Publisher: Jagiellonian University (Total: 14 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Cracow Indological Studies
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1732-0917 - ISSN (Online) 2449-8696
Published by Jagiellonian University Homepage  [14 journals]
  • Shades of Violence

    • Authors: Hermina Cielas Leão, Tiziana Pontillo, Lidia Sudyka
      Pages: V - XVII
      Abstract: No abstract is avaliable for this article.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.00
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Back Matter

    • PubDate: 2024-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Ritual: Violence and Non-violence

    • Authors: Ganesh U. Thite
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Current paper looks at the vicissitudes of thought on violence and non-violence in India, from Vedic period to the present. The early Vedic people lived a nomadic life and practiced customary animal sacrifice. Gradually, however, they started using euphemisms in connection with ritualistic violence and switched subsequently to non-violent rituals. Possibly, because there was a lot of opposition to ritualistic violence, mainly from the Buddhist and the Jaina thinkers, even the later Hinduism ultimately accepted the principle of ahiṃsā (non-violence). Although at present most followers of Vedic rituals do not practice violence when performing Vedic rituals, some others still partly accept it and act accordingly. Also, there is some ritualistic violence outside the Vedic ritual, but there is definitely a change in outlook.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.01
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Agonistic Scenes of the mahāvrata Rite

    • Authors: Paola M. Rossi
      Pages: 13 - 60
      Abstract: The present paper focuses on one of the competitive scenes staged during the Vedic classical mahāvrata rite: a sort of “agonistic” play performed between someone defined as abhigara, basically translated as “praiser,” and someone who is called apagara, interpreted as “reviler.” They appear to take part only in a verbal and not a physical duel. In fact, scholars consider the scene an example of a verbal contest. However, given that abhigara and apagara are never mentioned in the Rigvedic and Atharvavedic collections and rarely occur in the Vedic corpus, appearing mostly in sections concerning the peculiar mahāvrata ceremony, this dichotomous pair certainly sparks interest since they are associable with the Mahābhārata context. The analysis of the Vedic textual sources concerning the abhigara / apagara contest on the mahāvrata day, a survey of the terminology correlated to these two terms and their etymological reconstruction may offer a peculiar perspective on the relationship between violence, ritualism and narration in the Mahābhārata.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.02
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Competitiveness in Sacred Learning

    • Authors: Diletta Falqui
      Pages: 61 - 80
      Abstract: The current notion of the Vrātyas aggressivity seems to be mainly based on certain Vedic texts that record a biased account of their history. It is usually assumed that relevant passages refer to the aggression displayed by the Vrātyas during verbal confrontations with their opponents in order to determine the correct stance on ritual matters. However, even outside the Vrātya context, competitive hospitality and violent verbal exchanges may be found in the sapiential sphere, often in the form of riddles—the so-called brahmodya. Among the sections in the Mahābhārata that demonstrate epic traces of competitiveness in the field of sacred knowledge, this paper will primarily examine the Aṣṭāvakrīya-Upākhyāna (MBh 3.132–134), which features the sole Mahābhārata reference to the term brahmodya.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.03
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Vrātya or Ancient Indo-Aryan Violence'

    • Authors: Chiara Neri, Tiziana Pontillo
      Pages: 81 - 116
      Abstract: Jaiminīya-Brāhmaṇa (JB) II 225 and Pañcaviṃśa-Brāhmaṇa (PB) XVII 1.9 have been authoritatively interpreted by Falk (1986: 29–30) as evidence that the Vrātyas behaved in a peculiarly aggressive way. The present study puts forward the hypothesis that such violence was not a distinguishing feature of the Vrātyas, but an inherited common trait of the Indo-Aryan culture, which, for example, is well documented in its strong warrior tradition, in clashes between clans and families for dynastic reasons, in the frequent use of curses and other acts of verbal violence and in the ritual violence of bloody sacrifices. These various deep-rooted cultural patterns might all have stemmed from the original highly competitive social organization of the Indo-Aryan people. The way in which Vrātyas selected their leader, regardless of his birth status, in line with Buddhist meritocracy, also proves to be in line with this assumed competitiveness of the origins. This paper concentrates on the violence inherent in the Vrātya dialogues and their dramatic consequences. These dialogues are compared here with the Old and Middle Indo-Aryan “verbal contests” on the basis of Vedic and Pali texts, in the wake of work by Witzel (1987) and Manné (1990), who singled out relevant schemes and formulas in both the Brahmanical and Buddhist sources. Indeed, the earliest sources provide ample evidence of agonistic sapiential debates (the so-called brahmodyas), in which the loser is forced to submit to the winner or even undergo a much worse punishment.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.04
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Some Observations about Warrior-gods and Distinctive Weapons in the
           Imagery of vrātyas

    • Authors: Anita M. Borghero
      Pages: 117 - 140
      Abstract: Heesterman (1962), moving away from the hypothesis of a non-Aryan background for the Vrātyas, went far beyond the brahmanical-grounded heterodox interpretation of their culture (see also Candotti and Pontillo 2015, Pontillo and Dore 2016, Vassilkov 2016). The Vrātyas are usually associated with the cult of Rudra (see, e.g., Charpentier 1911, Hauer 1927, Falk 1986) who is regarded as an outsider god. Dore (2015: 55; 2016) remarks that there is no reason to “consider the relationship between the Vrātya and Rudra as being more important or more revelatory compared to the relationship with Indra.” Taking for granted the influence of both gods on the culture and on the literary representation of the culture of this group, the present paper focuses on the analysis of Vedic textual traditions dealing with the bow associated with the leader of the Vrātyas, in order to understand to what extent such a weapon represents evidence of their aggressiveness.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.05
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Vrātya and vrātīna in Sanskrit Grammatical Sources

