Publisher: Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand   (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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 Disease Control JournalNumber of Followers: 0     Open Access journal ISSN (Online) 2651-1649 Published by Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand  [1 journal]
• Hepatitis C virus: general property, drug treatment, drug resistance and
mutation detection

• Authors: Anchalee Sistayanarain, Duangkamol Kunthalert
Pages: 239 - 247
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is major course of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV infection occurs worldwide including Thailand. Hepatitis C virus are classified into 8 main genotypes and several subtypes. Genotypes 1-3 can be detected worldwide while genotypes 4-6 are found in some geographical areas. In Thailand, HCV genotype 3 is the most predominant (47.8%) followed by genotype 6 (34.8%) and 1 (17.4%). Treatment of HCV infection with conventional antiviral drugs encounters the limitation due to the serious side effects and drug resistance. Currently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been a promising approach for HCV therapy. DAAs are composed of NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), NS5A inhibitors, NS5B nucleos(t)ide polymerase inhibitors (NIs) and NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors (NNIs). However, drug resistance is also found to be associated with viral mutations. Detection of HCV gene mutations would be essential for the treatment. The popular method for the mutation assay is the investigating nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of NS3, NS5A and NS5B regions of HCV.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.21
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• People’s participation in the control and prevention of chikungunya
fever at Nong Sarai Primary Care Cluster, Pak Chong district, Nakhon
Ratchasima province

• Authors: Pitsanee Wichantuk
Pages: 248 - 262
Abstract: This descriptive research aimed to study the participation of population to prevent and control chikungunya fever and factors that associated with the participation of population in the prevention and control of chikungunya fever. The samples consisted of 354 participants recruited from households living in the areas under the control of Nong Sarai Primary Care Cluster. The samples were obtained using a stratified sampling method. The research instruments were self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics Chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test and Spearman correlation coefficient. The results revealed that 46.9% of samples had a high level on the participation of population to prevent and control chikungunya fever. The selected predisposing, enabling, reinforcing factors were significantly associated with the people’s participation to prevent and control chikungunya fever. The four predisposing factors were being a village health volunteer (p<0.001), being a community leader (p<0.01), knowledge about chikungunya fever (rs=0.525, p<0.01) and the perception about chikungunya fever (rs=0.336, p<0.01). The enabling factor was the accessibility of prevention equipment for chikungunya fever (p<0.001). In addition, the three reinforcing factors were given information (p<0.01), being trained on chikungunya fever (p<0.001) and given document/leaflet/manual for the prevention of chikungunya fever (p<0.001). The related authorities should encourage the participation of people in prevention and control of chikungunya fever for every procedure that support the cooperation of sustainable community participation.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.22
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Factors related to preventive behaviors in Aedes mosquito-borne diseases
among population aged over 15 years in Rayong province

• Authors: Wilawan Iamsa-ad, Pathavee Waewwab
Pages: 263 - 277
Abstract: This descriptive study was to examine the factors related to preventive behavior in Aedes mosquito-borne diseases. Data were collected from 632 samples aged over 15 years using a self-constructed questionnaire and 50 supporters on mosquito-borne disease prevention by interview and focus group discussion. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation (SD). Chi-squared, Fisher’s exact, and Cramer’s V tests were performed to find the relationship between factors and level of relationship. The study found that age, education, occupation and family income were related to preventive behavior in dengue mosquito-borne diseases. Moreover, knowledge about dengue mosquito-borne diseases, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and perceived self-efficacy were related to preventive behavior in dengue mosquito-borne diseases. Thus, to generate the correct perception, knowledge, and understanding leading to the appropriate preventive behaviors, all stakeholders should adjust the communicative methods and time periods in communication of Aedes mosquito-borne diseases in compliance with lifestyle of people, set the measures to promote the participation of people, and provide the local regulations or ordinances to prevent the transmission of Aedes mosquito-borne diseases.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.23
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Factors affecting rabies prevention behavior of pet owners, Phutthabat
subdistrict, Chon Daen district, Phetchabun province

• Authors: Puthita Phoomee, Sane Saengngoen
Pages: 278 - 292
Abstract: This research has purpose to study factors affecting rabies prevention behaviors of pet owners, Puttabath Subdistrict, Chondean District, Petchabun Province. And research was cross-sectional. The sample was pet owners of 302. Use questionnaires as a tool to collect information. Data were analyzed using Pearson Etar correlation coefficient statistics and Stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results were that 37.7 percent male, 62.3% female, mean age 44.07 years (SD=10.68). Primary education level 50.0% mean income 15,200 baht (SD=19,906.24). Behavior prevention of rabies high level of 61.3 percent, moderate level of 38.4 percent, low level of 0.3 percent and  variables that predict to behavior of rabies were income ($\beta$= 6.26), employee ($\beta$= -2.11), divorced marital status ($\beta$= 67.55), having received information about rabies ($\beta$= 4.47), self registration of pets ($\beta$= -3.60), acquisition of a pet with a person released ($\beta$= -3.66), acquisition of purchased pets ($\beta$= 3.90), pets are vaccinated from government services ($\beta$= 9.36), pets are vaccinated by waiting to be serviced by staff at home ($\beta$= 5.18), recognizing the risk of rabies ($\beta$= 0.40), expectations of one's own ability to prevent rabies ($\beta$= 3.40). The aforementioned variables predicted behavior prevention of rabies of pet owners by 43.2 percent.  From research results related agencies should provide rabies information, promote the registration and vaccination against rabies.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.24
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Factors affecting stroke prevention behavior among
uncontrolled-hypertensive patients in Muang district, Phitsanulok province

