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Journal of Business and Management Studies
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2709-0876
Published by Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development Homepage  [14 journals]
  • Impact of COVID19 on the Education System in the United States through
           PESTLE Analysis: A Case Study

    • Authors: Duaa Shahid
      Abstract: A PESTLE analysis is a commonly used practice by marketing to access the macro environment of a company or an industry. This analysis helps organizations identify the external marketing factors that impact the external marketing environment of an organization. PESTLE analysis provides a framework to understand the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and ethical factors of an industry or an organization to evaluate potential changes required to implement managerial decisions. This tool is used to understand the growth and decline of an organization or its division to develop strategies in its operational direction. The aim of this case study was to assess the impact of Covid19 on the enrollment of international students in higher education in the United States through PESTLE analysis. It has been concluded that Covid19 badly impacted the recruitment of international students by the institutions of higher education in the country. It has been found that the pandemic adversely affected the budgets of the universities. It has been suggested to overcome some of these problems can be found through an aggressive market with some financial support from the enrollment teams of the respective institutes. The organization may adjust its operations and find new creative ways to stay on top of its game. Enrollment trends and operations are expected to be impacted by several micro and macro trends in the long term, and some of these factors might become responsible for changes in the functions and operations of the organizations. In the long run, the best practice with this uncertainty is to keep a close eye on the changing trends and build an organizational leadership that's flexible and eager to adapt to the new challenges they will face.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Impact of Public Spending (Expenditures) on Economic Growth in Iraq
           for the Period 2004-2019

    • Authors: Khalaf Mohamed Hamad; Hassan Zaidan, Khalaf Al-Majma’i, Mohammed kamil Abdullah
      Abstract: Although public expenditures are a tool used by the state to manage public revenues and satisfy public needs, they are one of the most important tools of the country's financial policy, through which the state intervenes in economic and social life and translates the objectives of economic policy into real projects and programs of work. It is possible to assess the performance of the government by studying and analyzing the development and structure of the general budget, and despite the high volume of public expenditures in Iraq during the research period, the state was not able to achieve the economic and social goals represented by achieving high rates of growth and economic and social balance, as there was an imbalance In the structure of public expenditures, and this leads to an imbalance in the public budget, which reinforced its deepening, which is also reflected in the imbalance in the economic structure of the country.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Role of Administrative Slouch in Expanding the Hidden Economy

    • Authors: Najim Suhel Najim; Saad Salim Ghanim, Qusay Jasim Mohammd
      Abstract: This study aims to show the role of administrative slack through its dimensions (job inflation, job laziness, and low productivity) in expanding the hidden economy. A problem that impedes the effective performance of the state’s administrative apparatus, and to achieve the study's goal, the results of the essential previous research in this field were reviewed. Then a questionnaire form was designed for this purpose. (104) questionnaires were distributed to the administrative staff in the office of Salah al-Din Governorate, which was also completed. The use of a number of statistical methods, and the study came out to many conclusions, the most important of which were: the absence of teamwork methods, poor performance concerning control operations in the organization in question, and the prevalence of the phenomenon of negligence in the field of work. The results of the study showed the citizens’ dissatisfaction with the organization’s performance and the weakness of the performance evaluation processes. Also, the results revealed that the administration cannot achieve future development programs for the employees. The most important recommendations reached by the study were to work on finding a department concerned with following up on citizens’ complaints, knowing the deficiencies and removing the obstacles facing the administration and following up Performance through the KPLS program), the performance evaluation system and the intensification of development courses that help find future leaders.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Sharia and Conventional Stock Investment

    • Authors: Nurul Aisah; Muhammad Sholahuddin , Sisca Dian Rahmawati Rahmawati
      Abstract: Many people still have doubts about the halalness of investing in the capital market, especially in Islamic stock investments. So this causes a delay in the public's intention to invest their funds in the capital market, especially Sharia shares. To understand Islamic stocks and conventional stocks and try to analyze the various contracts/transactions that are selected (permissible/not) in Islam. A systematic review through a review of journals on Islamic and conventional stock markets. Article searches were accessed from internet search databases, namely: Emerald, Springer, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, and Google. From the literature review, it was found that 7 journals related to Islamic stocks and conventional stocks, 1 journal with a qualitative design, 4 journals with a quantitative design, and 2 journals with a literature review survey design. The results of the literature review starting from 2014 - to 2020 are 7 international journals. This systematic review shows that investing in sharia shares is not an illegal transaction, as long as the transaction follows Sharia provisions. By paying attention to which shares are allowed to be traded and which shares are not allowed because they are contrary to Sharia principles. When referring to the Fatwa of the DSN MUI, investing in shares both as investors and traders is not a disgraceful or unlawful act, as long as the transaction follows the provisions on which shares may be transacted and which shares may not be traded because they are contrary to Sharia principles. Issuers need to first select the shares because sharia shares must be guaranteed sharia. And practically, in Indonesia, the difference between conventional stocks and Islamic stocks is that Islamic stocks must be included in the JII (Jakarta Islamic Index), ISSI, and Jakarta Islamic Index 70 (JII70). And sharia shares can be carried out based on musyarakah and mudharabah contracts.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Analysis of the Dimensions of Lean Manufacturing through the Hierarchical
           Analysis Process in the General Company for Automobile and Equipment
           Manufacturing in Alexandria, Babylon of Iraq

    • Authors: Nawfal Kadhim AbdUon
      Abstract: This study analyzed the dimensions of agile manufacturing through a hierarchical analysis process at Alexandria’s State Company for Automotive and Equipment. This topic is important in the use of management accounting methods as means to improve the performance of automotive and equipment manufacturers in Alexandria, with a view to achieving their objectives. The fact that these companies also have a significant and fundamental impact on the realities of Egypt’s economy was the answer to the following questions: What are the elements of agile manufacturing at Alexandria’s State Automotive and Equipment Company' What are the most relevant dimensions of the company’s agile manufacturing' And the researcher has followed the analytical approach of analyzing the data on research that will be obtained through the study tool of the scale of dimensions of agile manufacturing, The research was based on the collection of data related to the search on the personal interview with members of the company’s senior management to obtain information and data and relying on the lean manufacturing scale 2012 Singh & Culshan which consists of nine dimensions and applied to employees of the Automotive and Equipment Industry Company in Alexandria, One of the results of this study is a hierarchical analysis process, which depends on the opinions and ideas of the people involved in issuing judgments only, but not other employees of the company, and therefore the views of as many employees as possible must be expanded. In Alexandria, there is an average value for agile manufacturing. Interest from Alexandria General Automotive Company’s management in achieving agile manufacturing and the study recommended that attention should be paid to low relative weight dimensions and to high relative weight dimensions and maintain this level to be used in the implementation of agile manufacturing, Raising the level of awareness of the employees of the State Automotive Company in Alexandria of the importance of applying and increasing the level of efficiency of the dimensions of the process of agile manufacturing and providing all the possibilities and needs required by the process of agile manufacturing.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Importance of Intercultural Communication in an Organization

