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AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2077-5822 - ISSN (Online) 2618-1479
Published by Al-Qadisiyah University Homepage  [8 journals]
  • The Zeolite and Urea Effect on the Fodder Consumed and Productive
           Performance and of Awassi Lamps

    • Abstract: This experiment was applied in Al-Hussainiya district in Karbala governorate. The experiment was for the pierod 6/1/2022- 11/4/2022. The aim of the study was the effect of adding zeolite with and without urea on the performance of Awassi lamps and investigates its effect on the rumen fluid. Sixteen sheep with 3-4 months of age with 18 kg weight have been used in the experiment. This number was divided into four treatments. The first treatment was fed the control treatment without any added, while the second treatment was fed with 3% zeolite, the third treatment was 3% zeolite, 1.5% urea, and the fourth treatment was 3% zeolite and 3% urea. The factorial experiment using the complete randomly design randomized design has been used to analysis the data. The results have been showed that no significant differences at the level of p<0.05) in the primary weight rates among the experimental groups. There are significant differences in the final weight, as the third and fourth treatments were significantly superior to the level of (p<0.05), which were (37.35, 37.90) kg, respectively, while the control treatment was (31.80) kg. As for the second treatment, it was not significantly superior (p<0.05) with the first treatment, but it was superior to the first, which reached (31.80) kg. Also, the third treatment was superior to all treatments in the daily and total weight gain. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the total increase among the experimental treatments. The treatment added to its diets T3 (3% zeolite 5.1% urea) superior with other treatment, which reaching (20.10) kg, while the control was (13.45) kg. In addition, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in the average of the concentrated feed for the different experimental treatments, but there were arithmetic differences, as the first, second, third and fourth treatments, which reached (87.53, 86.59, 69.33, 77.08) kg, respectively. There are significant differences (P<0.05) between the different experimental treatments that were fed with wheat, where the animal was given 300 g/day. Also, no significant differences (P<0.05) found in the consumption of total feed provided to Awassi sheep. Finally, there were significant (P<0.05) differences in the efficiency of food conversion between the different treatments, where the first treatment superior the control at (P<0.05), which reaching (7.68) compared with the third treatment 5.37.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Physicochemical Indexes and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antihemolytic and
           Antibacterial ...

    • Abstract: In this study, the physicochemical indexes, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography of essential oils (EOs) obtained from C. limon L. and C. sinensis peels and their antioxidant, antihemolyticand antibacterial activities were investigated. The highest yield (0.71%), density (0.918 ±0.05), refractive index (1.974±0.02), saponification value (186.11±1.13 mg KOH/g) where obtained in C. limon, wherethe highest acid value ( 0.45±0.2mg KOH/g) was for C sinensis. Eight and six spots were identified in C. sisensis and C. limon respectively using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity were 7.04 ±1.03 and 8.39 ± 0.9 µg/mL for C. limon and C. sinensis essential oils, respectively. C. limon EO was also demonstrated better antihemolytic activity by peroxide scavenging, IC50 were 12.76± 0.6 for C. limon and 14.26 ±0.3 µg/mL for C. sinensis essential oils. The C. limon peel EOs showed, also, a higher antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli with 20.5±0.2 and 11.5 ±0.01 mm, respectively. Our data showed that both C. limon and C. sinensis EO were inactive against P. aeruginosa.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of Different Levels of Fast and Slow Hydrolyzed Urea on Some Blood
           Traits of Al-awassi Sheep

    • Abstract: This experiment was applied in animal production fields (Sheikh Saad district) which located in Wasit governorate, Wasit, Iraq for sheep rearing. The experiment was started 20/1/2022- 20/4/2022, proceeded for 14 days introductory period. The aim of study was to add four different levels of fast and slow decomposition of urea in blood samples of Awassi sheep. Sixteen males of Awassi sheep aged (3-4) months have been used, with an average initial weight of (16.5-18) ± 500 g. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) in the pH value of the rumen fluid in relation to the 0/h before the morning feeding for the third treatment, which was added to its diets: fast and slow decomposition urea (0.5%-1.5%) mg/kg dry matter was 6.60 compared with the first, second treatment and the fourth one, as it reached 6.94, 6.82 and 6.86, respectively.The results also showed that the addition of different percentages of fast and slow decomposition urea to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of volatile fatty acids in the rumen at 0/h, where the fourth treatment excelled which reaching 79.12 mmol compared to the first, second and third treatment, which were 65.01 and 68.24 and 73.64 mmol, respectively. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the rumen at 0 hour, as the fourth and third treatment recorded 7.89 and 8.82, respectively, while with the first and second treatment recorded 12.51 and 11.46, respectively. In addition, there are no significant differences in the concentration of urea in the blood between the experimental treatments added to it of fast hydrolyzed urea and slow hydrolyzed urea at different levels. Finally, there were significant differences (P≤0.05) in the concentration of triglycerides in the blood for the sixth week, where the first treatment, which added 2% urea, exceeded the rate of decomposition to its diet. It reached 69.16 mg/100 ml compared with the second, third and fourth treatment. They were ranged 68.24, 67.92, and 67.99 mg, respectively.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Hydrogeochemical Quality of Groundwater used for Irrigation in Ziban
           Region, Algeria

