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Asian J. of Distance Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Asian Journal of Distance Education
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1347-9008
Published by EdTechReview Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In Pursuit of the Right Mix: Blended Learning for Augmenting, Enhancing,
           and Enriching Flexibility

    • Authors: Aras Bozkurt, Ramesh C. Sharma
      Abstract: Blended learning, which has emerged as a mainstream approach for bridging onsite and online learning, promises flexibility to stakeholders in the educational process. This paper argues that blended learning can be understood as a process that combines onsite and online learning by blending the strengths of one modality and neutralizing the weaknesses of the other to provide flexibility to learners, instructors, and educational institutions. This flexibility can be afforded to time, space, path, and pace through sequential or parallel designs. In blending modalities and pedagogies, it is important that technologies are properly utilized in achieving the required systematic approach to get a right mix. This paper draws attention to the issues of confusion in terminology, the need to apply a theoretical and conceptual approach to blended learning, the empowerment of educational technology with a suitable pedagogy, the development of liquid curricula to increase flexibility, the extension of the boundaries of blended learning, and the application of blended learning to social contexts as well as to pedagogical contexts.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2022)
  • Flexible Learning Adaptabilities in the New Normal: E-Learning Resources,
           Digital Meeting Platforms, Online Learning Systems and Learning Engagement

    • Authors: Cereneo Jr Santiago, Ma. Leah Ulanday, Zarah Jane Centeno, Ma. Cristina Bayla, Joseph Callanta
      Abstract: This descriptive study determined the learning tools and e-learning resources, learning platform and online learning systems, skills towards learning platform and online learning systems, and learning engagements of students of Cavite State University - Silang Campus amidst the new normal setting of learning. Using stratified random sampling, there were 364 student-respondents represented by four departments answered the structured questionnaire online using Google form. The findings revealed that smartphones and mobile applications were the most utilized educational tool and e-learning resources. Google classroom was the most widely used as online learning system during asynchronous class, while Google Meet as a meeting platform during synchronous scheduled classes. It was found that students’ skills towards online learning systems and meeting platforms were proficient. During flexible learning, Facebook was on top of the most convenient, followed by Google and Zoom as perceived by students as accessible, equitable, communicative, monitorable and sustainable to use. Consequently, it was found that students strongly agreed on preparedness as the most vital to engagement in online learning. Accordingly, findings suggest that strengthening online teaching and delivery of methods by creating contents tailored to the needs of the students during flexible learning will propel to ensuring the efficacy of teaching and learning processes.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • OER Training of Trainers Model: A possible diffusion strategy

    • Authors: Jose Fulgencio, Tutaleni Asino
      Abstract: A growing number of educators and organizations using Open Educational Resources (OER) around the world have created training models to support educators on how to use and implement OER. Training ranges from webinars, online classrooms, and face-to-face workshops to equip individuals on OER use and promote its adoption. While this approach may be necessary, it is wrought with concerns and challenges. For example, training can be expensive, and the quality of training can be questionable when there is no oversight or standards regarding the question of quality and when the material is not correctly updated. Since training has been shown as essential to the adoption process, it is necessary to look at how this process is achieved. This article explores the use of the Training of Trainers Model (ToT) model, which is used in various disciplines to drive adoption. Using a systematic literature review (SLR) that provides real-life experiments on how the model has been implemented, the article makes the case that the ToT model must be implemented across institutions to drive the diffusion of OER. The contribution of this research is to guide how to implement the ToT model, particularly in higher education, to educators, administrators, librarians, and OER scholars interested in training others. 
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • Instructional Development for Distance Education amid COVID-19 Crisis in
           the Philippines: Challenges and Innovations of Kindergarten Teachers

    • Authors: Michael Cahapay, Janice Lorania, Mark Gil Labrador, Nathaniel Bangoc
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the lived experience of kindergarten teachers on instructional development for distance education amid the COVID-19 crisis. Drawing data from a qualitative phenomenological study, 18 kindergarten teachers from Region XII, Philippines were purposively selected and interviewed online. The results revealed six superordinate themes of challenges and innovations that cut across the planning, implementation, and evaluation phases of instructional development. This research stresses the need for measures at the society, family, and school levels to contextually address the challenges encountered and strengthen the innovations employed by the kindergarten teachers so that a relevant, appropriate, and responsive kindergarten education can be attained amid and beyond the current novel crisis.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • Ethics in Distance Education during the Pandemic: Undergraduate
           Students' Views about Ethics

    • Authors: Gürhan Durak, Serkan Çankaya, Mahmut Ali Sahin, Özge Banur Göktas, Özge Öztuzcu
      Abstract: The concept of ethics is very important in education as well as in scientific research studies. The purpose of this case study was to determine the ethical views of undergraduate students who continue their education with distance education during the Covid-19 pandemic. The research sample included 31 undergraduate students who continued their education at Balıkesir University in the Spring Term of the academic year of 2020-2021. In the study, a semi-structured interview form consisting of 10 questions was used to determine the views of the participants. In the interview form, sample cases were given to the students, and they were asked how they would behave in the case of these events. As a result of the study, it was revealed that some students were likely to exhibit unethical behaviors. The results also showed that the ethics lessons were not sufficient for the students. Therefore, it was suggested that students should be educated about ethics at an early age.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • Examining the relationships among self-efficacy, social presence and
           learning beliefs