    • Authors: Duaa Shahid
      Abstract: Communication is the bridge that can unify cultures, but it requires continuous tweaking, buy-in, and also excitement from all teams. Communication is the process used by people to transmit, interpret, and share information. Effective information communication among the organization's employees is essential to increase employee engagement and motivation to encourage fulfillment. Communication requires reciprocity; it includes speaking and listening, making feedback one of the most imperative tools to direct the organization in a culturally diverse environment. Providing the necessary tools to guide, teach and train employees to navigate through a culturally diverse organizational environment successfully is an organization's responsibility so that it can cultivate employee growth and success. The purpose of this short article is to show the significance and utility of the concept of business society for scholars and practitioners in the field of information studies. It offers an academic as well as empirical assessment of the results of society on interaction and info in companies. First, the ideas of organizational society, information as well as communication are quickly discovered. Then a case study of the impacts of business culture on communication as well as details exists. Particularly, we make a thorough assessment of exactly how perspectives to communication and info that had their origins in a leading business culture were a strong impact on the death of the firm. It has been concluded in this review that educating the employees in an organization can help provide a better understanding of intercultural differences, organization-appropriate behaviors, and conflict resolution. Recognizing the complexities involved between communication and culture has become a need for most organizations to gain a competitive advantage and shape a positive workplace environment.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Remote Working during the Covid-19 Global Pandemic and its Implications
           for Employee Motivation: Some Evidence from Nigeria through the Lens of
           Self-Determination Theory

    • Authors: Charles Nwoko; Khashayar Yazdani
      Abstract: Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world took several safety measures, including enforced confinement to check the spread of the disease. These measures had economic, health, and psychosocial implications. On the other hand, the pandemic accelerated remote working and the deployment of technology to support this new way of working as businesses needed to continue functioning. Empirical research on the implication of these measures on the mental health, engagement, and motivation of employees abound in other jurisdictions, whereas it is limited in Nigeria. From a self-determination perspective, this study examines the mediating roles of organizational factors (OF) and employee’s individual situation (ES) on employee motivation during the pandemic. The study employed a survey research design while descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling were used to analyze the data. Remote working intensity (RW) during the pandemic had a significant positive impact on organizational factors. Employee’s Individual Situation had a significant positive impact on Employee Motivation (EM). The study concludes that as good as remote working may seem, the enforced confinement led to increased stress levels, more mental health challenges, and lower motivation. The moderation role of basic psychological needs (PN) satisfaction was confirmed. The findings showed that employees who could influence their work schedule were more motivated. Higher levels of support from employers that enabled individuals to achieve desired results amidst the uncertainties created by the pandemic were also associated with better levels of motivation. Employees in organizations that found innovative ways for social connection and had regular check-ins by managers were more engaged and motivated because employers’ support was found to be empowering, produced better psychological health, and helped employees feel self-determined. Even though the study shows the association between remote working, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and employee motivation, how motivation level changes after some point or the degree to which it would change in the post-pandemic era remains unclear and should be an area for further study since motivation is not a unitary phenomenon.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • A Case Study on Factors Affecting the Perception of Customers in
           Purchasing Air Fryer Products: Basis for a Proposed Enhanced Marketing
           Promotion Program

    • Authors: Terrence Arvin S. Auyong; Shawn Caesar M. De Jesus, Donnel Doglas G. Maralit, Aaron Joshua T. Obeles, Francis Lawrence B. De Jesus
      Abstract: In the Philippine Culture, Filipinos love to eat and cook food, so they will eat up to 5 times per day. In addition, Filipinos love to eat fried foods, and a majority of their breakfast tables entirely consist of fried foods or, at the very least, mixed with other Filipino delicacies. With the latest developments in cooking technology in the present era, the Air Fryer was introduced into the market as a machine that reduces time and helps with cooking efficiency. The problem revolves around the Air Fryer, specifically how aware the Air Fryer Product customers are and what factors affect customer perception in terms of buying Air Fryer. The study is focused on variables such as Customer Value-Centered Perception, Experiential Marketing, Product Features, and Influencers. The study utilizes Qualitative Research in the form of a Case Study. The instruments used in this study were open-ended question surveys. The study utilized the Purposive Sampling Technique of 10 individuals that purchased Air Fryers. The result of the study was analyzed using the Thematic Analysis method. The findings of the study with the utilization of the Thematic Analysis method were sub-themes that arose from the Open-Ended Questionnaire, such as Health Benefits Awareness, Convenience of Time, Product Demonstration/Testing, Marketing Promotional Events, User-Friendly Product Features, Optimized Product Features, Integrity of an Influencer, and Influencer’s Degree of Legitimacy & Specialization. The output of the study is a Proposed Enhanced Marketing Promotional Program that will help the Air Fryer manufacturing companies and the customers identify the benefits and knowledge of purchasing an Air Fryer.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Impact of Digital Marketing on Customer Buying Intention of Customers
           in the Philippines

