Publisher: Al-Azhar University   (Total: 6 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 5 of 5 Journals sorted alphabetically
Al-Azhar Intl. Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AL-Azhar J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Al-Azhar J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Al-Azhar Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Recent Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
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Journal of Recent Advances in Medicine
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2636-252X - ISSN (Online) 2636-2538
Published by Al-Azhar University Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Study of atherosclerosis in bronchial asthma patients

    • Abstract: Background: Bronchial asthma is commonly associated with systemic complications that contribute to its burden including cardiovascular diseases, in which atherosclerosis is the leading histopathologic ground. Objective: To study atherosclerosis in bronchial asthma patients and to identify clinical characteristics and risk factors related to it in asthmatic patients.Methodology: a case-control study that included 100 bronchial asthma patients and 100 non-asthmatic healthy subjects. All participants were subjected to measurement of spirometric-indices, blood eosinophils, lipid profile, serum total IgE, and carotid duplex ultrasonography.Results: There was significant increase in eosinophil count, total IgE, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) with significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in asthma group than controls. Dyslipidemia was significantly more common in asthma group than in controls (44% vs. 10% respectively, p< 0.05). There was significant increase of both common carotid arteries intima-media thickness (CCAs IMT) with significant higher frequency of atherosclerosis in asthmatic patients than controls (26% vs. 6% respectively p< 0.05). In asthma group, both CCAs IMT were positively correlated with age, BMI, asthma duration, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL, eosinophils count, and total IgE, while they were negatively correlated with age of asthma onset, spirometric-indices, and HDL. The significant risk factors of atherosclerosis in asthmatic patients were higher LDL (OR 7.160), family history of allergic diseases (OR 5.512), poor asthma control (OR 4.318), higher eosinophils (OR 4.110), higher IgE (OR 4.066), younger age of asthma onset (OR 2.768), higher BMI (OR 2.418), lower spirometric-indices (OR >2), longer asthma duration (OR 1.704), and higher patient age (OR 1.212). On the contrary, HDL demonstrates protective effect (OR 0.071).Conclusion: This study declares association between asthma and atherosclerosis, in particular uncontrolled severe persistent asthma. The most impressive risk factors of atherosclerosis in asthmatics include dyslipidemia, lower spirometric-indices, higher eosinophils and total IgE.
       
  • Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Invasive Breast Carcinoma: A
           clinico-Pathologic Study

    • Abstract: Background: Prior research has established a correlation between CD10 and the biological aggressiveness exhibited by many human malignancies. Objective: This research aimed to assess CD10 expression in invasive breast carcinoma and its correlation with clinic-pathological characteristics.Patients and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 60 cases diagnosed as invasive breast carcinoma, aged between 30 and 70 years, were submitted to the histopathology lab at Al-Zahraa University Hospital. By using immunohistochemical method to show expression of CD10 in our cases of invasive breast carcinoma.Results: In 78.4% of the cases, the expression of CD10 was detected in cytoplasm of stromal fusiform cells (46.7% as weak expression and31.7% as strong expression).The incidence of stromal CD10 positivity was considerably higher in tumors that had metastases to lymph nodes (p ≤ 0.05), a notable quality with increase tumor differentiation(p ≤0.05), and tumor size (p ≤ 0.05).Additionally correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) expression (p ≤ 0.05), progesterone receptor (PR) expression (p ≤ 0.05), and Ki-67 expression (p ≤ 0.05).Conclusions: These outcomes revealed the function of stromal CD10 expression in the advancement and spread of breast cancer and may participate in the progression of novel therapies for breast carcinoma.
       
  • The Diagnostic Role of CK19 and CD73 Immunohistochemistry in The Diagnosis
           of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Abstract:Background: The presence of diagnostic doubt in specific thyroid lesions has been extensively recorded, even among pathologists with significant expertise. This is particularly true in cases of papillary thyroid cancer, where the nuclear characteristics can be unclear.Recently, numerous molecular variations in thyroid cancer have been employed to differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid tumours. CK19 and CD73 biomarkers have been successfully implemented in clinical practice, leading to a substantial enhancement in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.Subject and and Methods: hospital-based cross-sectional study took place at Al-Azhar University Hospital, New Damietta, and Al-Zahraa University HospitalThe studied cases included 60 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and twelve non-neoplastic cases. The presence of immunoreactivity in each marker was evaluated and scored as negative if there was no staining or weak staining in less than 10% of the cells. Any other immunoreactivity was recorded as positive.Results: CK 19 had higher sensitivity but lowest specificity than CD73. While combination had lower specificity than CK19 alone and a sensitivity of 100%.Conclusion: We could say that Ck19 or the combination of both markers could provide the best sensitivity, while CD73 provides the best specificity at 41%.
       
