Publisher: Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development (Total: 14 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Intl. J. of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of English Language Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Law and Politics Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Linguistics, Literature and Translation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Computer Science and Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Economics, Finance and Accounting Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Environmental and Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Mathematics and Statistics Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Mechanical, Civil and Industrial Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Medical and Health Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of World Englishes and Education Practices     Open Access  
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Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2663-7197
Published by Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development Homepage  [14 journals]
  • The Race Warfare and the United States Justice System

    • Authors: Emmanuel Stober
      Abstract: Let us think for a moment, the United State is home to 5% of the world population, but 28% of the world’s prisoners. That is more than one out of four human beings in the world, with their hands-on bars, shackled, and locked up in the land of the free. Ninety-seven percent of this incarcerated people never had a trial. So as public support for criminal justice reform continues to build, it is now more important than ever that we get the facts straight and understand the big picture. With a much-needed clarity in crime rate and justice’s system, this empirical analysis will be digging deep into available data to offer some much-needed clarity by piecing together the United States’ disparate system of confinement. The study emphasizes the need to understand how 2.52 million people ended up in jails or prison and why the majority of those people are poor, and also brown and black. In the end, the reform of the criminal justice system is not about whether or not black lives matters, but it is about changing the way United States understands human dignity.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Delaying Factors Regarding Civil Justice in Pakistan (Lower Courts)

    • Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Ihsan Zafeer; Hong Xue, Samra Maqbool
      Abstract: The study was aimed to signify several reasons that are making causes for delaying in civil Justice. The sample size was consisted of 60 respondents who were professionally Judges and Lawyers and holding duties in civil lower courts of Pakistan. The responses were collected on a questionnaire to compute the Role of diverse elements that causing a delay in Justice in lower court litigation. It has been focused mainly on the District Civil Courts Lahore. The study results established out that negligence of officials, Corruption, a massive backlog of cases, lengthy procedure, non-availability of plaintiffs and defendants, transfer of judges, insufficient number of judges are a few but significant which creating further problems in the way to speedy Justice among masses regarding civil litigation in the lower court of Pakistan. In this manner, the Judiciary's Role is weakened and unproductive, especially in civil lower courts of Pakistan.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Volunteer Teaching of High School Students: We Will See You Again

    • Authors: Xiahua Dong; Chujie Yuan, Kairan Liu, Yixiao Liu, Luoyifu Li
      Abstract: Since February 2006, responding to Chinese Government’s police, Three Support and One Assistance, short-term volunteer teaching has burgeoned in China. However, the effect of short-term volunteer teaching is rather concerning and unsatisfactory. We conduct our research from three parts: literature review, quantitative research, and qualitative research. Three major concerns are identified from literature review: inappropriate motivation, unprofessionalism, and inconsistency. An interview with a humanitarian organization Nuannuan is conducted to find the possible solution. Based on it, the hypothesis is that longterm and organized volunteer teaching is more effective so the solution could be a long-term volunteer teaching alliance. Two surveys are used to test the feasibility of the solution by analyzing children of migrant workers’ attitudes and high school volunteers’ attitudes. The results show that children are willing to participate and volunteers are willing to teach in the long-term. The hypothesis is proved and the solution is an establishment of a volunteer teaching alliance among all high school students in Beijing.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • An Investigation of Organizational Effectiveness of a Private Sector of
           South Odisha: A Structural Equation Approach

    • Authors: Maitrayee Rout; Biswajit Satpathy
      Abstract: Talent management is a buzzword which is shaping the organizational effectiveness in a broader extends in current scenario. The purpose of this research is to observe the connection between talent management practices and organizational effectiveness in addition to examine the employee engagement act as mediating variable between talent management and organizational effectiveness. the outcomes of this study have significant relationships between talent management practices, employee engagement and organizational effectiveness. Though the modern investigation has been widely focused on different countries, this concept has been less explored in existing HRM scenario obtained in emergent country particularly in India. The responses were gathered from the human resources of private sectors and the hypothetical model was experienced through structural equation modeling (SEM) in AMOS. This measuring model is validated through confirmatory factor (CFA). The results of this study support obtainable literature in this area and have imperative implications for the organization.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Financial Literacy in Millennials