    • Authors: Lance Astoriano, Gerona, Justin Albert D; Marzan, Juan Carlos R.
      Abstract: Digital marketing is arguably one of the preeminent marketing strategies utilized by today's vast number of businesses and companies. This strategy offers tools that enable them to promote their products to a much larger audience as it encompasses geographical boundaries. Also, it can build better relationships with customers since the content is customized to their liking. In the current study, the researchers aimed to determine how digital marketing affects the consumer behavior of Filipinos, specifically customer engagement and purchase intention. The following hypotheses were formulated: (H1) Social Media has a significant impact on Customer Engagement. (H2) Social media has a significant impact on purchase intention. (H3) Email marketing has a significant impact on customer engagement. (H4) Email marketing has a significant impact on purchase intention. (H5) Customer Engagement has a significant impact on purchase intention. A total of 334 respondents were surveyed online, and data was analyzed through the SPSS software. By the end of the research, it was found that digital marketing strategies, specifically social media marketing and email marketing, effectively generate purchase intention from Filipino consumers. This is aided by the customer engagement triggered by the advertisements presented on Facebook and their email. The researchers recommend further research on the topic but to branch out to other strategies and tactics of digital marketing since the current study focused solely on Facebook and email.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • TikTok as a Platform for Marketing Campaigns: The effect of Brand
           Awareness and Brand Recall on the Purchase Intentions of Millennials

    • Authors: Mary Aubrey G. Gesmundo; Melvin Dave S. Jordan, Wee Hansei D. Meridor, Dainielle Vien Muyot, Mary Caroline N. Castano, Agnes Jocelyn P. Bandojo
      Abstract: Modern individuals create social networks to connect. A digital social landscape now exists within the society that enables interactions while providing convenience and efficiency. A social media platform called TikTok consists of comprehensive and diverse videos that empower users to upload and watch content as they desire. The researchers highly considered this feature which led them to explore the deliverance of marketing campaigns created on TikTok. In a more profound sense, since countless brands are scrutinizing TikTok to gather their consumers, the purpose and objectives of this study determined the effect of brand awareness and brand recall on the purchase intention of millennials. This study incorporated the Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA) Model and Selective Exposure Theory (SET) to serve as the foundation of the analysis. The study employed descriptive causal analysis. The study surveyed a group of millennials, ranging from 25 to 40 years old, who currently reside in the Philippines' National Capital Region (NCR). The researchers distributed the survey through Google forms and then utilized frequency and percentage distribution, mean and standard deviation, and PLS-SEM to analyze the results. This study determined that marketing campaigns can largely input brand awareness among millennials compared to enhancing their brand recall. Furthermore, marketing campaigns trigger their purchase intention. This study is deemed a resource to business owners, marketing students and professionals, and academic institutions that hope to generate further information on the existence of TikTok and its marketing advantage.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Elements of Online Advertisements: Its Impact on Late Generation Z’s
           Purchase Intention

    • Authors: Mark Ryan Mergillano; Bryan Gabriel Nabor, Rhixonn Rourkee Halili, Kristian George Hinanay, Jun R. Grimaldo
      Abstract: Online advertising is considered as one of the most popular forms of communication in persuading consumers to purchase a product. It asks the question of how an advertisement becomes well-written or well-processed. Correspondingly, many factors contribute to making an online advertisement a successful process. In this light, the researchers aim to determine the influence of the different elements of online advertisements on Late Generation Z's purchase intention. To be more particular, the researchers focused on several factors, such as (1) advertising appeals, (2) visual and verbal elements, and (3) social media platforms. The methods utilized in gathering the data in this study were through Google Forms as there were constraints to physical contact due to the COVID-19 pandemic. After assessing the necessary data for this study, the researchers have found that some elements of online advertisements are always significant to Late Generation Z. To be more specific, some of these elements are as follows: (1) the brand logo’s overall style and background meaning, (2) the informativeness and credibility of an advertisement, (3) the authenticity of an advertisement, and lastly, (4) the credibility of social media platforms in terms of purchasing products and services. The study intends to fill the gap in this domain to help advertising companies, businesses, marketers, and researchers fully maximize the potential of online advertisements.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Work Environment and Work Motivation on Employee Performance
           through Workload on Bpjs Health Employees Prima Branch Office

    • Authors: Niken Udanarti; Kasmir
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was three-fold. First, to analyze the effect of the work environment and work motivation on the workload at BPJS Kesehatan Prima Branch Office. Second, to analyze the effect of work environment, work motivation, and workload on employee performance at BPJS Kesehatan Prima Branch Office. Third, to analyze the influence of the work environment and work motivation on employee performance through the workload of employees at BPJS Kesehatan Prima Branch Office. The research used a quantitative approach. The population in this study was all employees of BPJS Kesehatan Prima Branch Office. The technique of determining the number of samples in this study used a saturated sample. Thus, the number of samples is set at 50 employees. The data collection used in this research is using a questionnaire. The data analysis method in this study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the help of SmartPLS software version 3.2.9. The results in this study indicate that the work environment and work motivation have a negative and significant effect on the workload of BPJS Kesehatan employees at the prime branch in Jakarta. Work environment and work motivation have a positive and significant effect on employee performance at BPJS Kesehatan prime branch employees in Jakarta. Workload has a negative and significant effect on employee performance at BPJS Kesehatan prime branch employees in Jakarta. Work environment and work motivation have a positive and significant effect on employee performance through the workload of BPJS Kesehatan prime branch employees in Jakarta.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction towards Luxury Clothing: Quiet
           Luxury and Logomania among Filipino Millennials

    • Authors: Sophia Mae Dealca; John Rafael D. Estrera, Christian Lloyd L. Tibalao, Francis Lawrence B. De Jesus AL-Gamiel
      Abstract: People get a variety of advantages and pleasures by wearing luxurious clothing. Apparently, Millennials are anchored towards "Conspicuous Consumption," which leads them to spend heavily on clothing that displays power on their character. Considering that 41.9% of Filipino Millennials belonging to social classes A, B, and C1 are in Metro Manila, this generation group is one of the most significant consumers contributing to luxurious purchases. This study identifies the significant difference in the motivation for luxury clothing of the respondents when grouped according to a.) social status b.) Manner of procuring luxury items & c.) location of the purchasing customer. By employing the mixed method using an online survey questionnaire, this study was able to identify the different motivational factors that drive consumers to buy luxury clothing regardless of its high cost. The data are analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics to assess the respondents' level of agreement on independent and dependent variables. At the end of this study, the researchers would distinguish the characteristics of individuals who prefer to buy Loud Luxury (Logomania) and Quiet Luxury of Filipino Millennials.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Pre- and Post-Purchase Factors Contributing to Dissonance of Filipino
           Credit Cardholders Amidst Exposure to Financial Risk

