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ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1685-9545
Published by ECTI Association Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Moving Reference Planes of Unit Cells of Reciprocal Lossy Periodic
           Transmission-Line Structures

    • Authors: Suthasinee Lamultree
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: An analysis of moving reference planes of unit cells of reciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line (TL) structures (RLSPTLSs) by using the equivalent bi- characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL) model is presented. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for wave propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constant) are of interest. In the analysis, an arbitrary infinite RLSPTLS is firstly considered by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs. Then, a semi-infinite terminated RLSPTLS is subsequently investigated in term of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells, as well as the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells, are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constant remains unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed technique.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2018)
  • Performance Analysis Methods in Smart Grids: An Overview

    • Authors: Surender Reddy Salkuti
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the performance analysis methods available for the Smart Grid (SG). Increased energy demand, volatile energy costs, uncertain power generation from the renewable energy resources (RERs), electric vehicles, and environmental concerns are coming together to change the nature of the traditional power grid. Many utility companies are now moving towards the smart metering and the Smart Grid solutions to address these challenges. Smart Grid is inclusive of advance tools, latest communication technologies and storage devices, which makes the Smart Grid vulnerable and complex. This paper aims to review the performance analysis of Smart Grid. It also presents various models of the Smart Grid performance indices. It presents the methods available for stability, reliability and resilience assessment in Smart Grid. It also describes the implementation approach using the real time tools and techniques.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2018)
  • CU-MAC: A Duty-Cycle MAC Protocol for Internet of Things in Wireless
           Sensor Networks

    • Authors: Tanapoom Danmanee, Kulit Na Nakorn, Kultida Rojviboonchai
      Pages: 30 - 43
      Abstract: Nowadays “Internet of Things” or IoT becomes the most popular technology in the Internet system. Types of devices and sensors have been connected as a network of devices and sensors. While a wireless sensor network is a traditional network of sensors that can be considered as a beginning point of IoT systems. Currently, these sensor data are not only exchanged within a local network but also are delivered to other devices in the Internet. Consequently, well-known organizations such as IEEE, IETF, ITU-T and ISO/IET are trying to set standards for wireless sensor devices in IoT systems. The recommended standard utilizes many of internet stack standards such as CoAP, UDP and IP. However, the traditional design of WSNs is to avoid using internet protocol in the system to reduce transmission overhead and power consumption due to resource limitation. Fortunately, the current technology in both hardware and software allow the internet standard to sufficiently operate in a small sensor.  In this paper, we propose a MAC protocol named CU-MAC to efficiently support IoT standard that need request-respond communication or bi-direction communication. CU-MAC uses multi-channel communication to perform continuous and bi-directional data transfer at low duty-cycle. It also has a mechanism to overcome the hidden terminal problem. We evaluated the performance of CU-MAC on both simulation and real testbed based on Contiki OS. The result shows that CU-MAC outperforms other existing MAC protocols in term of packet delivery ratio at 98.7% and requires lower duty-cycle than others to operate in the high traffic environment.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2018)
  • Photovoltaic powered transormerless hybrid converter with active filter
           for harmonic and reactive power compensation

    • Authors: R. Arulmurugan
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: This paper proposed a Transformer less Hybrid SEries Active Filter (THSeAF) that upgrade the power quality in single-stage frameworks with steady renewable Photo Voltaic (PV) supply. It strengthens basic loads and carrying on as high-consonant impedance that does not below the critical loads, it cleans power system and guarantees the utilization of unity power factor. Here we manages energy management and power quality issues identified with electric transportation and concentrate on enhancing the electric vehicle load connected to grid. This depends on the Power Factor Correction (PFC) change with harmonic modulation technique that will give advancement of power factor in PFC operation. The control technique was intended to anticipation of current harmonic distortions with the nonlinear loads to control the flow of utility with no standard massive and expensive transformer. Power factor alongside AC side will likewise kept up to some esteem and furthermore dispense with the voltage distortions at the Common coupling point. Here we protecting sensitive loads from voltage twists, swells and sags as for control framework, without the arrangement transformer it is worthwhile for a modern usage. This paper was done with 2-kVA control showing the adequacy of the current topology.
      PubDate: 2018-02-10
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2018)

