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J. of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Journal of Horticultural Sciences
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0973-354X
Published by Society for Promotion of Horticulture Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Characterization and evaluation of putative mutant populations of
           polyembryonic mango genotype Nekkare for dwarfing rootstock traits

    • Authors: Nusrat Perveen, Dinesh M R , Sankaran M, Hima Bindu K, Shivashankara K S, Venugopalan R
      First page: 261
      Abstract: Availability of dwarfing rootstocks is an important pre-requisite for improving productivity of mango orchards in India as it facilitates high density planting as well as impart uniformity within an orchard. An attempt was made to induce variability in polyembryonic mango genotype Nekkare for dwarfness by treating kernels with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 15 to 35 Gy. Irradiation created significant variation in plant height, stem girth, number of nodes, inter-nodal length, number of leaves, leaf blade length and leaf blade width. The highest reduction in seedling height along with highest variation was observed at 35 Gy where the seedling height ranged from 11.50 to 33 cm with a mean of 23.12 cm as compared to mean plant height of 44.55 cm in control ranging from 33.50 to 56 cm. Further, the effect of irradiation on stomatal parameters was also investigated and the highest stomatal length and width was recorded at 15 Gy (63.39 μm) and 20 Gy (63.12 μm) respectively while 30 Gy treatment produced maximum stomatal density (13.85 per μm2). Furthermore, the
      concentration of ABA was found to be highest (429.1 ng/gm) in morphologically dwarf (putative mutant) progenies of Nekkare. The results suggest effectiveness of induced mutation for developing dwarfing rootstocks in mango to be used in high density planting.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1456
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Characterization and evaluation of morphological and yield traits of
           tamarind genotypes

    • Authors: POOJA G K, Nagarajappa Adivappar, Shivakumar B. S., Lakshmana D., Sharanabasappa
      Pages: 272 - 277
      Abstract: The evaluation of morphological and yield traits of tamarind genotypes was carried out during 2017-18 at Forest Research Station, Govinkovi, Honnali taluk, Davangere district. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 16 genotypes and three replications. Trees were 14-years-old and of grafted origin. All the morphological and yield traits showed significant difference among the selected genotypes indicating the presence of adequate variations. The genotypes recorded morphological variation in terms of tree shape (semi-circle to irregular shape), foliage arrangement (dense to sparse), flowering time (early, mid and late), stem colour (dark brown, brown and light brown), bud colour (greenish white, pink, dark pink), petal colour (yellow and pale yellow), pod colour (greyish brown, brown, light brown and dark brown), pulp colour (light brown, brown and reddish brown), pod shape (straight, slightly curved, curved and deeply curved) and pod size (very big, big, medium and small). The analysis of variance revealed significant difference with respect to tree height, stem girth, pod traits, pod yield per tree (K-9 : 12.80 kg), number of pods per tree (NTI-52 : 989.07) and pulp per cent (K-9 : 48.87). Among the 16 genotypes, the genotype K-9 was found superior with respect to pod size, pod weight, pulp weight and pod yield per tree. Genotype K-9 was found promising and due to perennial in nature further evaluation is required for stability.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Breeding tomatoes suitable for processing with triple disease resistance
           to tomato leaf curl disease, bacterial wilt and early blight

    • Authors: AVVERAHAALLY SADASHIVA, Oberoi H S, Singh T H , Prasanna H C, Madhavi Reddy K, Krishna Reddy M, Ravishankar K V, Nayana R S
      Pages: 278 - 292
      Abstract: India is the second largest producer of tomato with 11 per cent global share and cultivated on an estimated area of 0.76 million hectares with productivity of 24 tonnes per hectare. Less than 1% of the produce is processed when compared to 26% in other major producing countries. Of the estimated more than 41 million tonnes of tomato processed globally, only 130,000 tonnes were processed in India and domestic demand for processed tomato products is expanding at an estimated 30% annually. At present traditional fresh market tomato cultivars are being processed though such cultivars are unsuitable for processing. Processors in India are looking for high yielding tomato cultivars with high total soluble solids (5-6 º Brix), acidity not less than 0.4%, pH less than 4.5 and uniform red colour with a/b colour value of at least 2. In addition, firm fruited tomato cultivars with joint less pedicel (j2) which facilitate mechanical harvesting or rapid hand picking. ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research has recently developed two high yielding F1 hybrids in tomato viz: Arka Apeksha and Arka Vishesh suitable for processing. On evaluation for three years, both the hybrids recorded good level of total soluble solids (4.5-5º Brix) and colour value of 2. Further, both the hybrids had high yield potential (80-90 tonnes / hectare) with triple disease resistance to tomato leaf curl disease, bacterial wilt and early blight. Arka Apeksha and Arka Vishesh were also bred with jointless pedicel making them suitable for mechanical harvesting. Our experimental studies on vine storability revealed that all the fruits were intact on plants even 110 days after transplanting in the main field facilitating once over harvest.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Screening of yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.)
           Verdcourt) genotypes for resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporoides

    • Authors: MERIN ELZA GEORGE, Sarada S, Joy M
      First page: 293
      Abstract: Anthracnose is one of the most destructive fungal diseases caused by Colletotrichum
      gloeosporoides in yard long bean, leading to complete crop loss at all stages and its parts
      like hypocotyls, stem, peduncle, flowers, leaves and pods were seriously affected. Few bush type cowpea cultivars have been earlier identified as reliable sources of resistance while trailing types are susceptible, but high yielding. Breeding resistant varieties is suggested as the only practical strategy, especially under hot and humid condition. Fifty-yard-long bean genotypes belonging to bush, semi erect and pole types were screened against anthracnose disease through artificial inoculation under pot culture. The present study identified the resistant varieties of vegetable cowpea through artificial inoculation followed by detached leaf assay. Among the 50 varieties of yard long bean observed, Kanakamony, dual purpose yard long bean was found highly resistant with disease severity of 3.67% followed by Arimbra local.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1469
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inheritance studies on different quantitative and qualitative fruit traits
           in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

