Publisher: African Journals Online   (Total: 262 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 262 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abia State University Medical Students' Association J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : J. for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Theologica     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 0)
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Africa Sanguine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Anthropologist     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
African Crop Science J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.446, CiteScore: 1)
African J. of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African J. of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
African J. of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African J. of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
African J. of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.168, CiteScore: 0)
African J. of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African J. of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
African J. of Governance and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Infectious Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.243, CiteScore: 0)
African J. of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Neurological Sciences     Open Access  
African J. of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African J. of Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.381, CiteScore: 1)
African J. of Rheumatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African J. of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. on Conflict Resolution     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Sociological Review : Revue Africaine de Sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afrika Statistika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afrimedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afrique Science : Revue Intl.e des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV IJAH : An Intl. J. of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV LALIGENS : An Intl. J. of Language, Literature and Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AFRREV STECH : An Intl. J. of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Research Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of African Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Biomedical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Modern Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arab J. of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU J. of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bayero J. of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Botswana J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botswana J. of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Cameroon J. of Experimental Biology     Open Access  
Central African J. of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Communicate : J. of Library and Information Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Contemporary J. of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Counsellor (The)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Creative Artist : A J. of Theatre and Media Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning (CriSTaL)     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' J.     Open Access  
East African J. of Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
East African Medical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.122, CiteScore: 0)
East African Orthopaedic J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East and Central African J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
East and Central African J. of Surgery     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ebonyi Medical J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Egyptian J. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Egyptian J. of Biology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ESARBICA J. : J. of the Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Branch of the Intl. Council on Archives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian J. of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ethiopian J. of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethiopian J. of Business and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian J. of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethiopian J. of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian J. of Environmental Studies and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethiopian J. of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Ethiopian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Ethiopian J. of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian J. of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ethiopian Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Filosofia Theoretica : J. of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
FUTY J. of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ghana J. of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ghana J. of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ghana J. of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ghana J. of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ghana J. of Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ghana Library J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Ghana Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.301, CiteScore: 1)
Ghana Mining J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Global Approaches to Extension Practice : A J. of Agricultural Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global J. of Agricultural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global J. of Educational Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global J. of Engineering Research     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 0)
Global J. of Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global J. of Geological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global J. of Mathematical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global J. of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global J. of Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Haramaya Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Highland Medical Research J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Huria : J. of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ibadan J. of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
IMTU Medical J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Manager (The)     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Information Technologist (The)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Inkanyiso : J. of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Internet J. of Medical Update     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Community Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Herbs and Pharmacological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.104, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Modern Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Italian Studies in Southern Africa : Studi d’Italianistica nell’Africa Australe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. for the Study of Religion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
J. of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Agricultural Research and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
J. of Applied Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Computer Science and Its Application     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. of Development and Communication Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences :Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe     Open Access  
J. of Health and Visual Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of History and Diplomatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
J. of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.162, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
J. of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.405, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Religion and Human Relations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Science and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
J. of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. of the South African Society of Archivists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
J. of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jos J. of Medicine     Open Access  
KCA J. of Business Management     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kioo cha Lugha     Full-text available via subscription  
Lagos Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Democracy & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Legon J. of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Lwati : A J. of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Makerere J. of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Malawi J. of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Marang : J. of Language and Literature     Full-text available via subscription  
Medical J. of Zambia     Open Access  
Mizan Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Momona Ethiopian J. of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
New Agenda : South African J. of Social and Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
New Egyptian J. of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigeria Agricultural J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Dental J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Endocrine Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Food J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Health J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Hospital Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian J. of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian J. of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nigerian J. of Chemical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian J. of Clinical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian J. of Family Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian J. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian J. of Guidance and Counselling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nigerian J. of Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian J. of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian J. of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian J. of Paediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian J. of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian J. of Physiological Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Nigerian J. of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nigerian J. of Technological Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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African Journal of Biomedical Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.145
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1119-5096
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [262 journals]
  • Protective effect of Carica papaya fruit extract against gamma
           