    • Authors: D. Danalakshmi, V. Thiruppathy Kesavan, V. Agnes Idhaya Selvi
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: The reactive power is the background power without which the active power cannot be transmitted in the power systems. In the modern power system, the reactive power pricing is considered as essential in order to maintain the voltage in the transmission line. The modern power system is the grid that functions with smart innovative technological system that provides flexibility, efficiency and availability for the users. The smart grid uses the Internet of Things (IoT) technology to identify and provides the requirement of system reactive power for reactive power pricing. The IoT based wireless communication platform significantly reduces the latency and provides better accuracy. The system requirements for reactive power are optimally dispatched by the generator and other reactive power provider using optimization algorithm like Self Balanced Differential Evolution. Here the analytics and opportunities of smart grid for reactive power service are discussed using 62 bus Indian Utility System (IUS).
      PubDate: 2018-02-10
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2018)
  • Scalarized Q Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning for Area Coverage
           Control and Light Control Implementation

    • Authors: Akkhachai Phuphanin, Wipawee Usaha
      Pages: 72 - 82
      Abstract: Coverage control is crucial for the deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most coverage control schemes are based on single objective optimization such as coverage area only, which do not consider other contradicting objectives such as energy consumption, the number of working nodes, wasteful overlapping areas. This paper proposes on a Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) coverage control called Scalarized Q Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (SQMORL). The two objectives are to achieve the maximize area coverage and to minimize the overlapping area to reduce energy consumption. Performance evaluation is conducted for both simulation and multi-agent lighting control testbed experiments. Simulation results show that SQMORL can obtain more efficient area coverage with fewer working nodes than other existing schemes.  The hardware testbed results show that SQMORL algorithm can find the optimal policy with good accuracy from the repeated runs.
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2018)
  • The Effect of pH and Temperature in the Propagation of Water Treeing in
           XLPE Insulated Underground Cable

    • Authors: Narupon Promvichai, Terapong Boonraksa, Boonruang Marungsri
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: Water treeing has become the major problem in XLPE insulated underground cable caused by the moisture penetration. Despite several studies performed, this problem is still not clear on how the moisture can fast damage the XLPE insulated cable under certain operating conditions. This work has studied the effect of pH and temperature of the ionic solutions to the degradation of the XLPE insulation. The study focused on the XLPE cable used in the 22 kV underground distribution systems in Thailand. The ionic solutions involved a 0.1 mole/L of NaCl and CuSO4 solutions for degrading the XLPE cable at ambient and 50 °C in 1000 hours and 4000 hours with the electric stress of 22 kV 50 Hz continuously.  CuSO4 and NaCl revealed a pH of 4.04 to 3.70 and 6.49 to 6.74 from ambient to 50 °C respectively. The higher strength of acidity resulted by CuSO4 at 50 °C was observed to be more effective in the propagation of water treeing across the XLPE insulation. The propagation of water treeing across the XLPE was strongly dependent on the pH level. Temperature above ambient was concluded to be detrimental for XLPE insulation when a CuSO4 ionic solution exists over a long period due to the significant propagation of water treeing.
      PubDate: 2018-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2018)
  • A new reinforced MAC protocol for lifetime prolongation of reliable
           Wireless Body Area Network

    • Authors: Boufedah Badissi Azzouz, Babouri Abdesselam, Benmohamed Mohamed, Abouchi Nacer
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Recent development of sensors and sensor networks has allowed the creation of new emerging systems which is used as promising solutions in several types of applications. Among which, wireless body area networks (WBANs) is an example that enable continuous monitoring of patients vital signs parameters in everyday life situations. Reliability and energy optimization are considered amongst the important and challenging issues in WBANs. The standard IEEE 802.15.4 is of paramount importance MAC (Media Access Control) protocol for medical sensor body area networks, owing to its low-power, low data rate and low-cost features. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement optimized MAC protocol based on IEEE 802.15.4 dubbed RMAC. The proposed protocol aims to enhance the reliability and to extend the network life time, by reducing energy consumption. NS2 simulator is used for the implementation of the protocol and for the performance evaluation in comparison with the Standard IEEE 802.15.4. The simulation results show that our protocol outperforms the Standard in terms of reliability and network lifetime.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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