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EUREKA : Physics and Engineering
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ISSN (Online) 2461-4262
Published by Scientific Route OÜ Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Study of the nitrocellulose gunpowder regeneration process using hydrogen

    • Authors: Oleg Anipko, Dmitro Baulin, Stanislav Horielyshev, Igor Boikov, Yurii Babkov, Oleksandr Oleksenko, Halyna Misiuk, Volodymyr Kutsenko, Mykhailo Ivanets, Valerii Voinov
      Pages: 3 - 13
      Abstract: World experience in storing ammunition shows that during long-term storage, pyroxylin gunpowders used in ammunition are capable of arbitrarily undergoing various physical and chemical transformations, which negatively affects the ballistic characteristics of ammunition. In some countries, ammunition is in use with a shelf life of 30–35 years or more. Factors influencing the physicochemical stability of gunpowder charges during long-term storage have been identified. An analysis of the chemical processes occurring in nitrocellulose gunpowders (NCP) during long-term storage is carried out, and the possibility of regenerating NCP by treatment with hydrogen peroxide is substantiated. It is indicated that there are no methods for regenerating gunpowder charges with long shelf life. It has been shown that one of the ways to increase the ballistic and energy characteristics of long-term storage ammunition can be the regeneration of nitrocellulose gunpowder charges. Data are presented on an experimental study to determine the characteristics of NCP after regeneration. It has been shown that when regenerating nitrocellulose gunpowder charges with hydrogen peroxide, the calorific value of the starting material increases. Based on the results obtained, an approach to assessing the feasibility of using regeneration technology is proposed. This approach is based on the effect of mass replenishment during the regeneration process due to ongoing chemical processes and heat and mass transfer. The ways for further research on the use of nitrocellulose as a high-calorie fuel are presented
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003104
  • Adsorption device treatment of associated petroleum gas for power

    • Authors: Abdulaga Gurbanov, Ijabika Sardarova, Javida Damirova, Ismayil Huseynov
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Hydrocarbon resources were considered as the basis of Azerbaijan's energy security. Ensuring the most complete and rational use of oil-associated gas resources is important for improving the efficiency of the oil industry and the national economy as a whole. Associated gas from oil fields remains the least demanded hydrocarbon raw material. The perspectives for the use of oil-associated gas are associated with new directions in the technique and technology of its use as a result of the creation and implementation of mobile and stationary power plants that consume gas. Unlike natural gas produced from gas and gas condensate fields, propane-butanoic and pentane fractions, there are hexanes, heptane’s and heavy hydrocarbons, including aromatic and naphthene tic compounding. The properties of APG were studied in the laboratories. It is known that the composition of petroleum gas in a particular area, due to changes in the volume of its production on fields, is constantly changing, so it is necessary to periodically update characteristics. The standard technology on gas conditioning for combustion is supplemented with an operation to remove heavy fractions of hydrocarbons in order to prevent these fractions from sticking to the surfaces of these installations with plugs formation and to support optimal fuel burning conditions. The problem of using oil gas in small power must be solved through new, cost-efficient developments that will be widely used both in high-output and small fields. To prepare associated oil gases for combustion, the design of an adsorption device is proposed, which makes it possible to reduce such phenomena when using this type of fuel as the formation of oil and paraffin deposits on the design details of gas burners, the accumulation of products of incomplete combustion of fuel on the heating elements of power plants. With the help of the newly proposed adsorption plant, the process of emulsifying and transporting petroleum gases has become more efficient. The use of this device has increased economic efficiency
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003025
  • Study on adsorption capacity of corn stalks in decreasing the turbidity of
           Babura river water with batch operation

