Journal Cover
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2708-0099 - ISSN (Online) 2617-0299
Published by Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development Homepage  [14 journals]
  • Invisible Meaning on Spongebob Meme

    • Authors: Wiruma Titian Adi, Bilal Albar Bayyanullah, Titi Dewi Rohati, Dadan Hidayat
      Pages: 01 - 07
      Abstract: Pertaining to the phenomenon of Spongebob meme, the writers are interested to discuss meaning of Spongebob meme with involving a study of linguistic. The objective of the research is to answer how violations of maxims are showed on Spongebob meme, and what the meanings of it. The writers took Spongebob meme from as a substance to be analysed. This paper uses descriptive qualitative method. The data are analysed using the violations of maxims to arise the implicature based on Grice, semiotic triangle theory based on Richard and Ogden, and the meanings of Spongebob meme are concluded by using inference theory. The result indicates that each Spongebob meme possess different violations of maxims.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Investigating Iraqi EFL University Students’ Lexical Knowledge: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Zaid Tareq Ahmed, Istiqlal Hassan Ja’afar
      Pages: 08 - 19
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the development of Iraqi University EFL students’ lexical knowledge at the recognition and production level and to compare their performance concerning the two previous levels. It also aimed to measure their performance concerning the Academic Word List (AWL) proposed by Coxhead (2000). It appears that Iraqi Universities lack empirical evidence to determine students’ lexical knowledge growth regarding the English language, thus, this important aspect of language teaching is in the grey area. Therefore, this study tries to answer the following questions, firstly is to what extent the development of lexical knowledge which Iraqi EFL learners have approximately reached', and secondly, does the level of lexical knowledge which Iraqi EFLs have gained enable them to use the language properly' The study was conducted by examining 120 undergraduate students from all stages at the Department of English language and Literature/ College of Arts/ Mustansiriyah University. The findings have proved that there is a significant development in lexical knowledge among the four stages of the department and it reached its peak at the fourth stage whose participants have scored higher than other stages in the test. Further, the findings demonstrated that the fourth stage undergraduate participants scored higher in the AWL. The other significant issue that this study has proved is that the incidental vocabulary learning is more efficient than the intentional vocabulary learning.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Exploring and Analyzing Recurrent Errors in the Interpretation of the Holy
           Quran: Error Analysis

    • Authors: Nawal S. Al Fozan
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: The study aimed at discovering the difficulties that face Non-Arab Muslim translators of QURAN, mainly problems occurred at the level of semantic issues. The researcher attempted to analyze these difficulties and compare them to the correct translations based on the Arabic knowledge. Many examples had been shown with such verses from the holy Quran that were concerned with such words translated wrongly due to the misunderstanding of these words, especially with Non-Arab translators. The researcher adopted an experimental descriptive and comparative method in the study. As a result of this study, the non-Arab Muslims translators are lack of Arabic knowledge and some grammatical rules, so they have to be familiar with the Arabic language before translating any Islamic texts.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • “Moving” Discourse: Egyptian Bumper Stickers as a
           Communicative Event

    • Authors: Ola Hafez
      Pages: 26 - 40
      Abstract: Public discourse, including graffiti, billboards and bumper stickers, is innovative and dynamic, reflecting and often also challenging social values. While graffiti involves defacing public property, bumper-sticker (BS) discourse adds a human “touch” to a metal object, expressing the driver’s identity, and turns the street into an arena for display and communication. The few previous studies of BS discourse explore this type of discourse as a non-traditional means of communication and as a medium of political agency in different societies, with emphasis on the US and Israel. Lammie and Humphreys (2004) classify a corpus of American BSs into nationalistic, ideological, commercial, religious, and philosophical categories. Egyptian BSs, however, remain uninvestigated both linguistically and sociologically. The present paper, combining tools from content analysis, linguistics and ethnomethodology, explores how BSs function differently in Egypt based on a corpus of 581 bumper stickers on private cars, taxis and shuttle microbuses in Cairo. In terms of content, they are argued here to revolve around affiliation (e.g. sport, school, and profession), religion (as an expression of faith and/or invoking God’s protection), and ideology (e.g. photo of Guevara) among other culture-specific conceptual domains. In addition to the content analysis, the paper also analyses BSs in terms of engagement markers, speech acts and intertextuality. The paper concludes with insights regarding the dialogic interactional nature of BSs.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of the 2014 Curriculum in Cameroon
           French-medium Secondary Education

