptation of the Steen Happiness Index (SHI) to Brazil: A Comparison of
           

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      Authors: Cristian Zanon, Rodrigo Rodrigues Fabretti, Jucimara Zacarias Martins, Patrick J. Heath
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the psychometric properties of the Steen Happiness Index (SHI)—a measure of authentic happiness designed for intervention research—in a sample of Brazilian security workers. The SHI has yet to be used in a Brazilian sample and has the potential to assess both eudaimonic and hedonic happiness in Brazil. The psychometric properties of the SHI were also compared with those of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), a widely used happiness measure, using classical test theory and item response theory. Military police officers, civilian police officers, and military firefighters (N = 435) completed the SHI, SHS, and measures of well-being, optimism, and psychopathological symptoms. Exploratory factor analysis provided support for a one-factor SHI—rather than the three-factor structure found in previous research. The unidimensional SHI also better discriminated between low, medium, and high levels of happiness, and did not demonstrate a ceiling effect when compared with the SHS. Advantages and disadvantages of both scales are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T11:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211024354
       
  • The Hierarchical Structure and Predictive Validity of the Personality
           Inventory for DSM-5 in Chinese Nonclinical Adolescents

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      Authors: Wenjuan Zhang, Mengcheng Wang, Meng Yu, Jianping Wang
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in Chinese nonclinical adolescents, a total of 1,442 Chinese middle school youths (Mage = 14.85, girls = 52.4%) were recruited in the present study. All the participants completed the full-length 220-item PID-5. Some participants (n = 1,003) were administered adolescents’ social adjustment as a criterion measure at the same time and 236 participants took part in longitudinal assessment of the PID-5 and adolescents’ social adjustment 6 months later. First, exploratory structural equation modeling analyses supported a six-factor structure of the PID-5 in our present sample. Second, Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonistic, and Disinhibition domains had positive correlations with negative social adjustment, and negative correlations with positive social adjustment concurrently and longitudinally, with the exception of Constraint and Psychoticism. Third, Cronbach’s alpha for the PID-5 traits ranged from .57 to .91 in the full sample. The 6-month test–retest reliability by indexes of interclass correlation coefficient showed poor to good stability. As a whole, our findings provided preliminary evidence of the PID-5 as a reliable and valid measure of adolescents’ maladaptive personality traits in mainland China.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-17T08:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211022835
       
  • Multivariate Base Rates and Concussion Detection: A Comparative Study

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      Authors: Charles E. Gaudet
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research has yielded multivariate base rates (MBRs) of low scores in healthy populations using a widely adopted concussion screening measure, Immediate Postconcussion and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). However, the extent to which individuals with concussion obtain reliable changes at divergent frequencies relative to healthy individuals is largely unknown. The present study examined whether MBRs of reliable change accurately discriminated between those with and without concussion. This archival review consisted of 129 healthy individuals and 81 individuals with concussion. MBRs of reliable change scores were examined at varying cutoffs and frequencies between those with and without concussion. Composites showed small to medium effect sizes in differentiating between those with and without concussion. MBRs of reliable change scores on ImPACT provided limited discriminative utility in isolation. Computations of posttest probabilities using Bayes’ Theorem yielded evidence for incremental gains when utilizing MBRs of reliable change under certain constraints.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-12T05:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211022840
       
  • Assessing Mothers’ Automatic Affective and Discipline Reactions to Child
           

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      Authors: Christina M. Rodriguez, Paul J. Silvia, Shawna J. Lee, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Given the scope and adverse clinical consequences of child abuse, assessment of salient etiological factors can lend critical insights needed for abuse prevention. Increasingly, dual-processing models have been applied to aggression, which postulate that parallel automatic and conscious processes can evoke aggressive behavior, implicating both affective and cognitive elements in both routes. Using two samples of mothers (n = 110 and n = 195), the current investigation considered evidence of the reliability and convergent, concurrent, and construct validity of the new Automatic Parent Emotion Analog Response task relevant to parent–child aggression, contrasted with a self-reported conscious processing measure. Findings provide evidence that affective reactions of both anger and worry relate to child abuse risk and inclination to respond aggressively, and demonstrate how mothers’ automatic reactions relate to both perceived child misbehavior and child dangerous behavior. Current results lend psychometric support for automatic processing in parent–child aggression consistent with other dual-processing theories of aggression.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T09:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211020114
       
  • Examination of the Social Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS)
           Youth Report: Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Validity

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      Authors: Kimberly L. Klages, Richard F. Ittenbach, Alanna Long, Victoria W. Willard, Sean Phipps
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Social and Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale (SEARS) is a promising instrument for prediction of resilience in youth; however, there is limited data to support its use. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure, measurement invariance, internal consistency, and validity of the SEARS-Adolescent Report in youth 8 to 20 years of age. Two hundred and twenty-five childhood cancer survivors (Mage = 15.9, SD = 4.2; 51.4% male; 74.5% White) and 122 student controls without history of significant health problems (Mage = 14.2, SD = 3.5; 54.1% female; 79.5% White) 8 to 20 years of age completed the SEARS-A. The SEARS-A was found to have an adequate factor structure and model fit (χ2 = 1215.5, p < .001; root mean square error of approximation = .057; comparative fit index = .95; standardized root mean square residual = .06) and demonstrated invariance across domains of age, health status, gender, race, and socioeconomic status (Δ comparative fit index < −0.01). It also demonstrated excellent internal reliability, criterion validity, and current validity when compared with another well-established measure of psychological adjustment. As such, the SEARS-A has potential to be a useful, valid, and psychometrically sound tool for predicting social–emotional adjustment outcomes among at-risk youth 8 to 20 years of age.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:13:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211022844
       
  • Measurement Invariance of the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience
           Across 13 Countries

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      Authors: Veljko Jovanović, Mohsen Joshanloo, Marta Martín-Carbonell, Corrado Caudek, Begoña Espejo, Irene Checa, Julia Krasko, Theodoros Kyriazos, Jarosław Piotrowski, Sean P. M. Rice, Ana Junça Silva, Kamlesh Singh, Katsunori Sumi, Kwok Kit Tong, Murat Yıldırım, Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) is widely used to measure emotional experiences, but not much is known about its cross-cultural utility. The present study evaluated the measurement invariance of the SPANE across adult samples (N = 12,635; age range = 18-85 years; 58.2% female) from 13 countries (China, Colombia, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Turkey, and the United States). Configural and partial scalar invariance of the SPANE were supported. Three items capturing specific negative emotions (sad, afraid, and angry) were found to be culturally noninvariant. Our findings suggest that the SPANE’s positive emotion terms and general negative emotion terms (e.g., negative and unpleasant) might be more suitable for cross-cultural studies on emotions and well-being, whereas caution is needed when comparing countries using the SPANE’s specific negative emotion items.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:13:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211021494
       
  • HiTOP Assessment of the Somatoform Spectrum and Eating Disorders

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      Authors: Martin Sellbom, Kelsie T. Forbush, Sara R. Gould, Kristian E. Markon, David Watson, Michael Witthöft
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      We report on Phase 1 efforts of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) measurement subgroup tasked with developing provisional scales for the somatoform spectrum and eating disorders. In Study 1, items were written to assess five somatoform spectrum constructs (bodily distress symptoms, conversion symptoms, health anxiety, disease conviction, and somatic preoccupation). Scale development analyses were conducted on 550 university students. The conversion symptom items were too infrequently endorsed and were set aside for Phase 2. Analyses of the other items yielded four scales corresponding closely to their hypothesized structure. In Study 2, we delineated 15 specific feeding and eating disorder constructs. A sample of 400 university students were administered candidate items and several eating disorder questionnaires for criterion validity. Analyses yielded six scales capturing previously described constructs, tapping content related to body image and weight concerns, restricting and purging, cognitive restraint, binging, excessive exercise, and muscle building. Two scales representing additional constructs deemed to be of high clinical import—negative attitude towards obesity and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder—were retained for Phase 2, for a total of eight scales. Overall, we concluded that Phase 1 had been successful at generating a comprehensive set of provisional scales for inclusion in Phase 2.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T09:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211020825
       
  • A Comparison of Two Five-Factor Model Operationalizations of the Triarchic
           Model of Psychopathy in a Clinical Sample

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      Authors: Jared R. Ruchensky, M. Brent Donnellan, Christopher J. Hopwood, John F. Edens, Andrew E. Skodol, Leslie C. Morey
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Structural models of personality traits, particularly the five-factor model (FFM), continue to inform ongoing debates regarding what personality attributes and trait domains are central to psychopathy. A growing body of literature has linked the constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, disinhibition) to the FFM. Recently, researchers developed both item and regression-based measures of the triarchic model of psychopathy using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised—a popular measure of the FFM. The current study examines the correlates of these two FFM-derived operationalizations of the triarchic model using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. The two approaches had strong convergent validity coefficients and similar patterns of criterion-related validity coefficients. Meanness related to greater personality pathology characterized by exploitation of others and poor attachment, whereas disinhibition related to indicators of greater negative affect and poor behavioral constraint. Boldness related to reduced negative affect and greater narcissistic personality traits. Although the item and regression-based approaches showed similar patterns of associations with criterion-variables, the item-based approach has some practical and psychometric advantages over the regression-based approach given strong correlations between the meanness and disinhibition scores from the regression approach.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T06:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211006186
       
  • Developing Preliminary Scales for Assessing the HiTOP Detachment Spectrum

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      Authors: Johannes Zimmermann, Thomas A. Widiger, Lara Oeltjen, Christopher C. Conway, Leslie C. Morey
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical-based classification of psychopathology. Detachment is one of the six spectra in the current HiTOP working model. The aim of this study was to develop preliminary scales for the HiTOP Detachment spectrum that can be used in the next phase of developing a comprehensive measure of HiTOP. We had 456 participants from MTurk (Sample 1) and 266 university students (Sample 2) complete an online survey including a pool of 247 Detachment items assessing 15 consensually defined low-order constructs. Using a stepwise procedure involving factor analyses and ant colony optimization methods, we developed seven 8-item scales that capture unipolar facets of Detachment: anhedonia, suspiciousness, social withdrawal, intimacy avoidance, unassertiveness, risk aversion, and restricted affectivity. Three other 8-item scales emerged that tapped into a Maladaptive Extraversion construct (attention-seeking, thrill-seeking, and domineering), which was mostly unrelated to unipolar Detachment in factor analyses. The 10 scales were unidimensional, reliable, and showed some evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. We discuss challenges of assessing Detachment when moving forward with developing a comprehensive measure of HiTOP.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T06:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211015313
       