    • Authors: Bode Haryanto, Fatimah Batubara, Ella Theresia Ginting, Dicky A. D. Situmorang, Vikram Alexander
      Pages: 21 - 34
      Abstract: The adsorbent is a solid substance that can absorb certain components from the liquid phase. Most of the adsorbents are porous materials and the adsorption process takes place, especially in the porous wall or certain location inside that particle. The main objective of this research is to study the influence of the adsorbent’s surface area based on shape variation from corn stalk with adsorption ability to reduce the water river’s turbidity, the influence of time with adsorption capacity in reducing river water’s turbidity, the influence of adsorbent with water river and adsorption capacity, and defining adsorption kinetics from corn stalks. The shape of corn stalks that have been used such as spherical, half of spherical shape, and quarter of spherical shape. The volume of the sample is 250 mL. The measurement time is 300 minutes. The mass variations that have been used are 10 g, 15 g, and 20 g. The variation of sample takeover in the morning, afternoon, and evening. The measurement of adsorbent adsorption capacity in term of decreasing the turbidity of Babura River’s water is done by inputting the adsorbent into the sample, then the measurement of the water’s turbidity proceed by using a turbidity meter. The analysis result for the influence of the adsorbent’s surface area in decreasing Babura River’s water in the shape’s variation from spherical, half of spherical shape, and quarter of spherical shape is obtained in quarter of spherical shape. The highest amount of adsorbent in decreasing the turbidity of Babura River’s water is 20 g. Adsorption kinetics that has been used in the measurement of decreasing Babura River’s water turbidity is second order kinetics
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003010
  • Energy losses study in solar hybrid gas turbine in Colombia

    • Authors: Faustino Moreno-Gamboa, Gustavo Guerrero-Gomez, Alvaro Jr Caicedo-Rolon
      Pages: 35 - 45
      Abstract: Due to decrease of oil reserves, the international commitment for the reduction of pollutant emissions and environmental protection, renewable energy sources are intensively studied, including solar energy applications. However, solar energy is not constant and one possible alternative are solar hybrid thermosolar power plants. A hybrid solar gas turbine has three subsystems: a solar concentrator with heliostat field and central tower receiver, a combustion chamber, and a regenerative gas turbine. A previous thermodynamic analysis allowed shows an energy and exergy study of the plant, from a thermodynamic model of the system that has a method of solar resource estimation. However, this analysis did not allow evaluation of the energy losses in the system components, although the original model considered the typical irreversibilities of these cycles. This work aimed to develop a thermodynamic model that estimates the energy losses in the subsystems and the solar hybrid gas turbine components from a few parameters. The model estimated the energy losses for a Brayton cycle hybrid solar thermal plant throughout the day July 20 in Barranquilla, Colombia. A Dymola compiler in Modelica language was used to evaluate the model, which facilitates the estimation of the results at different times of the day. In this case, the computations were performed hourly throughout the day. In the results, energy losses were 16 % in the solar concentrator when the solar resource was the maximum at noon and close to 1 % in the combustion chamber. Therefore, the hybrid solar Brayton cycle system is technically feasible and reduces fuel consumption. Consequently, it is important to continue developing concentration systems and reduce their energy losses
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003108
  • A simple method for harvesting thermoelectric energy in home and
           industrial appliances heat cycle using peltier cells

    • Authors: Juan Botero-Valencia, Daniel Sanin-Villa, Juliana Valencia-Aguirre
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: Energy harvesting models are the focus of most countries, given that governments are becoming aware of the limitations of natural resources and the need to optimize them. On the other hand, different systems used in everyday life and in industrial environments involve the use of heat cycles, but in most cases, their thermoelectric energy is not recovered from these processes. Accordingly, this paper proposes to implement a model based on a low-cost Peltier array that can be attached to commonly used devices with heat cycles involving small temperature differences (∆T=25 °C). A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method was used to extract the maximum power from this array. This device is thought to take advantage of home and industrial elements’ heat to power low-power system applications. The results show that this technology allows acceptable use and represents an effective recovery mechanism. This work represents a new approximation of the energy harvesting solutions from thermoelectric energy with future benefits, especially on the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, which has been one of the technology areas of most significant expansion and growth in recent decades. The IoT has opened significant challenges in the scientific community, especially regarding the energy supply methods of the IoT elements or nodes, considering that these elements can be located in places where it is impossible to wire to supply power and that use of batteries is unsustainable in the long term, also generating a negative environmental impact. The proposed system harvests energy from the temperature difference generated at a window, considering that the device is controlled environment within a room
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003102
  • Development of dye-sensitized solar cells STEAM learning prototype for
           supporting educational for sustainable development