    • Authors: Yepdia Leundjeu Walter
      Pages: 41 - 57
      Abstract: This paper explores English foreign language teachers’ perceptions of the 2014 English language learning programme in Cameroon French-medium secondary education. It considers aspects such as the quality of the programme of study, the teaching of skills and competencies in the instructional materials selected, the teaching and testing approaches, the challenges encountered, and teachers’ personal and professional growth. Hall and Hord (1987, 2001) theoretical paradigm was chosen to conduct this research and the method of data collection was quantitative in nature. A total number of 80 English foreign language teachers were surveyed and administered a 38-item questionnaire. It came out of the findings that the vast majority of teachers deemed the new curriculum innovative and a developmental tool for bilingualism. Also, the majority of the respondents appreciated the skills and the competencies taught in the textbooks selected as they met with real-life situations. Further, these teachers in their great number claimed that they had a good knowledge of the Competence-Based Approach (CBA) and had grown cognitively and pedagogically while implementing the reforms of the new learning programme. Finally, they wish the implementation of the curriculum continued. Among the pitfalls of the curriculum, the testing approach and the exposure of learners to other learning sources revealed themselves limited. The overcrowded nature of classrooms impeded the unfolding of lessons and personalised pedagogy and above all obstructed the effective and efficient implementation of the Competence-Based Approach. Ultimately, teachers frowned at the filling of pedagogic documents which in their perspective was too bureaucratic. Some recommendations were made at the end of the investigation in order to improve the curriculum.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • A Meaning Component Analysis of Euphemism and Dysphemism in Indonesian

    • Authors: Zulfahmirda Matondang, Sumarlam, Dwi Purnanto
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: The objective of this research is to describe the forms of euphemism and dysphemism in Indonesian da’wah. The data were in the form of preachers' utterances containing expressions of euphemism and dysphemism. The data involved the context of utterance containing expressions of euphemism and dysphemism. The data were collected from audio documentation on the internet, namely Spotify. In providing data, the researcher used simak (observation) method with documentation and note-taking techniques. In analyzing the data, the researcher used agih method with BUL technique. Furthermore, the data analysis technique used was the substitution or replacement technique and the meaning component analysis. The meaning component analysis was performed to analyze euphemism or dysphemism utterances by showing the components that make up the meaning of utterance and comparing them with the components that make up meaning of neutral utterance. From the research results, it can be seen that euphemism and dysphemism were found in the form of words, phrases, and sentences.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Arabic Translation from Bait Al-Hikma to Toledo School of Translators: Key
           Players, Theorization and Major Strategies

    • Authors: Omar EL GHAZI, Chakib BNINI
      Pages: 66 - 80
      Abstract: Throughout history, Arab scholars have produced a number of important works in different fields, which helped boost human civilization. This was achieved thanks to the utmost efforts made by a panel of prominent translators working in Bait Al-Hikma (Lit. House of Wisdom) in Baghdad. These translators transmitted Greek, Persian and Indian works into Arabic during the ‘Golden Arabic Era of translation’ which goes back to the Abbassid Caliphate (750 CE- 1258 CE). Likewise, translation movement in Al-Andalus took its systematic and intensive shape at the beginning of 12th century CE with the establishment of Toledo School of Translators in the city of Toledo. However, translations produced in Al-Andalus were chiefly rendered from Arabic into Latin and Old Spanish, mainly by non-Arab translators. The present paper explores the schools of translation in Baghdad and Toledo and the main strategies or methods used by each of these schools. This overview will demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration Arabs’ translation theorization in line with western theories of translation. The paper also reveals that Arab translators were not mere transmitters of Greek philosophy and ancient knowledge, but great thinkers who adapted Greek, Indian and Persian ideas to their own thought.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • The Contributions of Systemic Functional Linguistics to Literary Text