  • Role of ultrasound in morphologic and functional assessment of fetal heart

    • Abstract: Background: Congenital heart diseases represent major risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. Accurate prenatal diagnosis may have clinical advantages for the development of the baby. Screening programs are meant to be used with the low-risk pregnant, thus they should be integrated into routine medical treatment. Objective: To evaluate the importance of ultrasound in assessing morphology and function of fetal heart. Methodology: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted on 30 pregnant women who were randomly chosen and thought to have congenital cardiac problems. Aortic arch, bicaval, right and left ventricular outflow tracts, four chamber view, and three vessels view were all performed. E/A Ratio was used to evaluate the embryonic heart's functionality. Results: The most frequent congenital cardiac disorders, according to a routine echocardiogram, were ventricular septal defect and Tetralogy of Fallot, followed by atrioventricular septal defect. One case (6.6%) of hypoplastic left heart syndrome was discovered, along with other conditions such as aortic stenosis, cardiomegaly, atrial septal defect, single ventricle, and transposition of the major arteries. All cases had an E/A ratio less than 1, with the exception of those with an atrioventricular septal defect, a single ventricle, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome, where the E/A ratio was higher. Conclusion: Fetal heart screening must be incorporated into normal obstetric examination of cases not just for pregnant women who are at risk for congenital anomalies, but also for pregnant women without risk factors.
       
  • Predictive value of trefoil factor 3 for identifying activity in
           ulcerative colitis patients: a comparison with fecal calprotectin and
           C-reactive protein

    • Abstract: Background: Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is primarily expressed by small intestine and colon goblet cells. Several studies have revealed that it plays a crucial function in mucosal protection and gastrointestinal tract repair. Objective: to evaluate the significance of TFF3 as a marker of disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Methods: A hospital-based case control study was done on 40 active-UC patients, 40 patients in remission state who underwent colonoscopy and 40 non-ulcerative colitis healthy individuals as control group. Serum TFF3 was measured by ELISA and compared to C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin (FC) values. Clinical and endoscopic assessment was scored according to Lichtiger Index and ulcerative colitis endoscopic severity index (UCEIS). Results: Serum TFF3 was significantly correlated with Lichtiger Index (r=0.671), UCEIS (r=0.642), FC (r=0.8048) and CRP (r=0.3759). Serum TFF3 cutoff point <4.25 ng/ml indicated remission with a specificity 69.2%, 69%; sensitivity 92%, 97% for endoscopic and clinical indices respectively. Also, TFF3 significantly differentiated between mild, moderate, and severe diseases. The AUC of TFF3+FC was significantly higher than that of TFF3 and FC alone for predicting UC remission. Conclusion: Serum TFF3 is significantly correlated with clinical, endoscopic indices and FC in UC patients. Serum TFF3 is a powerful predictive biomarker of remission alone and in combination with FC in UC patients.
       
  • Correlation between the transverse diameter of the fetal thymus gland and
           gestational age of fetus in normal singleton pregnancy

    • Abstract: Background: The determination of gestational age has a critical role in clinical practice on a daily basis for optimal neonatal management. Measurement of the transverse diameter of fetal thymus (TL) can be utilized for estimating the gestational age (GA).   Objective: to determine the accuracy of TL in estimation of GA of the fetus and to correlate TL with conventional fetal parameters viz. head circumference (HC), bi-parietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and with the GA, also, to detect linear regression formulae for estimation of the GA from TL and the other conventional fetal parameters. Methodology: This hospital based cross-sectional research was carried out on 282 pregnant women visited the outpatient obstetric clinic at Al-zahraa University hospital, from July to December 2022. Women with Singleton viable apparently normal fetus, GA between 17- 39 weeks were chosen to conduct the study. TL and the other conventional fetal parameters viz. BPD, HC, AC and FL were measured by ultrasound.   Results: There was an increase in the length of TL in relation to the increase of GA in weeks. There was a highly significant correlation (r) between the conventional fetal parameters viz. BPD, HC, AC, FL and TL also between the TL and GA. The linear regression formulae of TL and the other conventional fetal parameters had a statistically significant effect on estimating of the gestational age. Conclusion: There was a highly positive correlation between TL, the conventional fetal parameters viz. BPD, HC, AC, FL and GA. The TL gland can be used for estimation of GA.
       