    • Authors: Valentina Ferrero
      Pages: 141 - 161
      Abstract: The present research aims at studying the derivation of vrātya- on the basis of the Aṣṭādhyāyī [A] of Pāṇini and on the relevant commentaries, to understand the Vedic usage of this lexeme and to investigate the origin of the notion of violence linked by default with the Vrātya identity. After a general overview of vrata- and vrāta- lexemes, rule A 5.2.21 vrātena jīvati is used to derive vrātīna-, and the relevant commentaries Mahābhāṣya [M], Kāśikāvṛttī [KV], and Siddhāntakaumudī [SK], turn out to be useful in understanding the many nuances of vrāta-. The derivation of vrātya- appears more complicated; the proposal advanced here resorts to A 5.3.113 vrātacphañor astriyām to explain both vrātyaḥ (nom. sg.), i.e., the outstanding ascetic mentioned in Śaunaka Atharvaveda-Saṃhitā and in Jaiminīya-Upaniṣad-Brāhmaṇa, and the more widespread vrātyāḥ (nom. pl.). Instead, other authoritative etymologies advanced over this last century interpret vrātya- as deriving from vrāta- based on vrata- (‘ritual vow’) or are influenced by the late association of Vrātyas with a violent behaviour.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.06
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Violence in Service of Religion in the Pre-classical Sanskrit Texts

    • Authors: Edeltraud Harzer
      Pages: 163 - 171
      Abstract: The instances of perpetrated violence represented here in this essay show a sophisticated society taking care of some exceptional (such as saving a widow) or shall we say extraordinary cases (sacrificial practices), that are not a day-to-day practice. Such occurrences demonstrate a responsibility to the society to deal with cases of extraordinary distress of a situation, but they lack sensitivity or compassion. The sacrificial practices show changes, such as using earlier on, a cow, but as time seemed to go by, it occurred that a horse was used instead. The example used here is of a horse. A prepubertal and just “graduated” Vedic scholar “won” the privilege (in getting kali as his “reward” of the last vibhītaka nut/“coin”) in becoming the butcher for the sacrificial animal at an important sacrifice, in this case a horse. In the second instance of violence, as for the widowed woman, young or old, an option is offered to her that certainly is contrary to the societal customs especially for women, though in support of survival. Be it the venue of becoming a common harlot. As for “expeditions”1 of the Vrātyas, and such.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.07
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cannibalism in the dīkṣā Chapter of the Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā

    • Authors: Kyoko Amano
      Pages: 173 - 190
      Abstract: This paper contributes to the ongoing discourse on human sacrifice and cannibalism in the Vedas by examining newly discovered descriptions in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā III 6.6. This passage appears to contain fairly specific points that ancient practitioners were meant to consider when engaging in cannibalism, points that are not found elsewhere. Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā III 6 is a chapter about the purification (dīkṣā) of the sacrificer before the soma ritual, repeatedly emphasizing sacrificer’s transformation into a suitable sacrificial victim. By compiling and examining such descriptions, the paper demonstrates how concerns related to human sacrifice were deeply embedded in the dīkṣā rite of the Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.08
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Cursing the daēvas as an Example of Verbal Aggression in the Zoroastrian
           “Declaration of Faith”'

    • Authors: Kinga Paraskiewicz
      Pages: 191 - 204
      Abstract: This article examines the notion of verbal aggression evident in Zoroastrian prayers. Although one may be surprised that a declaration of Zoroastrian faith, called Fravarānē (Yasna 12), begins with the words “I hate / abhor / am disgusted” instead of “I believe,” cursing (nifrīn kunišn) the demons is a pious religious act.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.09
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Henk Bodewitz, Vedic Cosmology and Ethics: Selected Studies (Gonda
           Indological Studies, Vol. 19). Ed. Henk Bodewitz, Dory H. Heilijgers, Jan
           E. M. Houben and Karel van Kooij. pp. 480. Boston: Brill 2019.—Reviewed
           by Mattia Capotosto and Alessia Manca (University of Cagliari, Italy)

    • Authors: Mattia Capotosto, Alessia Manca
      Pages: 207 - 211
      Abstract: No abstract is avaliable for this article.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.12797/CIS.26.2024.01.10
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2024)
       
 
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Publisher: Jagiellonian University (Total: 14 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 13 of 13 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ad Americam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Classica Cracoviensia     Open Access  
Cracow Indological Studies     Open Access  
Lehahayer     Open Access  
LingVaria     Open Access  
Między Oryginałem a Przekładem     Open Access  
Poliarchia     Open Access  
Politeja     Open Access  
Rocznik Ruskiej Bursy     Open Access  
Sowiniec     Open Access  
Studia Historyczne     Open Access  
Studia Iberystyczne     Open Access  
Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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