    • Authors: I.O. Imosemi, I.S. Owolabi, O Owoeye, A.O. Malomo
      Abstract: Radiation side effects have been reported to induce oxidative stress by free radical generation. The protective effect of Carica papaya (CP) fruit extract, vitamins C and E against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage on postnatal developing rat cerebellum was studied. Forty-two female Wistar rats were mated and divided into six groups (n=7). Group A served as control and received water, Group B received a dose of 2.5 Gy irradiation only, Group C received 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of CP only, Group D received 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of CP + 2.5 Gy irradiation, Group E received 500mg/kg Vitamin E + 2.5 Gy irradiation and Group F received 200 mg/kg Vitamin C + 2.5 Gy irradiation. The pregnant rats were exposed to irradiation with radiation from Cobalt 60 delivered by an AECL machine in prone position on 7th day of pregnancy, while aqueous extract of CP, Vitamin E and Vitamin C were administered orally from day 7 of gestation to postnatal day 28. Behavioural and haematological assessments of pups were done on day 21, and killed. Some cerebella of the pups of days 1, 7 14 21 and 28 were fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological and histomorphometric studies, while other cerebella of day 21 were preserved in phosphate buffered saline at 4oC and pH 7.4 for biochemical assays. Data were presented as Mean ± Standard Deviation and analysed using ANOVA at p < 0.05. Results showed in the irradiated rats, a significant reduction in body weight, increased brain weight, decreased time spent on the forelimb grip, decreased haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and H2O2 levels in the cerebellum compared with the control, CP, vitamins C and E rats at p<0.05. Histologically, there was persistent external granular layer (EGL) as well as reduction in molecular layer (ML) thickness in the irradiated group compared with the control and other treated groups on postnatal day 21. In conclusion, 2.5 Gy whole body irradiation of pregnant rats induced oxidative stress in the developing rat cerebellum. Treatment, with aqueous extract of CP reduced the damage caused by irradiation when compared with vitamins C and E.Keywords: Oxidative stress, gamma- radiation, Carica papaya, developing cerebellum
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antidiabetic effects in
           alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous leaf extract of
           Acanthospermum hispidum

    • Authors: A Chika, D.C. Onyebueke, S.O. Bello
      Abstract: The current study is aimed at investigating the antidiabetic activity of the leaves of Acanthospermum hispidum, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus in North Western Nigeria. Material from the plant was extracted using water (guided by the traditional mode of extraction) and the phytochemicals contained in the extract were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Acute toxicity study of the extract was conducted, and diabetic rats induced using alloxan (80 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days) were treated with the extract for 28 days at 3 incremental doses (70, 210 and 700 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, fasting blood glucose and glycogen content of the liver and skeletal muscle were determined. The study findings indicate that the extract was relatively safe with LD50 above 5000 mg/kg. Treatment with Acanthospermum hispidum extract resulted in a significant (P<0.05) reduction in FBG as well as a significant improvement in oral glucose tolerance at all doses. A significant elevation in the hepatic content of glycogen was also observed at the highest dose (700 mg/kg). Results from this study have demonstrated the potent antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Acanthospermum hispidum, thus justifying the traditional claim.Keywords:  Acanthospermum, phytochemicals, antidiabetic, LD50, aqueous extract
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Erratum: Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit Diet Ameliorates Impaired Glucose
           Regulation Caused by Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress. Afr. J. Biomed. Res.
           2017: 20(3):301-308

    • Authors: Samuel B. Olaleye
      Abstract: In the article “Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit Diet Ameliorates Impaired Glucose Regulation Caused by Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress” by Ige A.O, Oyekunle A.O, Olaoye M. O and Adewoye E.O which appeared on pages 301-308 of the September 2017 issue, it has been observed that the name of the second author was wrongly typed.The correct authorship of the paper should be Ige A.O, Ojekunle A.O, Olaoye M. O and Adewoye E.O.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Predatory publishing and the dilemma of the Nigerian Academic