    • Authors: Andreana Gene Gomez; Kristine Falales, Tricia Mae Villaflores
      Abstract: Credit card transactions among Filipinos have steadily increased over the past years due to factors like convenience, availability, promotion, and payment terms. Amidst the benefits it brings, the possibility of consumer dissonance brought about by pre-and post-purchase factors as well as financial risk is still noteworthy consideration when utilizing credit. The study focuses on the analysis of the pre-and post-purchase factors that contribute to consumer dissonance amongst Filipino credit cardholders. Due to growing concerns over the development of consumer debt, a gap in the research literature suggests the need to examine the factors that influence the consumers in making their purchases amidst exposure to financial risk, especially with respect to the accessibility of payment extension solutions such as credit card payment. The study will utilize a Descriptive and Inferential Survey Research Design across 196 respondents within Metro Manila. Furthermore, this information can help business managers and operators to analyze and market their payment solutions more effectively.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Impact of Online Advertisement on Building a Brand and on Purchase

    • Authors: Xyrille Christian Cabigting; Angela Denise Marallag, Bryan Paulo Mariano, Jun Grimaldo
      Abstract: In the modern era of technology, online advertising is the most common tool used by firms to promote certain products or brands. This study examines the impact of online advertisements on building a brand and on purchase intention. The study sample consists of 389 respondents from different regions in the Philippines. A descriptive correlation was used to analyze and interpret the data. As concluded, online communities and electronic word-of-mouth affect the purchase intentions and brand loyalty of customers. Additionally, the results of the study indicate that online advertising has a significant influence on purchase decisions. By these mentioned factors, the study evidently proposes significant positive effects on purchase intention and brand loyalty of consumers.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Pink Power: The Extent of Awareness, Driving Factors, and Overall
           Perception of Filipina Youth Consumers in Metro Manila, Philippines on
           Pink Tax Caused by Pink Marketing Strategy

    • Authors: Allaine Bernadette Chua; Alyannah Hidalgo, Joshua James Huyo-a, Alain Jomarie G. Santos
      Abstract: One of the features of pink marketing is the usage of the color pink in women's products. However, this marketing strategy often employs pink tax, an extra amount charged to women's products even though the products are similar or equal in benefit to men's; the only difference is the color. In the Philippines, the pink tax is not yet explored. The study aimed to explore the extent of awareness, driving factors, and overall perception of Filipina youth consumers on pink tax caused by the practice of pink marketing. The study employed a qualitative descriptive research design. Thematic analysis revealed personal experiences of the respondents permeated the concept, corroborating previous literature and studies. The study concludes respondent Filipina Youth Consumers are aware of pink tax but only to the extent of definition and practice as observed in different products. They are not willing to buy products with pink tax as caused by the pink marketing strategy; however, the quality and the social and cultural norm with regard to gender schema are the driving factors to purchase. Negative perceptions outweigh the positive ones as it is viewed to be discriminatory, against equality and a way of deceiving and exploiting women consumers by the companies incorporating pink tax into their pink marketing strategy and respondents perceived that the concept should be addressed. The researchers recommend that the policymaking bodies study the matter to promote the value of women as consumers and contributors to the economy. They can use this research for policymaking or reference to review existing consumer and business laws for improvement.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Hospital Management Information System Performance on
           Hospital Financial Reports Quality Moderated by Human Resources
           Competence: An Empirical Study at DKI Jakarta Province’s X Hospital

    • Authors: Pramono; Adli
      Abstract: This research is aimed at, first, observing the impacts of the hospital management information system on the financial reports quality of Hospital X. Second, observing the impacts of hospital management information system performance on the financial report quality at Hospital X as moderated by HR competence. The research applied the quantitative method. Three variables were applied to this study, namely independent variable, namely hospital management information system performance. The moderation variable applied was HR competence and the dependent variable applied to this study was Financial Report quality. Its population includes all accounting and IT unit staff with 82 samples. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) data analysis technique was applied during the data analysis process, whereas for the data input process, the study used SmartPLS software. The research results show that Hospital Management Information System Performance has an impact on the Financial Report Quality and Hospital Management Information System Performance has no impact on Financial Report Quality as moderated by HR competence.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Relationship of Facebook Messenger Marketing to the Purchasing
           Intention of the Consumers of Philippine MSMEs

    • Authors: Anne Valerie Casimiro; Cathleen Chua, Dominique Earl Pasquin, Jun R. Grimaldo
      Abstract: Philippines, as the social media capital of the world, has the highest social media usage rate, with over 60% higher than the average rate for other countries and which amounts to an average of 11 hours of usage per day, as of 2021. Compared to over 9 hours per day last 2019, it is evident that the pandemic caused a spike in the statistics since more people are on their phones while staying at home. From the start of the pandemic, the use of social media platforms including Facebook Messenger for marketing product and service offerings from MSMEs has also increased. The restrictions brought upon by the rise of COVID-19, made MSMEs integrate the use of these platforms to market their products and connect with their consumers by providing online customer service. 300 respondents were asked to answer the survey which involves questions about service/web qualities and purchase intention to which the researchers discovered the significance of informativeness, assurance, and empathy towards the purchase intention of the consumers in encountering messages from MSMEs on Facebook Messenger. It was found that web and service quality factors affect the purchase intention of the respondents positively to a certain degree. This study has shown that most people prefer to use Facebook Messenger when it comes to purchasing things online. Different levels of significance with purchase intention were found among different factors of marketing messages sent through Facebook Messenger. Informativeness, assurance, and empathy are the ones that are significantly correlated with purchase intention. Whereas Access, Reliability, and Responsibility have a lower significance with Purchase Intention.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Transitioning Towards a Fully Digital Banking Environment: Analyzing
           Financial Consumption Preferences of Metro Manila Banking Customers