    • Authors: Ramandeep Kaur Sidhu, Mohinder Kaur Sidhu, Ajmer Singh Dhatt
      Pages: 298 - 306
      Abstract: Generation mean analysis of brinjal lines, GL 401 × BR 104 (CROSS I), GL 401 × W 230 (CROSS II) and W 230 × RMO 1142 (CROSS III) six generation of three crosses viz. highlighted the involvement of epistatic interactions (duplicate) for most of the qualitative traits. However, the number of fruits per plant in CROSS I & III and fruit girth, calyx length, and yield per plant in CROSS II confirmed the occurrence of complementary epistasis. Mainly, additive effect for fruit girth, non-additive effect for calyx length, calyx width, peduncle girth, fruit weight, and fruit length, and both types for peduncle length, number of fruits /cluster, number of fruits/ plant, and yield/ plant were experienced. Additive × dominance or dominance × dominance type of interactions were more prevalent than additive × additive type of interactions for different traits. Cluster bearing was monogenic dominant and green color of calyx as well as peduncle was dominant over purple with the duplicate type of epistasis. Fruit shape was dgenic with incomplete dominance. Fruit color displayed digenic control in CROSS I & II and tri-genic ratio in CROSS III with incomplete dominance of purple and green pigmentations producing variable color intensity in homozygous or heterozygous conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Morphological and biochemical characterization of Passiflora
           quadrangularis L. - A source of vegetable from East Siang district,
           Arunachal Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Kripa Shankar, Singh S R
      First page: 307
      Abstract: Present research investigation was aimed at morphological and biochemical assessment of Passiflora quadrangularis L. commonly known as giant granadilla and locally called as
      vegetable squash grown as vegetable crop by the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Seven
      genotypes collected during survey were characterized for different morphological and
      biochemical traits. Results showed that average fruit weight was 432.57g/fruit, with juice
      content 100.11 mL/fruit, vitamin C content 25.79 mg, vitamin A content 1.65 mg, Mean total flavonoids content was 16.75 mg/100 g of fruit juice, total soluble solids 12.040 Brix,
      antioxidant activity (DPPH) 6.07 %, titratable acidity 1.69 %, total carbohydrates 9.95 %,
      phenol content 338.38 mg/100 g of leaf was noted among the genotypes tested. The mean anthocyanin content in leaf was 1.20 mg/100 g, tendril 0.90 mg/100 g and petiole 1.69 mg/ 100 g among the genotypes. Seed protein profiling of Passiflora quadrangularis L. with SDS- PAGE showed diverse molecular weights ranging from 11 KD to 163.53 KD. However, monomorphic banding pattern among the protein profiling of giant granadilla was recorded among the selected genotypes. The results of the study show that the collected genotypes are belonged to Passiflora quadrangularis L. and are good source of nutritive value which can be used as source of vegetable.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1011
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Advancing fruiting season in Annona cv. Arka Sahan through pruning

    • Authors: Subhash Chander, Reju M Kurian, Satisha J, KK Upreti, RH Laxman
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Annona cultivar ‘Arka Sahan’, an inter-specific hybrid of Annona atemoya × A. squamosa
      comes to harvest during August-September under mild tropical climate, which coincides with monsoon rains resulting in poor fruit quality and high susceptibility to anthracnose and fruit fly. An attempt was made to advance the fruiting in this hybrid through pruning during 2016- 17 and 2017-18. The effect of three pruning levels (25, 50 and 75% of previous season’s growth) at five different times (60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after final harvest of previous crop) on flowering and fruiting were compared. Early sprouting, flowering and fruit harvest were recorded in trees pruned to 75% of the past season’s growth in both the years. Earliest fruits were harvested 271 (3rd week of June) and 268 (2nd week of June) days after pruning in trees pruned during first week of October in 2016-17 and 2017-18 respectively (P<0.05).
      Bigger fruits with lesser seeds per 100 g of pulp (P<0.05) were harvested from trees pruned to 75% and 25% levels in the first and second year, respectively, irrespective of pruning time. Tree canopy following pruning at 75%level recorded higher light interception and photosynthetic rate (P<0.05). Pruning time and levels significantly influenced the biochemical constituents of leaf and shoot. The fruiting in cultivar ‘Arka Sahan’ could be thus advanced by 8-9 weeks to June from the normal season of August-September with comparable or better fruit quality by pruning 75% of the last season’s growth during October.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1434
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Standardisation of soil volume wetting for drip irrigation in mango
           (Mangifera indica L.,)