  • A Process × Domain Assessment of Narcissism: The Domain-Specific
           Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire

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      Authors: Michael P. Grosz, Isabel Hartmann, Michael Dufner, Marius Leckelt, Tanja M. Gerlach, John F. Rauthmann, Jaap J. A. Denissen, Albrecht C. P. Küfner, Mitja D. Back
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Research on grandiose narcissism distinguishes between self-promotional processes (i.e., narcissistic admiration) and other-derogative processes (i.e., narcissistic rivalry; Back et al., 2013). Moreover, research has begun to assess and investigate narcissistic manifestations in different domains (e.g., communal narcissism). To integrate these two lines of research, we developed the Domain-Specific Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (D-NARQ), a 72-item narcissism questionnaire that contains a self-promotional process scale (narcissistic admiration) and an other-derogatory process scale (narcissistic rivalry) for four domains: intellectual ability, social dominance, communal care, and physical attractiveness. We investigated the psychometric properties of the D-NARQ in a large online study (N = 1,635). Model fit statistics were largely in line with the theorized factor structure. The D-NARQ scales had good to very good measurement precision, and their correlations with established narcissism scales, the Big Five personality traits, and comparative self-evaluations largely supported their convergent and discriminant validity.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T10:27:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211020075
       
  • Measuring Irritability in Early Childhood: A Psychometric Evaluation of
           the Affective Reactivity Index in a Clinical Sample of 3- to 8-Year-Old
           Children

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      Authors: Maria K. Wilson, Danielle Cornacchio, Melissa A. Brotman, Jonathan S. Comer
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The parent-report Affective Reactivity Index (ARI-P) is the most studied brief scale specifically developed to assess irritability, but relatively little is known about its performance in early childhood (i.e., ≤8 years). Support in such populations is particularly important given developmental shifts in what constitutes normative irritability across childhood. We examined the performance of the ARI-P in a diverse, treatment-seeking sample of children ages 3 to 8 years (N = 115; mean age = 5.56 years; 58.4% from ethnic/racial minority backgrounds). In this sample, confirmatory factor analysis supported the single-factor structure of the ARI-P previously identified with older youth. ARI-P scores showed large associations with another irritability index, as well as small-to-large associations with aggression, anxiety, depression, and attention problems, supporting the convergent and concurrent validity of the ARI-P when used with children in this younger age range. Findings support the ARI-P as a promising parent-report tool for assessing irritability in early childhood, particularly in clinical samples.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T10:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211020078
       
  • Psychopathy Profiles and Personality Assessment Inventory Scores in a Sex
           Offender Risk Assessment Field Setting

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      Authors: Katherine E. McCallum, Marcus T. Boccaccini, Jorge G. Varela, Darrel B. Turner
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research suggests there are identifiable psychopathy subtypes among offenders scored on Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). We used latent profile analysis to examine the generalizability of these subtype findings to PCL-R scores (N = 615) assigned in a sex offender risk assessment field setting and to examine how offender subtypes differ on measures of comorbid psychopathology, risk, and treatment amenability from the Personality Assessment Inventory. Consistent with prior research, we identified four subtypes when using PCL-R scores from all offenders: Prototypic psychopathy (n = 239, 38.9%), callous-conning (n = 154, 25.0%), sociopathic (n = 96, 15.6%), and general offenders (n = 126, 20.5%). Prototypic and sociopathic subtypes exhibited the highest levels of comorbid psychopathology and risk for potential violence. We identified classes consistent with primary (n = 66, 36.7%) and secondary (n = 114, 63.3%) psychopathy among offenders with PCL-R total scores ≥ 25, and found higher levels of comorbid psychopathology and potential for violence among those in the secondary psychopathy class. Findings provide support the generalizability of existing PCL-R subtype findings to field scores and show how those with similar PCL-R total scores may differ on scores from commonly used multiscale inventories.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T05:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211015312
       
  • To Reverse Item Orientation or Not to Reverse Item Orientation, That Is
           the Question

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      Authors: David M. Dueber, Michael D. Toland, John Eric Lingat, Abigail M. A. Love, Chen Qiu, Rongxiu Wu, Alan V. Brown
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the effect of using negatively oriented items, we wrote semantic reversals of the items in the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the General Belongingness Scale and used them to create four experimental conditions. Participants (N = 2,019) were recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Data were assessed for dimensionality, item functioning, instrument properties, and associations with other variables. Regarding dimensionality, although a two-factor model (positively vs. negatively oriented factors) exhibits better fit than a unidimensional model across all conditions, bifactor indices were used to argue that a unidimensional interpretation of the data can be employed. With respect to item functioning, factor loadings were found to be nearly invariant across conditions, but thresholds were not. Concerning instrument properties, inclusion of negatively oriented items results in lower mean scores and higher score variances. Instruments with both positively and negatively oriented items demonstrated lower reliability estimates than those with only one orientation. For associations with other variables, path coefficients in a model where loneliness mediates the effects of belongingness on life satisfaction and self-esteem were found to vary across conditions. Findings suggest that negatively oriented items have minor impact on instrument quality, but influence measurement model and path coefficients.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T08:31:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211017635
       
  • A Comparison of Associations Between Self-Reported and Device-Based
           Sedentary Behavior and Obesity Markers in Adults: A Multi-National
           Cross-Sectional Study

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      Authors: Gerson Ferrari, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Ioná Zalcman Zimberg, Viviana Guajardo, Georgina Gómez, Dayana Quesada, Attilio Rigotti, Lilia Yadira Cortés, Martha Yépez García, Rossina G. Pareja, Miguel Peralta, Adilson Marques, Ana Carolina B. Leme, Irina Kovalskys, Scott Rollo, Mauro Fisberg
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between self-reported and device-based measures of sedentary behavior (SB) with obesity markers in adults from Latin American countries. Sitting time and total time spent in different SBs were self-reported using two different questionnaires. Accelerometers were used to assess total sedentary time. Body mass index, waist, and neck circumferences were assessed. The highest self-reported sitting time was in Argentina, the highest total time spent in different SBs was in Brazil and Costa Rica, and the highest device-based sedentary time was observed in Peru. Neither self-reported sitting time, total time spent in different SBs or device-based sedentary time were associated with body mass index. Device-based sedentary time was positively associated with waist circumference and self-reported sitting time was positively associated with neck circumference. Caution is warranted when comparing the associations of self-reported and device-based assessments of SB with anthropometric variables.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T08:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211017637
       
  • Development of the Thought Disorder Measure for the Hierarchical Taxonomy
           of Psychopathology

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      Authors: David C. Cicero, Katherine G. Jonas, Michael Chmielewski, Elizabeth A. Martin, Anna R. Docherty, Jonathan Berzon, John D. Haltigan, Ulrich Reininghaus, Avshalom Caspi, Rachael G. Graziolplene, Roman Kotov
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology consortium aims to develop a comprehensive self-report measure to assess psychopathology dimensionally. The current research describes the initial conceptualization, development, and item selection for the thought disorder spectrum and related constructs from other spectra. The thought disorder spectrum is defined primarily by the positive and disorganized traits and symptoms of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Thought Disorder Sub-Workgroup identified and defined 16 relevant constructs and wrote 10 to 15 items per each construct. These items were administered, along with detachment and mania items, to undergraduates and people with serious mental illness. Three hundred and sixty-five items across 25 scales were administered. An exploratory factor analysis of the scale scores suggested a two-factor structure corresponding to positive and negative symptoms for two samples. The mania scales loaded with the positive factor, while the detachment scales loaded with the negative factor. Item-level analyses resulted in 19 preliminary scales, including 215 items that cover the range of thought disorder pathology, and will be carried forward for the next phase of data collection/analysis.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T08:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211015355
       
  • Psychometric Properties of the German Brief Experiential Avoidance
           Questionnaire (BEAQ)

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      Authors: Carmen Schaeuffele, Christine Knaevelsrud, Babette Renneberg, Johanna Boettcher
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (BEAQ) is a 15-item short form of the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire. This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties of a German translation of the BEAQ in a student and a clinical population. The BEAQ showed high internal reliability and overall acceptable convergent and discriminant validity. The BEAQ displayed adequate 7- to 13-day test–retest reliability and captured changes in experiential avoidance when experiential avoidance was targeted in treatment. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a bifactor structure where the BEAQ is modeled as one general and five specific factors that correspond to the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire subscales fit the data adequately. All items (except Item 1 in the clinical population) loaded on the general factor and common variance was approximately equally spread across the general and specific factors. The Distress Endurance subscale was not included in this model, since it is represented by only one item, which showed poor performances and low associations to the BEAQ’s total score in both samples. We recommend further research into the BEAQ’s factor structure to substantiate our preliminary findings.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T08:30:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211010955
       
  • Validity Evidence of the Spanish Version of the Mindful Attention
           Awareness Scale Using the Rasch Measurement Model

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      Authors: José Buz, María Á. Gómez-Martínez, Antonio Crego, José R. Yela, Elena Sánchez-Zaballos
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is the most cited instrument to measure dispositional mindfulness. However, some aspects of its validity are still under debate. We aimed to assess different sources of validity evidence (i.e., response processes, content, internal structure, reliability, and relations with external variables) of the MAAS scores in a sample of Spanish-speaking participants (N = 812) applying Rasch modeling. The items formed an essentially unidimensional structure, the item hierarchy was similar to that of previous comparable studies, the items were well targeted, and the ordering of persons along the construct was adequate. Moreover, measures were invariant across four age groups and three groups based on meditation practice, and correlated as expected with a variety of well-being variables. In sum, our findings supported the interpretation of MAAS scores as a measure of mindfulness in our sample of Spanish-speaking participants. Any other specific inference should be tested.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:39:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211018855
       