    • Abstract: The present study focuses on the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in order to assess their irrigation suitability. The samples collected from 28 boreholes intended for irrigation chosen from two localities (El Outaya and Ain Naga) in the Ziban region (Algeria), were analyzed for nine different physicochemical water quality parameters (which include EC, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+ , Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-and HCO3-). The laboratory results indicate that most of the groundwater samples of the both locations show high value of EC which exceed as per FAO Standards. The classification of hydrochemical facies by Piper diagram shows dominance of chloride and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and magnesium groundwater type (in Ain Naga) and potassium chloride water type (in El Outaya). The majority of groundwater samples analyzed of the both location are unsuitable for irrigation purpose according to the interpretation of graphical plots such as Wilcox and US Salinity Laboratory for the classification of groundwater. In Ain Naga location, the better class of water quality is C3S1 with only 14.28%.The rest is unsuitable for irrigation C4S1 (71.42%) and C4S2 (14.28%). However, all groundwater samples analyzed of El Outaya location are unsuitable for irrigation with C4S2 (28.57%), C4S3 (28.57%) and C5S3 (42.85%).
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Land use and Impact on Soil Organic Carbon Stock in a Semi-Arid

    • Abstract: Atmospheric carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems has become a significant challenge in the global framework of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main objective of this study is to provide estimation of organic carbon stocks in the agricultural soils of the Sidi Bel Abbes plain at various depths and according to different land use, namely cereals, olives and,viticulture. We have chosen two toposequences according to the two main types of soils that dominate, namely Chromic Cambisols and Calcareous Cambisols. Organic carbon was determined by the modified method of Walkley and Black. Stored organic carbon values varied significantly (p <0.05) between the different land uses and depth strata. The maximum value of 29.28 t ha-1 ± 2.29 was recorded under viticulture in the 30cm to 45cm stratum of Chromic Cambisols. The minimum value of 12.11 t ha-1 ± 0.17 was registered under cereal cultivation in the 0 to 15cm stratum of Calcaric Cambisols. With 15.84±3.59 t ha-1 as average under cereal cultivation, 19.49 t ha-1 ±5 under olive cultivation and 20.50 t ha-1 ±5.64 under viticulture. for the stratum ranging from 0 to 15 cm; The recorded stock is between 12.11 t ha-1± 0.17 and 23.60 t ha-1± 2.45. for the stratum ranging from 15 to 30 cm; The recorded stock is between 15.28 t ha-1± 1.25 and 27.62 t ha-1± 3.03 and for the stratum ranging from 30 to 45 cm The recorded stock is between 13.17 t ha-1±4 .18 and 13.17 t ha-1±4.18 .The average for all 54 samples is 18.61 t ha-1 ± t/ha. The soil organic carbon stock is 19.56 t ha-1 ±6 for Chromic Cambisols and 17.66 t ha-1 ±4 for Calcaric Cambisols.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Modelling of Water Use Efficiency Using CropWat and AquaCrop : Case of
           Potato in Semi-Arid Region

    • Abstract: In Algeria, vegetable crops are dependent on irrigation. In this context, the present study is oriented towards the efficient management of agricultural water that contributes to the improvement of crop production. The approach is based on the calculation of the water requirements of the potato in order to control the efficiency of the water supply in relation to the crop water requirements. This efficiency of use is imperative for a better yield and a healthy agricultural environment. In this study, we used two agronomic models CropWat (v8.0) and AquaCrop (v6.1), which were developed by FAO, to evaluate the water use efficiency (WUE) in a semi-arid climate (Wilaya of Tiaret) over a 31-year period (1990-2021). And this, by estimating the irrigation water requirements (IWR) and crop water requirements (CWR). The results obtained showed that there is a very close relationship between the estimates produced by the two models CropWat and AquaCrop. These estimates are for IWR, CWR and WUE, which are in the order of 395.91 mm, 517.24 mm, 6.47 kg m-3 using CropWat and 385.46 mm; 507.38 mm, 6.37 kg m-3 using AquaCrop. Crop growth simulation models have become important tools for evaluating and developing deficit irrigation strategies, especially in arid and semi-arid regions.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • The Agricultural System in the Oued-Righ Valley (Southeast Algeria),
           Characteristics and Functioning

    • Abstract: This study focuses on the characterization and functioning of the oasis agricultural systemin in the upper part of the Oued Righ valley in southeastern Algeria. It aims to determine, through surveys, the determining elements of production systems, their evolution constraints and to understand their evolution dynamics. The results obtained, according to the cropping system criterion, enabled us to identify and characterize four types of agricultural production systems : (P1) Date palm system-associated crops-breeding, it is the most present system and which presents a certain profitability and a better dynamism. (P2) Date palm system associated with crops, (P3) Date palm system associated with marginal breeding but which remains a relatively profitable activity, and (P4) production system practicing only date palms which is characterized by a stagnation and very reduced agricultural activity being limited to a few cropping operations.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Seasonal Evolution Study of Soil Salinity under Mediterranean Condition

