Publisher: Rockefeller University Press   (Total: 3 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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J. of Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 6.479, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Experimental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 8.615, CiteScore: 9)
J. of General Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.623, CiteScore: 3)
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Journal of General Physiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.623
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0022-1295 - ISSN (Online) 1540-7748
Published by Rockefeller University Press Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Calcium activation through thick and thin'

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      Abstract: A historical perspective of the super-relaxed (SRX) state, interacting heads motif (IHM), and impact of calcium on muscle contractility.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202213265
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mechanistic insights on K ATP channel regulation from cryo-EM structures

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      Abstract: Gated by intracellular ATP and ADP, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple cell energetics with membrane excitability in many cell types, enabling them to control a wide range of physiological processes based on metabolic demands. The KATP channel is a complex of four potassium channel subunits from the Kir channel family, Kir6.1 or Kir6.2, and four sulfonylurea receptor subunits, SUR1, SUR2A, or SUR2B, from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Dysfunction of KATP channels underlies several human diseases. The importance of these channels in human health and disease has made them attractive drug targets. How the channel subunits interact with one another and how the ligands interact with the channel to regulate channel activity have been long-standing questions in the field. In the past 5 yr, a steady stream of high-resolution KATP channel structures has been published using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we review the advances these structures bring to our understanding of channel regulation by physiological and pharmacological ligands.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202113046
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Huntingtin regulates calcium fluxes in skeletal muscle

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      Abstract: The expression of the Huntingtin protein, well known for its involvement in the neurodegenerative Huntington’s disease, has been confirmed in skeletal muscle. The impact of HTT deficiency was studied in human skeletal muscle cell lines and in a mouse model with inducible and muscle-specific HTT deletion. Characterization of calcium fluxes in the knock-out cell lines demonstrated a reduction in excitation–contraction (EC) coupling, related to an alteration in the coupling between the dihydropyridine receptor and the ryanodine receptor, and an increase in the amount of calcium stored within the sarcoplasmic reticulum, linked to the hyperactivity of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated an association of HTT with junctophilin 1 (JPH1) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), both providing clues on the functional effects of HTT deletion on calcium fluxes. Characterization of muscle strength and muscle anatomy of the muscle-specific HTT-KO mice demonstrated that HTT deletion induced moderate muscle weakness and mild muscle atrophy associated with histological abnormalities, similar to the phenotype observed in tubular aggregate myopathy. Altogether, this study points toward the hypotheses of the involvement of HTT in EC coupling via its interaction with JPH1, and on SOCE via its interaction with JPH1 and/or STIM1.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202213103
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Single-molecule imaging reveals how mavacamten and PKA modulate ATP
           turnover in skeletal muscle myofibrils

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      Abstract: Muscle contraction is controlled at two levels: the thin and the thick filaments. The latter level of control involves three states of myosin heads: active, disordered relaxed (DRX), and super-relaxed (SRX), the distribution of which controls the number of myosins available to interact with actin. How these are controlled is still uncertain. Using fluorescently labeled ATP, we were able to spatially assign the activity of individual myosins within the sarcomere. We observed that SRX comprises 53% of all heads in the C-zone compared with 35% and 44% in the P- and D-zones, respectively. The recently FDA-approved hypertrophic cardiomyopathy drug, mavacamten (mava), significantly decreased DRX, favoring SRX in both the C- and D-zones at 60% and 63%, respectively. Since thick filament regulation is in part regulated by the myosin-binding protein-C (MyBP-C), we also studied PKA phosphorylation. This had the opposite effect as mava, specifically in the C-zone where it decreased SRX to 34%, favoring DRX. These results directly show that excess concentrations of mava do increase SRX, but the effect is limited across the sarcomere, suggesting mava is less effective on skeletal muscle. In addition, we show that PKA directly affects the contractile machinery of skeletal muscle leading to the liberation of repressed heads. Since the effect is focused on the C-zone, this suggests it is likely through MyBP-C phosphorylation, although our data suggest that a further reserve of myosins remain that are not accessible to PKA treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202213087
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • cAMP-PKA signaling modulates the automaticity of human iPSC-derived
           cardiomyocytes

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      Abstract: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have been used to screen and characterize drugs and to reveal mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. However, before hiPSC-CMs can be used as a reliable experimental model, the physiological mechanisms underlying their normal function should be further explored. Accordingly, a major feature of hiPSC-CMs is automaticity, which is regulated by both Ca2+ and membrane clocks. To investigate the mechanisms coupling these clocks, we tested three hypotheses: (1) normal automaticity of spontaneously beating hiPSC-CMs is regulated by local Ca2+ releases (LCRs) and cAMP/PKA-dependent coupling of Ca2+ clock to M clock; (2) the LCR period indicates the level of crosstalk within the coupled-clock system; and (3) perturbing the activity of even one clock can lead to hiPSC-CM–altered automaticity due to diminished crosstalk within the coupled-clock system. By measuring the local and global Ca2+ transients, we found that the LCRs properties are correlated with the spontaneous beat interval. Changes in cAMP-dependent coupling of the Ca2+ and M clocks, caused by a pharmacological intervention that either activates the β-adrenergic or cholinergic receptor or upregulates/downregulates PKA signaling, affected LCR properties, which in turn altered hiPSC-CMs automaticity. Clocks’ uncoupling by attenuating the pacemaker current If or the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ kinetics, decreased hiPSC-CMs beating rate, and prolonged the LCR period. Finally, LCR characteristics of spontaneously beating (at comparable rates) hiPSC-CMs and rabbit SAN are similar. In conclusion, hiPSC-CM automaticity is controlled by the coupled-clock system whose function is mediated by Ca2+-cAMP-PKA signaling.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202213153
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Variants of the myosin interacting-heads motif