    • Authors: Manjunath B.L., Anil Kumar Nair, Laxman R H, Abhilasha C N
      Pages: 325 - 332
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted in mango for four years during 2017-2020 at ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research to standardise optimum soil volume wetting for drip irrigation. Wetting soil volume upto 70% recorded higher mean fruit yield of 34.8 kg/plant (9.68 t/ha)and with further increase in the level of soil volume wetting irrigation (upto 80%), there was a decline in the mango yield (7.40 t/ha). Similarly, significantly increased response was observed in fruit weight upto 70% soil volume irrigation (226 g) although there were no significant differences in the TSS of the fruit. Significantly higher water use efficiency was observed for 30% soil volume wetting irrigation (274.1 kg/m3) and further no significant differences were observed in water use efficiency between 50% and 70% soil volume wetting irrigations indicating that in areas of water scarcity, it is enough to scheduling the irrigation only upto 50% soil volume wetting in mango for economising the water (232.1 kg/m3).
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessment of growth and yield parameters in Arecanut (Areca catechu L.)
           through correlation and path analysis under hilly zone of Karnataka

    • Authors: Virupakshi Hiremata, Narayanaswamy M, Shet R M
      First page: 333
      Abstract: Arecanut (Areca catechu L.) commonly called as betel nut is a high value commercial crop
      of coastal and Malnad region of Kerala and Karnataka. The present study was carried out
      at Agricultural and Horticultural research station Sringeri, UAHS Shivamogga in 2018. The
      study attempts the correlation studies in the germplasm will help to understand the mutual
      relationship among various traits and thereby assist in selecting the character contributing
      to the yield. In addition to this the selection for yield directly is ineffective as yield is affected by many other traits. The highest positive significant for the association of fruit yield per palm was with the fresh kernel weight per palm (0.96g) followed by dry weight of husk per palm (0.89g) and fresh weight of husk per palm (0.89g). Path analysis revealed that nineteen out of thirty-four characters recorded that fruit volume (2.40cc) had highest positive direct effect on fruit yield per palm followed by fresh fruit weight (2.17g) and breadth of leaf sheath (2.11m). It can be concluded that growth and yield characters may be considered in selection criteria for the improvement of yield in arecanut.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.992
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Growth and yield enhancement of carrot through integration of NPK and
           organic manures

    • Authors: Mehwish Kiran, Muhammad Saleem Jilani, Kashif Waseem, Fazal Haq, Muhammad Sohail Khan, Muhammad Amjad Nadeem, Khalid Rahman, Ghazanfar Ullah, Kashif Hussain
      First page: 341
      Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted at Horticulture Experimental Area, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to investigate the combined effects of NPK and organic manures on growth and yield of carrot, for two consecutive years. The experiment was laid out in CRD with six treatments and four replications. Five different organic manures such as poultry manure (PM), sewage sludge (SS), farmyard manure (FYM), press mud (PrM) and goat manure (GM) were applied in combination with NPK, each at recommended levels for two successive years. A fertilizer check (control) was also included as treatment where no fertilizer and manure were used. The study revealed significant improvements in almost all growth and yield attributes by combined application of NPK and organic manures. Among different combinations, NPK + PM surpassed all other treatments by giving maximum leaves per plant (8.73 and 8.13), leaf length (38.17 and 36.77cm), root length (29.30 and 24.83cm), root diameter (3.10 and 3.27cm), root weight per plant (142.40 and 142.00g), total biomass per plant (169.33 and 166.67g) and root yield (56.67 and 56.83 t/ha), during both the experimental years. Similarly, NPK combination with green manure and sewage sludge also produced better results pertaining to carrot growth and production for two consecutive years. It was also observed during the study that control treatment showed poorest findings and placed at lowest levels.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.857
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of different growth media on biometric parameter of brinjal and
           chilli seedlings under shade net house

    • Authors: Prakash Mahala, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
      First page: 347
      Abstract: The study was undertaken for two consecutive years (2017 and 2018) to evaluate the effect of different growth media on various growing parameters and incidence of insect pest on brinjal and chilli seedlings. Seedlings were grown in protray using six types of growing media. The highest germination percentage (71.11), plant height (11.05 cm), number of leaves (5.81) and percentage healthy seedlings (89.82) were observed with vermiculite + perlite + vermi- compost (1:1:2) during both the years in brinjal. Similarly in chilli, highest germination percentage (66.33), plant height (9.81 cm), number of leaves (5.62) and percentage healthy seedlings (87.61) were observed with vermiculite + perlite + vermi-compost (1:1:2). There was significantly low incidence of whitefly in brinjal (1.49 whitefly/leaf) and chilli (1.65 whitefly/ leaf) seedling grown in media with vermiculite + perlite + vermi-compost (1:1:2). Hence, vermiculite + perlite + vermi-compost (1:1:2) was found as optimum growth media for growing of chilli and brinjal seedlings. The findings of this study recommend the use of vermiculite + perlite + vermi-compost (1:1:2) as growth media for raising nursery by farmers as it had significant positively effect on plant growth parameters of seedlings that lead to increase production of chilli and brinjal.
      PubDate: 2022-12-15
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1340
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of nano and macro iron sprays on growth, flowering, seed and oil
           yielding attributes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.)