    • Authors: G.A. Ajuwon, A.J. Ajuwon
      Abstract: Publication through the open access model has provided unrestricted global access to the latest scientific findings to anyone who has access to the internet. Although open access publishing was originally promoted because of the ‘public good’ it promises to deliver, concerns are being raised about this mode of publishing because of the emergence of dubious practices by publishers whose primary interest is profit and not the promotion of access to scientific knowledge. Predatory open access publishing is a phenomenon widespread in developing countries. This article summarizes the published literature on predatory open access publishing, discusses its potential impact on scholarship in Nigeria and offers suggestions to address the problem.Keywords: Predatory publishing, Open Access, Nigerian academic, Journals
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in breast cancer among west African women

    • Authors: A.A. Zouré, H.A. Bambara, A.Y. Sawadogo, Y Bakri, J Simporé
      Abstract: There is an increase in the prevalence of cancer in Africa, while cancer was previously related to the industrialized countries. In fact, until today studies are scanty in all the African regions to find out more about the reality of the disease. However, in West Africa, there are few reports on the genetic factors of breast cancer. Our review was able to establish that very few studies have described the mutations of the BRCA1 / 2 genes in Africa. The dearth of scientific data in West Africa has impacted negatively on prevention, sensitization and management of breast cancer. We strongly suggest studies in general cancer registries of these countries and particularly on the genetic etiology of breast cancerKeywords: Breast cancer- Genetic risks- BRCA1/2- West Africa
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Assessment of programmed cell death proteins in oral squamous cell
           carcinoma

    • Authors: S.E. Udeabor, A.O. Adisa, A Orlowska, R.A. Sader, S Ghanaati
      Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a significant health concern in Nigeria and although the prevalence is relatively low compared to other populations, late patient presentation, yet to be clearly defined etiology and inadequate facilities for management result in high mortality rates. Chronic inflammation, which borders on immunological concepts of cancer biology have been proposed as contributory. Seeing that immunology is a ‘double-edged sword’ that can be manipulated for therapy, it is needful to explore this model in OSCC found in Nigerian patients. We aim to investigate the expression of and relationship between PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 in OSCC. This is important because there are now immunotherapies that target the cell programmed death pathway. Twenty FFPE blocks of OSCC were prepared for immunohistochemistry to Abcam Mouse monoclonal Anti-PD1 antibody, Rabbit monoclonal Anti-PD-L1 antibody and Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-PD-L2. Cytoplasmic/membrane staining was taken as positive for the antibodies. The Sinicrope scoring method was used to evaluate staining intensity and proportion. We found that tumor associated macrophages and neoplastic cells expressed PD1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 in differing proportions, but most of the cases were negative for these antibodies. Our results have shown that immunotherapy may be relevant when considering the management of OSCC patients in Nigeria.Keywords: programmed cell death, oral squamous cell carcinoma
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Detection, inhibition and molecular analysis of multidrug resistant
           aerobic gram-negative clinical isolates from a tertiary hospital in
           Nigeria