    • Authors: Latika Murarka; Karen Kashmanian Oates
      Abstract: The main goals for this project include are to find out the current knowledge of teens (14-20) with regard to financial literacy, to create a survey from which external information can be gathered and to analyze the results and observations of this survey, and thus make recommendations to financial and educational institutions. The goal of teaching financial literacy to teens is to reach them with relevant information they can really use in life now and in the future. This can be extended to financial decision making later as they enter adulthood. It’s useful to center instruction around important upcoming life events such as college decisions, budgeting on a tight budget, use of credit and debit cards and learning how to save and invest in the future. This also includes managing personal finance in college, especially if they decide to go to a foreign country. In this research project we will investigate the knowledge base teenagers have regarding money management and decision making. As a base we will use one of the largest financial services surveys for financial literacy created by the National Financial Educators Council. The goal of this project is to create a list of 30 questions derived from the most appropriate national surveys and administer it to more than 50 individuals, ages 14-20. The key insights included that 71.2% respondents did not consider themselves financially literate. It was clearly visible that respondents lacked knowledge on topics such as inflation, credit score and insurance. Moreover, 78.8% of respondents have not taken any class/course in financial literacy. The report concludes with recommendations to both financial institutions and educational institutions to increase specific areas of financial literacy. 
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Use of Social Network Sites among Adolescent Secondary
           School Students, Lilongwe, Malawi

    • Authors: John Kuyokwa; Howard Bowa
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of social network sites among adolescent students in secondary schools.  A cross-sectional study design was done and simple random sampling technique was used. Quantitative research methodologies were used in data generation and analysis. Data was collected in April (2019), n=59 students were involved. SPSSv26 and Excel were used in quantitative data analysis. N=59 participants involved; Females (54%) and Males (46%). Aged between 10-19 years; attending year 1 to 4 of secondary school education.  Gadgets used for social networking were smartphones (88%), personal computers (8%) and iPads (4%). The social network sites that were used were Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, Twitter and WhatsApp. The study further observed that some students are bullied on social media platforms. The purpose for use of these social network sites was for the following reasons; entertainment (45%), keep in contact with old friends (39%), make new friends (10%) and academic purposes (9%). Adolescents are using social network sites in secondary schools. If the use of social media platforms can be well utilized, it may result in improved education among learners in low income settings like Malawi.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • World Peace and World Unity: A Most Emergent Need of the Present and

    • Authors: Rajesh Purohit; Kiran Purohit
      Abstract: The world peace and world unity are the most embryonic need of the modern society in order to protect our habitat earth. Lots of efforts have been made to ensure the world peace and unity in the past and several international organizations have been made for the purpose. Several meetings of the representatives of different nations have also been organized time to time in the past history as well as in the present time. However still we are very far away from a united world or united earth with peace and prosperity and the risk of war that may be minor aggression between neighboring countries (cold war) or a big war like the world war with use of nuclear/chemical weapons still and always hang over the mankind. Now with technological advancement of the world and development of nuclear and chemical weapons and newly emerging nano engineered and biological weapons which if used for small aggression between countries will greatly pollute the atmosphere on earth and can ruin the whole world and the modern civilization. Due to the development of  these drastic weapons which are highly dangerous to the society and the environment it has become big threat to the life on earth. Therefore, now it has become utmost important to find a solution to counterbalance this problem and hence we need to make potential and innovative efforts for the complete elimination of the war between countries and search for a peaceful solution to resolve the disputes among countries by establishing a powerful international law and order. A critical review of the present and past efforts made by various researchers, peace organizations and societies has been presented here. The key suggestions by various researchers include moving from divided world to unified world, development of world culture system, development of peace-based curriculum, religious harmony, interreligious cooperation, global citizenship etc. It has been concluded that the inner willingness among national and religious leaders of the various countries, religious & cultural organizations and all the human being need to be developed that will surely realize the world peace and world unity. The concept of unified world and powerful international law and order to resolve all the political, religious and other kind of issues and aggressions between countries and religions has to be established.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Ideal Execution of Civil, Cases Based on Principles of Justice to create a
           Simple and Low-cost Judiciary