    • Authors: Narendra Singh Bhandari, Srivastava R K , Tarakeshwari K R, Chand S
      Pages: 353 - 362
      Abstract: The investigation was executed with nine treatments viz. nano forms of ferrous sulfide (7, 14, 21, 28 ppm) and macro ferrous sulphate (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 per cent) along with control, and were applied as foliar sprays after 30 days of transplanting on two varieties of calendula namely Fiesta Gitana Mix’ and ‘Fiesta Yellow’ during 2018 and 2019. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Application of 0.8 % FeSO4 recorded maximum number of branches (26.75), plant height (29.73 cm), plant spread (45.17 cm), number of leaves (22.63) and seed test weight (15.63 g) and number of flowers per plant (134.04). However, application of 0.2% macro FeSO4 resulted in early bud appearance (50.50 days) and higher flower diameter (8.09 cm). ‘Fiesta Gitana Mix’ outperformed over ‘Fiesta Yellow’ for most of the vegetative and floral characters. The ‘Fiesta Yellow’ variety with oil content (13.97%) had an edge over ‘Fiesta Gitana Mix’.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1132
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Optimization of nitrogen application and planting geometry for production
           of cut chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)

    • Authors: Malkit Singh, Madhu Bala, Simrat Singh
      Pages: 363 - 370
      Abstract: Nutrition and planting geometry are the two key factors affecting the production and quality of cut stems in chrysanthemum. The present investigation was undertaken to standardize the nitrogen nutrition and planting geometry for chrysanthemum var. “Yellow Star” cultivated for cut flowers. The data revealed the proportionate increase in plant height, chlorophyll content, days to bud appearance and days to 50% inflorescence anthesis and length of cut stem with increase in nitrogen dose and row spacing. However, flower diameter, number of flowers per stem, cut stem diameter, vase life, and water absorbed by cut flower decreased proportionately with increase in nitrogen dose and row spacing. Application of N@100 Kg ha-1 to chrysanthemum planted at 20x10 cm spacing produced cut stems of acceptable length, more number of flowers of bigger size and optimum postharvest longevity. The amount of nitrogen can be reduced to 1/3rd to grow cut chrysanthemums planted at twice the row spacing for longer cut stems of appreciable vase life.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Standardization of container type, substrate and nutrition for potted
           plant production of China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Ness.] var.
           Arka Archana

    • Authors: Smitha G R, Sujatha A. Nair, D. Kalaivanan
      Pages: 371 - 380
      Abstract: A study was conducted at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta, Bengaluru for three consecutive seasons during 2019-20, to standardize the container type, substrate combination and nutrition for potted plant production of China aster var. Arka Archana. The treatments comprised of two type of containers (plastic and coir), three substrates {Red soil + FYM + Sand (1:1:1 v/v), Arka Fermented cocopeat (AFC), AFC + Vermicompost (1:1 v/v)} and four nutrition concentration (160:30:180 ppm N:P: K, 128:24:144 ppm N:P: K, 96:18:108 ppm N:P: K and Jeevamrutha @ 3%) laid out in factorial completely randomized design with three replications. Plant height at flowering (33.12 cm), number of primary branches (12.4), plant spread (536.64 cm2), number of flowers/plant (26.47), flower size (5.26 cm) and uptake of major, secondary and minor nutrients were maximum in the plants grown in 6" plastic pots using the substrate combination of soil +sand +FYM (1:1:1 v/v/v) along with the weekly application of nutrient solution of 96:18:108 ppm NPK/plant. This production protocol resulted in a dense canopy and highly floriferous potted plants. The benefit cost ratio of potted China aster production was 1.70. This technology can be adopted by the nurserymen for large-scale commercial potted plant production.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of chitosan coatings on physico-chemical and enzymatic activities
           in mango cv Dashehari stored at low temperature

    • Authors: Abubakar mshora, Dr PPS Gill, Dr SK Jawandha, Aeshna Sinha, Dr Mandeep Singh
      First page: 381
      Abstract: Physico-chemical and enzymatic changes in mango (Mangifera indica) cv. Dashehari in
      response to postharvest application of chitosan (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were studied during 4 weeks that were stored between 10±1 °C, 90-95 % RH. Fruits were evaluated for various quality parameters such as firmness, weight loss, pulp colour, β-carotene, soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and activities of polygalactouronase (PG) and cellulase on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results exhibited that chitosan coatings (1.0 %) effectively reduced the weight loss (5.82 %) and markedly slowed down the ripening changes as evidenced from their retention of fruit firmness (15.50 N), maintenance of SSC (18.85 %) and TA (0.44 %) at 21 days of storage. Chitosan coatings also retarded the pulp colour development and lowered activities of PG and cellulase enzymes as compared to non-coated fruits. Overall, chitosan coating at 1.0% was found to be most effective in enhancing the storability and quality of mango fruits at cool storage temperatures.
      PubDate: 2022-12-20
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1015
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Optimization of freeze drying parameters for moringa (Moringa oleifera)
           flower powder by using response surface methodology and principal
           component analysis

    • Authors: Pandidurai G, Amutha S, Kanchana S, Vellaikumar S, Prabhakaran K
      First page: 388
      Abstract: Moringa oleifera Lam. is an incredible plant because of vital nutrients such as minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals. The present work is focused on studying the optimization and quality attributes retention in moringa flowers in a freeze dryer (FD). Because the conventional drying process takes more time and energy which will affect the product quality and safety. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the effect of drying temperature (- 65 to - 45°C), vacuum pressure (0.5 to 2.5 mmHg) and drying time (18 to 24 h.) on the vitamin C, total antioxidant activity(TAA) and hygroscopicity (HS) of moringa flower. The developed model response R2 values of vitamin C 0.96, total antioxidant activity 0.97 and hygroscopicity0.95. Based on response surface and desirability (0.74) functions, moringa flower was freeze sdried at - 63.75°C for18 hr under 0.55 vacuum pressure had an optimum level of vitamin C 285.84 mg/100g, TAA 453.20 mg/100g and HS 1.57 percent. Freeze dried moringa flower powder at -55°C had maximum drying characteristics with special reference to high powder recovery (98.75%) and excellent flowability.The first principal component, accounting for 52.15 per cent and two 23.02 per cent of the total variance resolved the different drying temperatures.
      PubDate: 2022-12-15
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1481
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Optimization of factors influencing osmotic dehydration of aonla
           (Phyllanthus emblica L.) segments in salt solution using response surface