    • Authors: A.O. Adeluola, K.S. Oyedeji, U.E. Mendie, J.R. Johnson, J.R. Porter
      Abstract: The challenge of combating the ever emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates in the face of a slow rate of discovery of new classes of antibiotics is a problem in antibiotic chemotherapy. This study was aimed at (i) linking phenotypic antibiotic drug-resistance characteristics detected in randomly-sampled clinical isolates with detectable genetic markers. (ii) screening a suspected efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) [1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-piperazine (TFMBP)], which could be helpful in combating this challenge. Fifty-one isolates; 28 Klebsiella pneumonia, 3 E. Coli, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 E. aerogenes, 5 Proteus mirabilis, 4 Providencia rettgeri, 1 P. stuartii, 1 Serratia liquefaciens, 6 S. odorifera, and 1 Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from infections of urinary tract, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, ear swab, eye swab, and blood culture were screened for (i) antibiotic-susceptibility over a range of 11 classes of antibiotics, (ii) β-lactamase production, (iii) ESBL production and (iv) Efflux pump activity (EPA) in the presence and absence of 1-[3-(trifluoromethyl) benzyl]-piperazine (TFMBP). Molecular analysis was done using DNA extraction by boiling and the randomly-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure with 2% agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide at 10 μg/ml and visualized by UV trans-illumination. AmpC β-lactamase (4%) and K1 β-lactamase (5.8%) were detected with no carbapenemase producers. AcrA and AcrB marker genes were detected in 12% of the isolates while blaCTX-M (8%) and blaTEM (4%) were also detected. Antibiotic resistance due to EPA can be combated with a suitable EPI as demonstrated by TFMBP when combined with specific antibiotics.Keywords: TFMBP, Efflux Pump Activity, ESBL, MDR, Carbapenemase
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Onchocercal DNA amplification using beta actin gene primers compared with
           first internal transcribed spacer sequences for monitoring onchocerciasis
           eradication strategy

    • Authors: H.O. Osue, H.I. Inabo, S.E. Yakubu, P.A. Audu, M Mamman
      Abstract: Ongoing treatment control strategy against onchocerciasis or river blindness will need efficient diagnostic method to evaluate the mass drug administration with ivermectin (Mectizan®). Sole reliance on classical parasitological method of skin snip microscopy for detecting microfilaria has proved less sensitive during post-control period. Detecting any parts of the parasite stages such as antigens, enzymes and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) is a definitive diagnosis and highly sensitive. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the beta actin gene primer pair to confirm its suitability for validating presence or absence of skin microfilaria at post-treatment. DNA extracted from skin snip samples (n=15) from an onchocerciasis mesoendemic area, three from non-endemic, two adult worm fragments and blank wells with only master mix (n=7) were subjected to endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Four of the samples had shown reactivity with first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) primer pair. The amplicons were sequenced and subjected to basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). Out of the 12 amplicons in agarose gel, there were 6 sharp and 6 faint bands of 100bp molecular weight as documented. The sharp bands included 3 ITS1 and one field positive samples, and 2 positive controls. The BLAST analysis showed moderate homology with beta actin with accession number M84916 available in the public GenBank database, and with the positive control sequences. This study has shown that DNA amplification with beta actin gene may be very specific and more sensitive compared with the ITS gene primer sequences.Keywords: Beta actin, DNA amplification, Onchocerca volvulus, polymerase chain reaction; sequence alignment, skin microfilaria
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive
           outpatients attending University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Authors: O.O. Olaitan, G.T. Fadupin, A.A. Adebiyi
      Abstract: Inappropriate eating habits and sedentary lifestyle predispose to hypertension. This study assessed dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive outpatients attending Cardiology Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan. This research was descriptive and cross-sectional, including 92 hypertensive patients (37 males; 55 females). Interviewer-administered and Food Frequency Questionnaires were used for socio-demographic and lifestyle data, and dietary pattern respectively. The patients’ anthropometry was assessed. Mean of their last four blood pressure readings was calculated. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed at p<0.05. The patients’ mean age was 55.7±13.32 years. Majority were married. Many had secondary and tertiary education. Up to 87.0% did not drink alcohol and 98.9% never smoked cigarette. Most of them worked for 6 days while 53.2% engaged in moderate physical fitness 1-2 days a week but less than 30 minutes per day. Only few (26.1%) received dietary counseling from dietitians. Breakfast was mostly consumed. Half of them cooked their foods at home while others ate with food vendors every week. Fruits and vegetables were rarely consumed. Large number had Body Mass Index ≥ 25kg/m2. BMI of the male and female patients was statistically different (χ2= 10.299, p<0.006). Most females and males of the hypertensive patients had waist-to-hip ratio above cut off points. More than half had uncontrolled blood pressure. Many were young adults and elderly who had not visited dietitians, and did not regularly consume fruits and vegetables. Majority had sedentary lifestyle. Female patients were more obese and overweighed with poor control of hypertension than male patients.Keywords: Dietary pattern, lifestyle, nutrition status, hypertension
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Knowledge of diets as a modifiable risk factor of obesity among women of
           reproductive age in Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Authors: O.E. Oyewole, Y Ajayi
      Abstract: Knowledge of Women of Reproductive Age (WRA) on diets as a Modifiable Risk Factor (MRF) of obesity was assessed in a descriptive cross-sectional study design. A multi-stage sampling technique and semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire were adopted to elicit information. Knowledge of diets as MRF was assessed on a 12-point scale and poor score was ≤7 while good was >7. Obesity was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and respondents with BMI ≥30kg/m2 were classified as obese. Pattern of consumption of high calorie foods was assessed using a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. Respondents’ age was 29.9±8.7 years and 56.0% had tertiary education. Sixty-two percent had good knowledge of diets as MRF for obesity and prevalence of obesity was 18.6%. Frequently consumed high calorie foods included cocoa-based drinks (24.8%), carbonated sweet drinks (19.6%) and high calorie snacks (15.4%). The MRFs of obesity mentioned by the respondents were bad eating habits, which included frequent consumption of high calorie foods (71.2%), genetic predisposition (48.2%) and inactivity (32.0%). Knowledge of diets as MRF was not significantly associated with BMI at p≤0.05. Respondents aged 30-34 years were more likely to have higher knowledge of healthy eating as MRF of obesity than those aged 15-19 years (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.3–5.2). Despite the awareness on causes of obesity, there was no significant difference between knowledge of diets as risk factors to obesity and BMI. Nutrition education on healthy eating, which encourages consumption of fruits and vegetables and reduced consumption of high calorie foods should be directed at WRA using appropriate health promotion approaches.Keywords: Obesity, Modifiable risk factor, Diets, High calorie foods
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Neuroprotective potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract and Vitamin E
           against mercury chloride intoxication in male rat brain