  • Does Functional Somatic Symptoms Measurement Differ Across Sex and
           Age' Differential Item Functioning in Somatic Symptoms Measured With
           the CIDI

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      Authors: Angélica Acevedo-Mesa, Rei Monden, Sebastian Castro-Alvarez, Judith G. M. Rosmalen, Annelieke M. Roest, Jorge N. Tendeiro
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Functional Somatic Symptoms (FSS) are physical symptoms that cannot be attributed to underlying pathology. Their severity is often measured with sum scores on questionnaires; however, this may not adequately reflect FSS severity in subgroups of patients. We aimed to identify the items of the somatization section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview that best discriminate FSS severity levels, and to assess their functioning in sex and age subgroups. We applied the two-parameter logistic model to 19 items in a population-representative cohort of 962 participants. Subsequently, we examined differential item functioning (DIF). “Localized (muscle) weakness” was the most discriminative item of FSS severity. “Abdominal pain” consistently showed DIF by sex, with males reporting it at higher FSS severity. There was no consistent DIF by age, however, “Joint pain” showed poor discrimination of FSS severity in older adults. These findings could be helpful for the development of better assessment instruments for FSS, which can improve both future research and clinical care.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211017228
       
  • An Item Response Theory-Based Scoring of the South Oaks Gambling
           Screen–Revised Adolescents

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      Authors: Pasquale Anselmi, Daiana Colledani, Alessandra Andreotti, Egidio Robusto, Luigi Fabbris, Paolo Vian, Bruno Genetti, Claudia Mortali, Adele Minutillo, Luisa Mastrobattista, Roberta Pacifici
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The South Oaks Gambling Screen–Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA) is one of the most widely used screening tools for problem gambling among adolescents. In this study, item response theory was used for computing measures of problem gambling severity that took into account how much information the endorsed items provided about the presence of problem gambling. A zero-inflated mixture two-parameter logistic model was estimated on the responses of 4,404 adolescents to the South Oaks Gambling Screen–Revised Adolescent to compute the difficulty and discrimination of each item, and the problem gambling severity level (θ score) of each respondent. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the cutoff on the θ scores that best distinguished daily and nondaily gamblers. This cutoff outperformed the common cutoff defined on the sum scores in identifying daily gamblers but fell behind it in identifying nondaily gamblers. When screening adolescents to be subjected to further investigations, the cutoff on the θ scores must be preferred to that on the sum scores.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T09:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211017657
       
  • Development of Measures for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology
           (HiTOP): A Collaborative Scale Development Project

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      Authors: Leonard J. Simms, Aidan G. C. Wright, David Cicero, Roman Kotov, Stephanie N. Mullins-Sweatt, Martin Sellbom, David Watson, Thomas A. Widiger, Johannes Zimmermann
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we describe the collaborative process that is underway to develop measures for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). The HiTOP model has generated much interest in the psychiatric literature in recent years, but research applications and clinical translation of the model require measures that are specifically keyed to the model. To that end, the Measures Development Workgroup of HiTOP has been engaged in a collaborative effort to develop both questionnaire and interview methods that (a) are specifically tied to the elements of the HiTOP structure, and (b) provide one means of testing that structure. The work has been divided among five subgroups that are focused on specific HiTOP spectra. Our scale development methods are rooted in the principles of construct valid scale development. This report describes Phase 1 of this project, summarizes the methods and results thus far, and discusses the interplay between measurement and HiTOP model revisions. Finally, we discuss future phases of the scale development and the steps we are taking to improve clinical utility of the final measures.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T11:10:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211015309
       
  • Testing Invariance of Measures of Internalizing Symptoms Before and After
           a Major Life Stressor: The Impact of COVID-19 in an Adolescent and Young
           Adult Sample

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      Authors: Thomas M. Olino, Julia A. C. Case, Mariah T. Hawes, Aline Szenczy, Brady Nelson, Daniel N. Klein
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      There are reports of increases in levels of internalizing psychopathology during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these studies presume that measurement properties of these constructs remained unchanged from before the pandemic. In this study, we examined longitudinal measurement invariance of assessments of depression, anxiety, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in adolescents and young adults from ongoing longitudinal studies. We found consistent support for configural and metric invariance across all constructs, but scalar invariance was unsupported for depression and IU. Thus, it is necessary to interpret pandemic-associated mean-level changes in depression and IU cautiously. In contrast, mean-level comparisons of panic, generalized, and social anxiety symptoms were not compromised. These findings are limited to the specific measures examined and the developmental period of the sample. We acknowledge that there is tremendous distress accompanying disruptions due to the COVID-19 outbreak. However, for some instruments, comparisons of symptom levels before and during the pandemic may be limited.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T11:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211015315
       
  • Caregiver Strain Questionnaire–Short Form 11 (CGSQ-SF11): A
           Validation Study

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      Authors: Grace M. Brennan, Dara E. Babinski, Daniel A. Waschbusch
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Caregiver strain is associated with caregiver and child well-being and clinical outcomes. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a revised 11-item measure of caregiver strain, the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire–Short Form 11 (CGSQ-SF11). In a sample of 962 caregivers, we found support for a three-factor model of the CGSQ-SF11, consisting of objective (e.g., financial impact), subjective internalized (e.g., sadness about the child’s problems), and subjective externalized (e.g., anger directed toward the child) strain factors. Measurement invariance was supported across multiple demographic and clinical groups, and all three subscales displayed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was also supported through positive correlations with measures of child psychopathology symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Moreover, caregiver strain was associated with number of child disorders as well as breadth of child symptoms across both internalizing and externalizing domains. Findings provide initial validation of the CGSQ-SF11 as a comprehensive yet brief measure of caregiver strain.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T10:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211015360
       
  • Alliance With an Unguided Smartphone App: Validation of the Digital
           Working Alliance Inventory

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      Authors: Simon B. Goldberg, Scott A. Baldwin, Kevin M. Riordan, John Torous, Cortland J. Dahl, Richard J. Davidson, Matthew J. Hirshberg
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The working alliance may be relevant in unguided smartphone-based interventions, but no validated measure exists. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the six-item Digital Working Alliance Inventory (DWAI) using a cross-sectional survey of meditation app users (n = 290) and the intervention arm of a randomized trial testing a smartphone-based meditation app (n = 314). Exploratory factor analysis suggested a single-factor solution which was replicated using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis. The DWAI showed adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Discriminant validity was supported by a lack of association with social desirability, psychological distress, and preference for a waitlist condition. Convergent validity was supported by positive associations with perceived app effectiveness and preference for an app condition. Supporting predictive validity, DWAI scores positively predicted self-reported and objective app utilization. When assessed at Weeks 3 or 4 of the intervention, but not earlier, DWAI scores predicted pre–post reductions in psychological distress.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T08:41:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211015310
       
  • I am Worried: Do the PSWQ and PSWQ-A Display Measurement Invariance Across
           Four Racial Groups'

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      Authors: Samuel R. Cares, Johanna A. Younce, Katie H. Mangen, Jessica R. Winder, Thomas A. Fergus, Kevin D. Wu
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The issue of race within the context of psychological assessment is important, but often overlooked. Many self-report measures of psychopathology have been developed and validated using primarily White samples. Research regarding the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and race has produced mixed results, which in turn may present challenges when comparing scores across racial groups. The current article sought to investigate the measurement invariance of the PSWQ and PSWQ-A (an abbreviated version) across four racial groups (White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic) in a sample of 2,489 undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis of a one-factor structure illustrated poor fit across all racial groups for the full-length PSWQ. Two-factor and one-factor with method effects models of the full-length PSWQ each improved on the previous model fit, although the one-factor method effects model was limited by nonsalient factor loadings. Additionally, a separate confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for the PSWQ-A. Further analysis of the PSWQ-A suggested measurement invariance across all racial groups, as well as configural, metric, and scalar invariance. These findings advance the literature on the relationship between worry and race, suggesting that direct comparisons on the PSWQ-A between racial groups is appropriate.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-10T10:51:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211013911
       
  • Psychometric Evaluation of a Big Five Personality State Scale for
           Intensive Longitudinal Studies

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      Authors: Whitney R. Ringwald, Stephen B. Manuck, Anna L. Marsland, Aidan G. C. Wright
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Despite enthusiasm for using intensive longitudinal designs to measure day-to-day manifestations of personality underlying differences between people, the validity of personality state scales has yet to be established. In this study, we evaluated the psychometrics of 20-item and 10-item daily, Big Five personality state scales in three independent samples (N = 1,041). We used multilevel models to separately examine the validity of the scales for assessing personality variation at the between- and within-person levels. Results showed that a five-factor structure at both levels fits the data well, the scales had good convergent and discriminative associations with external variables, and personality states captured similar nomological nets as established global, self-report personality inventories. Limitations of the scales were identified (e.g., low reliability, low correlations with external criterion) that point to a need for more, systematic psychometric work. Our findings provide initial support for the use of personality state scales in intensive longitudinal designs to study between-person traits, within-person processes, and their interrelationship.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T11:52:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211008254
       
  • The Fear of Being Laughed at, Social Anxiety, and Paranoid Ideation: A
           Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Multitrait–Multimethod Data

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      Authors: Jorge Torres-Marín, Hugo Carretero-Dios, Michael Eid
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The GELOPH-15 is a self-report measure that assesses individual differences in the fear of being laughed at (i.e., gelotophobia), a relatively understudied but important trait that is closely related to social anxiety. Using a multitrait–multimethod (MTMM) approach, the convergent and discriminant validity of the GELOPH-15 scale was examined based on 217 self- and 651 peer ratings (of three close acquaintances per target) of the traits gelotophobia, social anxiety, and paranoid ideation. Participants completed the Spanish versions of the GELOPH-15, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, and the Paranoia Scale. Applying MTMM models of multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (ML-CFA-MTMM) revealed relatively high associations between the self- and peer ratings, supporting the convergent validity of the GELOPH-15. Discriminant validity analyses confirmed the expected relationship patterns of gelotophobia with social anxiety and paranoid ideation (i.e., strong, but not perfect associations). The results showed that the ML-CFA-MTMM models might be a useful tool for analyzing the convergent and discriminant validity based on self- and peer ratings.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T09:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211010961
       