    • Authors: Sujayasree O.J, Tiwari R B, Venugopalan R, Narayana C K, Bhuvaneswari S, Ranjitha K, Oberoi H S, Shamina Azeez, Sakthivel T, Nayaka V S K
      First page: 397
      Abstract: Optimization of process parameters is a critical requirement in food processing and food product industries for the development of highly acceptable product. Quantification of mass transfer kinetics under different processing conditions is essential step for optimizing the osmotic dehydration process. A Box-Behnken Design (BBD), adopted from response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used for evaluating and quantifying the moisture loss and solids gain kinetics of aonla segments in salt solution during the osmotic dehydration process. The independent variables were fixed at three levels (salt concentration- 2, 4, 6%; process
      temperature - 45, 50, 55 OC and process time - 60, 120, 180 minutes). The process responses were water loss percentage (WL%) and solids gain percentage (SG%). Validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the models. The optimum conditions predicted were 5.02% salt concentration, 54.8 OC temperature and 60.64 minutes process time to attain a desired effect of maximum water loss (6.42%) and minimum solid gain (1.09%) in osmotic dehydration of aonla in salt medium.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1404
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Tomato late blight yield loss assessment and risk aversion with resistant

    • Authors: Sandeep Kumar G M, Sriram S, Laxman R H , Harshita K N
      Pages: 411 - 416
      Abstract: Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is one of the devastating diseases of tomato worldwide. Field trial was carried out in Kharif 2019 and 2020 in Hesaraghatta, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, to estimate yield loss due to late blight and to assess extent of protection in resistant genotype during late blight epiphytotics. Yield loss was calculated as per cent difference in yield between fungicides treated and unprotected plots in three F1 hybrids NS501, Arka Rakshak, both susceptible genotypes and Arka Abhed, a resistant genotype. Over two years, average yield loss due to late blight was 79.47 per cent in NS501, 75.53 per cent in Arka Rakshak and 12.84 per cent in Arka Abhed. With lower mean AUDPC values (147.22 in 2019 and 469.17 in 2020) and with low yield loss, Arka Abhed provided affordable protection against late blight. Our findings indicate late blight as an economically important peril to be considered for tomato yield loss coverage under insurance scheme in Bengaluru region. Arka Abhed hybrid can be cultivated to avert yield loss risk associated with late blight epiphytotics.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1105
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Epidemiology of ChiVMV and loss assessment in capsicum (Capsicum annum
           var. grossum Sendt)

    • Authors: Dr. B. Anjaneya Reddy, M. V. Praful, Ramachandra; R.K. , Krishna Reddy, M., Anjanappa M
      Pages: 417 - 423
      Abstract: The survey was conducted during rabi season (2021) to determine the incidence of mosaic disease of capsicum in major capsicum growing districts namely, Chikkaballapura, Kolar, Bengaluru rural and Ramanagar. The per cent incidence of mosaic disease based on symptoms in field was recorded, highest in Ramanagar (54.85%) and the least incidence of mosaic disease was observed in Chikkaballapura (26.85%). Transmission and host range studies under glasshouse conditions revealed that ChiVMV is transmitted mechanically. Among 16 host plants tested, 7 plant species (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun, N. glutinosa, N. occidentalis, Datura metel, Physalis floridana, S. nigrum, Capsicum annum) were infected with the Chilli veinal mottle virus disease and the symptom could be seen in 20-25 days. The per cent transmission of ChiVMV by aphid Aphis gossypii was studied. The results showed that ChiVMV can be transmitted by A. gossypii. However, five aphids per plant showed highest per cent transmission (100%). The effect of different dates of inoculation on different plant growth parameters was also studied, the highest per cent disease transmission was observed in T1: Inoculation 15 days after sowing (100.00%).
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effectiveness of the Field Application of UV-C for Cucumber Downy Mildew

    • Authors: Nicholas Skinner, Mark Rea, John Bullough
      Pages: 424 - 435
      Abstract: There is growing interest in the application of ultraviolet (UV-C) energy to control crop pathogens. In the present study, the efficacies of UV-C treatments for controlling cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were investigated on a commercial farm in eastern Massachusetts, USA. Controlled doses of UV-C, delivered by a tractor-mounted array of sources, between 120 and 480 J·m-2 were applied and compared to conventional fungicide treatments as well as to untreated controls, for each of two consecutive years (2020 and 2021). Visual assessments of foliar disease severity in the trial plots were made several times from planting through the end of productive life. In contrast to the successful control of powdery mildew, the UV-C treatments for controlling cucumber downy mildew were not as successful as conventional fungicides. None of the UV-C treatments affected the overall progression rate of downy mildew once the disease became apparent, although disease onset was delayed slightly compared to untreated controls. This delay may have been due to UV-C induced resistance to infection by the host. Unlike powdery mildews, downy mildew spores from P. cubensis are darkly pigmented, possibly decreasing the efficacy of the UV-C treatments for controlling the disease.  DM spores may also be only susceptible to UV exposure prior to encysting in the leaves of the host, thereby perhaps limiting the window of opportunity when UV-C treatments can be effective. Although not the primary focus of this study, the use of reflective mulch appeared to delay disease onset relative to black mulch in fields with significant sunlight exposure, perhaps due to lowering plant stress by maintaining a lower soil temperature.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Morphological and molecular diversity of Ganoderma spp. causal agent of
           basal stem rot of coconut in Southern dry tracts of Karnataka