    • Abstract: The objective of this work is to study the seasonal evolution of soil salinity (Solonchak) in the region of Bas-Chéliff at the scale of three soil profiles. It is therefore a question of characterizing the soil solution, defining the distribution profiles of salts in the soil, determining the speed of salinization and determining the temporal evolution of salinity between the dry season and the wet season.‎ Data analysis revealed that all three profiles experienced salinization during the dry season compared to the wet season. the three profiles are characterized by a predominantly silty-clayey texture and an average limestone content. The chemical composition of the soil solution is dominated by chlorides and sodium. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the chemical elements of the soil solution (Na+ and Cl-) have the most influence on the variability of salinity. ‎The three profiles show salinization between the wet and dry season. This salinity occurred at a speed which is respectively 8.47dS/m/month, 8.5 dS/m/month and ‎‎3.1 dS/m/month for profiles 1, 2 and 3. We can conclude that the three profiles suffered salinization during the dry season.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Use of Social Media Among the Agricultural Students of Tertiary
           Institutions in Kwara State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: The study examined the use of social media among the agricultural students of tertiary institutions in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty agricultural students was selected in four tertiary institutions in Kwara State, Nigeria. The data collected was analysed with the use of frequency count, Percentage, Mean and Standard deviation. The result revealed that 20.8 years was the average age of the respondents. About 64.2% were male and about 91.7% gets information through social media.  The average monthly money used for buying data for subscription was 1922.00 Naira and the average hours spent on social media per day was 7.38 hours. About 77.5 % of the respondents uses smart phones to access social media platforms. Facebook (93.3%) was the most frequently used social media platform. Communication/calling (87.5%) was the main motive for using social media. Social media makes communication to be faster (=4.11) was the highest ranked perception statement. High cost of data ((=2.64) was the highest ranked factor affecting the use of social media. The study therefore recommends that data service providers should consider reducing the price of data and government should make policies that will be of benefits to data users.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Comparative Study of some Characteristics for Whey Cheese Produced by Heat
           Acid Coagulation

    • Abstract: In the current study sweet whey obtained from white soft cheese was used for processing of Ricotta cheese using heat treatment with acid and Best Ricotta which manufactured by heating without addition of acid. Cheese samples were analyzed for some physicochemical analysis (moisture, total solids, pH, protein, yield and hardness) and organoleptic characteristics including (Appearance, texture, flavor, color, and overall acceptability) during 7 days of storage at 4±1ºc. It was found that the moisture content of Ricotta cheese was76.50% which was lower than that of Best ricotta 79.266%, the total solid of Best ricotta cheese was 17.733 %, while for Ricotta cheese was 21.50 %. Ricotta cheese characterized by lower pH value of 5.48 and higher acidity, protein contain, yield and hardness 0.103 %, 14.2%, 8.7% and 6g as compared to Best Ricotta cheese which were 6.40, 0.054 %, 12.26%, 6.49% and 3.66 g respectively at the first day of cold storage. It was noted that with the prolonged of the storage time, there was an increase in the values of some characteristics, including the percentage of total solids, acidity and hardness, while there was a decrease in the values of pH, moisture and protein percentage. Ricotta cheese gets the highest score by sensory panelists for the texture and appearance and unlike for, flavors and color than the Best Ricotta. Those degrees decreased slightly during the storage period. 
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Ovicidal Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of some Spontaneous Plants
           Extracts Against ...

    • Abstract: The use of aqueous extracts as alternative solutions that significantly reduce to the damage caused by pests like Ectomyelois ceratoniae. This work presents in-vitro tests that are successfully applied to evaluate the ovicidal activity of four spontaneous plants aqueous extracts, as, Rosmarinus officinalis, Peganum harmala, Thymus vulgaris and Artemisia herba-alba againt the moth eggs. The results showed a highly significant effect for T. vulgaris and A. herba-alba, sometimes reaching 100%, followed by R. officinalis, then P. harmala which was not present any effect on this pest eggs. T. vulgaris and A. herba-alba showed a strong inhibition of egg hatching. It exceeds 93 % mortality for a concentration of 0.12 mL/mL. For R. officinalis at 0.18 mL/mL concentration present a 72% mortality. While at 0.12 mL/mL, the mortality was 40%.The lethal doses to inhibit 50 and 90 % of the eggs were estimated to confirm the efficiency of the aqueous extracts , stronger results shows, respectively (0.014 mL and 0.062 mL) from T. vulgaris and (0.019 mL and 0.069 mL) from A. herba-alba. This work originally explores the benefits of some kinds of plants that are largely available and inexpensive for the biotreatment of carob motheggs.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • The Use of Sugar Cane Waste (Molasses) in the Production of Lactic Acid by
           L. ...

    • Abstract: A total of twelve bacterial isolates from different samples of yoghurt and milk purchased from local markets in Diwaniyah Governorate. The preliminary screening was carried out all bacterial isolates by gram staining. The six isolates were selected based on the intensity of colour variation in the fermentation medium and were identified according to phenotypic, microscopic, and biochemical examinations, which included twelve isolates of Lactobacillus spp.  Vitek II Compact instrument was used with all isolates to confirm the initial identification. The secondary screening was performed for isolates of Lactobacillus spp.species. Given the amount of the produced lactic acid, the L.casei strain 1859 had the highest lactic acid production, which was 64.32 g/L. The 16S rRNA test allowed the identification of this isolate.The results showed that the best conditions for acid production were 62.76 mg/L and the L.casei strain 9836 grown on the alternative medium containing 50 % whey, 7% molasses, and pH 6.9, incubated on an orbital shaker at 38°C for 24 hours, and agitated at 250 rpm.FTIR techniques were used to identify the nucleus of the hydrogen atom (proton) 1H and the carbon atoms 13C in the presence of standard lactic acid for comparison. The results revealed the peaks and bands of the produced acid were some similar to that of the standard acid.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of Dietary Fenugreek Seed Powder on Broiler Chicks Performance

    • Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the effect offenugreek seed powder as feed additive on performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks. 96 unsexed broiler chicks (hubbard) were divided randomly into four group, each represented a treatment (24 birds/treatment) with 4 replicates in a completely randomized design. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NRC (1994) recommendation. Four graded levels of fenugreek seed powder 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% were used. The experiment lasted for six weeks. Blood chemistry and carcass characteristics were measured. Overall feed intake, live body weight, haven't shown any significant (p>0.05) differences between treatments groups, Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected (P<0.05), birds fed 0.5% fenugreek seeds powder were recorded highest weight gain and lowest feed conversion ratio. Internal organs weights were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments.Blood parameters weren’t significantly (p>0.05) affected, PCV, MCH, MCHC, RBCS and WBC, significant (P<0.05) increased in HB plasma was observed. No significant (p>0.05) different was recorded in cholesterol level between experimental groups. Inclusion of fenugreek seeds powder has good effect on broiler chicks performance.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Relationship Between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Food Labeling
           Consumption in ...

    • Abstract: This study was considered the distribution of samples according to socio demographic characteristics and their relationship with food labelling survey in Sulaimani city. Food labelling information used as a basic for all other parameters such as consumers education levels, gender, consumers able to read food labelling, know regarding of food labelling, sensitivity or illness by some foods and consumers age. Regarding the consumer’s education level, the low, medium and high literate skills level of consumers were showed that to be higher than the level illiterate skills with attention and use food labelling information before purchase it. In addition, 52% of female respondents were checking the food labelling information before purchase the food. Although, there were no significant differences between information in related to gender. Otherwise, the data are associated to the read of food labelling information, it can be identified that our consumers generally notice information labels, but do not take much attention in its content. Concerning the question of are you know food labelling information' There were statistically significant differences between foods labelling information in related to be you know' For the sensitivity or illness parameter in this study. The results discovered that, there were statistically significant differences between information in related to Sensitivity or Illness as well as, quarter of the respondents (75%) did not read the food information. Finally, consumers within the age group 41 and above use food labelling information less than consumers within the age group between 18-40 ages.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Temperature-Humidity Index Values and Their Significance on the Daily
           Production of Dairy ...

    • Abstract: Climate changes affect the economic viability of livestock. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the heat stress in Holstein cattle raised in the arid region of Tunisia as well as to evaluate the effect of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on daily milk production and components. For this reason, 76940 monthly individual records collected from 1995 to 2018 from 3056 Holstein cows were used. THI calculated from ambient temperature and relative humidity was used as a measure of heat stress. To study the effect of THI on milk production, a repeated measures linear mixed model was used. Results showed a significant (P<0.01) decrease in daily milk yield, daily protein, and fat content in all cow’s parity classes. For each point increase of the THI values beyond 64, milk yield, fat, and protein contains decreased by 0.32 kg, 0.09, and 0.06 %, respectively. Moreover, when the THI value varied from 64 to 85, fat content decreased by 29 %, protein by 17 %, and milk production by 30 %. Heat stress impact negatively milk production and milk components of dairy cows. These results can be a way to improve the length of productive life for Holstein dairy cattle in the hard climate. Serious management strategies are needed to improve dairy cow productivity and minimize the heat stress impact.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum) Crop and
           Water use Efficiency ...

    • Abstract: In Algeria, the launching of projects encouraging the practice of supplemental irrigation on cereals to increase productivity and the sustainability of farms in arid and semi-arid regions is confronted with the problems of water use efficiency and soil quality conservation. The use of poor-quality irrigation water for supplemental irrigation is subject to secondary salinization processes, which become worse over time. The present paper aims to study the impact of supplemental irrigation on the increase of durum wheat yield, water use and soil salinization, a trial was set up in the soil of the HMADNA experimental station (RELIZANE, Lower-Cheliff). The experimental set-up is a randomized block with three replications and five treatments (water regime): T1 rainfed, T2 irrigated at tellering stage (T), T3 irrigated up to booting stage (TB), T4 irrigated up to heading stage (TBH) and T5 irrigated up to grain filling stage (TBHF). The parameters studied were: grain yield (GrYd), water consumption or actual evapotranspiration (AET), water use efficiency (WUE), soil salinity (EC) and water satisfaction rate (Ts). The analysis of the variance of the measured parameters showed significant to highly significant differences. Under the experimental conditions of the study site, the supplemental irrigation corresponding to the T5 water regime with an AET of 543mm, contributed significantly to the increase in grain yield up to 62.64 Qx/ha with a WUE of 11.83 Kg/ha/mm and a Ts of 96.31%. Moreover, an irrigation water quantity of near 113mm at the end of the wheat vegetative cycle (grain filling stage) causes the leaching of salts from the surface layer (H0-20cm) previously acquired during the vegetative cycle of the crop. The behavioural study of the saline profile showed that the salinity of the H20-40cm layers undergoes a secondary salinization process with an increased rate ranging from 100% to 220%. In saline environments, the contribution of supplemental irrigation is very important to ensure sustainable food security within specific phenological stages (end of cycle) according to the prevailing climatic conditions of the area while meeting the water needs of the crop.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 20:30:00 +010
  • Economic Importance of Common Dates (Phoenix Dactylifera L) and Their
           Impact on the ...