    • Authors: O Owoeye, R.O. Akinbami, M.A. Thomas
      Abstract: Mercury chloride toxicity continues to be relevant in the advent of increased interest in mining activity in Nigeria. The neuroprotective potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract (CLSE) (Watermelon seed) and vitamin E (VIT E) on mercury chloride intoxication on the frontal cerebral cortex of male rats was investigated. Forty two (42) male rats were randomized into six groups of 7 rats each. Group 1: control group received food and water; Group 2: received CLSE (200 mg/kg); Group 3: received VIT E (500 mg/kg); Group 4: received HgCl2 (4 mg/kg); Group 5: received HgCl2 (4 mg/kg) + VIT E (500 mg/kg) and Group 6: received HgCl2 (4 mg/kg) + CLSE (200 mg/kg). Treatment lasted 14 days and on 15th day of the experiment, gross morphometric, behavioural tests and brain tissue processing using paraffin wax technique were done. While gross body and brain morphometric evaluations were not significantly different, behavioural studies show that CLSE and VIT E significantly (p<0.05) increased the number of lines crossed relative to control. Histology showed that HgCl2 caused degeneration of neurons of the frontal cerebral cortex when compared with the control. Co-treatment of HgCl2 with CLSE and VIT E showed histological features of protection of cerebral neurons from mercury damage. CLSE and VIT E mitigated HgCl2–induced degeneration of frontal cerebral cortical neurons thus demonstrating their neuropotential capacity to protect cerebral cortex neurons from mercury toxicity..Keywords: Citrullus lanatus extract, mercuric chloride, Vitamin E, rat frontal cortex, cortical
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Sperm morphology and characteristics in male rats treated with leaf
           extract Combretum sordidum