  • The Big Five Inventory–2 in China: A Comprehensive Psychometric
           Evaluation in Four Diverse Samples

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      Authors: Bo Zhang, Yi Ming Li, Jian Li, Jing Luo, Yonghao Ye, Lu Yin, Zhuosheng Chen, Christopher J. Soto, Oliver P. John
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2) has received wide recognition since its publication because it strikes a good balance between content coverage and brevity. The current study translated the BFI-2 into Chinese, evaluated its psychometric properties in four diverse Chinese samples (college students, adult employees, adults treated for substance use, and adolescents), and compared its factor structure with those obtained from two U.S. samples. Across two studies, the Chinese BFI-2 demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach’s α and test–retest reliability), structural validity, convergent/discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity at the domain level. At lower levels of analyses, some facets and negatively worded items functioned better among participants with higher than those with lower education levels. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T09:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211008245
       
  • A Longitudinal and Gender Invariance Analysis of the Strengths and
           Difficulties Questionnaire Across Ages 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and 17 in a Large
           U.K.-Representative Sample

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      Authors: Aja Louise Murray, Lydia Gabriela Speyer, Hildigunnur Anna Hall, Sara Valdebenito, Claire Hughes
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Developmental invariance is important for making valid inferences about child development from longitudinal data; however, it is rarely tested. We evaluated developmental and gender invariance for one of the most widely used measures of child mental health: the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using data from the large U.K. population-representative Millennium Cohort Study (N = 10,207; with data at ages 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and 17 years), we tested configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance in emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, prosociality, and peer problems. We found that the SDQ showed poor fit at age 3 in both males and females and at age 17 in males; however, it fit reasonably well and its scores were measurement invariant up to the residual level across gender at ages 5, 7, 11, and 14 years. Scores were also longitudinally measurement invariant across this age range up to the partial residual level. Results suggest that the parent-reported SDQ can be used to estimate developmental trajectories of emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, prosociality, and peer problems and their gender differences across the age range 5 to 14 years using a latent model. Developmental differences outside of this range may; however, partly reflect measurement differences.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T05:03:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211009312
       
  • Impaired Knowledge of Social Norms in Dementia and Psychiatric Disorders:
           Validation of the Social Norms Questionnaire–Dutch Version (SNQ-NL)

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      Authors: E. van den Berg, J. M. Poos, L. C. Jiskoot, B. Montagne, R. P. C. Kessels, S. Franzen, J. van Hemmen, W. S. Eikelboom, E. G. C. Heijboer, J. de Kriek, A. van der Vlist, F. J. de Jong, J. C. van Swieten, H. Seelaar, J. M. Papma
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Social Norms Questionnaire–Dutch version (SNQ-NL) measures the ability to understand and identify social boundaries. We examined the psychometric characteristics of the SNQ-NL and its ability to differentiate between patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 23), Alzheimer’s dementia (AD; n = 26), chronic psychiatric disorders (n = 27), and control participants (n = 92). Between-group differences in the Total score, Break errors, and Overadhere errors were examined and associations with demographic variables and other cognitive functions were explored. Results showed that the SNQ-NL Total Score and Break errors differed between patients with AD and bvFTD, but not between patients with bvFTD and psychiatric disorders. Modest correlations with age, sex, and education were observed. The SNQ-NL Total score and Break errors correlated significantly with emotion recognition and verbal fluency but not with processing speed or mental flexibility. In conclusion, the SNQ-NL has sufficient construct validity and can be used to investigate knowledge of social norms in clinical populations.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T09:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211008234
       
  • Extracting Agency and Communion From the Big Five: A Four-Way Competition

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      Authors: Theresa M. Entringer, Jochen E. Gebauer, Delroy L. Paulhus
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Agency and communion are the two fundamental content dimensions in psychology. The two dimensions figure prominently in many psychological realms (personality, social, self, motivational, cross-cultural, etc.). In contemporary research, however, personality is most commonly measured within the Big Five framework. We developed novel agency and communion scales based on the items from the most popular nonpropriety measure of the Big Five—the Big Five Inventory. We compared four alternative scale-construction methods: expert rating, target scale, ant colony, and brute force. Across three samples (Ntotal = 942), all methods yielded reliable and valid agency and communion scales. Our research provides two main contributions. For psychometric theory, it extends knowledge on the four scale-construction methods and their relative convergence. For psychometric practice, it enables researchers to examine agency and communion hypotheses with extant Big Five Inventory data sets, including those collected in their own labs as well as openly accessible, large-scale data sets.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T07:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211003978
       
  • Stability and Change in Relations Between Personality Traits and the
           Interpersonal Problems Circumplex During Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent
           Depression

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      Authors: Jeffrey R. Vittengl, Lee Anna Clark, Michael E. Thase, Robin B. Jarrett
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Both personality impairment and maladaptive-range traits are necessary for diagnosis in the alternative model of personality disorder. We clarified personality impairment-trait connections using measures of the interpersonal problems circumplex and personality traits among adult outpatients (N = 351) with major depressive disorder receiving cognitive therapy (CT). The trait scales’ circumplex projections were summarized by elevation (correlations with general interpersonal problems), amplitude (specific relations to the circumplex dimensions of dominance and affiliation), and angle (predominant orientation in the two-dimensional circumplex). Most trait scales showed hypothesized circumplex relations, including substantive elevation (e.g., negative temperament, mistrust), amplitude (e.g., aggression, detachment), and expected angles (e.g., positive temperament and manipulativeness oriented toward overly nurturant/intrusive or domineering/vindictive problems, respectively), that were stable across time during CT. These results revealed meaningful and consistent impairment-trait connections, even during CT when mean depressive affect decreased substantially.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:48:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211005183
       
  • Limited Internal Comparability of General Intelligence Composites: Impact
           on External Validity, Possible Predictors, and Practical Remedies

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      Authors: Silvia Grieder, Anette Bünger, Salome D. Odermatt, Florine Schweizer, Alexander Grob
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Research on comparability of general intelligence composites (GICs) is scarce and has focused exclusively on comparing GICs from different test batteries, revealing limited individual-level comparability. We add to these findings, investigating the group- and individual-level comparability of different GICs within test batteries (i.e., internal score comparability), thereby minimizing transient error and ruling out between-battery variance completely. We (a) determined the magnitude of intraindividual IQ differences, (b) investigated their impact on external validity, (c) explored possible predictors for these differences, and (d) examined ways to deal with incomparability. Results are based on the standardization samples of three intelligence test batteries, spanning from early childhood to late adulthood. Despite high group-level comparability, individual-level comparability was often unsatisfactory, especially toward the tails of the IQ distribution. This limited comparability has consequences for external validity, as GICs were differentially related to and often less predictive for school grades for individuals with high IQ differences. Of several predictors, only IQ level and age were systematically related to comparability. Consequently, findings challenge the use of overall internal consistencies for confidence intervals and suggest using confidence intervals based on test–retest reliabilities or age- and IQ-specific internal consistencies for clinical interpretation. Implications for test construction and application are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:48:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211005171
       
  • Exploratory Factor Analyses of the French WISC-V (WISC-VFR) for Five Age
           Groups: Analyses Based on the Standardization Sample

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      Authors: Thierry Lecerf, Gary L. Canivez
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the factor structure of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition with five standardization sample age groups (6-7, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-16 years) using hierarchical exploratory factor analysis followed by Schmid–Leiman procedure. The primary research questions included (a) how many French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition factors should be extracted and retained in each age subgroup, (b) how are subtests associated with the latent factors, (c) was there evidence for the publisher’s claim of five first-order factors and separate Visual Spatial and Fluid Reasoning factors, (d) what proportion of variance was due to general intelligence versus the first-order group ability factors following a Schmid–Leiman procedure, and (e) do results support the age differentiation hypothesis' Results suggested that four factors might be sufficient for all five age groups and results did not support the distinction between Visual Spatial and Fluid Reasoning factors. While the general factor accounted for the largest portions of variance, the four first-order factors accounted for small unique portions of variance. Results did not support the age differentiation hypothesis because the number of factors remained the same across age groups, and there was no change in the percentage of variance accounted for by the general factor across age groups.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211005170
       
  • The Performance of College Students on the Iowa Gambling Task: Differences
           Between Scoring Approaches

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      Authors: Wesley R. Barnhart, Melissa T. Buelow
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most common behavioral decision-making tasks used in clinical and research settings. Less-than-expected performance among healthy adults generates concerns about the validity of this task, and it is possible the particular scoring approach utilized could impact interpretation. We examined how performance patterns changed across several scoring approaches, utilizing a large, college student sample, both with (n = 406) and without (n = 1,547) a self-reported history of psychiatric or other diagnosis. Higher net scores were seen when participants selected decks with a low loss frequency than decks with high long-term outcomes; however, participants overall underperformed the IGT normative data sample. Receiver operating characteristic curves examining multiple scoring approaches revealed no threshold of impaired performance that both maximized sensitivity and minimized false positive rate on the IGT. Scoring approach matters in the determination of impaired decision making via the IGT in adults.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:47:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211004741
       
  • The Development of Preliminary HiTOP Internalizing Spectrum Scales

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      Authors: David Watson, Miriam K. Forbes, Holly F. Levin-Aspenson, Camilo J. Ruggero, Yuliya Kotelnikova, Shereen Khoo, R. Michael Bagby, Matthew Sunderland, Praveetha Patalay, Roman Kotov
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      As part of a broader project to create a comprehensive self-report measure for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology consortium, we developed preliminary scales to assess internalizing symptoms. The item pool was created in four steps: (a) clarifying the range of content to be assessed, (b) identifying target constructs to guide item writing, (c) developing formal definitions for each construct, and (d) writing multiple items for each construct. This yielded 430 items assessing 57 target constructs. Responses from a heterogeneous scale development sample (N = 1,870) were subjected to item-level factor analyses based on polychoric correlations. This resulted in 39 scales representing a total of 213 items. The psychometric properties of these scales replicated well across the development sample and an independent validation sample (N = 496 adults). Internal consistency analyses established that most scales assess relatively narrow forms of psychopathology. Structural analyses demonstrated the presence of a strong general factor. Additional analyses of the 35 nonsexual dysfunction scales revealed a replicable four-factor structure with dimensions we labeled Distress, Fear, Body Dysmorphia, and Mania. A final set of analyses established that the internalizing scales varied widely—and consistently—in the strength of their associations with neuroticism and extraversion.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211003976
       
