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Archives of Ecotoxicology
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ISSN (Print) 2644-4747
Published by SciCell s.r.o. Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous and Methanol Leaf
           Extracts of Chrysophyllum Albidum in Male Wistar Rats with Acetic Acid
           Induced Inflammation and Pain

    • Authors: Emmanuel Afen Eneji, Nancy Amalachukwu Mbachu, Sandra Chioma Ugwu-Ejezie, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Chrysophyllum albidum (African star apple) fruits and fresh leaves have been used as food widely. The mature leaves, bark, seeds and roots are used as folk medicine for the treatment and management of various ailments, hence the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Chrysophyllum albidumon inflammation and pain were investigated. Thirty five male wistar rats weighing 150.41±13.27g were randomly placed in seven (I-VII) groups. Group I (normal control), group II (diclofenac), group III(positive control), groups IV and V received 200mg and 400mg/Kg bodyweight of methanolic extract; groups VI and VII received 200mg and 400mg/Kg bodyweight of aqueous extract, respectively. 0.1ml of 2.5% of acetic acid was injected into the hind paw of rats to induce inflammation and pain, and then treated for 14 days. Severity of pain was quantified using Likert scale. Standard biochemical and phytochemical parameters were determined. Statistical differences in the mean between groups was compared using one way analysis of variance at p<0.05. The extract had inhibition of edema at 92%, 95% and 92%, 93% at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg bodyweights of methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The yield from quantitative analysis ranged from Cardiac glycosides>Saponins>flavonoids>alkaloids>phenols; 42.6% vs. 38.1% for methanolic vs. aqueous extracts, respectively. Animals treated with both extracts had significant increase in weights and white blood cells compared to the standard and normal control group (p<0.05). These suggest that the extract had ameliorative, preventive and curative potency on inflammation which may be attributed to the presence of glycosides, saponins and other phytoconstituents.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.36547/ae.2023.5.1.1-7
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Toxicological alteration of Dimethoate (rogor) insecticide against
           freshwater fish Colisa fasciatus and Mystus mystus

    • Authors: Shakuntla Bharti, Ram Pratap Yadav, Ajay Singh
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Like other organophosphates, dimethoate is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which disables cholinesterase, an enzyme essential for central nervous system function. Dimethoate insecticide can be used for both indoor and outdoor purposes to eliminate a number of insect pests under different condition. Dimethoate, one of the most extensively studied pesticides, may induce many significant changes in fishes. The aim of the present study is to determine the toxicological action of dimethoate on freshwater teleost fishes. The Dimethoate has shown strong piscicidal activity in freshwater fish Colisa fasciatus and Mystus mystus for all the exposure periods (24 or 96h) in time as well as dose dependent manner. The LC50 values decreases from 0.084 ppm (24h) to 0.059 ppm (96h) in winter season (water temp.19⁰) Colisa fasciatus and LC50 0.028 ppm (24h) to 0.010 ppm (96h) in summer season (water temp. 23⁰). The LC50 decreases 0.039 ppm (24h) to 0.022 ppm (96h) in winter season against Mystus mystuus and LC50 0.040 ppm (24h) to 0.015 ppm (96h) in summer season. The pesticide exposure may also fatal to many non- targeted organisms like fish where it hampers its health through impairment of metabolism, occasionally leading to the death of the fish.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.36547/ae.2023.5.1.8-12
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Toxicity of Lead Salts (PbCl2 and PbNO3) Exposed Common Carp
           (Cyprinus carpio) in Two Seasons (Summer and Winter) of Different
           Temperature Conditions