    • Authors: O.A. Oridupa, B.B. Samuel, A.A. Amolegbe
      Abstract: This study assessed the reproductive toxicity potential of Combretum sordidum, a medicinal plant used in West Africa as an antioxidant and antimicrobial recipee. Male Wistar rats (25) were orally administered with the acetone extract of C. sordidum a dose of 100, 200, 400 or 800mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats were humanely sacrificed and semen samples were collected to determine the sperm morphology and characteristics. Histology of the testes was also carried out to assess for the effect of the extract. The extract caused morphological changes of the sperm cells, predominantly secondary abnormality. Primary abnormality observed was rudimentary tail and secondary abnormalities included bent mid-piece, curved mid-piece, bent tail, curved tail, tail-less head, head-less tail and looped tail. The reduction in primary abnormality as opposed to the increase in secondary abnormalities shows that administration over a period of time does not adversely affect spermatogenesis but causes morphological changes of the spermatozoa during maturation and storage at the epididymis. The reduction in sperm count and motility at high doses are indicative of a decline in sperm quality. Although, these semen parameters fall within the recommended range, chronic administration of the extract of C. sordidum may lead to infertility and further progress to sterility. It is therefore recommended that C. sordidum should not be administered at doses exceeding 200mg/kg and chronic exposure should be avoided in males with reproductive potentials.Keywords: Toxicology, Male reproduction, Combretum sordidum, Wistar rat
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Humoral immune response of broilers fed with Moringa oleifera supplemented
           

    • Authors: A.G. Balami, P.A. Abdu, A.M. Wakawa, T Aluwong, S.B. Oladele, S.J. Enam
      Abstract: Infectious bursal disease virus has been reported to be one of the very important immunosuppressive agents in poultry. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the immune modulating effect of Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) supplemented feed in broilers. Two-hundred-and-forty-day old Ross 308 hybrid broiler chicks were assigned into groups A, B, C and D of 60 chicks each in deep litter type housing. Groups A and B were fed with formulated broiler starter and finisher feeds, containing 5% MOL for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively, while groups C and D were fed with formulated broiler starter and finisher feed without MOL for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. Broilers in groups A and C were vaccinated intramuscularly with 0.5 ml of inactivated intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine at 14 and 21 days of age, respectively and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine (Komorov strain) at 18 days of age, while those in groups B and D served as positive and negative control. Blood was collected from 10 broilers in each group via the wing vein on 14, 21, 35, and 38 days of age to determine the antibody titres of the various groups of broilers using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significant decrease (p = 0.001) was observed in the mean IBD antibody titre of birds in group A at 21 days of age and significant increase at 35 days of age. Birds in group B showed a significant decrease (p = 0.000) in antibody mean titre at 21 days of age and a significant (P = 0.002) increase at 35, 38 and 42 days of age. Significant decrease (p = 0.000) was observed in the mean antibody titre of broilers in group C at 21 days of age and a significant increase (p = 0.022) was observed at 35 days of age. The antibody mean titre of broilers in group D showed a significant decrease (p = 0.000) at 21 days of age, and a significant (p = 0.000) increase at 35 days of age. Broilers fed with MOL supplemented diet need to be vaccinated to have a high antibody titre against IBD.Keywords: Broilers, Moringa oleifera leaf, IBD, Antibody
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Dental formula and dental abnormalities observed in the Eidolon helvum
           (Fruit Bat) captured from the wild

    • Authors: O Igado, O Femi-Akinlosotu, T Omobowale, R Ajadi, H Nottidge
      Abstract: Bats are known to be the only flying mammals. Eidolon helvum is a species of fruit bats that is reported to have great economic and health importance, while also having an unsavoury reputation in many cultures in Nigeria. This study investigated the dental formula and dental pathologies of Eidolon helvum captured from the wild. The dental profile of 35 adult bats (20 males, 15 females) was assessed. The animals were observed to have a heterodont dentition. The males were observed to have a total of 30 to 36 teeth, while the females had 30 to 34 teeth. A missing lower incisor was observed in some of the females while the males showed a varying number of upper premolar. Severe attrition and edentulousness were observed in some bats examined. Results obtained from this work may shed more light on the different dental pathologies observed in the adult Eidolon helvum in Nigeria.Keywords:  Eidolon helvum, dental formula, dental abnormalities, attrition
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Protective effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit on
           reproductive functions and antioxidant activities in arsenic-treated male
           wistar rats