    • Authors: Arsen Nahum Pasaribu, Erika Sinambela, Sondang Manik
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) refers to some kind of text analysis, including an analysis of literary language. Some research has verified the study of the literary text using this linguistic apparatus; however the use of SFL in literary text analysis is relatively rare. Therefore, this study investigated the contributions of SFL to literary text analysis. The data of the study were 20 scientific articles focusing on literary text analysis using SFL. The analysis used content analysis to expose the segments of the story analyzed and the components of SFL to analyze them. The findings showed that the method of analysis using SFL on the literary text has brought new perspectives to the researchers, and provided some possible future studies in literary works. Moreover, the study of literary texts is regarded not merely as interpretative practices but as explanatory categories for each segment of a literary text.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Tonal Adaptation Strategies in Èwùlù and Ùrhòbò Loanword

    • Authors: Utulu; Don C., Ajiboye, Emuobonuvie, M. Ajede, Chika K.
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Studies on tonal adaptation strategies in English loanwords of the Nigerian languages (NLs): Yoruba (Y), Hausa (H), Bini (B) and Emai (E) commonly translate the prosodic structure of the loanwords into native prosodic configurations. Translation of pitch melody of borrowed words in the NLs tends to be determined by the position of English word stress. Comparative/typological studies that independently examine such tonal adaptation in Nigerian smaller languages are scanty. Consequently, this paper examines the pattern of word stress adaptation into tone in English loanwords in Èwùlù (Igboid) and Ùrhòbò (Edoid), with a view to revealing the Èwùlù and Ùrhòbò tonal adaptation features common to Y, H, B and E but specific to Èwùlù and/or Ùrhòbò. The empirical observations of data are explained with Autosegmental Theory (Goldsmith, 1976), which formally expresses the relations that hold between the tone loans, tone bearing units and CV nodes operating at different tiers. Findings of this study show/confirm that the English citation pitch accent H*L% basically governs the domain of adaptation of (H)igh tone and (L)ow in loans. Moreover, findings reveal that inserted vowels in CC-clusters in Èwùlù and Ùrhòbò loans are inherently toneless, acquiring their tones from adjacent tones. However, the study identifies two salient peculiar patterns: (1) Ùrhòbò assigns low tone on intervening V element in CC-cluster, a domain characteristically assigned H tone in Èwùlù, Y, H, B, and E. (2) Ùrhòbò regularly simplifies source H*L% as /H/ in adapted source CVC, a context where Èwùlù and the aforementioned NLs rather adapt /H.L/ melody to realise vowel doubling. To this end, the current researcher recommends further comparative or typological studies on English loanwords in other NLs to further identify patterns of tone adaptation and resyllabification rules in loanwords similar to those of Urhobo in particular.

      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • The Effects of Online Texting on Moroccan EFL University Students’
           Writing Skills

    • Authors: Mounim LAKHAL
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: With the rapid proliferation of ubiquitous ICTs, promoting technology-based learning has become a key element in educational discourse. The present study explores the effects of online texting on the writing skills among Moroccan university students. Based on the explanatory sequential mixed-methods design, the data were collected from a convenience sample of n=243 of first-year English department students. The research tools consist of a survey, a writing test and an interview to gain an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of respondents’ attitudes and lived experiences vis-à-vis online texting. The findings have revealed that online texting has yielded both positive and negative outcomes on students’ writing skills. It was also found that online texting is positively perceived by students as it helps them develop vocabulary and provides great opportunities to practice writing in English. For this reason, online texting is an efficient and effective technique that should be exploited to develop proficiency in writing.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • The Representation of Palestinian and Israeli Communities in Cameron’s
           Speech: A critical Discourse Analysis