    • Authors: Irma Garwan
      Abstract: Execution of civil case decision at the normative and implementative levels often causes juridical, sociological, and philosophical problems. The juridical problems may arise since the norms that regulate execution are often too short, simple, and not detailed; this could also cause problems at the implementative level. On top of that, the problems may be caused by a non-executable legally-binding decision (inkracht van gewijs de zaak). The objectives of the study are to investigate the ideal implementation of execution for the winning party to be in accordance with the provisions in Article 2 para. (4) and Article 4 para. (2) of Law No. 48/2009 concerning Judicial Power. The study employs a juridical, normative, and historical approach, as well as an in-concreto law discovery method. The study involved secondary data acquired from the review of relevant legal literatures. The data were analyzed and presented qualitatively. The results reveal that the principles of simple, fast, and low-cost judiciary is actualized if, in practice, the District Court Chief does not have to wait for the High Court Chief’s approval. Therefore, the Supreme Court shall prepare personnel (who have been appointed as Civil Servants) as the instruments to carry out the execution of legally-binding decisions.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Space, as it relates to Nationalism: Ramifications for the Taiwan Straits

    • Authors: Anthony Baker
      Abstract: Before the modern nation-states took form, borders between polities were often ill defined, with a political capital having more control over regions which are closer than those at a distance. However, the nation-state redefined a government's relationship to the region over which it claimed control, lending to a consolidation of control to the center and sharp-formed borders. This paper takes a historiographical approach to understanding space as it relates to the nation, and its ramifications for the Taiwan Straits Crisis. We will also look at how the theories and approaches used by environmental historians can be applied to Taiwan's place in the Chinese nation. This paper also explores the relationship of space and nationalism with the aid of works of theory, works which deal with both theory and practice in other polities in the world, this paper focus those theories and practices to Chinese nationalism.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Sexuality Issues Among Adolescents Living with HIV and AIDS in Botswana

    • Authors: Rapinyana Ogar; Kubanji Rebecca, Naomi Mmapelo, Phaladze, Nthabiseng Abeline, Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi, Seloilwe, Esther Salang, Nthomang Keitseope7
      Abstract: Most of the adolescents living with HIV and AIDS were born prior to the introduction of the Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana. This cohort had just reached adolescence and it was imperative to understand their sexuality and 26 ALWHA aged 15 to 19 years, their parents/guardians and health care providers participated in the study. An elicitation survey was conducted among this group followed by Focus Group Discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted among 8 and 25 parents/guardians and health care providers respectively. Thematic content analysis was adopted to analyze the data. The following themes were derived: difficulty to disclose one’s HIV-infected status, parents/guardians failure to discuss sexuality issues with adolescents, mode of HIV transmission, sexual activity and inactivity, sex education, sexual violations, conscripted intimacy, and the right to sexual relations. The same issues were expressed by parents/guardians and health care providers. Sexuality education needs to be incorporated and strengthened at both nursing curricula and at policy level. Programes that reinforce parent- child communication should be instituted and strengthened at community, institutional and national levels.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • COVID-19: Emergence of Mental Health Upheaval and Transition in Human
           Future Perspectives: A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Saba Khurshid ; Sidra Mumtaz , Hafsa Khalil Toor, Rubina Hanif
      Abstract: The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic is constantly posing warning and creating mental health crisis among people without any discrimination. Therefore, the current study purpose is to explore mental health upheaval and transition in future perspectives due to COVID-19. Using exploratory study design, semi structure interviews were conducted. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by using Thematic Content Analysis. The major themes which were identified showed that COVID-19 is constantly eliciting panic and mental health issues such as anxiety, stress, and depression, fears of death, xenophobia, OCD and uncertainty about future among general population. Results also indicated the major transition in public future perspectives and perception. Concern related to adjustability in life after pandemic is major emerging future concern among Pakistani People. During pandemic outbreak, people are becoming vulnerable to different mental health problems. To overcome these issues successfully, role of mental health professionals cannot be denied. There is strong need to devise activities and strategies which help people to increase resilience and build strong relationships during the period of social distancing. This paper gives a deep insight into mental health problems among general population due to COVID-19 and it also implicates need of psychological services to overcome these issues.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Revealing The Other Sides of Syaikh al-Nafzawi's Eroctic Anecdotes