    • Abstract: This study carried out inOuargla oasis which constitute an important genetic reserve in South-Est Algeria. It is aim to examine common date chain, dates from cultivars other than Deglet Noor; based on identifying production parameters, socio-economic environment; especially in terms of marketing. And to quote constraints that hinder its good functioning. It also aims to analyze biodiversity within oasis. Reasoned sampling was considered in order to have a certain representativeness by area. Surveys were carried out during direct interviews with farmers. Descriptive statistics have been used to find the results.Our results suggest that the production of common dates throughout the region is fluctuating. It often exceeds 77%. Indeed, the, Ouargla region is well known for its production in Ghars variety.Majority of the farms surveyed are small in size, less than 1ha, from 100 to 300 plant. Of middle age (40-60 years), irregular planting represented by 26% the type that dominates in old system. It also appeared predominance of an oligovarietal system, consisting of three varieties Deglet Noor, Ghars and Tafezouine, which receive a very important interest in terms of preservation because of their market value. The other common date varieties represent only a small percentage 7.80%. Many of these cultivars are rare and old, and the rate of endemism is high. The importance of this endemism is related to the dynamics of peasant selection and the state of the palm groves. However, these oases are increasingly experiencing an accelerating loss of agrobiodiversity. The research contributes to the empirical work by providing an evidence on importance of the common-dates as an alternative for safeguarding oasis ecosystem and their impact on the sustainability of palm date’s biodiversity. Indeed, the environment is subject to multiple technical and commercial problems. Several varieties of dates are devalued and are subject to uprooting.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Nutritional Value of Some Newly Introduced and Tested Forage Plants in the
           Southeastern Regions ...

    • Abstract: In Algeria, the high prices of animal products are due to the cost of food, itself linked to the lack of food resources.A fodder deficit really exists, it is urgent to remedy it by relaunching new varieties adapted to our pedoclimatic conditions to cover the needs of farm animals throughout the year. It is in this context that our study takes place, the objective of which is to appréciate the nutritional value of fodder plants newly introduced and tested in the Algerian south-east, the region ofBiskra, it is about the two plants; Panicum maximum from the Poaceae family and Sesbania aculeata from the Fabaceae family. The determination of the chemical composition of these plants revealed significant energy and nitrogen values. It appears that panicum presents the highest values in CC, MM, ADF and NDF (37.60%, 17%, 55.32% and 70.54%, respectively).The study of CPArevealed that sesbania is in the same group with lucerne which makes it a food of good nutritional quality with energy values of UFmeat and UFmilk (1.04 and 1.01) and nitrogen values PDIE and PDIN (111.84 and 101.63) , respectively the highest.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Evaluation of Arid Soil Landscapes Permeability in Algerian Sahara

    • Abstract: The hydro-edaphic environment of arid ecosystems in Ouargla is endangered. To the sustainability of this fragile ecosystem, detailed knowledge of geomorphology, surface characteristics, vegetation, and hydrodynamic characteristics of the soil is required. Soil permeability is an important hydrodynamic parameter for the assessment of infiltration, structure design, drainage, and groundwater vulnerability, but it has not been studied in Ouargla. In order to ensure better management of the irrigation-drainage and to better characterize the variability of the water dynamics in the soils of this region, we have measured the permeability of these soils by Porchet’s method, taking into consideration the pedo-landscapes of the region: Plateau, Glacis, Erg, Reg, and Sabkha. Soils of Ouargla are semi-permeable with 4.58 m/d, which gives them good drainage capacity and facilitates the transfer of pollutants to groundwater. A difference in the mean permeability of the soils from one pedo-landscape to another is noticed, but only the difference in mean between the soils of Erg and those of Glacis is statistically significant according to the ANOVA and Tukey test.  
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Phytochemical Screening, Allelopathic and Bioherbicidal Potentialities of
           Euphorbia Guyoniana ...

    • Abstract: Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. & Reut. (Euphorbiaceae) is well known for the chemical diversity of its phytoconstituents, and toxicological properties that have been found in literature. However, research articles about their allelopathic characteristics are rarely reported. The current research study was conducted to explore phytochemical screening, allelopathic effects and their potential uses as natural herbicide of Euphorbia guyoniana Leaf extract, harvested from Oued Metlili, Algerian Sahara, on germination and seedling growth of four adventitious species (Bromus rubens L., Phalaris minor Retz., Plantago lagopus L., Ammi visnaga L.) and one cultivated species (Triticum durum L.) in laboratory conditions. The analyses of crude plant extract confirmed the flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenols and tannins, steroids, saponins, free quinone, sterols and triterpenes as well as carohydrates in the extract. Our results show that the leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana had significant allelopathic and bioherbicidal activity on germination and seedling growth of adventitious species and stimulatory activity on cultivated species at lower concentrations.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Genetic Evaluation of Body Weight Traits in Local Rabbit

    • Abstract: This study was carried out on seventy-six local rabbit (white, black and white and brown white coat color) to investigate the effect of some non-genetic factors on body weight traits in local rabbits with the genetic evaluation of local rabbits by estimated BLUP value of marketing weight. The overall mean of marketing weight, dressing % and average daily gain arrived 1476.01 ± 33.10 g/rabbit, 51.32 ± 0.84 % and 17.22 ± 0.69 g/day/rabbit, respectively. The black-white coat color rabbits excelled in most of the studied traits, especially in weight at marketing (1615.88 ± 31.96 g/rabbit), daily weight gain (19.90 ± 0.64 g/rabbit) and carcass weight (820.588 ± 15.813 g/rabbit) over the other colors, while the highest dressing ratio was in the white rabbits (52.83 ± 0.67 % /rabbit). A significant and numerical superiority of male rabbits over female in the traits under study. A significant positive correlation was recorded among most traits under study. The BLUP values for rabbit ranged from -700 to 100 g/rabbit. These result indicated that there are big genetic variations in this population of local rabbit. It indicates that selection can play a major role in improving body weight traits in local rabbit.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Physiochemical Properties Characterization of Local Sesame Seeds (Sesamum
           indicum L. ...