    • Authors: Nina Isabel Gigante; Patricia Anne Martin, Hiroshi Marutani
      Abstract: The emergence of technology, combined with the adoption and integration of new practices, has greatly affected multiple business fields, including the Philippine banking industry. This leads to the entrance of fully digital banking platforms, a potential alternative to brick-and-mortar banks. Would Metro Manila banking customers utilize fully digital banks, or would they prefer the established traditional banking institutions as their personal choice for financial services and transactions' By surveying 385 respondents, the researchers obtained and analyzed information about the preferences and behavior of banking customers to learn more about the degree to which customer characteristics affected their preferences for certain banking products. This study proved that Metro Manila banking customers have a strong inclination towards physical or traditional banks, given that 60.5% of the total respondents are traditional banking users compared to 4.4% for fully digital banks and 35.1% for both traditional and fully digital banks. Decision variables such as convenience, efficiency, customization/personalization, security, and privacy also played a significant role in evaluating and assessing customer motivation in determining a preference. The results yielded a more localized and concentrated approach that exhibits the factors regarding traditional and fully digital banks that would potentially help the Philippine banking industry to adjust and adapt to emerging technology and consumer needs.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Instaworthy: A Study on the Effects of Photo Editing towards Electronic
           Commerce in Metro Manila

    • Authors: Kyle Ivan Anthony Pablo; Gerald Gallaza, Bianca Elizabeth Delos Reyes, Francis Lawrence B. De Jesus
      Abstract: Photo-editing has been emerging since businesses shifted into e-commerce. This is one of the strategies used by businesses and companies to enhance the appearance of their products. A well-known platform in this generation for e-commerce that can utilize photo-enhancing tools is Instagram. A review of the related literature says that people’s perceptions and behaviors change whenever visual aids are present. Photographs and videos emit specific reactions from people because of their Cognitive and Perceptual biases. This is also why consumers behave in a particular way during the start of their purchasing decision phase in the e-commerce platform. Furthermore, Instagram marketing is one of the most affected platforms since this application’s contents revolve around its photo-sharing feature, which many feared can be deceiving. This study proves that photographs have an impact that can be related to the purchasing behavior of the consumers, much more if the marketing collateral is very likeable. It increases the interest of the consumers and helps business owners to develop photographic collateral and have a better sales performance for the businesses. Although two biases were present, the most recurring is the Perceptual influence of the consumers. The exposure to external intakes made people capable of handling their expectations, which is why it debunks the perceptions of other people’s views about how deceiving Instagram marketing can be as a photo-sharing e-commerce platform.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Impact of Influencer Marketing on Consumers’ Brand Perception of
           Travel Applications

    • Authors: Fatima Amagsila; Ella Mae Cadavis, Jhon Paul Callueng, Jc Reimark Manio
      Abstract: Social media has been used as a platform to learn or share a person's travel experiences which enabled a new wave of marketing where influencers play a huge role. From this instance, would the consumers’ brand perception and usage intention be affected by these influencers that they see on social media' The study was characterized as descriptive-correlational research and gathered data through a survey using self-made questionnaires, validated by an academic practitioner and tested reliability with Cronbach alpha. With the Online Travel Agencies in the country as the subjects, and the travel enthusiasts who belong to the Millennial or Generation Z group and are living in the city, specifically in the Philippines’ National Capital Region, as the respondents of this study. Using a Raosoft calculator, the researchers collected 385 responses as the minimum required sample size for this study. The data collected showed a positive correlation between influencer marketing and brand perception of travel applications with a correlation coefficient of 0.622 using Spearman's Rho. However, there are specific characteristics that respondents look for in an influencer, primarily the ability "to inspire." and their credibility in promoting travel applications.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Socially Oriented Behavior and Purchasing Emotions of Filipino Consumers
           towards Eco-Friendly Apparel Products

    • Authors: Vinna Justin Alvaro; Mary Caroline Castano, Angela Faith Dela Cruz, Marc Andrei Sebastian, Cheska Mae Torres
      Abstract: In recent years, Filipino consumers are becoming more socially aware of the usage of products that can be harmful to the environment. Purchasing eco-friendly products is a big step towards sustainable development in the Philippines. The objectives of this study are to identify what are the socially-oriented behavior that influences Filipino consumers to purchase eco-friendly apparel products, if emotions play a role in the purchasing behavior regarding eco-friendly apparel products, and to identify the key determinants that are behind the reason for the intention-behavior gap and purchasing behavior of Filipino consumers regarding eco-friendly apparel products. Filipino consumers from age 18 and above and those residing in Metro Manila are the respondents, while the use of descriptive survey methods was utilized in data collection. The results revealed that the three variables, which are Socially Oriented Behavior, Emotions, and Key Determinants, all passed the PLS-SEM and have discriminant validity. However, the discussion of the results had proved that only two out of three hypotheses had been proven to be true, which are hypotheses 1 and 3. Socially Oriented Behavior and Key Determinants have been proven to affect Purchasing Behavior, whereas emotions play no significant role in the purchasing behavior of Filipino consumers. In addition, this study showed that the Key Determinants factor quality and availability of green apparel could influence the intention-behavior gap.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Advertising Appeals influencing the Brand Engagement of Gen Y and Z in
           terms of Social Media Pre-roll Advertisements

    • Authors: Erll Angelo De Leon; Ma. Bianca Resuta, Derie Rose Virtusio
      Abstract: This study focused on how advertising appeals affect the brand engagement of Generations Y and Z in terms of pre-roll advertisements found on Facebook and YouTube. The objective of this study was to know what specific advertising appeal captures the attention of both Gen Y and Gen Z, as well as enumerate what advertising appeal captures their attention individually. Lastly, to identify which particular advertising ABPs increase the brand engagement of Gen Y and Z. According to studies, three advertising appeals positively affect brand engagement; Emotional Appeals, Visual Appeals, and Ethical Appeals. A total of 300 respondents answered the online survey via Google forms, 145 respondents for Gen Y and 155 respondents for Gen Z. The survey questionnaire was conducted with three different parts, which are; Profiling, Ad testing, and General Questionnaire. To answer the different research questions in this study, the following statistical treatment tools were used; Kruskal-Wallis H Test and Post Hoc Test, Mann-Whitney U Test, and Multivariate Regression Analysis, all at 0.05 and 0.1 levels of significance. For the results of this study, the researchers found out that Ethical pre-roll advertisements capture Gen Z's attention using the Post Hoc Test. On the other hand, Emotional pre-roll advertisements capture Gen Y's attention based on the Mann-Whitney U Test. The study successfully identified advertising ABPs of the Gen Y and Z that significantly influenced their brand engagement. If these ABPs garnered a high score, the probability of a high brand engagement score towards the particular pre-roll advertising appeal also increases.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effectiveness of Social Media Influencers in the Cosmetic and Skincare
           Industry to the Purchase Intention of the Generation Z Filipinos