    • Authors: Maman Lesmana
      Abstract: Al-Rawd al-‘Atir fi Nuzhat al-Khatir (The Perfumed Garden of Sensual Delight), by Syaikh Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Nafzawi, a Muslim philosopher from Tunisia, has not yet been published in a complete version by any publishers in the Arabic countries since the end of the 15th Century due to the fact that this book is considered sluttish. The Arabians’ opinions regarding this book are varied. Some appreciate the writer’s honesty and openness, due to describing personal matters, such as a sexual intercourse between a man and a woman. Others are disappointed because of its popular writing styles and poor marketing interests. Some others criticize the ways of medical matters in the text although the suggestions in the text are not imaginary ones. This paper analyzes the book from its other aspects, i.e. its form and types of anecdotes. This paper found out that the anecdotes of al-Nafzawi tend to fictive and this fact leads us not to use the book as the reference for sex education. In additions, the story of the book describes the vulgar sexual intercourse more than sex education itself. This can be considered a sluttish story.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • The Governance of Sustainable Development According to Imam Ali's

      Abstract: This research is a comparative study between the famous Letter 53 of Imam Ali Ibn Abi Taleb and the UN Agenda 2030. With a textual analysis of the 117 passages of the fourth Caliph's epistle, we study sustainable development goals (SDGs) stated by Agenda 2030 in Letter 53. Besides, we analyze the governance of sustainable development, according to Imam Ali's economic vision. In the light of this comparative study, it has been observed that SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 of Agenda 2030 are the most expressed in the said Letter. Finally, we conclude our analysis with a comparative table showing a substantial similarity between the two charters' vision. Nevertheless, some differences appear in specific themes' objectives and a growing distinction between the SDGs and those grouped under Innovation and Technological Improvement.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • The Motivator to Students’ Entrepreneurship Intention: the Existence of
           University Incubated Entrepreneurs

    • Authors: YUEJUN CAI; Jessica Zhang
      Abstract: Along with more and more emphasis on the importance and benefits of entrepreneurship to the society and an increasing number of various programs offered in the university to edify students about entrepreneurship and cultivate the entrepreneurial spirit in the campus, fewer previous researchers are studying about the optimization of the currently allocated resources. This study aims at exploring the importance and other utility of university incubated entrepreneurs as the motivation factor to entrepreneurship intention among university students. With the convenience sampling method of the questionnaire, the study has collected 165 valid response mainly from a university’s students in Hong Kong in this pilot test. The analysis results indicated that there is a relatively strong relationship between the existence of incubated entrepreneurs at the campus and entrepreneurship intention among university students yet the perception of attainment to entrepreneurship cannot moderate such relationship and the desirability of entrepreneurship can partly mediate this relationship. The research result points out the feasibility of promoting the university incubated entrepreneurs as a role model to university students, and the importance of pragmatic resources for designing the entrepreneurial education and programs in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • A Textual Analysis of Street Children’s Survival Strategies in Amma
           Darko’s Faceless

    • Authors: Ayodele Ayodele Allagbé; Yacoubou Alou, Maina Ouarodima
      Abstract: Anchored on textual analysis and theoretical insights from (interactional) sociolinguistics, (positive) psychology and neuroscience, the current paper aims at analyzing the various strategies that the street children, named or nameless, etc. in Amma Darko’s Faceless (2003) draw on to ensure their survival on the streets. The study further demonstrates how this novel, beyond its representation of the social issue of street children, depicts the outstanding resourcefulness of many African children who have to cater and fend for themselves on the streets. The findings reveal that these children have used such survival strategies as imitating or behaving in an adult-like manner, bonding, learning and using a code, hustling, accepting and adapting to one’s reality and floating-out-of-one’s body to cope with life on the streets.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Air Quality Trends amid Covid-19 Lockdown in Metro Manila, Philippines: A
           Preliminary Case Review