    • Authors: Gagandeep Kour, Rekha Shrivastav, Vipin Vyas
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: The main objective of the intended research was to ascertain the toxic effects of Lead salts (PbCl2 and PbNO3) in two seasons of varying temperatures in the Indian subtropical region of Bhopal. The toxicity test was carried out at concentrations of 250, 300, 350, 400,450, and 500 mg.l-1 for the determination of LC 50 of PbCl2 and PbNO4 in summer at high temperature (HT) and in winter with low temperature(LT) conditions in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The  LC 50 values for PbCl2 for 24 hours in winter (LT) were 487.98 ± 1.17 mg.l-1 and decreased to 466.66 ± 1.31 mg.l-1, 436.11 ± 1.68 mg.l-1, 416.49 ± 1.61 mg.l-1, for 48, 72, and 96 hours respectively whereas in summer (HT) the LC 50 values were calculated as 396.83 ± 1.38 mg.l-1, 359.42 ± 1.71 mg.l-1, 345.95 ± 1.80 mg.l-1 and 321.67 ± 1.24 mg.l-1 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. The LC 50 values for PbNO3 in winter (LT) were calculated as 427.76 ± 2.02 mg.l-1, 400.13 ± 1.01 mg.l-1, 373.42 ± 1.76 mg.l-1, and 359.92 ±1.36 mg.l-1 for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and in summer(HT) LC 50 values calculated as 357.93 ± 1.69 mg.l-1, 329.76 ± 0.83 mg.l-1, 300.47 ± 1.41 mg.l-1  and 274.29 ± 2.06 mg.l-1 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. This study discovered that the counterions play an important role in toxicity due to which PbNO3 toxicity was high as compared to PbCl2 in both seasons as well effect of temperature in enhancing the toxicity of both Lead salts (PbCl2 and PbNO3) in summer was studied. Keywords: counterions, LC 50, Seasonal temperatures, fish.      
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.36547/ae.2023.5.1.13-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Alterations in the Kidney and Liver Histoarchitecture of Nile Tilapia
           Oreochromis niloticus upon Prolonged Oral Oxytetracycline Administration

    • Authors: Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham, Roy Beryl Julinta, Prasanna Kumar Patil
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Antibiotics are essential for specific and diagnosed practices in aquaculture practices and many of them are toxic to fish if abused. This study reports the effects of prolonged use of dietary oxytetracycline at 0-10 times the therapeutic dose (×: 80 mg/kg biomass/day) on the kidney and liver histoarchitecture of Oreochromis niloticus. A dose-dependent reduction in feed intake, survival and biomass were noticed on day 30 of dosing. The major histopathological changes found in the kidney were degeneration of renal tubular epithelium, vacuolation, inflammation, widened lumen, nephrocalcinosis, necrotized haematopoietic area, glomerulopathy with dilated Bowman’s space and thickening of lumen lining. The liver exhibited dose-dependent mild to marked glycogen-type hepatocellular vacuolation, cytoplasmic degeneration and cellular hypertrophy. Mild lipid-type vacuolations were present in the 5× and 10× groups. The suspension of dosing demonstrated only an insignificant recovery capacity of dosed O. niloticus for a prolonged period, which is a cause for concern.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.36547/ae.2023.5.1.19-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • The Isolation of BDCA-1 Myeloid Dendritic Cells from Bovine Blood for
           Detection of the Bovine Leukaemia Virus

    • Authors: Lucie Kratochvilova, Maria Szczotka, Petr Slama
      Pages: 28 - 31
      Abstract: This article is focused on the isolation of CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) from bovine blood and their using for detection of bovine leukaemia virus. DCs are able to initiate an immune response because of that are antigen-presenting cells. DCs also play a key role in the regulation of innate immunity (NK cell function). Reciprocally, NK cells affect the activity of DCs. DCs have a few sub-groups. Myeloid DCs have two subsets – CD1c+ (BDCA-1) and CD141 (BDCA-3). We focused on detection of the glycoprotein gp51 in BDCA-1 cells infected by bovine leukaemia virus using immunofluorescence. We were able to detect bovine leukaemia virus in DCs which occurs within 8 years of age in cattle and it is the serious disease that needs to be detected in time.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.36547/ae.2023.5.1.28-31
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
  • Technologies and factors affecting bioethanol fermentation and its

    • Authors: Ifeanyi Boniface Ezea
      Pages: 32 - 36
      Abstract: Fossil fuels are a major contributor to climate change and environmental pollution, and as the demand for energy production increases, alternative sources are becoming more attractive. Bioethanol reduce reliance on fossil fuels and can be compatible with the existing fleet of internal combustion engines. Bioethanol is typically produced via microbial fermentation of fermentable sugars. Traditional feedstocks (first- generation) include cereal grains, sugar cane, and sugar beets. However, due to concerns regarding food sustainability, lignocellulosic (second-generation) and algal biomass (third-generation) feedstocks have been investigated. Technologies such as Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF), Separate enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) and Fed- batch Fermentation for bioethanol hold tremendous potential for the production of bioethanol. The aim of this review focuses on the technologies and factors affecting bioethanol production and its commercialization.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.36547/ae.2023.5.1.32-36
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2023)
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