    • Authors: Palanna KB, Koti P S, Basavaraj S, Boraiah B, Narendrappa T
      Pages: 436 - 447
      Abstract: Morphological and molecular diversity of Ganoderma species causing basal stem rot of coconut in Southern dry tracts of Karnataka, India was carried out during 2016-17. A total of 20 isolates were isolated from Chitradurga, Chikamagalore, Hassan and Tumkur districts of Karnataka and were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Sporocarps and diseased root bits were found as good source for isolation of Ganoderma. In all the isolates there were high variability in cultural, morphological and molecular characteristics. The dendrogram generated from the cultural and morphological characteristics showed clear variations among Ganoderma isolates and formed two main clusters, one cluster consisted of 13 isolates and another cluster consisted of 7 isolates. Several isolates showed 100 per cent similarity in the morphological characters regardless of their geographical origin. All the Ganoderma isolates amplified a fragment of 650 bp with fungal universal primers (ITS1 and ITS4). The ITS gene sequences of five isolates viz., CG1 (MK 681870), CG7 (MK681871), CG11 (MK681872), CG14 (MK681873) and CG20 (MK681874) were deposited in NCBI gene bank. Taxonomic comparison of the isolates with NCBI database proved that the isolates were genetically related to Ganoderma spp. with 80-100 per cent identity. However, all the tested isolates could not amplify G. lucidum species specific markers which indicate its absence in the region. The phylogenetic analysis of the Ganoderma isolates (ITS1 and ITS4) of coconut with other known species of Ganoderma from GenBank emphasized the close relationship with India, China and Sri Lanka isolates. The isolate CG1 grouped with Ganoderma carnosum (KR 733545.1) with 98.97 per cent identity which is isolated from Sri Lanka and CG14 and CG20 grouped with G. applanatum (MF 072395.1) and G. gibbosum (OM 350473.1) with 98 to 99 per cent identity and CG7 and CG11 isolates of coconut grouped into distinct sub cluster and clearly indicated the species diversity in Ganoderma infecting coconut in Southern Karnataka.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1352
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Management of diseases and insect-pests of French bean in Northwestern
           Indian Himalayan region using integrated approaches

    • Authors: Chandrashekara C, Mishra K K, Stanley J, Subbanna A R N S, Hooda K S, Pal R S, Bhatt J C, Pattanayak A
      First page: 448
      Abstract: French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is adversely affected by many pathogens and insect-pests worldwide. In the present investigation, effect of different bio-fortified composts, organic amendments, botanicals and pesticides were evaluated against diseases and insect- pests of french bean. The results showed that seed treatment and drenching with Trichoderma harzianum strain 11, followed by soil application of fortified farmyard manure resulted in the lowest root rot incidence, highest germination, vigour and yield in french bean. In another set of experiment, soil incorporation of Parthenium hysterophorus, Urtica dioicaandLantana camarawere found to reduce root rot incidence with high germination and pod yield. Among the bioproducts and botanicals tested, foliar spray of cow dung extract (50%) reduced angular leaf spot, rust and bacterial blight severity by 51, 69 and 25 per cent, respectively. Among the fungicides, foliar application of azoxystrobin 23 SC (0.1%) and difenoconazole 25EC (0.025%), also reduced angular leaf spot and rust severity by 93 and 90 per cent, respectively. Among different insect pest management strategies under field conditions, cartap hydrochloride and batain seed extract registered low sucking bug (Chauliops choprai) population. Integrated approaches including bio-agents, botanicals along with chemicals for managing these diseases and insect-pests were found appropriate options. Out of six different
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.897
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Pollen germination studies in Giant Himalayan Lily (Cardiocrinum giganteum
           Wall.) a high value of ornamental plant in Western Himalayan region

    • Authors: Anand Bisht, Lal S, Nautiyal B P, Bohra M
      Pages: 461 - 466
      Abstract: Giant Himalayan lily (Cardiocrinum giganteum Wall.) is a perennial bulbiferous herb of Liliaceae and an endemic species in the eastern Himalayan region, which has become one of the new flower crops because of its high ornamental value. The present investigationwas conducted to study pollen morphologyi.e., fresh pollen grains size was measured in different media, viz., water, acetocarmine, glycerol and without any medium (dry). The pollen grains of Giant Himalayan lily exhibited the average size (length x width) of (22.64 x 19.72μ) in water suspension. The result revealed that in glycerine and dry condition shape of pollen grains was perprolate. However, in water and acetocarmine it looked was round in shape. The result also shown that highest pollen germination (54.70%, 63.69%) and pollen tube growth (89.24μ, 175.85μ) in 10% sucrose solution for 12 hours and 24 hours respectively. In control light treatments, red light was found to be best in pollen germination and pollen tube growth.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Ex-Situ Conservation of An Endangered Medicinal Plant Andrographis
           Paniculata By Plant Tissue Culture