    • Authors: Jasmen S. Pasia; EnP Moises C. Torrentira, Jr. , Hazel C. Navarra, Michael Makilan
      Abstract: CoVID-19 pandemic forced a countrywide lockdown in the Philippines from March 16, 2020 to May 15, 2020 and extended to May 31, 2020 in Metro Manila and some parts of Central Luzon. Because of these forced restrictions, the air pollution level in Metro Manila drastically slowed down just a few weeks upon the implementation of the lockdown. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a preliminary case review on the implications of the lockdown to the air quality in the country’s capital with the aid of data from the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) and station. The empirical analysis revealed that when Metro Manila was under Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ), tropospheric nitrogen oxide (NO2) dropped by approximately 52% compared to the 2019 levels in the same period. The city also registered the lowest PM 2.5 air pollution levels during the first 30 days of the lockdown with an average of 11.59 ug/m3. Moreover, the satellite image from the Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology (IESM), UP Diliman showed a lower Atmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) of 0.01, which means that the air is clean during the lockdown period when compared with the AOD value during the same period in 2018 and 2019. At the Lung Center of the Philippines, a comparison of pre-ECQ and ECQ air quality levels showed that PM2.5 is reduced from 80% to 180%, particularly during evenings and early mornings. A similar trend along EDSA Munoz, where 70-90% reduction of PM 2.5 was observed since the ECQ. Overall, the study revealed that lockdown measures, fortunately, have brought the opportunity to rationalize human impact on the environment. Although we could say those travel restrictions or lockdown is an unconventional measure to air pollution prevention and control, it is possible to improve air quality by reducing nonessential individual movements by highlighting the importance of fuel-free activities or implementing short-term lockdowns (3-5 days).
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Religious Consciousness in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and James
           Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

    • Authors: Amungwa Veronica Nganshi; John Nkemngong Nkengasong
      Abstract: The paper examines religious consciousness in the modernist novels of Joseph Conrad’s 1902 Heart of Darkness and James Joyce’s 1916 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man with the objective of illustrating that though these writers apparently rejected the Catholic faith, they were still spiritually conscious and were thus able to detect and question religious values that were repressive. This consciousness is enriched by autobiographical elements prompted by the nihilism of the early twentieth century. Although Heart of Darkness is a colonial novel and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man traces the development of a potential artist, both converge on the critique of religious hypocrisy and injustice. Using the concepts of psychobiography, the conscious and unconscious of the Psychoanalytic theory as well as the concept of nihilism of the Modernist theory, the paper demonstrates that both Conrad and Joyce effectively make a critique of religion by the inclusion of various aspects of their real life experiences in their novels. They do this not to reject religion per se but for its reformation. In other words, the religious views of the protagonists in both works reflect those of their authors.  Both authors portray not what is dominantly fictional but what they were a part of.  This paper’s significance is its projection of the notion that it is the exploration of religious consciousness from an autobiographical perspective that gives the British modernist novel its strength and major difference. Conrad and Joyce demonstrate that without sincerity, justice, restraint, controlled freedom and mutual respect, the individual and society degenerate. Literature serves as a fabric of culture with the writer as the voice of conscience.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Problems of the Farmers in Marketing Paddy in Cauvery Delta Zone,

      Abstract: Indian economy is essentially a rural economy. The very presence of monetary exercises of the whole individuals is bound up with the state and soundness of this area. In India, around 70% of individuals are occupied with horticultural interests and around 50% of the public pay starts from agribusiness. Henceforth the degree of effectiveness and profitability in horticulture pretty much decides the productivity of Indian economy. In India, individuals and their whole entirety are such a great amount of bound up with the fortunes of horticulture that the movement of life and the example of exercises do close to reflect all that occurs in this area. Since farming is the benefactor of the biggest measure of merchandise and enterprises to the improvement of the nation, it gets fundamental and dependable with respect to the Government to manage and control the promoting arrangement of Agricultural produce. Horticultural promoting in India is plagued with numerous deformities. "The rancher, when all is said in done, sells his produce at a troublesome spot and at an ominous time, and generally gets entirely horrible terms." So, in such conditions, it isn't unexpected to find that the horticultural makers as a class are being abused by the buyers.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 Crisis on the Social- Economic Situation:
           Evidence from the Gambia