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      Abstract: Under relaxing conditions, the two heads of myosin II interact with each other and with the proximal part (S2) of the myosin tail, establishing the interacting-heads motif (IHM), found in myosin molecules and thick filaments of muscle and nonmuscle cells. The IHM is normally thought of as a single, unique structure, but there are several variants. In the simplest (“canonical”) IHM, occurring in most relaxed thick filaments and in heavy meromyosin, the interacting heads bend back and interact with S2, and the motif lies parallel to the filament surface. In one variant, occurring in insect indirect flight muscle, there is no S2–head interaction and the motif is perpendicular to the filament. In a second variant, found in smooth and nonmuscle single myosin molecules in their inhibited (10S) conformation, S2 is shifted ∼20 Å from the canonical form and the tail folds twice and wraps around the interacting heads. These molecule and filament IHM variants have important energetic and pathophysiological consequences. (1) The canonical motif, with S2–head interaction, correlates with the super-relaxed (SRX) state of myosin. The absence of S2–head interaction in insects may account for the lower stability of this IHM and apparent absence of SRX in indirect flight muscle, contributing to the quick initiation of flight in insects. (2) The ∼20 Å shift of S2 in 10S myosin molecules means that S2–head interactions are different from those in the canonical IHM. This variant therefore cannot be used to analyze the impact of myosin mutations on S2–head interactions that occur in filaments, as has been proposed. It can be used, instead, to analyze the structural impact of mutations in smooth and nonmuscle myosin.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202213249
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • KCa1.1 channels contribute to optogenetically driven post-stimulation
           silencing in cerebellar molecular layer interneurons

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      Abstract: Using cell-attached recordings from molecular layer interneurons (MLI) of the cerebellar cortex of adult mice expressing channel rhodopsin 2, we show that wide-field optical activation induces an increase in firing rate during illumination and a firing pause when the illumination ends (post-stimulation silencing; PSS). Significant spike rate changes with respect to basal firing rate were observed for optical activations lasting 200 ms and 1 s as well as for 1 s long trains of 10 ms pulses at 50 Hz. For all conditions, the net effect of optical activation on the integrated spike rate is significantly reduced because of PSS. Three lines of evidence indicate that this PSS is due to intrinsic factors. Firstly, PSS is induced when the optical stimulation is restricted to a single MLI using a 405-nm laser delivering a diffraction-limited spot at the focal plane. Secondly, PSS is not affected by block of GABA-A or GABA-B receptors, ruling out synaptic interactions amongst MLIs. Thirdly, PSS is mimicked in whole-cell recording experiments by step depolarizations under current clamp. Activation of Ca-dependent K channels during the spike trains appears as a likely candidate to underlie PSS. Using immunocytochemistry, we find that one such channel type, KCa1.1, is present in the somato-dendritic and axonal compartments of MLIs. In cell-attached recordings, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin significantly reduce the optically induced PSS, while TRAM-34 does not affect it, suggesting that KCa1.1 channels, but not KCa3.1 channels, contribute to PSS.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202113004
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A CantĂș syndrome mutation produces dual effects on K ATP channels by
           disrupting ankyrin B regulation

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      Abstract: ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels composed of Kir6.x and sulfonylurea receptor (SURs) subunits couple cellular metabolism to electrical activity. Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding Kir6.1 (KCNJ8) and SUR2A (ABCC9) that produce KATP channel hyperactivity due to a reduced channel block by physiological ATP concentrations. We functionally characterized the p.S1054Y SUR2A mutation identified in two CS carriers, who exhibited a mild phenotype although the mutation was predicted as highly pathogenic. We recorded macroscopic and single-channel currents in CHO and HEK-293 cells and measured the membrane expression of the channel subunits by biotinylation assays in HEK-293 cells. The mutation increased basal whole-cell current density and at the single-channel level, it augmented opening frequency, slope conductance, and open probability (Po), and promoted the appearance of multiple conductance levels. p.S1054Y also reduced Kir6.2 and SUR2A expression specifically at the membrane. Overexpression of ankyrin B (AnkB) prevented these gain- and loss-of-function effects, as well as the p.S1054Y-induced reduction of ATP inhibition of currents measured in inside-out macropatches. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that SUR2A WT and AnkB interact, while p.S1054Y interaction with AnkB is decreased. The p.E322K Kir6.2 mutation, which prevents AnkB binding to Kir6.2, produced similar biophysical alterations than p.S1054Y. Our results are the first demonstration of a CS mutation whose functional consequences involve the disruption of AnkB effects on KATP channels providing a novel mechanism by which CS mutations can reduce ATP block. Furthermore, they may help explain the mild phenotype associated with this mutation.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1085/jgp.202112995
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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