    • Authors: Marjia Akhter Monika, Mohammed Shafi Ullah Bhuiyan, Kishore Kumar Sarker, Mst Maiful Akter Dina, Sayeda Sultana
      Pages: 467 - 478
      Abstract: An effective and rapid in vitro regeneration protocol of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) was established by investigating the factors like combinations of plant growth regulators and explant types (stem, leaf and midrib). To find out the effective medium for callus induction and shoot regeneration, different explants of A. paniculata were cultured on MS media enriched with several concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Stem explant was noticed more responsive than leaf and midrib explant both in callus initiation and shoot regeneration. The ranges of callus initiation from stem, leaf and midrib explants were 26.67 - 100%, 20 - 93.33% and 13.33 - 73.33%, respectively. The calli obtained from midrib explants were not used in shoot initiation because of its poor size. The stem explant exhibited the maximum 73.33% shoot regeneration frequency in a comparison with leaf explants (60%). The maximum callus induction (100%) and shoot regeneration (73.33%) from stem explants were noticed in MS medium strengthened with 0.5 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L BA and half strength MS media complemented with 0.1 mg/L NAA and 3.0 mg/L BA respectively. The highest shoot regeneration from the stem explant may be due to presence of more active parenchymatous cells than that of leaf explant. Half MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg/L IBA considered as best root initiation medium as it resulted in maximum rooting (93.33%). After acclimatization, the plants were transferred to field and found identical to the mother plant.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1425
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Comparison of leaf volatile aroma constituents and phenolic acid profiles
           of the seedling originated polyembryonic mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    • Authors: Nandkishor Kanade, Shivashankara K S, Kurian R M, Sankaran M
      Pages: 479 - 487
      Abstract: In mango, leaf and fruit volatile aroma profiles are variety specific which can be used as fingerprint of a variety. Such biochemical markers can also discriminate the nucellar and zygotic seedlings in polyembryonic mango varieties. In order to validate the applicability of volatile as well as phenolic acid profiles as biomarkers, the open pollinated seedlings of three polyembryonic varieties of mango were compared with their mother trees. Leaf volatile and phenol acid profiling were done using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) methods respectively. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the most abundant in all the genotypes studied. Monoterpenoids were the major compounds in cultivars Vellaikolumban and Olour, while the sesquiterpenoids were the major compounds in cv. Turpentine. While terpinolene was the major monoterpenoid compound in Vellaikolumban and limonene in cv. Olour, the sesquiterpene á-gurjunene was the major compound in cv. Turpentine. Volatile profiling showed clear differences between the varieties but was similar within a variety. Among the 15 phenolic acids quantified in the leaves, P-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and ferulic acids were predominant whereas, vanillic acid, syringic acid, gentisic acid, benzoic acid, and sinapic acids were low in quantity. Phenolic acid profile did not show significant diversity among the varieties and therefore cannot be used for identification of varieties. The volatile profiling can be used for the identification and differentiation of polyembryonic mango genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Possibility of early detection of graft incompatibility in some commercial
           plum cultivars by phenolic compounds analysis

    • Authors: Ebrahim Ganji Moghadam, Sara Arghavan, Ahmad Fahadan, Mahboubeh Zamanipour
      Pages: 488 - 495
      Abstract: The incidence of incompatibility signs in the grafting point can be delayed, and the analysis of phenols is used as an applicable early sign for the detection of graft incompatibility. Accordingly, this study mainly aimed to investigate compatibility/incompatibility in 10 commercial plum cultivars grafted on myrobalan and apricot rootstocks, followed by determining the role of phenols in graft incompatibility. The evaluated cultivars included Santarosa, Ghatreh tala, Shams, Dargazi, No. 16, No. 17, Laroda, Simka, Bokhara, and Stanley. The results showed significant differences in the stem diameter. The union graft location in Shams, Laroda, Simka, Stanley, and Ghatreh tala cultivars on apricot rootstock was thicker than the scions and stocks. Phenolic compounds in the union graft decreased in all plum cultivars on myrobalan rootstock in comparison with other sites. Finally, the most phenolic accumulation belonged to the union graft on Santarosa, Ghatreh tala, and Shams on apricot rootstocks. Therefore, it seems that phenolic compounds in plums can be used as a biochemical marker in graft incompatibility.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Identification of circular RNAs in resistant tomato genotype in response
           to ToLCBaV infection

    • Authors: Bhavya Chidambara, Dayanandhi Elangovan, Sadashiva Avverahally , Krishna Reddy, Ravishankar Kundapura
      First page: 496
      Abstract: Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are covalently closed non-coding RNAs that play an important role in a variety of biological processes. CircRNA profiling helps to understand biological process associated with various abiotic and biotic stresses. In tomato genotype IIHR- 2611 (resistant to ToLCBaV), a total of 193 CircRNAs were discovered, of which 72 and 121 were found in control (RC) and ToLCBaV inoculated (RI) plants respectively. Among them, 103 (53 %) were exonic CircRNA regulating the expressions of their parent genes. Relative expression of CircRNAs 2:45295638 45295796, 2:51520741 51530067 and 7:67566489 67566691 and their respective parent genes Solyc02g080530.3 (peroxidase), Solyc02g088950.2 (superoxide dismutase) and Solyc07g065840.2.1 (heat shock protein 90) response to ToLCBaV infection were analysed at different time intervals. A significantly positive correlation was observed for the expression profiles of all three circRNAs and their parent genes. Furthermore, the differential expression across samples as well as time interval indicates that CircRNA mediated gene expression is involved in viral resistance. The results of the expression assays of both superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were consistent with enzyme analysis. Overall findings demonstrated the importance of CircRNAs in ToLCBaVD resistance and suggested that CircRNAs could be key regulators of gene expression during disease resistance in tomato.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1520
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Taxonomic revision of the cultivated species of Mimusops (Sapotaceae) in
           Egypt, with new records