    • Authors: Amaal Kamal Al. Farra
      Pages: 113 - 123
      Abstract: One of the main functions of critical discourse analysis (CDA) is to connect the linguistic categories to the ideological functions. The way Palestinians and Israelis are represented ideologically and grammatically are taken into account in this current study. The interpretation between ideology and discourse are considered within the scope of critical discourse analysis. The present study follows the method of CDA for its functional importance in the field of discourse analysis. To achieve that, the researcher adopts the CDA framework which is stated by Fairchough in his book “language and power” as it is a systematic and helpful way in the analysis. It has three dimensions; description, interpretation and explanation. Following his framework, the researcher tries to shed the light on grammatical, linguistic and social relational features, as well as micro and macro analysis. The selected data is the speech of Cameron, the Prime Minister of Britain, to the Knesset in 2014. The researcher tries to spot the representations of both Palestinian and Israeli communities in his speech. This study aims to investigate if his speech is neutral or it contains any bias. The results show that most of Cameron’s representations are used to support the Israeli community rather than the Palestinian community.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Discourse Analysis of Selected Kenyan Leader’s Utterances During
           COVID-19 Media Briefings

    • Authors: Owala Silas, Kenneth Odhiambo
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: When Corona virus was discovered in Wuhan China, many countries, Kenya included, did not have a lot of information about the virus. Despite that, the citizens were looking up to the government together with other leaders to provide information about the virus. In Kenya, after sometime, leaders started issuing statements about the virus with an intention of providing public education to help contain the virus. Some of these were government officers while others were members of parliament and other pressure groups that deal with human rights. The purpose of this research was to look at the way the Kenyan leaders used language to communicate to the masses about Covid-19. The approach used was that of Critical Discourse analysis (CDA). Chunks of utterances from selected leaders that appeared in a Kenyan newspaper Daily Nation between 1st April and 30th April were analyzed using CDA parameters. The findings revealed that the utterances showed underlying social issues and disparities together with power relations and domination. A number of the utterances did not take into consideration the needs of the people or even the effects of the statements on the masses. Some appeared to give orders to people that did not resonate well with the masses. There is need for the leaders making statements to be more considerate, educative and diplomatic in their approach to make their messages more effective and to obtain the desired result. This could be done by allowing those who are experts in a given field to take charge in disseminating information to the populace
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Rounding Harmony in Mfantse: Evidence and Differences

    • Authors: Patience Obeng, Yvonne A.A. Ollennu
      Pages: 131 - 141
      Abstract: This paper investigated rounding harmony in two subdialects of Mfantse spoken in the Central Region of Ghana. Bɔrbɔr and Edwumako dialects are part of the Akan language and belongs to Kwa on the Niger-Congo branch of languages. Data was from the Mfantseman and Edwumako districts from 45 participants aged 20 years and above.  The Autosegmental framework was used for data analysis. We looked first at the sounds and brought out the differences between Bɔrbɔr sounds and that of Edwumako.  The study established that Mfantse is not the same in all its phonological presentations in all its subdialects. In terms of sound distribution, the central unadvanced vowel is strictly word final in Bɔrbɔr while it is both word initial and final in Edwumako.  Some aspects of rounding harmony occur in both Bɔrbɔr and Edwumako while other aspects occur in Bɔrbɔr and partially in Edwumako. Other aspects are present in Edwumako only. 
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • A Corpus-Based Critical Discourse Analysis of Pre-2019 General Elections
           Reports in Selected Nigerian Newspapers