  • Refinement of the Reflective Function Questionnaire for Youth (RFQY) Scale
           B Using Item Response Theory

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      Authors: Carla Sharp, Lynne Steinberg, Veronica McLaren, Stuart Weir, Carolyn Ha, Peter Fonagy
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted item response theory analyses to refine the Reflective Function Questionnaire for Youth (RFQY) Scale B. Data from a non-clinical sample of young people (n = 737; aged 18-25 years) was used to derive a shortened version of the RFQY. Results were replicated in a clinical sample of inpatient adolescents (n = 467; aged 12-17 year), resulting in a five-item measure, thereafter named the RFQY-5. The RFQY-5 item set was then scrutinized for construct validity against the original 23-item RFQY item set in a randomly selected sample of 100 inpatient adolescents not included in the item response theory replication, and 186 healthy adolescents drawn from the community. Results showed that the RFQY-5 performed similarly as the long version in terms of associations with criterion variables, and outperformed the longer version in discriminating between inpatient and community-dwelling adolescents who differed in their levels of borderline traits. The study provides evidence in support of the use of the RFQY-5 in research and clinical settings.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:46:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211003971
       
  • Evaluating the Factor Structure and Criterion Validity of the Canadian
           Little DCDQ: Associations Between Motor Competence, Executive Functions,
           Early Numeracy Skills, and ADHD in Early Childhood

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      Authors: Kesha N. Hudson, Michael T. Willoughby
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Canadian Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (Little DCDQ-CA) is a parent-report screening instrument that identifies 3- to 4-year-old children who may be at risk for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). We tested the factor structure and criterion validity of the Little DCDQ-CA in a sample of preschool-aged children in the United States (N = 233). Factor analysis indicated that the DCDQ-CA was best represented by one factor. Using cutoff scores that were proposed by the developer, 45% of the sample was identified as at-risk for DCD. Although a much larger percentage of children was identified as at-risk than would be expected based on the prevalence of formal DCD diagnoses in the population, the Little DCDQ-CA demonstrated good criterion validity. Specifically, compared with their peers, children who exceeded the at-risk criterion demonstrated worse motor competence, executive functioning skills, and early numeracy skills and were rated as having greater ADHD behaviors by their teachers, all consistent with expectations for children who are at risk for DCD. Results are discussed as they relate to future use of the Little DCDQ-CA.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:46:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211003967
       
  • Measuring Negative Emotion Differentiation Via Coded Descriptions of
           Emotional Experience

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      Authors: Gregory E. Williams, Amanda A. Uliaszek
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Emotion differentiation (ED) has been defined in terms of two abilities: (a) making fine-grained distinctions between emotional experiences, and (b) describing individual emotional experiences with a high degree of nuance and specificity. Research to date has almost exclusively focused on the former, with little attention paid to the latter. The current study sought to address this discrepant focus by testing two novel measures of negative ED (i.e., based on negatively valenced emotions only) via coded open-ended descriptions of individual emotional experiences, both past and present. As part of a larger study, 307 participants completed written descriptions of two negative emotional experiences, as well as a measure of emotion regulation difficulties and indices of psychopathological symptom severity. Negative ED ability, as measured via consistency between emotional experiences, was found to be unrelated to negative ED ability exhibited via coding of language within experiences. Within-experience negative ED may offer an incrementally adaptive function to that of ED between emotional experiences. Implications for ED theory are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T07:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211003949
       
  • MMPI-3 Predictors of Anxiety Sensitivity and Distress Intolerance

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      Authors: Andrew J. Kremyar, Tayla T. C. Lee
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Documenting empirical correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–3 (MMPI-3) scale scores is important for expanding the clinical utility of the instrument. To this end, the goals of the current study were to examine associations between scores on MMPI-3 scales and measures of anxiety sensitivity and distress intolerance, two constructs reflecting intolerance of negative emotional states that are implicated in many psychological conditions, and to identify the scales that most strongly predict each construct. Using a sample of 287 undergraduate students (71% women; Mage = 18.90, SD = 1.12; 85% White), zero-order correlational, regression, and dominance analyses were performed to address these goals. Results indicate that when MMPI-3 scale scores are considered conjointly by scale family, they predict meaningful variance in anxiety sensitivity and distress intolerance measure scores, with conceptually implicated scales offering the strongest prediction across scale families. Implications for both research and practice, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T11:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211001948
       
  • Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Child and Adolescent Behavior
           Inventory Scale Scores With Well-Established Psychopathology and Academic
           Achievement Measures in Adolescents With ADHD

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      Authors: G. Leonard Burns, Stephen P. Becker
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The convergent and discriminant validity of the parent version of the Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory (CABI) symptom and impairment scale scores were evaluated with the scale scores from multiple methods including a semistructured diagnostic interview, rating scales, and an academic achievement test. Participants were 82 adolescents (70% male, 78% non-Hispanic White) aged 13 to 17 years (M = 15.01) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (77% predominantly inattentive presentation) and parents. CABI scale scores showed moderate (rs = .42 to .49) to substantial (rs = .62 to .91) convergent correlations with scores from similar measures. CABI scale scores also showed significant discriminant validity (convergent correlation significantly larger than discriminant correlation) with the scores on the other measures. These findings provide additional support for use of the CABI in research and clinical practice, and copies of the scale and norms are freely available.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-23T09:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211001929
       
  • Assessment of Agreement Between Human Ratings and Lexicon-Based Sentiment
           Ratings of Open-Ended Responses on a Behavioral Rating Scale

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      Authors: Olivia Gratz, Duncan Vos, Megan Burke, Neelkamal Soares
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      To date, there is a paucity of research conducting natural language processing (NLP) on the open-ended responses of behavior rating scales. Using three NLP lexicons for sentiment analysis of the open-ended responses of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Third Edition, the researchers discovered a moderately positive correlation between the human composite rating and the sentiment score using each of the lexicons for strengths comments and a slightly positive correlation for the concerns comments made by guardians and teachers. In addition, the researchers found that as the word count increased for open-ended responses regarding the child’s strengths, there was a greater positive sentiment rating. Conversely, as word count increased for open-ended responses regarding child concerns, the human raters scored comments more negatively. The authors offer a proof-of-concept to use NLP-based sentiment analysis of open-ended comments to complement other data for clinical decision making.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-19T05:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121996466
       
  • Measuring Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation in Older Adults:
           Construct Validity of the Dutch BIS/BAS Scales

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      Authors: Serafine Dierickx, Eva Dierckx, Laurence Claes, Gina Rossi
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the validity of the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales focused on adolescent, student and adult populations. This study is the first to examine the psychometric properties of the BIS/BAS scales in a community (n = 368) and a clinical sample (n = 160) of older adults. Exploratory structural equation modelling with target rotation to the Carver and White model supported the construct validity of the BIS/BAS scales. Internal consistencies of the scales were generally satisfactory. Female participants scored higher on BIS and BAS-Reward Responsiveness compared with males. The community-dwelling sample scored higher on BAS-Drive and BAS-Reward Responsiveness compared with the clinical sample. Concerning the nomological net, BIS was positively related to Anxiety, Depression, maladaptive coping strategies, Neuroticism and Cluster C personality disorders. BAS was positively related to Openness, Extraversion, Active Confronting and Cluster B personality disorders and negatively related to the schizoid personality disorder. The BIS/BAS Scales are a useful instrument for measuring Gray’s theory of personality in older adults.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-19T05:52:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211000123
       
  • A Short Measure of Acceptability of Intimate Partner Violence Against
           Women: Development and Validation of the A-IPVAW-8 Scale

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      Authors: Manuel Martín-Fernández, Enrique Gracia, Marisol Lila
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Attitudes of acceptability of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) are considered one of the main risk factors of this type of violence. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a short version of the acceptability of IPVAW scale, the A-IPVAW-8, for large scale studies where space and time are limited. A panel of experts were asked to assess item content validity. Two samples were recruited to assemble an 8-item short version of the scale using automated test assembly, and to reassess the psychometric properties of the A-IPVAW-8 in an independent sample. Results showed that the A-IPVAW-8 had adequate internal consistency (α = .72-.76, ω = .73-.81), a stable one-factor latent structure (comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.94, Tucker–Lewis index = 0.92, root mean square error of approximation = 0.077), validity evidences based on its relationships to other variables in both samples, and was also invariant across gender (ΔCFI < 0.02 ). This study provides a short, easy-to-use tool to evaluate attitudes of acceptability of IPVAW for large scale studies.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T09:29:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211000110
       
  • Military Background and Gender Identity in Psychological Assessment Among
           College Students: Factorial Invariance of the Counseling Center Assessment
           of Psychological Symptoms–62 (CCAPS-62)

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      Authors: Arpita Ghosh, Christopher R. Niileksela, Rebecca Janis
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial invariance of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms–62 (CCAPS-62) across military background and gender identity. A sample of 2,208 military students and 2,208 nonmilitary students were chosen from a large database of university and college counseling centers. Using exploratory structural equation modeling, findings suggested the CCAPS-62 is mostly invariant across military background and gender identity. Only three item thresholds appeared to be noninvariant across groups. These results suggest comparisons of scores across military background and gender can be made. Latent mean differences across groups were also examined. After controlling for several background variables, there were some differences between males and females on subscales measuring depression, eating concerns, and generalized anxiety, but no differences between military and nonmilitary students. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T09:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121998768
       
  • Development and Validation of a Short Form Version of the Ethno-Cultural
           Identity Conflict Scale (EICS-SF)