    • Authors: Eko Hariyono, Nadi Suprapto, Isna Zakhiyah, Mohamad Hisyam Ismail
      Pages: 56 - 66
      Abstract: The increase in energy consumption and demand is a problem that needs to be resolved immediately, one of the viable solutions is to develop a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) prototype. This solar cell precursor can also be used as a prototype of STEAM Education for improving students' knowledge, skills, and motivation. Consequently, it is aimed to identify the best preparation technique for DSSC and provide recommendations for designing STEAM Education prototypes in physics learning. This is a preliminary study that employs a quantitative-qualitative descriptive research approach. Based on the results of the output voltage produced by the DSSC, which was given three kinds of immersion variations, quantitative descriptive analysis was carried out to show the type of DSSC with the best preparation technique. Based on the research data, the best preparation technique for DSSC was obtained by immersing the TiO2 layer in a dye solution for 144 hours. There is a positive correlation between the duration of immersion in the dye solution and the voltage generated in the DSSC. Furthermore, the DSSC-based STEAM Education prototype could explain the concept of photo electricity effect, electromagnetic induction, converting light energy into motion, and various other science concepts in applying physics learning. The STEAM Education approach and integrating the three pillars of Education for Sustainable Development explain how science concepts can answer sustainable energy problems related to the environment, society, and economy. This implies preparing students to be the next generation of leaders with the knowledge and abilities to carry on with long-term development plans
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.002928
  • Evaluation of the results of the flight tests of the small research rocket
           K80 Meteo 7000 on the way to the creation of the Ukrainian family of
           suborbital launch vechicles

    • Authors: Vladyslav Proroka, Mykola Dron, Oleksii Kulyk, Vadym Solntsev, Svitlana Klymenko
      Pages: 67 - 79
      Abstract: The object of this research is the process of choice the strategy for the development of the Ukrainian segment of suborbital launch vehicles (SOLVs). Problems arising in this process are analyzed and a search of ways of overcoming them was carried out. The strategy of development of a family of SOLVs is based on the previous experience of developing SOLVs in other countries. A family of SOLVs is proposed which includes five rockets with the apogee from 2 to 150 kilometers. The problem of the exclusion zones which can be reserved for falling of discarded parts of vehicles during the launch was considered. Experience of other countries in overcoming this problem was analyzed. It was decided to begin the process of formulation of a concept of a simplified SOLVs control system that would ensure keeping the rocket over the area of the launch. Within this task, a choice of components of the onboard electronic equipment (OBEE) was made. For testing the OBEE in the conditions of a real flight, a K80 Meteo 7000 rocket, a member of the proposed SOLV family, was chosen. In flight tests, most of the chosen OBEE components confirmed their operability, though some showed shortcomings in their operation. Main flight parameters of the K80 Meteo 7000 rocket were demonstrated. The reach of the apogee of 6,375 m and the velocity of Mach 1.733 was confirmed. This research sets preconditions for practical implementation of launches of SOLVs with substantial altitudes of the apogee, while limiting the areas reserved for falling parts of the rockets. Availability of such SOLVs will enable solution of a wide range of problems in many fields of scientific research and the use of SOLVs as platforms for working out new technical solutions for other branches of rocketry
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003106
  • Development of adaptive control system for technological facility of
           primary oil refining

    • Authors: Aygun Safarova, Javida Damirova, Ismayil Huseynov
      Pages: 80 - 93
      Abstract: As it is known, primary oil processing facilities are designed for the production of light-colored oil products and various oil fractions that meet modern requirements with their quality. The main equipment of these technological facilities are rectification columns operating under atmospheric and vacuum conditions, which perform the decomposition of crude oil and fuel oil into various product fractions. Generally, the quality indicators of product fractions produced in these columns are provided by stabilizing the temperature modes at certain points (plates) of these or rectification columns by regulating the irrigation consumption supplied to those plates. It should be noted that currently, in accordance with the requirements of the time, the design and development of new control systems that can adequately respond to more dynamic and variable external and internal stimulating influences for complex oil refining technological facilities is one of the main problems facing the automatic control theory. The paper is dedicated to the issue of developing a new automated control system that can provide the required accuracy in terms of quality management. As an adaptive control system, the purpose of such systems is to compensate in time for disturbance influences in the technological devices and to ensure the production of oil products with stable quality indicators, regardless of these influences. The purpose of study is to develop a control system that can meet the given requirements and ensure the produced products with relatively stable quality indicators, regardless of the controlled and uncontrolled exciting effects affecting the oil refinery technological complex. The principle of operation of this system is based not only on the compensation of disturbance influences but also on the calculation of new operation strategies depending on these effects. The development of new automated control system that is able to provide the necessary accuracy of quality control in the lack of information is relevant
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.002984
  • Use of additive test methods in the simulation of the methanol synthesis
           column for the creation of a control system from the model