    • Authors: Ronn Alexis Castillo; Czarina Zoy Jaramillo, Leonard Sy
      Abstract: Influencer marketing, the process of examining, identifying, and supporting beauty influencers who communicate on behalf of the brand’s customers, is a trend in today’s digital world across various social media platforms, creating an opportunity for brands to market through social media influencers. To investigate the effectiveness of social media influencers in the cosmetics and skincare industry, the researchers conducted a quantitative analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation to examine and identify the effectiveness of social media influencers in the said industry on the purchase intention of Filipino consumers. This research is distinctive as it concentrates on the relatively emerging and fast-evolving cosmetic and skincare industry in the Philippine market. The absence of studies in the Philippines, where social media influencers play a vital role in a brand’s marketing and advertising efforts, is one element that distinguishes this study. The study has highlighted four main hypotheses. These factors include Trust, Perceived Credibility, Perceived Image, and Brand Attitude as the influencing factors for Generation Z Filipino consumers. Findings from the data gathered have shown that all the hypotheses generated a significant relationship and positive correlation toward purchase intention.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Understanding the Influence of Mobile Interface of Shopee and Lazada on
           Customer Conversion

    • Authors: Therhey Ann Centeno; Alliah Clarisse Pacheco, Gem Danielle Sigua, Nicole John Tan, Ronald Fernandez
      Abstract: Mobile commerce is an industry that has rapidly grown in value over the years. Fewer customers now use their mobile devices only as a single functioning unit, expanding their purpose even to shopping. Despite its increasing popularity, recent literature reviews did not reveal a definitive study on m-commerce app interface quality and its relation to customer conversion. This paper aims to understand the influence of mobile interface on customer conversion by examining the top 2 e-commerce apps in the Philippines – Shopee and Lazada. The Regression analysis method is applied in determining relationships between variables. From a total of 385 participants, results show that dimensions of the mobile interface (visual appeal, layout quality, information quality) influence credibility and usability, except for in-app banners, which has a negligible effect on customers. The study has also found that all aspects of mobile interface positively influence customer conversion. On top of that, the researchers have also taken steps to discover that perceived trust and ease of use greatly affect customer conversion. Hence, when a customer finds an e-commerce platform to be trustworthy and user-friendly, the more they will be likely to purchase a product.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • An analysis of Gen Z’s Purchase intention of Video Games within
           Metro Manila

    • Authors: Lian Thorjie Lim; Enrico Miguel Peralta, Martin Jego Solano
      Abstract: Advertisements are regarded as one of the most efficient ways in which a brand can send a message to its customers. More than this, advertisements are also the easiest way in which consumers are able to know more about certain products and services offered by companies that are available in the market. It is because of the effectiveness of advertisements in creating consumer demand that companies invest large sums of money in advertising. As the world continues to structurally shift from traditional to digital media, companies are now integrating social media advertising activities and strategies into their business models. This study identifies three variables that can potentially affect Gen Z’s purchase intention towards video games, such as product trust, consumer attitude towards targeted advertising, and social media advertising activities. A Structural Equation Modelling was used for this study to determine the relationships between the variables that contribute to the overall purchase intention of Gen Z’s towards video games.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Consumers Attitude towards Skincare Products Endorsed by Filipino
           Macro-Influencers on Instagram

    • Authors: Fatima Mae Libunao; Jhanniella Denise Martinez, Ma. Katlina Rodriguez, Mary Caroline Castaño
      Abstract: Public figures such as celebrities, social media influencers, vloggers, and politicians are some of the widely used endorsers in industries such as the beauty and personal care industry. These public figures promote products and or brands to spread awareness and increase the sale of the company. This study aims to know if the Filipino Macro-Influencers can affect the consumers' purchasing behavior: to determine if the use of Filipino macro-influencers is effective and how they can help the consumers' decision-making, and to know the consumers' perception towards the products that these personalities endorse. The researchers conducted a purposive and simple random sampling survey to gather data that will target 216 Instagram users who are consumers of skincare products using online questionnaires. The accurate results using PLS-SEM show that the independent variable, Filipino Instagram Macro-influencers, has a significant effect on the four independent variables, purchase intention, decision making, consumers trust, and positive eWOM of the consumers of skincare products.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Online Wet Markets Website Quality on the Purchase Intention
           of Consumers in Caloocan City

    • Authors: Christian Brazil; Stephen Brian Neri, Allan Ysmael Soriano, Carl Fritz Victorio, Jun R. Grimaldo
      Abstract: The digital age fueled the rise of Filipino internet users through text messaging and interacting through social media. In addition, users took advantage of the potential of the internet by conducting transactions online, such as purchasing, selling, and advertising products and services. Electronic commerce or e-commerce is becoming a global phenomenon, with more people opting to purchase goods and services online. E-commerce has also opened many opportunities for businesses to launch online. A wide array of products and services are being sold online, such as clothing items, home essentials, etc. The pandemic which caused restrictions in going out led to online wet markets gaining popularity. A wet market or palengke is a public market place where fresh produce, poultry, meat, fish, etc., are sold. The rise of online wet markets allowed people to purchase and receive fresh food items without having to leave the comforts of their homes. This also allows them to avoid going out and conform to existing protocols during quarantine. The study will use descriptive statistics in examining the relationship of website quality dimensions: quality of information, quality of interaction, usability, and consumer purchase intention of residents in Caloocan City. Some of the respondents were randomly selected to give intuition on the improvement of the existing research paper. The relationship between website quality and perceived risk may be deduced: the greater the website quality, the lower the perceived risk. Respondents' level of security in disclosing their information when making a transaction in an online wet market was regarded as a risk. In addition, the study found that online quality had a considerable impact on consumers' purchasing intentions. Customers' perceived risk is not taken into account when anticipating their intentions.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effects of Online Reviews on Purchase Intention in the Shopee Fashion