    • Authors: Nuh Yavuzalp, Eralp Bahcivan
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships among online self-efficacy beliefs, social presence in online environments, epistemological beliefs and teaching-learning conceptions of university students taking campus-based courses via distance learning. In line with this aim, by considering the related literature, a structural equation model was proposed which, then, was analyzed and discussed in light of the literature. A cross-sectional survey design guided the study. A total of 1,630 university students from a state university participated in the study during the spring term of the 2017-2018 academic year. An online self-efficacy scale, a social presence scale for e-learning environments, an epistemological beliefs scale and a teaching-learning conceptions scale were used as data collection tools in the study. The fit indices obtained in the analyses were observed at acceptable levels. The research findings revealed that the university students’ online self-efficacy beliefs had an effect on their social presence perceptions, epistemological beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning. Similar to the previous studies, the observed relationships were significant. Supporting students’ levels of social presence to increase students’ academic achievement was recommended considering the results.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • What are the Main Trends in Online Learning' A Helicopter View of
           Possible Futures

    • Authors: Mark Brown
      Abstract: The COVID-19 crisis has given rise to the question, what are the main trends in online learning' What might the future look like' While predicting the future is best left to those who appear to have a crystal ball, the need for big picture helicopter thinking has never been more apparent as online learning remains under the spotlight. This paper responds to this challenge and the tendency to overlook the field’s rich history during the pandemic. It establishes that defining online learning is not a straightforward task, and there are widespread differences in using the term. A multifocal perspective is then adopted to identify seven macro-level trends, which help frame the analysis and enable the discussion to zoom in and out from different angles and viewpoints. The discussion covers much ground and draws on a wide range of literature to illustrate how the digital education ecosystem is simultaneously converging, getting larger in scale, more open and closed, and is growing in diversity. Inherent tensions across these contradictory trends, along with concerns about the growth, influence and sustainability of the EdTech industry, demonstrate how online learning is part of a wider social practice. Thus, the trend analysis endeavours to balance the language of opportunity with the need for deeper criticality. Woven throughout the paper is the spirit of hope and the crucial role that educators play in helping to shape and reshape possible, probable, and preferred futures.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • Research and Trends for Educators, Staff and Administrators in Distance
           Education: Content Analysis of Distance Education Journals (2008-2018)

    • Authors: Baris Cukurbasi, Mustafa Fidan, Murat Debbag
      Abstract: This study examines the research trends and gaps of educators, staff, and administrators in distance education articles from 2008 to 2018. Ten peer-reviewed journals were selected from the SCImago Journal & Country Rank portal, and 3504 articles in the journals were scanned. Four hundred sixty-one of them were analyzed using document review methodology through content analysis concerning various criteria (keywords, role names, research variables, design, sample size, etc.). The analysis revealed the following: (i) few studies have focused on educators, staff, and administrators in the last decade, and there has been little focus on the experiences of administrators (ii) they have mainly focused on the role of the teacher, professional development, quality, and professional qualifications (iii) regional interest shows, that the USA, China, and the U.K. are the leading countries (iv) The qualitative research method was primarily used and interview, as a data collection method was most preferred qualitative data mainly, was analyzed using content analysis (vi) The research samples are generally small (< 50). The findings based on the increasing research trends related to educators, staff, and administrators lead to the emergence of potential research areas and the design of distance education strategies. The study also provides directions for future research.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • From face-to-face to teaching at a distance: Lessons learned from
           emergency remote teaching

    • Authors: Lovely Corcuera, Abel Alvarez; Jr.
      Abstract: The Covid-19 disrupts not only the health, economic, and tourism sectors but it paralyzed the education sector as well. Since face-to-face teaching and learning environment is still not possible in the Philippine context, this phenomenon leaves the teachers to use various alternative ways of instructional delivery. The sudden shift of teaching and learning delivery continuously challenges not only the students but also the teachers who are serving as educational front liners at the time of the pandemic crisis. The lack of proper training and experiences of teachers in online teaching and distance education served as educational loopholes in the context of emergency remote education.  Hence, this case study attempts to explore the experiences of K-12 senior high school teachers who have been immersed in emergency remote teaching. In analyzing the data gathered, the descriptive coding process was used. Interestingly, there were three themes reported in this study: getting the right mix of instructional methods, engaging in different open educational resources and information, and highlighting the need for the pedagogy of care and understanding. Although this study does not aim to make any generalities, however, the researchers saw the need to understand and investigate the journey of the K-12 senior high school teachers, which are essential in providing lending ears about their transitioning experiences from the traditional classroom environment to emergency remote education. This study concludes with the implications of the findings that emerged and the direction for further research.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • Distance Learners' Dropout Behaviors: The Case of Anadolu University
           Open Education Faculty