    • Authors: Peter Eliseyev, Maryna Loriia, Olexii Tselishchev, Oleksandr Gurin, Oksana Kupina, Tetiana Sotnikova
      Pages: 94 - 104
      Abstract: The object of the study is the methodology of developing automatic control systems for one class of technological objects, namely, multi-tonnage chemical-technological productions. This class of technological objects is characterized by significant inertia, which makes them objects with difficult control. In addition, high production productivity to prevent economic losses requires ensuring the stability of the technological process without significant deviations from design norms. Based on this, the development methodology for objects of this class should be strictly consistent and theoretically grounded. The work presents an algorithm for developing the structure of the automatic control system of a large-tonnage chemical-technological facility based on its technological features. The algorithm begins with the analysis of a large-tonnage chemical-technological object as a control object. At the final stage, let’s obtain the complete structure of the control system as a self-adjusting extreme control system with an object model. The selected structure of the automatic control system, in turn, puts forward specific conditions for the type of mathematical model of the control object. The work presents an algorithm for developing a combined mathematical model, which begins with structural identification and ends with parametric identification. This mathematical model is the most suitable for use in automatic control systems for technological objects of this class. The conclusions were confirmed by many years of research on real technological objects, including, on the example of the ASK TP methanol synthesis column. The application of the described approach on the example of the development of an automatic control system for the technological process of methanol synthesis confirmed the economic feasibility of implementing the proposed solutions
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003110
  • The development of a fully balanced current-tunable active-RC all-pass

    • Authors: Samran Lertkonsarn, Chadarat Khwunnak, Sittisak Roungrid
      Pages: 105 - 114
      Abstract: This research paper presents a symmetrical current-tunable active-RC all-pass filter that uses an active BJT coupled with R and C. The circuit's symmetrical structure ensures that the differential signals are treated equally, resulting in improved performance. Furthermore, the filter's ability to adjust the frequency by bias current makes it suitable for a wide range of applications, such as improving phase properties and creating other types of filters. The simulation results obtained through the Pspice program show that the value of the operating frequency can be adjusted by bias current, which is the highlight of this research. The transfer function of the circuit shows a response of about 0 dB and –90° respectively, indicating that the circuit can change the phase of the input signal without changing its magnitude. This feature is particularly useful in signal processing applications where phase changes are required. In addition, the paper discusses how the operating frequency can be increased by decreasing the capacitor. The transfer function of the circuit analyzed shows that the operating frequency (f0) is inversely proportional to the product of the capacitors. Therefore, decreasing the value of C increases the operating frequency of the circuit. Monte Carlo analysis results are also presented for resistors, capacitors, and transistors with error values. This analysis helps determine the effect of errors on the output signal of the circuit. The results show that the output signal is sensitive to changes in the resistor values, which can affect the accuracy of the filter. Therefore, it is important to select high-quality resistors to ensure that the filter operates accurately
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003103
  • Simulation and experimental study on the Fenotec casting method of the
           engine block RV95

    • Authors: Pham Quang Trung
      Pages: 115 - 121
      Abstract: The new designs or new materials used in foundries for sand casting products in Vietnam now often rely on experience and adopt the try-to-fix method to gradually find the best implementation. This method is very time-consuming, and the product is often unsatisfactory in the first many castings. This study developed a casting simulation model to compare experimental and simulated results using the Fenotec molding technology for the RV95 engine body. The 3D simulation model that was used to simulate the casting process with the same boundary conditions as the experiment also gave similar results. The results show that when making new castings for the first time from experience, there are many casting defects such as cracking, metal deficiency, porosity, etc. In order to improve the casting results, the pouring gate, the arrangement of additional risers and the size of the runner were studied on the simulation to improve the defect results on the casting. After that, the parameters in the simulation model used in the experiment reveal that the molded product meets the required quality and no longer has defects. This molded product, after checking the mechanical and geometric parameters, can be put into mass production
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.002791
  • Study of fiber detachment dynamics from the seeds by the baffle element