    • Authors: Angela Dominique Andoy; Jose Antonio Beriña, Jan Erika Querubin, Jun Grimaldo
      Abstract: Online shopping through e-commerce websites has become prevalent in today's time. With that, online reviews have become a significant source of product information for consumers and businesses, but little is known about how consumers perceive the credibility of a review and whether it affects their intention to purchase. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence review credibility and its subsequent effect on purchase intention. The study used a correlational type design wherein an adapted questionnaire was utilized to gather the insights of consumers on accuracy, completeness, timeliness, review quantity, review consistency, and review expertise as factors of review credibility and purchase intention. Respondents were selected through purposive sampling to ensure the credibility of the respondents. The study confirmed that accuracy, timeliness, and review expertise have a positive effect on review credibility, while completeness, review quantity, and review consistency revealed no significant effect. Subsequently, review credibility influences purchase intention; thus, it is recommended to focus on the factors that were determined to affect review credibility.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Consumer Behavior and Practices towards Green Marketing of Food

    • Authors: Mathew Hervey Lim; Chrissane Rey, Maria Patricia Zamuco, Mary Caroline Castaño
      Abstract: There are human activities that cause problems and affect other living beings negatively. One of these problems is environmental issues like depletion of resources, challenges with electricity, usage of toxic agents, pollution, and waste because of consumption. These aforementioned environmental problems have started to come to society’s concern with the natural environment; businesses have begun to modify their ways in an attempt to address these. A few developments have been integrated to address such issues. That's why green marketing and concepts emerged. Some businesses have been quick to accept concepts and have integrated concerns into all organizational activities. The changes awaken the business world and consumers regarding the responsibilities towards the environment. Consumers are now sensible to these and result preferably environment-friendly products or services. By this, it indicates that consumers are increasingly concerned and are changing their behavior. That means there is a growing market for sustainable and socially responsible products and services. In return for this behavior of the consumers, companies have started to form their marketing strategies so as to appeal to increasing awareness of this environment-friendliness named green marketing. Enterprises adopt green policies in their organizations and marketing mix, which are pricing, promotion, product, and places - distribution activities. Strategies targeting not only making a profit for the day but also for long-term profitability and environmentally friendly sustainability have started to become agendas of the companies. It holds the view that marketing which is a part of the business, not only has to satisfy customers in particular but also has to take into account the interests of society in general. This study will be conducted in order to determine what specific elements are involved with people’s choosing habits and what components do have an impact and effect on them choosing one rather than the other. It further highlights the consumer perception and awareness of green marketing in food enterprises to see how consumer behaviors are influenced and impacted by these practices. The study discusses the market for food enterprises to be utilized more within consumers that have pro-environmental preferences.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Consumer Trust in Mobile Phone Industry: Comparative Study on Traditional
           Commerce & E-commerce

    • Authors: Kian Balgomera; Armel Emmanuel Dela Cruz, Jan Emmanuel G Santiago, Ronald R. Fernandez
      Abstract: This paper aims to determine the factors that influence consumers’ decision-making prior to purchasing mobile phones in e-commerce platforms and retail establishments, otherwise known as traditional commerce. Although previous studies have been conducted in understanding consumer trust, this research specifically focuses on a specific industry only, which was a decision made in order to narrow down and better understand the consumer buying behavior, as opposed to having multiple industries which would result in inaccurate findings. Variables used were determined based on related literature leaning towards comparative research, as well as consumer buying behavior. Several methods, including descriptive statistics and independent t-test calculations, have been conducted by the researchers to come up with a conclusion that can assist consumers in having ample knowledge before purchasing a mobile phone on different commerce platforms. The researchers concluded that Traditional commerce is much preferable by the consumers with regards to these factors; credibility perceived ease of use, and satisfaction.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Brand Activism: Impact of Woke Advertising on the Consumers’ Attitude
           and Brand Perceptions Towards Purchase Intention

    • Authors: Carlos Cristobal; Alyssa Rhose Del Prado, Ansberto Cagampan, Ernesto Dimaculangan
      Abstract: As more and more consumers are becoming aware and interested in socio-political issues, brands are changing the way they advertise by communicating their stance on key issues on their advertising campaign; a strategy called woke advertising. Through this strategy, brands are taking up the responsibility of creating a lasting positive impact and meaningful contribution to society. However, instead of serving the desired purpose, some of these woke advertisements can backfire and generate negative responses. Thus, this study aims to analyze the impact of woke advertising on the consumers’ attitudes and brand perceptions towards their purchase intentions. The researchers conceptualized two (2) consumer concepts, namely 'passive woke consumers' and 'active woke consumers,' to further define what type of consumers they turn into. Moreover, the researchers conducted an experimental study to determine the changes in the behavior of the consumers before and after they see the woke advertisements. Three hundred eighty-five (385) participants from the National Capital Region were randomly selected based on the criteria developed by the researchers. Furthermore, paired t-test and descriptive analyses were utilized in analyzing the data. This study found out that woke advertisements enhance the overall consumer attitude and brand perception of Filipino consumers. However, they are not a major contributor in increasing their purchase intentions. It is then recommended for future researchers to consider studying other brands that did not have proper execution in addressing sensitive issues that caused negative feedback and controversy around the brand.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Consumer’s Attitude on Online Payment Systems as Driven by Risks

      Abstract: An online payment system has brought convenience to its users as it is a tool used to conduct cashless transactions. However, it involves risks that may differ from one person’s perspective to another. Hence, the objective of this research is to understand the consumer’s attitude regarding the technology, considering their perceived risk after system usage. A non-probability convenience sampling was utilized in this study, and a total of 384 responses were gathered. It has been found that perceived risk has a positive effect on perceived usefulness and ease of use; attitude is positively affected by perceived usefulness and ease, and attitude positively affects the intention to use. The results in this study can be used as a reference in conducting relevant studies, enhancement of the services of FinTech institutions, and for business owners to aid them in facilitating and implementing cashless payment methods in their transactions. Furthermore, the result in this study provides knowledge of the user perception in operating the system and contributes to the benefit of society, seeing that this system of payment portrays a vital role in the world today.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Factors Influencing Shopee Users’ Intention to Purchase Products during
           Shopee Philippines’ Big Online Shopping Events