    • Authors: Samuel Oyeyemi Agbeleoba, Edward Owusu, Asuamah Adade-Yeboah
      Pages: 142 - 147
      Abstract: Generally, language experts believe that there are inherent ideologies in language use. The aspect of discourse study that discloses such ideologies is known as Critical Discourse Study (CDA). This paper seeks to exhume the various inherent ideologies that presuppose selected news reports on the Nigeria’s 2019 General Elections in Nigerian newspapers. This study is, however, corpus-based. Scholars have established that discourse is a kind of constructively conditioned public exercise. They believe that power relations exist at different levels of daily social interaction; revealing superiority or inferiority of interlocutors involved. News reports relating to the General Elections were electronically collated from the various newspaper platforms for a sizable language corpus. The name Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) was selected and analysed purposively with the aid of Digital Humanities (DH) tool to observe the frequency of the acronym INEC and the textual context in which it occurs in five newspapers’ reports about the electoral body via the authority it gives; the warning it issues, and the appeal it makes to the stakeholders. The paper finds out that the negative perceptions of many observers about the elections have actually been predicted by the various reports in the newspapers, prior to the elections. The paper concludes that reporters of news items do not account for issues concerning electoral body with the same constructive and destructive dispositions; and this gives room for subjectivity and prejudice.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English Language: A Case Study of
           Sudanese Private and Public Secondary Schools in Khartoum State, Sudan

    • Authors: Ali Albashir Mohammed Alhaj, Dina Ali Abdalla Ali, Majda Babiker Ahmed, Eman Mahmoud Ibrahim Alian
      Pages: 148 - 155
      Abstract: The current paper aims at studying the age factor in Sudanese public schools and private schools where the starting age differs in both.  Also, it aims at finding out whether the late or early starting of learning English language influences the learner's acquisition to language. Moreover, the study aims at showing the difference between learners of English language in private schools and learners in public schools. The tools used for data collection were questionnaire for EFL Sudanese teachers and a test for Sudanese secondary school students. The research was conducted with a total of 30 male students attending Sudanese public schools and private schools. By using the mixed-method research approaches, the findings revealed that most respondents agree that the early learners are better than late ones, that is to say that students of private schools who start learning English at an early age had better mastery of English than those of public-school students who start at a late age. Finally, the study recommended that investigating the effects of age factor on learning English language is a very important phenomenon and may apply in other countries such Egypt, Saudi Arabia etc. This study is the first of its kind to investigate the effects of age factor on learning English language, particularly,  in the context of Arab countries.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • The Roman Catholic Religion in Ireland and Cameroon: A Study of James
           Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Nkemngong
           Nkengasong’s God Was African

    • Authors: Amungwa Veronica Nganshi
      Pages: 156 - 173
      Abstract: This paper explores how the Roman Catholic religion has influenced the writer in Ireland and Cameroon as projected in James Joyce’s 1916 novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Nkemngong Nkengasong’s 2014 novel God Was African. The aim is to demonstrate that although Joyce is European and his work traces the development of a potential artist in a colonised Ireland and Nkengasong is African and projects the experiences of a scholar in a postcolonial Cameroon, both converge in the exploration and critique of the doctrine and teachings of the Roman Catholic Church whose mission is universal. Using the concepts of biography, history and culture of the New Historicist literary theory, this paper demonstrates that the critique of the Catholic Church is a projection of what Joyce and Nkengasong experienced in real life and thus they use their protagonists as mouthpiece to appreciate and at the same time condemn those practices they consider repressive with the aim of reformation. In other words, the authors project not what is dominantly fictional but what they were a part of. This autobiographical element makes their works closer to life. Though both authors believe literature should replace religion, their vision is that of a belief in God’s existence, truth, sincerity and controlled individual freedom and for a society that upholds human dignity, mutual respect and morally upright conduct. The Roman Catholic Church has its flaws but its spiritual benefits are overwhelming as its doctrine is universal but operates within the realm of inculturation in respect of the positive values of the people’s culture. This paper is therefore significant in bridging the dichotomy between art and life as the writer is projected as both subject and creator and the fact that religious values have a significant impact in the life of the writer. Thus, one of the ways to approach literature is from the autobiographical and religious perspectives.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • An Analysis of Police Interrogation from the Perspective of
           Presupposition: A Case Study of Jodi Arias Case