    • Authors: O.O. Daramola, W.A. Oyeyemi, F.U. Beka, E.A. Ofutet
      Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), a known male reproductive toxicant induces it effects majorly through oxidative stress. Citrullus lanatus fruit is widely consumed for its high medicinal values and antioxidant capacities. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit (AECL) on reproductive functions and antioxidant activities in arsenic-treated male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (150-190 g) were grouped into six and treated as follows; Control, 3 mg/kg As2O3, 100 mg/kg AECL, 200 mg/kg AECL, As2O3+100 mg/kg AECL and As2O3+200 mg/kg AECL. All administration was done orally for thirty days. Caudal sperm, serum hormone levels and testicular antioxidant activities were evaluated. Decreases (p<0.05) in sperm concentration, morphology, viability, and motility were observed in As2O3 group, however, AECL co-administered with As2O3 significantly reversed these effects. Follicle stimulating hormone decreased (p<0.05) in As2O3 group compared with control while significant increase was observed in groups co-treated with AECL and As2O3 relative to As2O3 group. There was an increase (p<0.05) in malondialdehyde level in As2O3 group compared with control while a decrease (p<0.05) was observed in groups co-treated with AECL and As2O3 compared with the As2O3 group. Superoxide dismutase activities decreased (p<0.05) in As2O3 group compared with control but increased (p<0.05) in 200 mg/kg AECL+As2O3 group relative to As2O3 group. Immature spermatids were observed in the seminiferous tubules of As2O3 group, while AECL improved the histology when compared with As2O3 group. The results of this study suggest that aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus provides protection for sperm cells against arsenic-induced oxidative stress.Keywords:  Eidolon helvum, dental formula, dental abnormalities, attrition
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Haematological effects of leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam in normal
           and myelo-suppressed wistar rats

    • Authors: S.A. Ufelle, K.C. Onyekwelu, P.U. Achukwu, C.O. Ezeh, S Ghasi
      Abstract: Haematological effects of leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Lam were investigated in normal and myelo-suppressed Wistar rats. Acute toxicity and phytochemistry of Moringa oleifera were determined. Wistar-rats (n=35), aged 2 to 3 months, weighing 120 - 170 grams were divided into 5 groups of 7 rats per group, labeled A to E. Groups A and B were induced intraperitoneally with 3mg/kg body weight (b.wt) of cyclophosphamide for 7 days to achieve myelo-suppression. Groups A, B, C and D were orally administered with graded-doses of the extract (A=150, B=300, C=150 and D=300 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Group E served as control. Blood samples (3.0 ml) were collected on days 8 and 15 from each rat through the retro orbital plexus of the median canthus into tri-potassium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid containers and analyzed using haematological auto analyzer (Sysmex KX-21N) following manufacturers guideline. The acute toxicity test of Moringa oleifera leaves revealed an oral LD50 of 3000 mg/kg body weight. Its phytochemical analyses revealed flavonoids ++, alkaloids ++, saponins +, tannins +, proteins ++, carbohydrate +, reducing ssugars +, steroids ++ and terpenoids +. On days 8 and 15 respectively, haemoglobin, haematocrit and total white blood cells of groups C, D and RBC of group D increased significantly (p < 0.05) when compared with the control. Groups A and B revealed dose- and time-dependent non-significant increases (p >0.05) in haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cells and total white blood cells on day 15 when compared with day 8.Keywords:  Moringa oleifera, toxicity, phytochemical, myelo-suppression
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
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