    • Authors: Isabela Bacay; Roiel Anthony Ramirez, Franceline Naomi Ramos, Jun R. Grimaldo
      Abstract: The growth of E-Commerce in the Philippines has shifted dramatically at an unprecedented pace during the COVID-19 pandemic, forcing consumers to shop online. The change in consumer behavior created a domino effect both for physical stores and e-commerce platforms. With the impact on the said area, the study focused on Shopee’s big online shopping events that make the platform the #1 Online Shopping Application in the Philippines as of 2020. The study empirically observed and analyzed how the factors influenced users to participate and develop their purchase intentions, considering the ongoing pandemic, allowing the researchers to identify the gaps in an online event. The factors that were observed are Celebrity Endorsers & Social Media Influencers, Advertising Appeal, Creative Sales Promotion/s, and Timing. The study used an online survey questionnaire, allowing the researchers to gather quantitative data through Likert Scale questions or statements that asked the respondents to answer based on their level of agreement. The effectiveness of each factor and its influence on purchase intention were determined by performing Descriptive Statistics and Regression Analysis as it was revealed that creative sales promotions (offering free vouchers, providing promotional codes, discount deals, etc.) to consumers and timing of events have a significant effect on Shopee users’ purchase intention, which are ideal for marketers to use as tools to develop effective marketing strategies to attract and persuade consumers to purchase products. However, Celebrity Endorsers & Social Media Influencers and Advertising Appeal are not significant or have no influence on online shoppers’ intention to purchase. As these may not be the ideal marketing tools or strategies to persuade consumers to buy, these can be relevant when it comes to building brand image and increasing brand awareness. The findings provided online businesses with insights to influence users’ purchase intent during online shopping event sales.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Invasion or Personalization: An Overview on User Attitudes towards the
           Privacy Issues in Targeted Advertising in NCR and Its Effect in Consumer
           Purchase Behavior

    • Authors: Bea Andrea Antonio; Kyra Lyn Dela Cruz, Aaliyah Isis Jimenez, Earl Pantoja
      Abstract: Targeted advertising is online advertising that focuses on the behavior of the consumer to give them a specific advertisement. Literature on targeted advertising focused mainly on the strategy crossing the personal boundaries of the consumers and how fields of marketing, finance, advertising, etc., are benefitting from the algorithmic profiling of personalized advertising. Findings revealed the negative sides of personalized advertising, such as advertising irritation and negative attitudes towards targeted ads. We argue that the focus is limited; thus, we aim to determine the perception of users towards targeted advertising and utilize it to identify the influence of their perception on their purchasing behavior, examine if there is a correlation between their demographic and their perception of targeted advertising. The study site are respondents who have experience in online shopping residing in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. We were able to gather the data through disseminating Google forms and utilized the purposive sampling technique in segmenting the respondents. In the survey of N=261 respondents, the result reveals that consumers are completely concerned and interested in their personal information online but perceive targeted advertising as personalization, hence, will continue their purchase as it adds ease to their online shopping experience.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Mismatched Endorsement: Role of Korean Endorsers on Philippines’
           Telecommunication Brands

    • Authors: Earl Pantoja; Wennie Grace Dela Torre, Amabelle Inacay, Jadyn Gail Ornopia
      Abstract: In today’s competitive market, advertising has become crucial for businesses to establish their presence and relevance. They implement different strategies that are inclusive of the celebrity endorsement wherein businesses hire a prominent figure as a spokesperson for their brand or product. The Philippine market is no stranger to this advertising strategy and has, in fact, brought in foreign celebrities as endorsers for Filipino brands. This can be seen with the recent advertisements of Philippine telco companies Globe and Smart featuring Blackpink and BTS, respectively. However, there is a clear mismatch between the endorsers and the brands since the Korean endorsers are not users of the products of Globe and Smart. This mismatch may result in the advertisement being ineffectual, especially since previous studies have already shown that the credibility of the endorser is key in generating purchase intention from the consumers. It is for this reason that the researchers wished to determine how the mismatch influences the behavior of Filipino telco consumers. The researchers generated hypotheses for the study that were tested through confirmatory analysis. Purposive sampling was used to identify respondents, and a digital survey was sent out to gather data from the 300 respondents. Data analysis of the study was conducted through the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The results showed that not all Filipino consumers notice the mismatch between the Korean celebrity endorsers and Globe and Smart. Furthermore, the current study contradicted the findings of previous research regarding the source credibility model. It found that the Korean celebrity endorsers’ questionable credibility did nothing to negatively affect Globe and Smart. Rather, they further enhanced the consumers’ brand perception of the companies and positively influenced their purchase intention.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Moderating Effect of the Country of Origin on Smartphones’ Brand
           Equity and Brand Preference on Customer Purchase Intention

    • Authors: Angelo Clark Castillo; Aimee Margaret Flores, Lance Matthew Sanchez, Arthur Yusay, Marie Abigail Posadas
      Abstract: A smartphone is now part of Filipino consumers' lifestyles, so smartphone brands are becoming more competitive and innovative to become the top brand in consumers' choice. There are many factors to consider in determining how Filipino consumers choose their preferred smartphone brands. As past studies show, Filipino consumers are xenocentric and prefer to buy products made internationally and not locally. The researchers focused on three (3) Independent variables and one (1) Moderating Variable to understand if Filipino consumers are xenocentric in buying smartphones. (1) Brand Preference, to understand the factors that affect their preference in buying. (2) Brand Equity, to study how the consumers value the brand. (3) Purchase Intention, to know the factors that contribute to the consumers' purchase decision, and (1) Country of Origin as moderating variable on the three (3) variables. The result revealed that the Country of Origin has no moderating influence on the three (3) Independent variables. This study used the descriptive-correlational and quantitative method in collecting data from the respondents through an online questionnaire. The survey was divided into sections to aid researchers in determining the relationship between these three variables. Country of Origin is not the priority of Filipino consumers in terms of smartphone brands. Consumers are focusing more on their Brand Preference and Brand Equity in purchasing smartphones.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
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