    • Authors: Songman Liang
      Pages: 174 - 183
      Abstract: Nowadays, as crimes have become increasingly complicated, it is difficult for interrogators to find out all the criminal facts before interrogation, so that interrogation becomes a significant process to clear up some facts and prove whether the interrogated is guilty or not. However, some criminals always conceal the criminal facts and resist interrogation. This difficulty decides that interrogators need some interrogatory skills to elicit some criminal facts from the suspect. Presupposition is one of the interrogatory skills frequently used by interrogators so that it is very necessary to study interrogatory language from the perspective of presupposition. However, the literature review indicates that few research studies police interrogation from the perspective of presupposition. Therefore, this paper is to apply presupposition theory classified by Yule (2000) to analyze interrogatory language in Jodi Arias case. Specifically, it is to analyze how interrogators make use of presuppositions to elicit more information and explore the functions of presuppositions in investigatory interrogation. In order to address the problem, this paper employs both quantitative and qualitative method to analyze police interrogation in Jodi Arias case. The results show that there are five types of presuppositions identified in the selected data, that is, existential presupposition, factive presupposition, lexical presupposition, structural presupposition, counter-factual presupposition, and their frequency varies from each other. Secondly, presupposition enables the interrogatory language to be more concise and euphemistic and presupposition help the interrogators increase the pervasive effect and presupposition can help set a trap for the suspect to admit his or her guilt. This study will enlarge the application scope of presupposition and even linguistics and help interrogator employ presupposition into interrogation and improve their interrogation skills.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • On the Construction of Identity with Regional Lexical Variant
           “Kopitiam” in Malaysia

    • Authors: Wong Mun Wui, Wang Tzu-Min, Kemo Badiane
      Pages: 184 - 202
      Abstract: Regional lexical variants often emerge in interlocutors’ daily conversations, but they are unconscious about applying these locally lexical variants in the communications. Why do they use these lexical variants' What is the role of the regional lexical variants in the society' What is the significance of their existence' Why are there different lexical variants existed in different environments and context' In the quest of discovering the nature and the function of the regional lexical variants, an investigation and examination were conducted on the discussions within the online community to observe and analyze a high-frequency local lexical variant "Kopitiam" in the daily dynamic conversation among Malaysians. With the application of Functional Grammar Discourse Analysis this research found that in a specific context and environment, regional lexical variants played an essential role in promoting the establishment of identity among social members in certain region. The interaction between members were developed, the sense of groupness and belonging were strengthened gradually, and eventually societal cohesion could be formed. In addition, this investigation also revealed that the relevant lexical variants could possibly be derived by the differentiation of lexical semantics in certain contexts. The findings in this research provide a deeper understanding on how language interacts and participates in the formation of identification in the societal and individual terms in a specific context.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • A Reflection on the Online Lectures

    • Authors: Gracia M. N. Otta
      Pages: 203 - 208
      Abstract: The phenomenon of Coronavirus Disease 2019 forced the education system in Indonesia to be run online. The descriptive qualitative method was usedin this research to investigate some cases faced by the Fourth Semester Students of the English Department, Nusa Cendana University toward online learning in Cross-Cultural Communication Lecture. It was conducted to answer students’ perceptions, solutions, and expectations in joining online lectures for the last three months in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2019-2020. To collect the data, and a non-facial interview technique was applied through some online Learning Management System; e-learning by Nusa Cendana University and Google Classroom. The data were analyzed by categorizing the students’ answers. The result of this study showed that11.43% were ready for online lectures, while those who prefer regular classes were 82.86%.Only 27.14% could meet the needs of online lectures since they had available mobile data, while 47.14% frankly stated having mobile data problem. It can be concluded that there were some changes in learning culture that forced students to deal with online teaching-learning activities. Undeniable, it was not easy to organize except well prepared from the very first beginning of class by having Course Contract which only needed to be changed into an online form. Yet, their expectations for universities and government to increase Learning Management System and subsidies for the needs of mobile data bundle (for teachers, lecturers, and students).
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Nora's Transcendental Consciousness from Marianne's Sensibility:
           A Reading of Ibsen's A Doll's House and Austen's Sense and