    • Abstract: The aim of this investigation to determine the physical and chemical properties of three sesame seeds sample to see the differences between mixed and the sieved sesame seed and which one is better and which sesame seed has the best physical and chemical properties: which were taken from sharzoor in Sulaymaniyah (S, mixed brown), Akre in Duhok (A, mixed brown) and Mala Omar in Hawler (MO, mixed brown). For each sample two parts were taken to undergoes study the first one as a mix and other part was sieved in three different mesh size sieve (1.50, 1.35, 1) mm, then three sieves divisions of sesame seed size were obtained, Large (L), Medium (Med), Small (Sm) and the three dimension of all sesame seeds parts were measured by applying Digital Dial Caliper instrument. The dimensions length (L,mm), width(W,mm) and Thickness(T,mm) were measured for determine of geometrical properties of sesame seeds sample and all samples color was as a mix of brown color such as  volume (V, mm^3), sphericity (S, %,), arithmetic diameter (Da, mm), geometric diameter (Dg, mm), apparent density (𝜌d, kg/m3), transverse surface area (At, mm2) and flat surface area (Af, mm2)  also weight of 100 seeds (g) was estimated. The result of the study indicated that Akre (A) sesame seed sample length for mix and med has higher value 3.33 and 3.08 mm respectively. The Mala Omar sample width for all mix and other parts large, small reported higher measurement 1.75, 1.86, 1.27mm respectively. The thickness of the mix and large parts of Sharazoor reported higher measurement 0.90 and 0.91 mm while. Mala Omar Sample C3 of sesame seed scored highest moisture content 4.909%, while Akre sample B1 recorded the lowest moisture content. The large part of S, A and MO sesame seed samples firstly with higher fiber content 16.141, 17.56, 18.34 respectively.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Impact of Nano Manganese and Siapton on the Growth of Fenugreek

    • Abstract: A field study was conducted in a nursery in the Euphrates region, AL Qadisiyah Governorate of Iraq, to study the impact of the nano manganese and siapton fertilizer on the growth of Trigonella foenum-graecum L., The experiment was designed with randomized complete blocks,by factorial organization, and with three replications. It included 4 concentrations of nano manganese (0, 1, 2, and 3) g L-1 and 3 concentrations of Siapton (0, 2, and 4) ml L-1. After (90) days from the date of seed germination, the vegetative growth indicators were measured, while the properties of the oil were measured after 6 months from the date of sowing the seeds. The least significant difference (LSD) was used at the 0.05 probability level to test the differences between the means of the treatments. Results showed that the concentration of 2 g L-1 of nano Manganese showed superiority in increasing most of the studied parameters, which included (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf content of chlorophyll, and the percentage of Linoleic acid), and the impact of nano manganese was negative on the percentage of Palmitic acid. The concentration 2 m L-1 of Siapton fertilizer outperformed increasing plant height, chlorophyll content of leaves, and the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid Linoleic acid, and distinguishing a concentration of 4 m L-1 in achieving the largest number of leaves and the highest leaf area, and the impact of Siapton organic fertilizer was negative on the percentage of saturated fatty acid Palmitic acid. The interaction between the two factors showed the superiority of the combination of 2 g L-1 of nano manganese and 4 m L-1 of organic fertilizer Siapton in achieving the highest plant height, while the highest numeral of leaves, leaf area, chlorophyll content and percentage of Linoleic acid with the combination was 2 g L-1 of nano manganese and 2 m L-1 l. of organic fertilizer Siapton. The impact of the two interactions caused a significant decrease in the percentage of Palmitic acid. 
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Study of the Solonchaks of Northern Algeria by a Geographic Information
           System (GIS)

    • Abstract: The present study consists of a valorization of a pedological database allowing to determine the Solonchaks in the north of Algeria according to the World Reference Base (WRB) classification. We studied the constituents of these Solonchaks by making different thematic maps, for this purpose a geographic information system (GIS) was created. Profiles meeting the definition of Solonchaks will be classified, spatialized in northern Algeria and grouped into reference soils and the creation of different thematic maps. The main results revealed that the Solonchaks of northern Algeria are provided with calcium carbonate (10 < CaCO3 (%) < 60) and poorly provided with gypsum with an average of 2.5% gypsum. They are also characterized by very high salinity (15 < EC (dS/m) < 40.9) and relatively high sodicity percentage of exchangeable sodium (ESP) > 15%). Statistical analysis revealed that the correlation between the EC-ESP couple is highly significant (r = 0.62; p < 0.01). Similarly, the correlation between the EC and the Ca++ of the adsorbent complex is negative and significant (r = -0.34; p < 0.05). The exploitation of the database made it possible to extract 45 profiles corresponding to the Solonchaks. The classification of these profiles revealed 13 references of Solonchaks distributed in the north of Algeria.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of the Bunches Bagging on the Qualitative Characteristics of Dates

    • Abstract: Given the national and international importance of the Deglet Nour variety, its protection against anomalies is critical. The selection of agricultural protection techniques is based on their availability, ease of application, and low cost. Bagging in bunches is one example. In this study, we will demonstrate the utility of this technique as a means of date quality protection and improvement when compared to a control. The findings show that bunch bagging allows dates to mature earlier and increases their weight and dimensions. The increase in water content in bagged dates reduces their acidity and consistency, while increasing the content of reduced sugars as sucrose and total sugars degrade.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • First Record and Morphology Study of Red Dwarf Honey Bees Apis Florea
           Fabricius (1787) in Basra ...