  • COVID 19 associated coagulopathy

    • Abstract: Background: Critically ill COVID-19 patients are presented with coagulopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation like massive clot formation. Consequently, coagulation tests are useful to distinguish severe cases of COVID-19.Objective: to assess the role of prothrombin time (PT), D‐dimer, platelet (PLT) count, and fibrinogen for detection of coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19 and to assess their relation to disease severity.Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted on 80 patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed COVID-19 infection. The presenting symptoms, smoking, comorbidities, and high-resolution computed tomography of chest (HRCT) findings were reported. Measurements of the following laboratory parameters were done; complete blood count, liver and renal function tests, arterial blood gases, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, PT, PTT, D-dimer and fibrinogen. Based on COVID severity criteria, they were classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical cases.Results: Among the studied cases there were 33.75% have mild, 13.75% moderate, 38.75% severe and 13.75% critical COVID-19 infection. The dyspnea was significantly common in severe and critical groups (p< 0.001), while sore throat was significantly common in mild and moderate groups (p< 0.001). The ferritin was significantly higher in patients with either severe or critical COVID-19 than those with mild COVID-19, and in patients with severe COVID-19 than those with critical COVID-19. The severe and critical groups have significantly higher CORAD'''-score compared to either mild or moderate groups. The white blood cells was significantly higher in the critical group than the mild group. The level of D-dimer and fibrinogen were significantly higher in the severe and critical groups compared to either the mild or moderate groups. The PT, PTT, D-dimer and fibrinogen have fair sensitivities and specificities for determination of COVID-19 severity, and for detection of critical COVID-19.Conclusion: Coagulation biomarkers increases in COVID-19 infected patients, and they increased further as the severity of the disease increased.
       
  • Progression independent of relapse activity and relapse-associated
           

    • Abstract: Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), disability may accumulate in the form of deterioration linked to relapses, known as Relapse-Associated Worsening (RAW), or through a continuous progression unaffected by relapse activity, termed Progressive Independent of Relapse Activity (PIRA).Objectives: To investigate PIRA's baseline predictors at the time of MS diagnosis and the contributions of PIRA versus RAW to the long-term clinical outcomes in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients.Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Nasser institute hospital on 150 patients with SPMS. Baseline and clinical data were collected during MS diagnosis, progression data during the disease course, and further outcome data. Also, different disability scores associated with PIRA and RAW were performed.Results: Of 150 SPMS patients, 90 had PIRA, and 60 had RAW. Only age and type of relapses before starting disease modifying drugs (DMDs) showed significant differences between the groups. Patients with PIRA had higher mean age (40.1 ± 5.1 vs. 38.3 ± 5.43, p = 0.04) and fewer vision relapses than patients with RAW (34.4% vs. 51.7%, respectively p = 0.036). Moreover, no differences were found in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including lesions and oligoclonal bands. There were significant associations between PIRA and poor long-term outcomes indicated by expanded disability status scale (EDSS), simple digit modalities test (SDMT), and 25-foot timed walk test (25FWT).Conclusion: After the initial diagnosis of PIRA manifesting multiple sclerosis is prevalent among patients who develop secondary progression and indicates an unfavorable long-term prognosis. However, the prediction of PIRA is challenging, and further prospective research is warranted.
       