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      Authors: Ágnes Szabó, Colleen Ward
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A short form version of the Ethno-Cultural Identity Conflict Scale (ECIS-SF) was developed and validated to address item redundancy in the original scale and to increase its utility in comparative studies and applied settings. Construct, discriminant, nomological, and predictive validity of the EICS-SF was tested and supported with five samples in three countries. In Study 1, the EICS-SF was derived and validated using data from Chinese (n = 232) and Greek (n = 139) New Zealanders. Study 2 confirmed the factor structure, measurement equivalence and discriminant validity of the EICS-SF with Chinese Canadians (n = 199) and British Indians (n = 190). Study 3 provided additional evidence for the test–retest reliability and temporal consistency of the EICS-SF’s association with criterion measures in Indian New Zealanders (n = 147). The EICS-SF is psychometrically sound and easy to administer with diverse populations. Potential for application in clinical settings is discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T11:11:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10731911211000108
       
  • Wanting and Liking: Testing the Factor Structure of The Temporal
           Experience of Pleasure Scale in Major Depression and Community Samples

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      Authors: David John Hallford, David W. Austin
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a multidimensional self-report measure that has been used to improve understanding of anticipation (“wanting”) and consummation (“liking”) of reward. The TEPS has been used to assess anhedonia in clinical depression, but its factor structure has not yet been confirmed in this population. This seems important given mixed findings on the model fit and factor structure of the TEPS in other clinical and community samples. To remedy this, the current study used confirmatory factor analysis to test models of the TEPS items across three studies: (a) in adults with major depression (n = 334), (b) in youth with major depression (n = 305), and (c) in a community sample (n = 320). In summary, the model fit of the two-factor TEPS scales was adequate in depressed and community Australian samples. Nevertheless, some items may require removal or revision based on cultural preferences for pleasurable experiences.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T11:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121998767
       
  • Psychometric Evaluation of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for
           Children (IUSC): Findings From Clinical and Community Samples in Iran

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      Authors: Mehdi Zemestani, Reza Didehban, Jonathan S. Comer, Philip C. Kendall
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:The present study examined the psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children (IUSC; Comer et al, 2009).Method:Participating youth (n = 346) 8 to 18 years of age were nonreferred community youth (n = 279) or youth who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder (n = 67) and their parents.Results:Across child- and parent-report data, confirmatory factor analysis supported a shortened 12-item version of the IUSC, and the confirmatory factor analysis also confirmed a theory-driven correlated two-factor structure of the IUSC-12. (i.e., prospective/inhibitory IU). Results further supported reliability and validity of parent- and child-reports of the Persian IUSC-12 via evidence of internal consistency, 4-week retest, significant associations with established measures of internalizing problems, and the ability of the measure to reliably distinguish the clinical sample from the community sample.Conclusion:Findings demonstrate sound psychometric properties of the Persian version of the IUSC-12 and provide additional support for the reliability and validity of the measure and its use in non-Western cultures. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for assessment, treatment, and study of anxiety and related internalizing problems in Iranian youth.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T10:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121998769
       
  • Measuring the Refined Theory of Individual Values in 49 Cultural Groups:
           Psychometrics of the Revised Portrait Value Questionnaire

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      Authors: Shalom H. Schwartz, Jan Cieciuch
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers around the world are applying the recently revised Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-RR) to measure the 19 values in Schwartz’s refined values theory. We assessed the internal reliability, circular structure, measurement model, and measurement invariance of values measured by this questionnaire across 49 cultural groups (N = 53,472) and 32 language versions. The PVQ-RR reliably measured 15 of the 19 values in the vast majority of groups and two others in most groups. The fit of the theory-based measurement models supported the differentiation of almost all values in every cultural group. Almost all values were measured invariantly across groups at the configural and metric level. A multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the PVQ-RR perfectly reproduced the theorized order of the 19 values around the circle across groups. The current study established the PVQ-RR as a sound instrument to measure and to compare the hierarchies and correlates of values across cultures.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T10:19:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121998760
       
  • Sty in the Mind’s Eye: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Nomological
           Network and Internal Consistency of the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes”
           Test

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      Authors: Anne Frieda Doris Kittel, Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is the most popular adult measure of individual differences in theory of mind. We present a meta-analytic investigation of the test’s psychometric properties (k = 119 effect sizes, 61 studies, ntotal = 8,611 persons). Using random effects models, we found the internal consistency of the test was acceptable (α = .73). However, the RMET was more strongly related with emotion perception (r = .33, ρ = .48) relative to alternative theory of mind measures (r = .29, ρ = .39), and weakly to moderately related with vocabulary (r = .25, ρ = .32), cognitive empathy (r = .14, ρ = .20), and affective empathy (r = .13, ρ = .19). Overall, we conclude that the RMET operates rather as emotion perception measure than as theory of mind measure, challenging the interpretation of RMET results.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T10:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121996469
       
  • Measurement Invariance and Item Response Theory Analysis of the Taylor
           Aggression Paradigm

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      Authors: Emily N. Lasko, David S. Chester
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) is a widely used laboratory aggression task, yet item response theory analyses of this task are nonexistent. To estimate these aspects of the TAP, we combined data from nine laboratory studies that employed the 25-trial version of the TAP (combined N = 1,856). One- and four-factor solutions for the TAP data exhibited evidence of measurement invariance across gender (men vs. women) and experimental provocation (negative vs. positive social feedback), as well as negligible instances of differential item functioning. As such, psychometric properties of the TAP were invariant across binary representations of gender and experimental provocation. Furthermore, trials following low and high provocation were the least informative and those following moderate provocation were the most informative. Scoring approaches to the TAP may benefit from giving greater weight to trials following moderate provocation. Overall, we find great utility in applying item response theory approaches to behavioral laboratory tasks.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T10:36:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121996450
       
  • Does Reassessment Enhance the Prediction of Imminent Criminal
           Recidivism' Replicating Lloyd et al. (2020) With High-Risk Parolees

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      Authors: Simon T. Davies, Caleb D. Lloyd, Devon L. L. Polaschek
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Lloyd et al. (2020) proposed and tested a novel three-step framework for examining the extent to which reassessment of dynamic risk and protective factors enhances the prediction of imminent criminal recidivism. We conducted a conceptual replication of Lloyd et al.’s study. We used the same dynamic risk assessment measure in the same jurisdiction but, unlike Lloyd et al., our sample comprised solely high-risk men on parole in New Zealand (N = 966), the individuals who are most frequently reassessed in the community and most likely to imminently reoffend. The results of the previous study were largely reproduced: reassessment consistently enhanced prediction, with the most pronounced effects observed for a scale derived from theoretically acute dynamic risk factors. These findings indicate reassessment effects are robust to sample selection based on a narrower range of risk levels and remain robust across years of practice in applied contexts, despite potential organizational drift from initial training and reassessment fatigue. The findings also provide further support for the practice of ongoing risk reassessment in community supervision and suggest that the method proposed by Lloyd et al. is a replicable approach for testing the essential criteria for defining dynamic risk and protective factors.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T05:49:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121993216
       
  • Validation and Adaptation of the Brief Self-Control Scale With Spanish
           Adolescents: Factorial Structure and Evidences of Reliability, Validity,
           and Factor Invariance Across Gender and Age

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      Authors: Miriam Rodríguez-Menchón, Alexandra Morales, Mireia Orgilés, José P. Espada
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      During adolescence, the difficulty to control impulses is especially notable. The Brief Self-Control Scale has been used in different countries for years to study associations between self-control and other variables. However, its factor structure is not completely clear, and it is necessary to have a scale with psychometric assurances that evaluates self-control in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the Brief Self-Control Scale and to provide evidences of reliability, validity, and factor invariance across gender and age in a sample of Spanish adolescents. Participants were 693 adolescents from Southeastern Spain, aged 13 to 18 years. Data supported an excellent fit to a two-dimensional model and evidences of reliability, validity and factor invariance across gender and age were obtained. This study provides new data on the two-dimensionality of self-control. The need of this tool becomes increasingly relevant to the susceptibility of new emerging addictions, such as mobile phones or internet.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T11:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121996470
       
  • The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: A Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Desirée Blázquez-Rincón, Juan I. Durán, Juan Botella
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      A reliability generalization meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the average reliability of the seven-item, 5-point Likert-type Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), one of the most widespread scales developed around the COVID-19 pandemic. Different reliability coefficients from classical test theory and the Rasch Measurement Model were meta-analyzed, heterogeneity among the most reported reliability estimates was examined by searching for moderators, and a predictive model to estimate the expected reliability was proposed. At least one reliability estimate was available for a total of 44 independent samples out of 42 studies, being that Cronbach’s alpha was most frequently reported. The coefficients exhibited pooled estimates ranging from .85 to .90. The moderator analyses led to a predictive model in which the standard deviation of scores explained 36.7% of the total variability among alpha coefficients. The FCV-19S has been shown to be consistently reliable regardless of the moderator variables examined.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-23T06:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121994164
       
  • Reliability of Differential Item Functioning in Alcohol Use Disorder:
           Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Criteria Discrimination Estimates

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      Authors: Colin E. Vize, Sean P. Lane
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Numerous studies leverage item response theory (IRT) methods to examine measurement characteristics of alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnostic criteria. Less work has examined the consistency of AUD IRT parameter estimates, an essential step for establishing measurement invariance, making statements about symptom diagnosticity, and validating the theoretical construct. A Bayesian meta-analysis of IRT discrimination values for AUD criteria across 33 independent samples (Total N = 321,998) revealed that overall consistency of AUD criteria discriminations was low (generalized intraclass correlation range = .105-.249). However, specific study characteristics accounted for substantial variability, suggesting that the unreliability is partially systematic. We replicated evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) via established factors (e.g., age, gender), but the magnitudes were small compared with DIF associated with assessment instrument. These results offer practical recommendations regarding which instruments to use when specific AUD criteria are of interest and which criteria are most sensitive when comparing demographic groups.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-20T10:20:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120986613
       
  • Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Concurrent Validity of the
           Penn State Worry Questionnaire Across Development, Psychopathology, and
           Culture