    • Authors: Tanzin Sultana, Durdana Nower
      Pages: 209 - 214
      Abstract: This paper attempts to bring out the nineteenth century's women’s quest for self-respect and self-actuality in the mirror of Nora’s developing consciousness following Marianne’s growing sensibility. Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility, and Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House are two prominent genres of ninetieth century’s English literature where both writers show the contemporary women’s soul being entangled to social norms as well as their gradual try to be non-conformist against these norms by their thought and action. In the 19th century, English society creates impediments for unmarried women like Marianne and married women like Nora to think and to talk in their way. It is the patriarchal society where women’s social dignity and security depend on their marital status and husbands. Since marriage is their identity, they show their loyalty and sincerity to their husbands or the men they love. In Austen’s novel, as an ordinary woman, Marianne takes Willoughby’s attention as a scared bonding and challenges the seniors’ matured advice. In Ibsen’s play, Nora does forgery and secretly takes a loan to save her sick husband’s life. She considers it a spouse’s duty and believes that her husband will understand her as he cares for her. When the time comes, both Marianne and Nora betray their loyalty from their partners to whom they are not human beings but puppets to be entertained. From this violation of trust, they realize that they need to be considered human beings first before being respected women in a family and society. It is their strength that despite being taken as soulless creatures, they dare to think about own self beyond the society and become self-reliant. Their growing self-reliance makes today’s women progressive in creating a space in society and family for themselves as human beings.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • A Comparative Study of Arabic Motion Verbs to their English Counterparts

    • Authors: Mahmoud Mamdouh Baker Nassar, Akram Idrees Mohammad Al-Ashqar, Mohammad Ali Abedalqader Shatanawi
      Pages: 215 - 228
      Abstract: This paper examines some semantics aspects of Arabic motion verbs compared to their English counterparts. Although both languages belong to different remote families, both languages share some common features about Motion especially on the idea of locomotors vs. non-locomotors (translative and non-translative movement). A lexically-semantic comparison is drawn between motion verbs in both languages in terms of suggested semantic components such as Motion itself, Manner, Directionality, Path, Fictive, and Motion. The researchers used resources such as encyclopedias, library references books specially Mu’jam Lisan AL-Arab, Al-Mu'jam Al-Waseet, English dictionaries specially Oxford, Webster, and Longman, web sites to collect data of motion verbs under discussion. The paper concludes that the semantics components of Arabic verbs are quite similar to their English counterparts, but Arabic verbs differ greatly from English verbs in the notions that can be lexicalized.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • An Analysis on English to Chinese Translation of Electrical Engineering
           Texts from the Perspective of Professionals under the Guidance of Skopos

    • Authors: Xiaoli Song Zi Ye
      Pages: 229 - 238
      Abstract: With the Skopos Theory as the theoretical foundation, this study aims at analyzing the specialized translation of electrical engineering texts from the professionals' perspective. To do this, we first conducted a questionnaire survey to collect the information on the professionals' needs and requirements on the translation of English texts in the realm of electrical engineering. Then, we selected an English academic paper published in a prestigious journal in this field and conducted a semi-structured interview on the Chinese translation of this paper with three professionals in this field. Based on the results of both questionnaire and interview, we analyzed the translation of electrical engineering texts from English to Chinese at lexical, syntactic and textual levels with the guidance of Skopos Theory. It is found from the questionnaire survey that electrical engineering professionals in China do have a need for translation of English texts in this field, and they emphasize the accuracy of terms and information integrity of the target text. From the interview, we also find that Skopos Theory has a strong guiding effect on the specialized translation of electrical engineering texts. Under the guidance of this theory, translators can adopt various translation strategies to enhance their translation output and optimize its communicative effect.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Taḍmīn (Implication of Meaning) in the Qur’an with Reference to Ten
           English Qur’an Translations