  • Treatment of Unstable Intertrochantric Fracture Femur by Proximal Femoral
           Nail (PFN) Versus Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Background: Treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly osteoporotic patients is challenging and still controversial. Key point of surgical treatment is to achieve an early mobilization with full-weight bearing which can be achieved by good anatomical reduction and fixation, or by hip arthroplasty.Objective: This study aimed to compare the results of using proximal femoral nail (PFN) versus cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BH) in treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. regarding time to full weight bearing, operative time, blood loss and post operative complications.Methodology: This prospective double blinded study was conducted on 50 patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures who were divided into two groups: Group (A) PFN group: that included 25 patients who were treated by direct or indirect reduction and fixation with PFN. Group (B): BH group that included 25 patients treated with cemented BH. Clinical and functional evaluation had been achieved by Harris Hip Score (HHS). Results: Both groups were matched regarding age, sex, site of fracture and operative characteristics. The operative characteristics and the rate of intraoperative complications were similar between both groups. The length of hospital stay / days was nearly the same between both groups. The rate of bed sores and wound infections were non- significantly higher in PFN group .BH group has higher rate of full weight bearing with significantly shorter full weight bearing time compared to PFN group. [(96% vs. 72%) and (8.67 ± 3.03vs. 12.06 ± 3.59) respectively]. Patients in BH group had better Harris Hip Score scores compared to those in PFN group but without significant difference. Conclusion: Studied BH group had shorter operating times, fewer fluoroscopic assessments, and early ambulation than those who underwent PFN.Therefore, we suggest that BH may help elderly patients with osteoporotic unstable intertrochanteric fractures recover more quickly.Keywords: Cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty; proximal femoral nail; BH. PFN.
       
  • Study of Platelet Indices in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    • Abstract: Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is linked with high grade systemic inflammation as determined with markers of inflammation such as the elevations in blood leukocytes, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines. As Platelets are the primary cellular mediators of hemostasis and thrombosis, the activated platelets and their mediators contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD.Objective: to study the platelet indices in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).Methodology: This case-control study was conducted on 100 patients with AECOPD, and 100 age- and gender-matched patients with stable COPD. Age, gender, smoking status and index , spirometric-indices (FVC%, FEV1%, FEV1/FVC ratio), arterial blood gases, hepatic and renal functions tests, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total leucocytes count (TLC) , platelets (PLTs) count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), Plateletcrit % (PCT%), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) were measured. Results: Compared to the stable group, the AECOPD group had lower MPV, PDW, and P-LCR and higher PCT%. The TLC, (PLTs count, and ESR were significantly increased in AECOPD patients. PDW was inversely correlated with FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio in AECOPD but not in stable patients. PCT% and FEV1/FVC ratio were positively correlated in the AECOPD group while they were inversely correlated in the stable group. The PCT% and smoking index were positively correlated AECOPD patients. The P-LCR and FEV1/FVC ratio were inversely related only in AECOPD. Regarding ACOPD severity, the PCT% and P-LCR were significantly differed between patients with mild, moderate and severe exacerbation, while PLTs count, MPV, or PDW did not differed.Conclusion: Platelet indices, which measure platelet activity, may be a simple, and minimally invasive biomarker for COPD exacerbation. PLTs count and MPV are important indications of COPD exacerbation.
       
  • Ultrasographic evaluation of diaphragm function in patients with chronic
           obstructive pulmonary disease and patients with bronchial asthma:
           Comparative study

    • Abstract: BABSTRACTBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma leading to chronic airflow limitation, which is supposed to alter the position and shape of the diaphragm due to increased lung volume with subsequent impairment of diaphragm contractility. Objective: to evaluate and compare diaphragm thickness (DT) using ultrasonography in COPD patients and asthma patients.Methodology: a case-control study included 100 asthmatic patients, 100 COPD patients and 103 healthy subjects was performed. All participants were subjected to measurements of spirometric indices and assessment of DT using ultrasound.Results: The DT at residual volume (DT-RV) was significantly decreased in COPD patients than either asthma or control groups. The DT at total lung capacity (DT-TLC) and diaphragm thickness fraction (DTF %) were significantly reduced in COPD group than both asthma and control groups, and in asthma group than control group. In asthma group, the DTF% was inversely correlated with smoking index and asthma duration, and positively correlated with FEF25-75%. In COPD group, the DTF% was positively correlated with FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1%. The DTF% cutoff 24.5% can discriminate between normal diaphragm function and diaphragm dysfunction (DD) in asthmatic patients with 74% sensitivity, 62.4% specificity, 67.3% PPV and 69.3% NPV. In COPD, the DTF% cutoff 23.7% can discriminate between normal diaphragm function and DD with 85% sensitivity, 66.3% specificity, 73.2% PPV and 79.3% NPV. DD was detected in 25% of asthmatic patients and 37% of COPD patients. The important predictive factors of DD in asthmatic patients were FVC%, age, FEV1% and asthma duration, while in COPD it were COPD duration, age, smoking index, FEV1% and BMI. Conclusion: DD is prevalent among both COPD and asthmatic patients. The DT and contractility were significantly declined in both asthmatic and COPD patients compared to healthy subjects, and in COPD patients than asthmatic patients.
       