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      Authors: Kevin Liu, Joseph S. Nijmeh, Stacie L. Warren
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a widely used assessment of excessive worry. American undergraduate samples have predominately been used to evaluate its factor structure, which may not generalize to other developmental, cultural, and psychopathology populations. The present study tested the PSWQ’s factor structure across three diverse samples: American undergraduate students (n = 3,243), Dutch high school students (n = 3,906), and American adults with psychopathology (n = 384). Exploratory, confirmatory, and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Measurement invariance and concurrent validity were also tested. Method-factor and two-factor models were largely equivalent and superior to a one-factor model. Invariance tests supported configural and metric invariance but only partial scalar invariance. Positively worded items but not negatively worded items demonstrated concurrent validity with anxiety and depression symptom measures and diagnoses. Overall, the PSWQ appears to measure a unitary construct. Present results warrant further testing of the PSWQ across diverse samples.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T08:46:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121993223
       
  • Examining the Psychometric Equivalency of MMPI-3 Scale Scores Derived From
           the MMPI-3 and the MMPI-2-RF-EX

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      Authors: Jordan T. Hall, William H. Menton, Yossef S. Ben-Porath
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The current study evaluated the comparability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–3 (MMPI-3) scale scores derived from the 335-item MMPI-3 to MMPI-3 scale scores derived from the 433-item MMPI-2 restructured form–expanded version (MMPI-2-RF-EX), an enhanced version of the MMPI-2-RF that was used to develop and validate the MMPI-3. To that end, we examined data from 192 college undergraduates who completed both the MMPI-3 and MMPI-2-RF-EX 1 week apart using a counterbalanced design. Across versions, mean T-scores and standard deviations, estimates of internal consistency, and standard error of measurement values, were highly similar, indicating no clinically meaningful differences across versions. We also compared between-version test–retest comparability values with within-version values calculated using a sample of undergraduates (N = 318) who completed the MMPI-2-RF-EX twice over the same time interval, finding only marginal differences across the two samples. Finally, we computed column-vector correlations between MMPI-3 scores from both versions and several criterion measures, where results reflected no effect of test version on external validity. Overall, we determined that scale scores derived from either booklet are psychometrically interchangeable, indicating that MMPI-3 scale scores obtained from an administration of the MMPI-2-RF-EX can be applied when using the 335-item MMPI-3.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-13T11:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121991921
       
  • Measurement Invariance of the Subjective Happiness Scale Across Countries,
           Gender, Age, and Time

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      Authors: Gaja Zager Kocjan, Paul E. Jose, Gregor Sočan, Andreja Avsec
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine measurement invariance of the Subjective Happiness Scale across countries, gender, and age groups and across time by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Altogether, 4,977 participants from nine European, American, and Australian countries were included in the study. Our results revealed that both configural and metric invariance held across countries, but scalar invariance was only partially confirmed with one item yielding varying intercepts in different countries. Measurement invariance was also confirmed across gender and age groups. Longitudinal measurement invariance was examined on a subsample of 478 English-speaking participants and was fully confirmed across five consecutive assessment points. Factor means were compared between groups and across time, and good convergent validity of the Subjective Happiness Scale was found in relation to a measure of temporal satisfaction with life. Overall, our results demonstrate that self-reported happiness was measured similarly in nine different countries, gender and age groups and over time, and provide a solid foundation for meaningful cross-group and cross-time comparisons in subjective happiness.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-12T01:10:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121993558
       
  • Preliminary Validation of the Global Neuropsychological Assessment in
           Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Volunteers

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      Authors: Lauren T. Olson, Alan Smerbeck, Christina M. Figueroa, Jeremy M. Raines, Kinga Szigeti, David J. Schretlen, Ralph H. B. Benedict
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      MethodsWe administered the Global Neuropsychological Assessment (GNA), an abbreviated cognitive battery, to 105 adults aged 73.0 ± 7.1 years, including 28 with probable Alzheimer’s disease, 9 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 68 healthy controls. We examined group differences in baseline performance, test–retest reliability, and correlations with other conventional tests.ResultsHealthy adults outperformed patients on all five GNA subtests. Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients were significant for all GNA subtests. Among patients with healthy controls, GNA Story Memory correlated best with Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised (WMS-R) Logical Memory for learning and delayed recall, GNA Digit Span correlated most highly with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition (WAIS-III) Digit Span, GNA Perceptual Comparison correlated most highly with the Trail Making Test, and GNA Animal Naming correlated most highly with Supermarket Item Naming.ConclusionsPreliminary findings suggest that the GNA shows good test–retest validity, clear convergent and discriminant construct validity, and excellent diagnostic criterion validity for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in an American sample.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T06:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121991221
       
  • Assessing DSM-5 Section II Personality Disorders Using the MMPI-2-RF in an
           Iranian Community Sample

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      Authors: Zahra Ghamkhar Fard, Abbas Pourshahbaz, Jaime Anderson, Shima Shakiba, Arash Mirabzadeh
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the current study was to examine the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) scales in assessing Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth edition (DSM-5) Section II Personality Disorder (PD) symptoms. For this purpose, we first tested the cross-cultural factorial and criterion validity of MMPI-2-RF scales. We used a sample of 536 (327 women and 209 men) community individuals in Tehran, Iran. DSM-5 Section II PD criterion counts were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5–Screening Personality Questionnaire. Exploratory structural equation modelling analyses revealed that the models reported by Ben-Porath and Tellegen generally fitted the data well. Criterion validity of the MMPI-2-RF scales as well as MMPI-2-RF PDs spectra scales were analyzed with respect to their correlations with DSM-5 Section II PDs, indicating results generally consistent with expectations. Results based on Poisson or Negative binomial regression models indicated that a set of MMPI-2-RF scale hypotheses were supported, with several exceptions that are discussed in detail. These findings have implications for applicability of the MMPI-2-RF across Iranian population.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121991225
       
  • Personality Assessment Inventory Clinical Scales in Relation to Patient
           and Therapist Rated Alliance Early in Treatment

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      Authors: Bianca H. Cersosimo, Mark J. Hilsenroth, Robert F. Bornstein, Jerold R. Gold
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      We examined relationships between the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) clinical scales (e.g., Somatic Complaints [SOM]) and subscales (e.g., Conversion [SOM-C]) with patient- and therapist-rated alliance early in treatment (third or fourth session). We also replicated and extended findings from a previous study examining PAI treatment scales (Treatment Rejection, Treatment Process Index) and early session therapist-rated alliance. We used PAI protocols from a clinical outpatient sample (N = 84). Data were analyzed using stepwise linear regressions. Results suggest that patients who report lower early session alliance also report more antisocial features (β = −.219, p = .050, f2 = 0.05) specifically more antisocial behaviors (β = −.315, p = .004, f2 = 0.11). Additionally, therapists report higher early session alliance with patients who report more anxiety-related disorders (β = .274, p = .012, f2 = 0.08), specifically traumatic stress (β = .325, p = .003, f2 = 0.12). No significant relationships were found between patient- or therapist-rated alliance and Treatment Rejection and Treatment Process Index, consistent with prior findings. Clinical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:16:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121990092
       
  • Aggression in the Digital Era: Assessing the Validity of the Cyber
           Motivations for Aggression and Deviance Scale

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      Authors: Dominick DeMarsico, Nadia Bounoua, Rickie Miglin, Naomi Sadeh
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Empirical studies of adult cyber-aggression are sparse, partly due to a lack of validated assessments. We evaluated a new measure, the Cyber Motivations for Aggression and Deviance (Cyber-MAD) scale, designed to assess the motivations of adult cyber-aggression. Psychometric properties and factor structure were examined across three adult samples who regularly used the internet and reported a history of cyber-aggression. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the motivations for cyber-aggression indicated an eight-factor model best fit the data, with separable factors emerging for cyber-aggression motivated by a desire to affiliate with others (Social Bonding), advance or defend political/social issues (Social Activism), act on angry feelings (Reactive Aggression), cope with relationship stress (Interpersonal Distress), satisfy impulsive urges (Impulsivity), adopt a new online persona (Virtual Dissociation), experience excitement (Thrill-Seeking), and seek revenge (Vengeance). Overall, the Cyber-MAD scale showed good internal consistency, structural stability across samples, and construct validity, supporting its initial validation.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T12:00:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121990088
       
  • Comprehensive Evaluation of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ)
           and Its Reliability and Validity

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      Authors: David Andrés González, Mitzi M. Gonzales, Zachary J. Resch, A. Campbell Sullivan, Jason R. Soble
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      The Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) is a collateral-report measure of difficulties in activities of daily living. Despite its widespread use, psychometric analyses have been limited in scope, piecemeal across samples, and limited primarily to classical test theory. This article consolidated and expanded psychometric analyses using tools from generalizability and item response theories among 27,916 individuals from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center database who completed the FAQ. Reliability was evaluated with internal consistency, test–retest, and generalizability analyses. Validity was assessed via convergence with neurocognitive measures, classification accuracy with impairment stage, and confirmatory factor and item response theory analyses. Demographics did not impact scores and there was strong evidence for reliability (0.52-0.95), though coefficients were attenuated when restricted in range to diagnostic groups (e.g., normal cognition). There were strong correlations with neurocognitive measures (rs: −.30 to −.59), strong classification accuracy (areas under the curve: .81-.99), and a single-factor model had excellent fit. All items evidenced strong item response theory discrimination and provided significant information regarding functional disability, albeit within a relatively restricted range. The FAQ is a reliable and valid measure of activities of daily living concerns for use in clinical/research settings. It best assesses mild levels of functional difficulty, which is helpful in distinguishing normal cognition from mild cognitive impairment and dementia.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T11:11:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121991215
       
  • Toward a Differentiated Assessment of Narcissism in Forensic Contexts:
           Validating the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire–Short
           Scale (NARQ-S) in a Forensic Sample

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      Authors: Lisa M. Niemeyer, Michael P. Grosz, Lina Jallalvand, Simon Mota, Mitja D. Back
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Grandiose narcissism is a multidimensional construct consisting of agentic and antagonistic aspects with markedly distinct correlates and consequences. However, this complexity has not been reflected in how grandiose narcissism is measured and investigated in forensic contexts. To provide a more nuanced picture of narcissism in a forensic context, we harnessed the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept. More precisely, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire–Short Scale (NARQ-S) in self- and informant reports of 199 male prisoners. Results confirmed the two-dimensional structure, acceptable internal consistency, moderate self-other agreement, and a differentiated nomological network for the NARQ-S. Admiration and rivalry showed distinct associations with criminal history, institutional misbehaviors, and social status in the group of prisoners. Together, the findings provide initial evidence for the validity and utility of self- and informant reports of the NARQ-S in forensic contexts and its contribution to security and treatment recommendations.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T10:18:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120986608
       