    • Abstract: In this study, 25 Morphometric characters of dwarf honey bees Apis florea: 15 were for the body characters and 10 for wing venation, in four geographical areas in the province of Basra. a total Samples of 360 workers, Computer program ImageJ was used to measure Morphometric characters. The results of the statistical analysis of the averages showed a clear difference in the Basra area, as the least of them were in the characters of the Head length and width, femur length, width of the end of tibia, and 1st Wax mirror Length, followed by the Al-Siba area in the characters, tibia length, 3rd tergite length, and 3rd sternite length. As for the wing venation, which are forewing width, No. hamuli, A4 angle, B4 angle, G18 angle, and K19 angle. While the cluster analysis showed the hierarchical grouping method of Basra bees with some regional countries, the Basra bees group aligned with the Iranian bee group with a degree of lineage and genetic distance more than the rest of the groups, this study is considered a preliminary registration and diagnosis of Apes florea in Basra province.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Using Lactic Acid Bacteria as Probiotic Against Staphylococcus aureus
           Isolated from Different ...

    • Abstract: A total of 50 different samples were collected randomly from November 2021 to the end of February 2022 in Erbil city, In order to isolate different types of Staphylococcus which are isolated from different sources like (milk, cream, bakery products, poultry, hand worker). Number of testing that were used to identify the bacteria: mannitol fermentation, Gram staining, coagulase, hemolysis, catalase, Test results confirmed with the Vitik 2 compact system. Using probiotic Lactic Acid Bactria agents staphylococcus aureus that the results have shown the LAB effect on S. aureus which is inhabition zone 5.3 cm , 5.2cm, 5.2cm, 5.1cm, 5.1cm, 4.9cm, 4.8cm,4.8cm, 4.2cm, 4.0cm, 3.9cm,3.8cm,3.5cm,3.3cm,2.5cm.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Estimation Genetic Action of Heritability Percentage and Inbreeding
           Depression of Four Hybrids ...

    • Abstract: With the aim of current study to estimate genetic action, heritability percentage in its broad and narrow sense and inbreeding depression resulting from inbreeding, using the generation mean analysis method to analyze the generation's means of hybrids maize that different in flowering dates and maturity. The genetic action, that controls inheritance of the field traits to the selected inbred lines and their resulting hybrids using the generation mean analysis. Five pure inbred lines  of maize (ZA17WR, Zi17WZ, ZM74, ZM19 and ZM49W3E) were selected from fifteen different inbred lines with flowering dates and maturity in the spring season 2019 and were crosses according to the research  target (late × late),( late ×early) ,(early ×late) and( early ×early). On 2019 fall season were entered into a backcross program to analyze the means generation analysis. On 2020 spring season to produce the (six generations) which are (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2)   for the four crosses were evaluated in comparative experiments using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and with three replicates.  Genetic analysis was done for the components of genetic variance for the three criteria, according to [1] for the traits  of the number of days to 75% tasselling, Number of days to 75% silking, plant height , ear, leaves area and yield of individual plant. Results showedThe dominance gene action is dominant in the inheritance of the silking and tassling   traits in the four crosses. As for the trait of the number of leaves and the yield of the plant, the dominance gene action controlling its inheritance was in the first hybrid and the additive gene action in the second, third and fourth crosses, while the  dominance action had the greatest contribution to the inheritance of the trait The area of leaves in hybrids 2, 3 and 4 and in the first hybrid was the largest additive gene action contribution, The percentages of heritability in the broad and narrow sense differed among the four hybrids for the traits studied. The highest percentage of heritability in the narrow sense for the trait of plant yield in the fourth hybrid was 91.50% due to the high additive variance, while the highest  percentage of heritability in the broad sense was for the trait of leaf area in the third hybrid was 99.27%The highest percentage of genetic improvement for the trait of the number of leaves in the fourth cross was 27.64% , and the highest Inbreeding Depression   for second generation F2 for yield in the same hybrid was 22.66%,
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Influence of Abamectin Treatment Against Parlatoria Blanchardii, on
           Entomological Diversity in ...