    • Authors: Abdullah Soliman Nouraldeen
      Pages: 239 - 245
      Abstract: Taḍmīn is the use of a verb followed by a preposition with which does not standardly collocate to indicate rhetorically another verb, thus bringing about a deep, double meaning with few words. The Qur’an contains numerous examples of taḍmīn. Answering three research questions, this descriptive-prescriptive study aims at analysing and discussing ten English Qur’an translations of taḍmīn in two āyāt (verses) out of approximately 270 which involve taḍmīn, using a resource to identify taḍmīn and applying the four elements of it. The study concludes that not all four elements of taḍmīn are taken into consideration by the ten translators. They did, however, translate two different elements of taḍmīn, i.e. the majority of them rendered an explicit verb followed by an implicit preposition; some others translated an implicit verb followed by an explicit preposition and one translator in one āyah (verse) out of the two rendered the explicit verb and the explicit preposition. I suggested an improvement to the translations by including the four elements of taḍmīn in order to understand the āyāt (verses) deeply. I also suggest a further investigation that would assess more translations of taḍmīn and carry out interviews with Qur’an translators to reveal the reason(s) why the four elements of taḍmīn are not translated. This investigation might be conducted by me in the future.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • From Limbo to Continuity Existential Analysis of Joseph Situma’s The
           Mysterious Killer

    • Authors: Japheth Peter Muindu
      Pages: 246 - 249
      Abstract: The paper is an explication of the stoicism and the resilience of the diseased characters in Joseph Situma’s The Mysterious Killer which is framed within Sartrean existential epistemology with a focus on his concept of authenticity. For Sartre, authentic existence is   related to pursuance of transcendent goals, honesty and courage. Human beings, Sartre opines, impose values in their lives in moments of forlornness. This concept is germane to analyzing the existential necessity of the diseased characters in the selected text to transcend the limbo of their existence as HIV/AIDS patients.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
  • Total Assimilation in Persian Phonology: A Modified Contrastive
           Specification Account

    • Authors: Mohammad Hajimohammad, Batool Alinezhad, Adel Rafiei
      Pages: 250 - 259
      Abstract: Nowadays the main stream in the most fields of linguistics including phonology is minimalism and redundancy removing, which derives from the principle of the economy of language. The advent of under specification theory in the late 19th century can be considered as the beginning of redundancy removing in the domain of phonology. During recent decades different versions of under specification such as Radical Under specification, Contrastive Specification and Modified Contrastive Specification (MCS) have been presented. Modified Contrastive Specification (MCS), which is the finding of Toronto Phonology School is based on Contrastive Hypothesis in which a contrastive hierarchy is applied to specify the contrastive features. It is believed that only contrastive features are specified in phonological representations and redundant values never exist in underlying representations. This paper aims to present a novel analysis of total assimilation process in terms of the manner of articulation in consonant clusters having the structures of –st and –zd in Persian which is an active process in phonology of Persian. Working within the framework of the MCS, through drawing a contrastive hierarchy for phonological features, this paper leads to this conclusion that the feature [continuant] in Persian consonants is a contrastive feature so by spreading this feature, the coronal stops /t/, /d/ assimilate to fricatives /s/ and /z/ respectively. To represent contrast and markedness in this system, we have proposed a contrastive hierarchy of [son] > [lab] > [cont]> [voiced] for consonants involved in the process of total assimilation in Persian.
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-