  • Momentary Emotion Differentiation: The Derivation and Validation of an
           index to Study Within-Person Fluctuations in Emotion Differentiation

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      Authors: Yasemin Erbas, Elise K. Kalokerinos, Peter Kuppens, Sjoerd van Halem, Eva Ceulemans
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Emotion differentiation refers to the tendency to label emotions in a granular way. While differentiation is an important individual difference in the context of psychological well-being, it is unknown how it fluctuates within individuals. Such a within-person measure is important, since it would allow the study of how changes in differentiation predict subsequent levels of other variables of interest. Here, we present a framework to study emotion differentiation at the within-person level by introducing a momentary emotion differentiation index. This index is directly derived from the classical emotion differentiation index, the intraclass correlation. We first give a theoretical derivation of this index. Next, using data from two experience sampling studies, we show how this new momentary index is related to other momentary indicators of well-being, and take the first steps in building its nomological network. A better understanding of within-person fluctuations in emotion differentiation will allow us to identify the causes and consequences of these fluctuations, and search for ways to teach individuals to increase their level of emotion differentiation.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T11:55:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191121990089
       
  • Retest Reliability of Integrated Speed–Accuracy Measures

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      Authors: Tamar Bakun Emesh, Dror Garbi, Alon Kaplan, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Ehud Rinott, Nachshon Meiran
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Cognitive tasks borrowed from experimental psychology are often used to assess individual differences. A cardinal issue of this transition from experimental to correlational designs is reduced retest reliability of some well-established cognitive effects as well as speed–accuracy trade-off. The present study aimed to address these issues by examining the retest reliability of various methods for speed–accuracy integration and by comparing between two types of task modeling: difference scores and residual scores. Results from three studies on executive functions show that (a) integrated speed–accuracy scoring is generally more reliable as compared with nonintegrated methods: mean response time and accuracy; and (b) task modeling, especially residual scores, reduced reliability. We thus recommend integrating speed and accuracy, at least for measuring executive functions.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T11:54:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120985609
       
  • Exploring the Psychometric Properties and the Factor Structure of the
           Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia Across the Schizotypy Continuum
           

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      Authors: Manel Monsonet, Thomas R. Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) across different levels of the schizotypy continuum. A combined sample of high-schizotypy, at-risk mental states, and patients with first-episode psychosis was assessed for depression and other clinical and functional outcomes. Additionally, experience sampling methodology was used to assess depressive and psychotic-like experiences in daily life. The CDSS exhibited solid internal consistency, validity, and discrimination between depressed and nondepressed participants. Confirmatory factor analyses and the associations of the resulting factors with clinical and functional measures supported a two-factor structure that included general depression and guilt factors. Furthermore, both factors of the CDSS were differentially related to positive and negative symptoms of psychosis in daily life. The CDSS appears to have two underlying psychopathological dimensions and to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing depression across the schizotypy continuum.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T11:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120986622
       
  • Assessment of Personality Functioning in Adolescence: Development of the
           Adolescent Personality Structure Questionnaire

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      Authors: Ilaria M. A. Benzi, Andrea Fontana, Rossella Di Pierro, Marco Perugini, Pietro Cipresso, Fabio Madeddu, John F. Clarkin, Emanuele Preti
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of personality and its dysfunctions. In this regard, it is essential to evaluate the nature and degree of maladaptive personality functioning. However, measures currently available present some limitations, mainly being adaptations from adult’s tailored instruments and length. Moreover, no instrument considers the crucial dimensions related to body development and sexuality. This contribution presents data on the Adolescent Personality Structure Questionnaire (APS-Q) development, a self-report measure to capture core aspects of personality functioning in adolescence while being agile and reliable. On two large samples of adolescents (total N = 1,664), we investigated the psychometric properties of the APS-Q. We explored its factor structure and construct and incremental validity in the first sample, testing specific associations with existing measures of severity of personality pathology, maladaptive personality traits, and psychological distress. In the second sample, we confirmed its factor structure, assessing gender and age invariance. Overall, our findings support the APS-Q’s validity as a reliable and useful measure to assess personality functioning. Moreover, the APS-Q highlighted developmentally vital dimensions such as self-functioning (encompassing mental and bodily changes and considering the dimension of sexuality), interpersonal functioning (discriminating the dimensions of family and peers), and emotion regulation.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-01-16T09:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120988157
       
  • Examining the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) Across Models, Correlates, and
           Gender

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      Authors: Craig S. Neumann, Daniel N. Jones, Delroy L. Paulhus
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      To date, no studies have examined a range of structural models of the interpersonally aversive traits tapped by the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4; narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism), in conjunction with their measurement invariance (males vs. females) and how the models each predict external correlates. Using a large sample of young adults (N = 3,975), four latent variable models were compared in terms of fit, measurement invariance, and prediction of intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. The models tested were as follows: (Model A) confirmatory factor analytic, (Model B) bifactor, (Model C) exploratory structural equation model, and (Model D) a reduced-item confirmatory factor analytic that maximized item information. All models accounted for item covariance with good precision, although differed in incremental fit. Strong invariance held for all models, and each accounted similarly for the external correlates, highlighting differential predictive effects of the SD4 factors. The results provide support for four theoretically distinct but overlapping dark personality domains.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-01-15T09:53:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120986624
       
  • Construct and Predictive Validity of an Assessment Game to Measure
           Honesty–Humility

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      Authors: Ard J. Barends, Reinout E. de Vries, Mark van Vugt
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Research on commercial computer games has demonstrated that in-game behavior is related to the players’ personality profiles. However, this potential has not yet been fully utilized for personality assessments. Hence, we developed an applied (i.e., serious) assessment game to assess the Honesty–Humility personality trait. In two studies, we demonstrate that this game adequately assesses Honesty–Humility. In Study 1 (N = 116), we demonstrate convergent validity of the assessment game with self-reported Honesty–Humility and divergent validity with the other HEXACO traits and cognitive ability. In Study 2 (N = 287), we replicate the findings from Study 1, and also demonstrate that the assessment game shows incremental validity—beyond self-reported personality—in the prediction of cheating for financial gain, but not of counterproductive work and unethical behaviors. The findings demonstrate that assessment games are promising tools for personality measurement in applied contexts.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-01-12T05:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120985612
       
  • Improving the Measurement of Environmental Sensitivity in Children and
           Adolescents: The Highly Sensitive Child Scale–21 Item Version

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      Authors: Sofie Weyn, Karla Van Leeuwen, Michael Pluess, Francesca Lionetti, Luc Goossens, Guy Bosmans, Wim Van Den Noortgate, Dries Debeer, Anne Sophie Bröhl, Patricia Bijttebier
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Children differ in their sensitivity to positive and negative environmental influences, which can be measured with the Highly Sensitive Child (HSC) scale. The present study introduces the HSC-21, an adaptation of the original 12 item scale with new items and factor structure that are meant to be more informative than the original ones. The psychometric properties of the HSC-21 were investigated in 1,088 children across Belgium and the Netherlands, including child and mother reports. Results showed evidence for (a) bifactor model with a general sensitivity factor and two specific factors (i.e., Ease of Excitation–Low Sensory Threshold and Aesthetic Sensitivity); (b) (partial) measurement invariance across gender, developmental stage, country, and informants; (c) moderate child–mother agreement; (d) good reliability; (e) normally distributed item scores; and (f) meaningful associations with personality and temperament across both samples. No evidence was found for HSC-21 as a moderator in the relationship between parenting and problem behaviors.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T06:53:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120983894
       
  • Individual Differences in the Contents and Form of Present-Moment
           Awareness: The Multidimensional Awareness Scale

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      Authors: Kenneth G. DeMarree, Kristin Naragon-Gainey
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      Decentering, a detached, observer perspective on one’s mental activity, is an important concept for understanding mental health. Meta-awareness, people’s awareness of their own current mental activity, is thought to facilitate decentering. However, trait measures of these concepts are not available or have validity concerns. We sought to create a theoretically derived measure of meta-awareness and decentering that allowed an exploration of questions in the literature regarding whether there are multiple forms of decentered awareness and whether meta-awareness and external awareness are distinct. Across six samples and 2,480 participants, we developed the 25-item Multidimensional Awareness Scale, with subscales assessing meta-awareness (present moment awareness of mental activity), decentered awareness (meta-awareness from a psychologically distant perspective), and external awareness (present moment awareness of the world outside of oneself). The scales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity. Results are discussed in terms of the conceptual implications of the scale structure and its potential uses.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-01-09T11:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120986605
       
  • Cross-Study, Cross-Method Associations Between Negative Urgency and
           Internalizing Symptoms

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      Authors: Kevin M. King, Max A. Halvorson, Kevin S. Kuehn, Madison C. Feil, Liliana J. Lengua
      Abstract: Assessment, Ahead of Print.
      There is a small body of research that has connected individual differences in negative urgency, the tendency to report rash actions in response to negative emotions, with self-report depressive and anxiety symptoms. Despite the conceptual overlap of negative urgency with negative emotionality, the tendency to experience frequent and intense negative emotions, even fewer studies have examined whether the association of negative urgency with internalizing symptoms hold when controlling for negative emotionality. In the current study, we estimated the bivariate association between negative urgency and internalizing symptoms, tested whether they remained significant after partialling out negative emotionality, and tested whether these effects generalized to real-time experiences of negative emotions. We used data from five independent samples of high school and college students, assessed with global self-report (n = 1,297) and ecological momentary assessment (n = 195). Results indicated that in global self-report data, negative urgency was moderately and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, and the partial association with depressive symptoms (but not anxiety symptoms) controlling for negative emotionality remained significant and moderate in magnitude. This pattern was replicated in ecological momentary assessment data. Negative urgency may convey risk for depressive symptoms, independent of the effects of negative emotionality.
      Citation: Assessment
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T05:36:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1073191120983889
       
 
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