    • Authors: Ebrima K. Ceesay
      Abstract: This study assesses the social and economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the Gambia. The data used in this paper was generated from online survey questionnaire, in which the participants were asked about certain questions in which coronavirus affect social and economic in the Gambia. The questionnaire was designed to help Gambia to understand covid-19 impacts on their social and economic situation. The results of this study reveal that coronavirus pandemic affected the people in the Gambia in a number of ways; 1) 84 percent said they should not open borders to more countries while only 16 percent said they should open borders.   2)  In the Gambia, 61 percent of the respondents said the environmental factor that is serious hit due to covid-19 outbreak is the energy sector. 3)  44.2 percent of the respondent said that covid-19 will have fluctuation in growing on the GDP and trade in the Gambia. 4)  Due the serious impact of covid-19 on the societies, 48.8 percent of the respondent in the Gambia said they are very worried that they or someone in their family will be exposed to the coronavirus outbreak. 5) 70.5 percent of the respondent said the outbreak will have negative impact in the economy of the Gambia.  6) As the result generated from the survey, 58 percent of the respondent said in the Gambia, due to covid-19 the recession will happen over the next year.   7) 65.4 percent of the respondents said government implemented an education response for continue of learning in the Gambia while educational institutions are closed.8) 55.1 percent of the respondent said their enterprise used online learning programmes and resources and 32. 1 percent said their enterprise used video conferencing tools and 15.4 percent said their organization used printed materials such as new papers or posters and 9 percent said multimedia including podcasts and YouTube and  6.4 percent, which is the least said TV are used for staff development and training during covid-19 pandemic.9) 50 percent of the respondent to this question of the survey said their organization had planned new training programmes or activities in response to the covid-19 e.g University of the Gambia training their staffs for quality teaching and learning for their students. The implication of the results from this online survey is that it has serious impacts in the Gambia especially in economic situation, employment, consumption, investment and energy. Another policy implication is that, high co2 emission will affect national parks, wildlife and forests’, and poverty, food insecurity and hunger will rises and poor agriculture, the domestic and international migration will be reduces, remittances reduces and those left behind will be seriously affected in terms of health, food security, education, energy and so on especially women, children, elderly and disable that are left behind.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • الجملة الإنشائية في القرآن الكريم
           (الأمر– النهي): دراسة تحليلية

    • Authors: دعاء محمد عبد الحي راجح ; تماضر سعد العبيدان
      Abstract: تٌمنح البحث في ظلال القرآن الكريم وآياتِه شرف لا يدانيه شرف. أَمر اللهُ بتدبره فقال: { إنَّه معجزة الله الخالدة ؛ التي أعجز بها الفصحاء والبلغاء، وحيّر بها الشعراء والأدباء، وتحدى بها الإنس والجن أن يأتوا بآيةٍ من مثله ( قُلْ لَئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْإِنْسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَى أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هَذَا الْقُرْآَنِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا . لا تنقضي عجائبه ، ولا تنتهي عطاياه، تعددت موضوعاته، وتنوعت أساليبه، و كان منها الجملة الطلبية ( الأسلوب الإنشائي) إذ جاءأسلوباً تخاطبياً، ونصاً فنياً له سمات ، و مظهراً له خصائص ودلالات. وقد تشرفتُ بفضل الله - في هذا البحث بدراسة آياته، دراسة أسلوبية ؛ وقد دعاني إلى ذلك أمور: الرغبة الشديدة المستمرة في دراسة موضوعٍ يتصل بالقرآن الكريم، إذ شرف العلم بشرف موضوعه. الإسهام بهذه الدراسة في تبيين شيء من جمال نظم القرآن، وإعجازه البلاغي وأسلوبِه الفنِّي.مع إبراز فنية آياتِ الأسلوب الإنشائي ؛ وأسلوبها التعبيري، كيف جاء بناء صياغتها؟ وكيف تشكل مضمونها؟ وماذا تضمن شكلها ؟ وكيف أسهمت في إنتاج الدلالة ؟ للخروج بالبحث إلى تحليل أسلوب...
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • The Katipunan Movement in CEBU: Significance to the Philippine Struggle
           for Independence