    • Authors: Hakan Kılınç, Muhammet Recep Okur
      Abstract: Within the scope of this study, it is aimed to examine the dropout status of learners enrolled in Anadolu University Open Education Faculty during the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 academic years. For this purpose,  a descriptive research method was used to describe the current situation. The findings obtained within the scope of this study were examined; It provides information about variables such as enrollment type, program type, education period in which they dropped out their education, gender, and the exam centers they are affiliated with. According to this, the dropout behavior of the learners who enrolled in the open education faculty with the higher education institutions exam is higher than the others. Another result is that the dropout learners are mostly enrolled in the business program. This situation is followed by the Political Science and Public Administration, Paralegal Studies, Theology, Social Services, International Relations, Sociology and Economics Programs. One of the striking results of the study is that the number of dropout learners is higher in the spring semester within all variables. In addition, males exhibited more dropout behaviors than females. Based on findings, suggestions for reducing dropout rates of education are listed.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • The continuance intention of users toward mobile assisted language
           learning: The case of DuoLingo

    • Authors: Erhan Ünal, Fatih Güngör
      Abstract: Recently, mobile learning has become a potential approach in education due to its use inside or outside the classroom. Considering that the majority of mobile device users are 18-29 years old higher education students and English is the predominant language of the internet, we aimed to predict the continuance intention of users toward mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) after fourteen weeks experience on a mobile application, namely Duolingo. To do this, we used the Theory of Planned Behavior and Expectation Confirmation Model. The participants were 379 students taking the course English I. This empirical study revealed that perceived behavioral control, attitude, subjective norms, satisfaction, and perceived usefulness have a significant effect on the university students’ continuance intention to use MALL. In turn, it validated our proposed model on the continuance intention to use MALL.  Based on the results of this study, we suggest higher education institutions provide organizational and technical support (e.g., instruction for the use of mobile devices) for mobile applications to increase the use of MALL.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • Pandemic Experiences of Distance Education Learners: Inherent Resilience
           and Implications

    • Authors: Rikisha Bhaumik, Anita Priyadarshini
      Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak in March 2020 affected the Indian education system quite adversely, almost bringing it to a standstill. Amid this crisis, the F2F education system adopted tools and technologies otherwise prevalent in distance education (DE). There is ample literature corroborating the widespread use of such tools by F2F education during the lockdown. However, there is a need to study how the existing distance education system in Asia and countries like India which uses printed self-learning materials, digital technology, and F2F counselling functioned during the same period. This study tries to identify the changes brought about in this system as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to find out the experiences of learners of a DE program, viz.  M.A. in Distance Education (MADE) offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi, India which introduced emergency online interventions during the pandemic. A mixed-method approach was used to elicit responses from the learners regarding their psychological state, teaching-learning transaction, learner support and autonomy, and the role of technology. An online questionnaire comprising 21 Likert-type items and 4 open-ended questions was used to collect responses from 57 participants. The study found a positive response to the use of online synchronous tools for counselling with most of the participants desirous of continuation of such interventions even after the pandemic. The majority reported non-interruption in their DE studies and felt confident of completing the program owing to the flexibility of the system. The study affirmed DE’s resilience to the effect of the pandemic upon its learners. The expectations from learners and institutions for enhanced use of online technology in the future raise a strong requirement for continuous professional development (CPD) of distance teachers. The findings hint toward further strengthening of DE in the country to increase the overall resilience of education.
      PubDate: 2021-10-30
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
  • Evaluation of the emergency remote teaching process during the COVID-19
           pandemic: Implications based on students’ views

    • Authors: Hatice Gökçe Bilgiç
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the level of students’ satisfaction and opinions about the emergency remote teaching process during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Ondokuz Mayis University in Turkey. Based on the results a guide was constructed for universities to be prepared for emergency remote teaching situations. The study was designed as a survey method which is a quantitative research. Data was collected using an 8-section quantitative questionnaire with 53 close-ended questions. Participants were 3540 university students consisting of 150 graduate students and 3390 undergraduate students. The results indicated that 72.5% of participants (n= 2567) graded their distance learning experiences during the pandemic as moderately satisfactory or higher during the pandemic at the university. Based on the results, the highest satisfaction score is for the system including LMS and videoconferencing tools, and the lowest satisfaction score is for assessment and measurement methods. Moreover, attendance of synchronous lessons, regular instantaneous feedback provided by instructors, asynchronous activities and instantaneous interaction with instructors contributed to students’ learning during the emergency remote teaching process in the pandemic. On the other hand, deficiency of face-to-face interaction, homework, technical problems during synchronous lessons, and motivational deficiencies were scored as obstacles. In addition, universities should be prepared for an alternative way of teaching for similar crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, and distance education technologies must have a supportive role in face-to-face learning in universities. Universities who were using emerging technologies before COVID-19 crisis had a comparative advantage over those who did not integrate new technologies into their education system.
      PubDate: 2021-08-15
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2021)
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Heriot-Watt University
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