  • Role of PET/CT in Vertebral Lesions in Cancer Patient

    • Abstract: Background: Since 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) provides functional information about the body's rate of glucose metabolism, positron emission tomography / Computed tomography (PET/CT) is a good method to detect, stage, and therapeutically monitor many different types of cancer.Objective: to evaluate the relative merits of 18F-FDG PET, CT, and combined PET/CT for identifying and defining vertebral lesions in cancer patients.Methodology: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 40 patients with cancer confirmed by biopsy. During the study period from September 2020 to December 2021, every patient at the Nasser institute hospital for research and treatment - cancer center had CT, and PET/CT scan performed for the whole body.Results: PET/CT scan showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than CT. 18F-FDG PET/CT has clinical impact on management in 45.8% of patients by up-staging 8/24 and down-staging 3/24 patients. 18F-FDG PET/CT affects management in (23%) of patients by down-staging 3/13 patients.Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT may detect osseous metastases. Co-registration of PET and CT images with a combined PET/CT scanner increases sensitivity and specificity.
       
  • The effect of aging on central auditory processing and cognitive abilities

    • Abstract: AbstractBackground: Aging has significant effect on central auditory processing and cognitive abilities and this is associated with many difficulties in communication. Several tests are able to detect the effect of aging on central auditory processing abilities and on cognitive abilities. Objective: To assess effect of age on central auditory processing and cognitive abilities and to compare central auditory abilities between elderly & adults. Patients and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional comparative study conducted on subjects attending at the Hearing and Speech Institute clinics. The study consisted of 60 participants divided into 3 groups: Group (1): 20 participants ages ranged from 20-39 years old. Group (2): 20 participants ages ranged from 40-59 years old. Group (3): 20 participants ages above 65 years old. The three groups underwent otological examinations, pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance, SPIN, SSI-ICM, DPT, DDT, auditory memory tests and ACPT. Results: There was statistically significant difference between the three groups in pure tone thresholds especially in high frequencies, SPIN, SSI-ICM, DPT, DDT, auditory memory tests and on ACPT. Conclusion: There is marked decline in central auditory processing abilities and cognitive abilities with increased age.Keywords: Age related hearing loss (ARHL), Central Auditory processing (CAP), Central Auditory Processing Disorders (CAPD).
       
  • Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms and its determinants among
           the dental staff of Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt

    • Abstract: AbstractBackground: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most frequent disorder affecting the median nerve. It is common work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists, with significant social and economic implications. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CTS symptoms as well as its personal and occupational determinants among dental staff. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 141 dental staff of Al-Azhar University. We used a self-administered questionnaire, including work history, demographic data, and the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) to survey CTS symptoms in addition to clinical examination. Results: The prevalence of CTS symptoms among our participants was 29.8%, of which 24.1%, 4.3%, and 1.4 % had mild, moderate, and severe symptoms, respectively. It was found that uncomfortable posture (OR= 4.9 95%, CI: 1.6 -15.2), gender (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.2 -12.6), and the lake of performing stretching exercises (OR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.1 -12.4), were significant predictors of CTS among our participants (P value<0.05). However, there was no association between CTS and age, BMI, dominant hand, and smoking. Conclusions: CTS symptoms were about 30% among dentists, and they more prevalent among female and with certain factors such as uncomfortable posture. This study highlights the role of stretching exercises in reducing the risk of CTS. Preventive measures such as ergonomic training and periodic examination are recommended.
       
 
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Publisher: Al-Azhar University   (Total: 6 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 5 of 5 Journals sorted alphabetically
Al-Azhar Intl. Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AL-Azhar J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Al-Azhar J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Al-Azhar Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Recent Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
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JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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