    • Authors: Rex Argate; Delfin T. Cabañero, Harline L. Barcoso
      Abstract: The study focused on the Katipunan movement in the province of Cebu and its significance to the Philippine struggle for independence. This qualitative research utilized a historical research approach in gathering and analyzing historical evidence. The primary source of data of this study was the research informants. These informants were chosen based on their knowledge of the study. Likewise, the Cebuano Studies Center of the University of San Carlos, Cebu Historical Association Office, Patria de Cebu Archives, and the Historical Association of Cebu (HACE) Office were utilized as sources of data. Books and articles written by expert historians, as evidence of past conditions were also used as secondary sources of data. The main instrument of the study was the researcher and the key informants. However, an informal interview guide with open-ended questions was utilized to aid the researcher. This research was able to ascertain that national history is a product of local history, and that local history provides the foundation and the substance of our true national history; two, the Cebuano Katipunan was patterned after and influenced by Manila, especially in its organizational structure and objectives; third, though influenced by Manila, the Katipunan in Cebu was a struggle of the Cebuanos and some leaders from other parts of the Visayas in the name of independence of the Philippines from Spain (the credits of its victory must be given to Cebuanos and not to the Tagalogs); fourth, women contributed a lot to the success of the Cebuano uprising; fifth, the Cebuanos fought with little else but bravery; some Cebuano secular priests were not passive spectators in Cebuano uprising, and the Katipunan movement in Cebu was an integral part of the national struggle for independence in the annals of Philippine history.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • The Battle for the Mountain of the Kurds: Self-Determination and Ethnic
           Cleansing in the Afrin Region of Rojava: Book Review

    • Authors: ISLAM SARGI
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide a critical review of Thomas Schmidinger’s book The Battle for the Mountain of the Kurds: Self-Determination and Ethnic Cleansing in the Afrin Region of Rojava. (Translated by Micheal Schiffmann, Preface by Andrej Grubacic, PM press, 2019, 146 pp. ISBN: 978-1-62963-651-1)
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • ممارسات إدارة الموارد البشرية وأثرها
           على تحقيق التميز المؤسسي: دراسة ميدانية
           جامعة 6 اكتوبر، محافظة الجيزة

    • Authors: نجوى وفائي سليم
      Abstract: تواجه المؤسسات التعليمية للتعليم العالي تحديات كبيرة في النمو المتزايد في اعداد المقبلين على تلك المؤسسات وبما يفوق طاقتها الاستيعابية مما أدى الى اتجاه معظم الطلاب الى مؤسسات التعليم الخاصة وازدياد المنافسة بين تلك المؤسسات فيما بينها في الحصول على نسبة الاقبال الأكبر من الطلاب والطالبات. وتحتاج مؤسسات التعليم العالي الخاصة الى تطوير وتحديث وخاصة مع كثرة عدد المؤسسات التعليم العالي الخاصة في الفترة الاخيرة واشتداد المنافسة وتحول سوق التعليم من السوق المحدد والقاصر على المؤسسات الحكومية وعدد قليل من المؤسسات الخاصة الى سوق منفتح ومبنى على المنافسة القوية. ومما لا شك فيه أن الموارد البشرية تسهم بشكل كبير في تحسين نظم الادارة بصفة عامة وذلك عندما تتفاقم المشكلات الادارية التي تواجه المنظمات ويكون المنحنى الاستراتيجي للموارد البشرية يتمثل بصنع القرارات بعيدة المدى بشأن العاملين بالمنظمة على كافة المستويات التنظيمية حيث يكون توجه هذه الادارة تحت مظلة الادارة العليا للمنظمة والتي تعبر عن الاتجاه العام للمنظمة لبلوغ أهدافها الاستراتيجية طويلة الأجل وتحقيق التميز من خلال كل مواردها الب...
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Vulnerability of the Poor and Non-poor Households: A Case Study of Neboda
           West Grama Niladhari Division of Dodangoda Divisional Secretariat in Sri