    • Authors: Rim Hamdy, Azza El-Hadidy, Gehad Abd El-Mohsen
      Pages: 505 - 519
      Abstract: During the process of updating horticultural records of this genus in Egypt, five problems were identified: lack of publications, lack of clarity between species, numerous errors of identifications, loss of earlier documented records of identity, as well as, the introduction and cultivation of new plants during the 19th Century added to the complexity of the problem. In this study, the taxonomic aspects of genus Mimusops, were thoroughly studied to identify the most reliable characters for taxon delimitation. Our assessment was based on morphological characters representing habit, leaves, petioles, flowering pedicels, buds, floral parts, fruit and seed. Fieldwork have revealed the presence of four species, of which Mimusops kummel and M. zeyheri are new records. The latter species is represented in Egypt by M. zeyheri var. laurifolia. This variety has been neglected by many authors. Additionally, Mimusops elengi L. was believed to be cultivated in Egypt, but no materials have been encountered that could confirm it. The specimens earlier identified as M. elengi actually belong either to M. kummel or to M. laurifolia. A detailed description of the genus and species with photographs, an identification key, and synonymy for each taxon are provided.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessing performance of horticultural farmers producer companies:
           Comparative case study

    • Authors: Mukherjee A, Kumar U, Singh D K, Shubha K, Atheequlla, Sinha P K, Singh P
      Pages: 520 - 529
      Abstract: Every year the horticultural sector of India faces huge quantity of food wastage due to lack of processing, value addition and post-harvest handling. Farmers Producer Company (FPC) can mitigate the loss through ensuring better value chain management. There are several horticulture based FPCs established in different parts of India. They have grown very fast and competing with agro-industries. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FPCs working in horticulture sector. The study was conducted in Maharashtra State of India by selecting three FPCs working in horticultural sector. Performance of these FPCs was assessed through Effectiveness Index developed for this study. Seven components viz. functional effectiveness, increase in income, increase in farmers share in consumers rupees, inclusiveness, sustainability of company, farmers satisfaction and empowerment were included in the index by following standard index forming protocol. Sahyadri Farms was found the best performing one among the selected FPCs, regarding effectiveness with a mean index score of 63.69 followed by Vasundhara Agro Producer Company Limited (50.20) and Junnar Taluka FPC Ltd. (41.29).
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Growth trend and potential of horticulture in Northeast India

    • Authors: Madhucchanda Dasgupta
      First page: 530
      Abstract: The Northeast region of India is endowed with diverse soil and agro-climatic conditions that are conducive to the growth of a large variety of temperate and tropical horticultural crops. Fruits, vegetables, and spices of the region are highly nutritious and have a market within and outside the country. The paper is an attempt to assess the potential of horticulture in the region. To gauge the state-wise and regional growth trend and variability in area and production of these crops during the period 2009-2019, Compound Annual Growth rates and Instability Index have been computed from secondary data. The study reveals a rising regional growth trend with low instability for the production of fruits and vegetables and moderate instability for spices. This indicates the possibility of sustainable development of horticulture in all the Northeast states through strategic planning. Fruits and spices of the region also have a market in Middle-East and neighbouring countries. However, lack of commercialisation, poor market intelligence, and linkages are impeding the growth of exports. To unleash the true potential of horticulture, it is imperative to develop infrastructure, modernise farming and establish seamless value chains with greater market integration.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.872
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Diversity assessment of Nerium accessions for growth and flower yield

    • Authors: Rajiv G, Jawaharlal m, Allen J J, Ganesh S
      First page: 543
      Abstract: Thirty nerium accessions were evaluated for growth and flower yield. Each accession had specific vegetative and flowering traits, among them ACC-19 (Rasipuram pink double) recorded the maximum plant height (236.84 cm) and flower yield per plant (333.09g). ACC-2 (Panamarathanpatty white single) recorded the maximum number of primary branches (6.80). Leaf area (33.61 cm2), early flower bud initiation (90.47), flower bud length (3.40), number of inflorescences per plant (24.17), number of flowers per plant (10.67) were maximum in ACC-12. Accessions 12 (Rasipuram pink single) displayed profuse blooming and long-lasting blooming characteristics, which made them an excellent choice for commercial cultivation and landscaping.
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.996
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • Phenotypic trait association studies in brinjal upon drought stress

    • Authors: Mahammed Faizan, Harish Babu BN, Lakshmana D, Ganapthi M, Rakshith M
      First page: 549
      Abstract: Eggplant is popularly known as poor man’s vegetable. With respect to present situation of climatic challenges, fruit yield of eggplant is reduced due to drought or moisture stresses. In view of this condition, an experiment was aimed to study character association between yield and yield components in eggplant. The resultant outcome from correlation analysis computed among nine eggplant characters indicated that traits like plant height and total plant length at harvesting, fruit length and number of fruits per plant significantly correlated with fruit yield per plant. Whereas, traits like plant height and total plant length observed at harvesting stage, number of days for flower initiation, number of primary branches, fruit length and average fruit weight were significantly associated with fruit yield per plant under moisture stressed condition.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
      DOI: 10.24154/jhs.v17i2.1232
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
  • First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing leaf spot on Flacourtia
           montana, a wild edible fruit tree of Western Ghats, India

    • Authors: Rasmi C K, Shambhu Kumar, Jose P A
      Pages: 555 - 559
      Abstract: Flacourtia montana J. Graham wild edible fruit tree, endemic to the Western Ghats, India was found infected with leaf spot disease. Based on morphological characteristics, molecular analyses (ITS and LSU) and pathogenicity, the pathogen was identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl. (Botryosphaeriaceae).This is the first report of L. theobromae causing leaf spots on F. montana from Western Ghats, India.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
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