    • Authors: Fazil Veliev
      Pages: 122 - 132
      Abstract: The issue of the safety of cotton seeds during the roller ginning process is one of the subjects of research on the dynamic processes of primary processing of raw materials. The study of the work of roller gins first of all showed that the process of roller ginning is based on the interaction of raw cotton, a working roller, a knife, and a breaking organ. This is a component that ensures, at certain interaction, the separation of fiber from the seeds. At the same time, there are probably no physical foundations that could determine the spatial orientation of these four components of the ginning process. In the process of roller ginning in the initial position, the seed is drawn to the slot of the contact gap of the knife-drum due to the tension of the fibers in the contact. Subsequently, the seed is struck with a certain impulse. The separation of the fibers from the seed after the impact of the beater occurs sequentially, not simultaneously. As a result of theoretical and experimental studies, the optimum frequency of shock pulse on the seed (f=18−20) was found to be the most technologically successful in terms of providing the best quality indicators of seeds and fibers. Beating in the resonance mode allows reducing the magnitude of the shock impulse on the seed leading to the reducing degree of damage to the seeds. It is believed that in the initial position, the seeds are drawn to the slit of the contact gap of the knife-drum machine due to the tension of the fibers in the contact. At this moment, the seeds at the end of the strand move only under the action of an elastic restoring force. The active part of the fiber bundle section in a dynamic process can be as little as 0.001 or less. The average value of the compliance coefficient for the raw cotton variety BA-440 was determined experimentally. This allows determining the stiffness coefficient of the volatiles indirectly. According to the obtained parameters, the dynamic state of the system practically falls into the region of parametric resonance, where the motion is unstable. This means that the seeds at the end of the strand increase significantly after the impact of the beater, which leads to the separation of the seeds from the fibers
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.002999
  • Mechanical and thermal properties of beef tallow/rice husk charcoal-based
           plaster for building applications

    • Authors: I Made Astika, I Nyoman Suprapta Winaya, I Dewa Gede Ary Subagia, I Ketut Gede Wirawan
      Pages: 133 - 147
      Abstract: The construction industry represents the largest energy-consuming sector globally, primarily due to its substantial operational processes power demand. To address this, there has been an increased emphasis on using materials capable of absorbing and storing heat as alternative energy storage in buildings. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) demonstrate this capability, harnessing the latent heat principle to absorb surplus heat energy and subsequently release it in times of deficiency. This study examines the mechanical and thermal properties of wall cladding materials integrated with PCMs, specifically beef tallow and rice husk charcoal. These composites were produced via direct incorporation, with rice husk charcoal weight fractions of 8, 10, and 12 %. This approach resulted in weight fractions of 28, 30, and 32 % in the plaster layer material. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) tests confirmed the PCM composite's chemical compatibility across all its components, with the composite morphology appearing as microcapsules. In terms of thermal conductivity, the addition of rice husk charcoal to beef tallow enhanced the PCM composite's performance. This enhancement indicated that approximately 10 % of rice husk charcoal weight fraction could be successfully incorporated into the plaster layer material without leakage. At an ambient temperature of 45 °C, a plaster composite with 30 wt. % PCM met the standard compressive strength for plaster coating. Furthermore, it was found that this composite could reduce the temperature by 2.4 °C. The results concluded that beef-tallow PCM exhibits promising potential as a heat storage system for buildings, contributing to energy conservation in the construction industry
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.002798
  • Analysis on mechanical and microstructural properties of electrodeposited
           Ni-TiN-AlN/Si3N4 composite coatings

    • Authors: Esmar Budi, Widyaningrum Indrasari, Iwan Sugihartono, Teguh Budi Prayitno, Hadi Nasbey, Riser Fahdiran, Md. Nizam Abd Rahman
      Pages: 148 - 155
      Abstract: The parameter such as reinforced particles plays a role in controlling the microstructure and eventually influences the mechanical properties of the composite coating. The microstructure strength of composite coating come from phase combination of the matrix and its reinforcement. This study described the effect of the electrodeposition process parameters of Si3N4 particle concentration on the Ni-TiN-AlN/Si3N4 composite coatings. Therefore, the experiment was performed by varying Si3N4 particles concentration in range of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g/L in electrodeposition process. The coating morphology and crystal structure were characterized by mean of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively while the coating microhardness was tested by using Vickers hardness test. The calcultations were performed to analyze the coating stress from XRD data and presented its relation with the coating microhardness. The analysis results displayed that the uniform surface morphology of composite with the evolution of nitride particle aggregation was observed at various S3N4 particles concentration. In general, the uniformity morphology was due to the refinement of Ni crystallite size. The crystal structure was noticed prominently by Ni, TiN and AlN grains while Si3N4 grain was not observed due to its amorphous nature. In general, the increase of composite microhardness, as increasing Si3N4 concentration was attributed by the reducing Ni crystallite size lead to the increase of coating residual stress.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.002913
  • The proof of Fermat’s last theorem based on the geometric principle