    • Authors: M. A. Shantha Wijesinghe
      Abstract: Poverty is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with many forms and causes. It is normally measured quantitatively by using income criterion. But understanding poverty only in terms of income criterion can misrepresent its nature and underlying causes. It is a much broader and deeper issue of deprivation mainly associated with both quantitative and qualitative aspects. It is essential to place considerable values on both quantitative and qualitative aspects in understanding poverty. Thus, vulnerability is one of the criteria which is used to understand poverty in these two aspects.  Vulnerability is a constant companion of material and human deprivation, given the circumstances of the poor and the near-poor or non-poor. It means the probability of being exposed to a number of risks. It is generally accepted that poor people are more vulnerable in various circumstances than non-poor people due to many reasons. Thus, this paper attempts to analyse the nature of vulnerability of the poor and non-poor households and the root causes leading to their level of vulnerability. For this purpose, Neboda West Grama Niladhari Divison of Dodangoda Divisional Secretariat in Sri Lanka was selected for the study. A sample of fifty households was selected for the study by following stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire and the in-depth interviews were used for data gathering. In order to examine whether there is a significant difference between poor and non-poor households regarding quantitative aspects of vulnerability, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used. For analysing qualitative aspects of vulnerability relating to these two groups absolute and percentage values were used. As the findings, this study disclosed that there is a significant difference between poor and non-poor households regarding vulnerability.  As its quantitative aspects income and its variability and as the qualitative aspects ownership to physical assets, education, income diversification, links to networks, safety nets and access to credit market significantly vary between these two groups by confirming significant difference of the ability to face adverse shocks. 
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • Feminism in Pakistan and Emerging Perspectives

    • Authors: Marghoob Tarar; Rana Hamza Arif, Khawaja Abdul Rahman, Khalid Husnain, Muhammad Suleman, Aqasha Zahid, Muhammad Umar Fida, Khurram Ibrar, Adil Shafiq
      Abstract: Since March 2019, local NGOs in Pakistan are organizing “Aurat March” (Women March) in month of March to raise voice against indigenous feminine issues and violence against women. In hindu-originated society like Pakistan, where Islamic women rights haven’t implemented in its true spirit yet, digesting such a “liberal” act is not easily digestible. Thus different intellectual classes took social media on fire to outdo each other and central topic of cross arguments was slogans raised in the March. Raising slogans is a traditional way of weaker class in society to demonstrate against discrimination and emit emotional suffocation. To study underlying meanings of much debated slogans of Aurat March in Pakistan, discourse analysis is employed which also facilitated to indicate emerging dimension socio-religious debates and opinions towards feminism in Pakistan.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
  • The Question of Legitimacy: Kenya's Recognition Policy of Governments
           under Moi during the Cold War – Eastern Africa Countries (1978-1990)

    • Authors: Danvas Ogeto Mabeya
      Abstract: During the 1970’s, majority of states, including Kenya followed the practice of recognizing states and not governments. In so doing, they downplayed the granting of formal recognition to new governments. Kenya’s policy, then, was clearly stated in parliament in 1971 when the then foreign affairs minister, Dr. Njoroge Mungai, was asked to comment on the Kenya government’s position on the military regime of General Idi Amin of Uganda. He stated, “Kenya could not afford to interfere with internal matters of another state nor let any state interfere with internal matters of Kenya.” However, during the Post–Cold War period, Kenya’s recognition policy underwent major transformations to include recognition of de jure governments. This study critically examines Kenya’s practice during and after the Cold War in a bid to reveal any distinct policy trends if any. The study aims to ascertain how, Kenya’s recognition policy, has largely, been formulated, articulated and exercised during Moi’s administration (1978-1990).
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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