    • Abstract: Landscaping and agricultural practices are very essential to limit the damage of depredators, but unfortunately the latter affects the entomological diversity, especially when using chemicals products. The objective of our study is to determine the effect of abamectin on the balance of the entomological fauna, in three palm groves cultivated with two cultivars (Deghlet Nour and Ghars), during a control against Parlatoria blanchardi, using the date palm leaves threshing method. Indeed, the application of abamectin leads to significant difference in mortality rates (p-value 2.753*10-10), between the study stations, and between the two varieties. The inventory of enthomofauna before product use results in a total of 124 species in both varieties. However, we recorded the lowest number of species at the second station (Deghlet Nour: S=14 sp) and (Ghars: S= 16 sp). The use of the abamectin affects at first beneficial species (S= 10 sp), followed by indifferent species (S= 12 sp) during treatment time. The highest total richness is recorded in the pest group (S= 14 sp), followed by the groups of indifferent species (S=4 sp), then the useful species have disappeared after 72 hours of treatment. The results obtained clearly show that the insecticides used in palm groves constitute a real threat to fauna in general, and for useful species and auxiliaries of Parlatoria blanchardi in particular.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Response of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum L.) Genotypes to Drought stress at
           Early Growth Stage

    • Abstract: Early drought is a great threat limiting wheat production in semi-arid region resulted in poor emergence and weak seedlings. This research experiment attempts to evaluate the drought-tolerance potential of four local Triticum durum L. genotypes at germination stage. Hawler-1, Akassad, Semito and Barcelona subjected to drought stress of about 25 % of the soil water holding capacity (SWHC) and compared to their control 100 % SWHC in a factorial experiment designed in a complete randomization. Under stressed condition Semito genotype showed the significantly highest final germination percentage 54.66 %. Lowest MGT was 12 recorded by Semito and Aksaad. The heaviest roots, shoot dry weight and root: shoot ratio were observed in Akassad; 4.09 and 3.95 g and 1.28 respectively. The longest shoot averaged over all treatments was observed in Semito (23.05 cm). The highest leaves relative water content (LRWC) and membrane stability index (MSI) were 56.39 and 62.05 recorded by Semito. Akassad had the highest content of chlorophyll a, b and total; 2.40, 1.51 and 3.91 mg/ g fresh weight. Highest significant proline content was 0.548 mg/ g fresh and sugar content was 2.94 mg g dry weight accumulated in Semito leaves. Genotypes with a fast germination, more vigorous root system and highest root: shoot ratio are very desirable for the rapid establishment of seedlings and could have best physiological response as well as accumulate more osmoticum in their cytosol. Thus, Akassd and Semito had best potential adaptability to drought stress at early growth stage.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Study of the Effectiveness Ofessential Oils (Anise, Clove)Solution in
           Controlling Varroa Mites ...

    • Abstract: This study was conducted at the AL- Musayyib Technical College / Department of Biological-Control Techniques for the period from 1/10 /2021 to 1/4 /2022. The study aimed the effectiveness of essential oils (anise, clove)solution in controlling Varroa mites (Varroa destructor) on honey bees Apis mellifera. The results  indicatd that there are significant differences between all treatments of the essential oil solution (cloves, anise) and the treatment of its Varroa mites in comparison with the control treatment and the natural shedding of Varroa mites after (24, 48) hours of treatment, except for the treatment of cloves and anise at concentration (10). mg/ml, where there were no significant differences between them in the average mortality of Varroa mites. The results also showed in table (1) that there were no significant differences between the treatments of the solution (cloves, anise) in all concentrations in the time periods after (72, 96, 144) hours of treatment.It also showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments of cloves and anise at a concentration of (10) mg/ml after (48) hours of treatment. The results showed  that there are significant differences between the treatments of cloves and anise at the concentration (40) mg/ml and the control treatment in the average mortality of field honey bee workers.The treatment of the essential oil solution of cloves with a concentration of (10) mg/ml achieved the lowest average death rate for the workers, which amounted to (2.42) after (15) hours of treatment, while the treatment of the essential oil solution of cloves at a concentration of (40) mg/ml gave the highest average death. It reached (6.58) after (15) hours of treatment, but it differs significantly with all transactions in Table (2) after 15 hours of treatment. The results revealed showed that there were no significant differences between the two treatments (cloves and anise) in the concentrations (10, 20) mg/ml after (15) hours of treatment in the average mortality of worker bees. Through the results of the statistical analysis in Table (2), it was found that there were no significant differences between all treatments (cloves, aniseed) and the control treatment in the average death of workers in the time period after (40,64) hours of treatment. The results show that a solution of essential oils with concentration (40)mg/ml has a small effect on the worker bees compared to the great effect on Varroa.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of Phosphate Fertilization and Kalotamik Acid Spray on some
           Characteristics of Growth ...

    • Abstract: The experiment was carried out in the Abu Al-Fadl Forest Nursery, the Plant Production Department, Al-Diwaniyah Agriculture Directorate (3 km north-east of Al-Diwaniyah city) during the winter season 2021-2022, to determine the effect of four levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1) and two concentrations of kalotamik acid spray (0 and 200 mg kalotamik L-1), on the growth and yield of oats Avena sativa L. Shifa cultivar. The experiment was applied according to a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) by a split plot, with three replicates. The levels of phosphate fertilizer were distributed in the main plots, while the concentrations of amino acids occupied the sub-plots. The results showed the following: the superiority of plants fertilized at the fertilizer level of 90 kg P ha-1 significantly on the number of tillers, the number of dahlias, the weight of a thousand grains g, the biological yield and grain yield, were given 532 tillers m-2, 468.58 dalia m-2, 46.76 g, 56.39 mcg ha-1, and 8.92 mcg ha-1, respectively, the results also showed that the plants treated with kalotamik acid (concentration 200 mg L-1) were significantly superior to the number of tillers and the number of dahlias, it gave 493.42 tillers m-2 and 414.67 Dalia m-2.  The interaction between the two experimental factors (fertilization at a level of 90 kg P ha-1 and spraying with kalotamik acid at a concentration of 200 mg L-1) had a significant effect on the biological yield and grain yield.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 20:30:00 +010
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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