    • Authors: Yuriy Gevorkyan
      Pages: 156 - 163
      Abstract: This paper provides another proof of Fermat's theorem. As in the previous work, a geometric approach is used, namely: instead of integers a, b, c, a triangle with side lengths a, b, c is considered. To preserve the completeness of the proof of the theorem in this work, the proof is repeated for the cases of right and obtuse triangles. In this case, the Fermat equation ap+bp=cp has no solutions for any natural number p>2 and arbitrary numbers a, b, c. When considering the case when the numbers a, b, c are sides of an acute triangle, it is proven that Fermat’s equation has no solutions for any natural number p>2 and non-zero integer numbers a, b, c. Numbers a=k, b=k+m, c=k+n, where k, m, n are natural numbers that satisfy the inequalities n>m, n<k+m, exhaust all possible variants of natural numbers a, b, c, which are the sides of the triangle. In an acute triangle, the following condition is additionally satisfied: To study the Fermat equation, an auxiliary function f(k,p)=kp+(k+m)p–(k+n)p, is introduced, which is a polynomial of natural degree p in the variable k. The equation f(k,p)=0 has a single positive root for any natural A recurrent formula connecting the functions f(k,p+1) and f(k,p) has been proven: f(k,p+1)=kf(k,p)-[n(k+n)p-m(k+m)p]. The proof of the main proposition 2 is based on considering all possible relationships between the assumed integer solution of the equation f(k,p+1)=0 and the number  corresponding to this solution The proof was carried out using the mathematical apparatus of number theory, elements of higher algebra and the foundations of mathematical analysis. These studies are a continuation of the author’s works, in which some special cases of Fermat’s theorem were proved
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003109
  • Development of a methodology for creating an on-line layout assistant for
           electronic publications for mobile devices

    • Authors: Yevhen Hrabovskyi, Hryhorii Kots, Kostiantyn Veretelnyk
      Pages: 164 - 176
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for creating an on-line assistant for electronic publications for mobile devices. The survey of experts is determined the basic requirements for an on-line assistant. Based on the results of the survey, the optimal functions and sub-functions of an on-line assistant for the layout of electronic publications for mobile devices are formed. The consistency of experts' opinions was checked. As a result, partial coherence of expert opinions was obtained, the corresponding indicator is 0.68. The main types of internal structure of the online assistant are reviewed and its hybrid structure is developed. QuarkXPress, Adobe InDesign, and Scribus were used as software tools for developing training videos in the structure of the online assistant. The structure of the online assistant for layout of electronic publications for mobile devices was designed. Training videos were created as components of the online assistant. The stages of creating a training video were: script development, development of text material, rehearsal, video recording, video processing, and uploading to a website. The design scheme of the online assistant was chosen in the form of "material design" style. A prototype of the on-line assistant was developed based on the use of a technical website script and text markup in HTML 5, CSS 3 and JavaScript. The practical result of the research is an online assistant with information on how to design electronic publications for mobile devices. The developed online assistant provides an opportunity to remotely contact a qualified specialist in the layout of electronic publications for mobile devices
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003105
  • Analysis and automated classification of images of blood cells to diagnose
           acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    • Authors: Airam Curtidor, Ernst Kussul, Tetyana Baydyk, Masuma Mammadova
      Pages: 177 - 190
      Abstract: Analysis of white blood cells from blood can help to detect Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, a potentially fatal blood cancer if left untreated. The morphological analysis of blood cells images is typically performed manually by an expert; however, this method has numerous drawbacks, including slow analysis, low precision, and the results depend on the operator’s skill. We have developed and present here an automated method for the identification and classification of white blood cells using microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. Once the image has been obtained, we propose describing it using brightness, contrast, and micro-contour orientation histograms. Each of these descriptions provides a coding of the image, which in turn provides n parameters. The extracted characteristics are presented to an encoder’s input. The encoder generates a high-dimensional binary output vector, which is presented to the input of the neural classifier. This paper presents the performance of one classifier, the Random Threshold Classifier. The classifier’s output is the recognized class, which is either a healthy cell or an Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-affected cell. As shown below, the proposed neural Random Threshold Classifier achieved a recognition rate of 98.3 % when the data has partitioned on 80 % training set and 20 % testing set for. Our system of image recognition is evaluated using the public dataset of peripheral blood samples from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Image Database. It is important to mention that our system could be implemented as a computational tool for detection of other diseases, where blood cells undergo alterations, such as Covid-19
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.21303/2461-4262.2023.003070
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