• Authors: Thanyarat Wongchana, Pattanawadee Pattanathaburt, Narongsak Noosorn
Pages: 293 - 306
Abstract: The purposes of this research were to study the behaviors and factors influencing stroke prevention behaviors among patients having uncontrolled hypertension in Mueang district, Phitsanulok province. We recruited 416 patients by cluster sampling. Data were collected during January-March 2020. The instrument used in this research was a questionnaire consisting of 4 parts: 1) personal information, 2) awareness of having stroke, 3) social support, and 4) stroke prevention behaviors. The instrument quality was examined by 3 experts for the content validity with its IOC values were between 0.6-1. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, that is, frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and stepwise multiple linear regression with the statistically significance level at 0.05. The results were found that the level of stroke prevention behaviors among was moderate (mean=70.21, SD=6.9). The factors affecting stroke prevention behaviors were the awareness of the expectation of self-efficacy for stroke prevention (B=0.466; 95% CI=0.356, 0.576), gender (B=1.427; 95% CI=0.137, 2.718), and marital status (B=-1.305; 95% CI=-2.583, -0.027). These can explain the variance, 16.4% for influencing stroke prevention behaviors. The suggestions from the research are that the relating organizations should design some activities to change stroke prevention behaviors among the patients having uncontrolled hypertension in Mueang district, Phitsanulok province. The activities should focus on promoting awareness of self-efficacy of the patients and developing their skill for stroke prevention.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.25
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Associations between iillicit alcohol consumption and harmful drinking
patterns of the Thai population

• Authors: Kamolphat Markchang, Jintana Jankhotkaew , Sopit Nasueb, Surasak Chaiyasong
Pages: 307 - 320
Abstract: One-fourth of alcohol consumption worldwide is unrecorded alcohol consumption, representing approximately 1.6 liters of alcohol per capita (APC), while the Thai population’s unrecorded alcohol consumption has a higher consumption rate, about 1.7 liters of APC. This study aimed to analyze associations between illicit alcohol consumption and harmful drinking patterns of the Thai population. A cross-sectional research was conducted using data from the Smoking and Drinking Behavior Survey (SDBS) in 2017, conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand (NSO), with a total sample of 22,610 respondents aged 15 years old and above being included for data analysis. The study investigated two types of harmful drinking patterns: binge drinking, and high-risk level drinking. Multiple logistic regression was utilized to investigate the associations between illicit alcohol consumption and the harmful drinking patterns. Illicit alcohol consumption had a greater prevalence of binge drinking than recorded alcohol consumption (58.87% for illicit alcohol consumption, and 37.14% for recorded alcohol consumption), as was the case for high-risk level drinking behaviors (10.49% for illicit alcohol consumption, and 5.99% for recorded alcohol consumption). After adjusting for potential confounders, illicit alcohol drinkers reported 2.55 times more likely to be binge drinkers compared to recorded alcohol drinkers (95% CI 2.54-2.56; p<0.001), and illicit alcohol drinkers had 1.57 times more likely to report high-risk level drinking patterns compared to recorded alcohol drinkers (95% CI 1.57-1.58; p<0.001). The study showed that illicit alcohol drinking was significantly associated with more harmful drinking patterns than recorded alcohol drinking. Therefore, relevant authorities should seriously enforce the regulations banning the smuggling and illegal production of unrecorded alcohol products.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.26
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Evaluation of road traffic deaths surveillance system, Muang district,
Chachoengsao province, 2019

• Authors: Jatuponn Thipayathikamponn, Kesarin Kornoungklang, Sasitorn Phongprapan
Pages: 321 - 331
Abstract: The evaluation of road traffic deaths surveillance system, Muang District, Chachoengsao province, 2019: This study aimed to assess the sensitivity of the report, positive predictive values, the structure of the data reporting system, and the utilization of data and information. It compared between road accident reporting system (e-Report) with the report summary of the three integrated databases (File Excel) and each database before integration (E-Claim, IS, Medical records, CRIMES). The research methodology used a combination of both quantitative and qualitative. The data was analyzed using percentage and content analysis. The evaluation reveals that the Road Safety Administration Center, Chachoengsao Province report of deaths from road traffic accidents in the e-Report from January 1 - December 31, 2019 of 81 cases and one unreported, the sensitivity of the road traffic death surveillance system was 98.78%. Interviews with executives and operators all three integrated databases found 15 missing data, the sensitivity was reduced to 84.38%. Reviewing hospital medical records found 38 missing data, the sensitivity was reduced to 60.44%. For the structure of the integrated surveillance system found that Chachoengsao Provincial Office of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation has summarized the monthly meeting of integrating 3 databases before put the information into the e-Report System of the Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM). The study results may be utilized to improve the quality of reporting data from medical records to IS information systems, establish policies, measures that get along well with the local context. Suggestions: relevant departments should come up with common, consistent definitions to ensure correct and consistent understanding. Verify the total amount of data gathered from the medical records before further integration from the IS system.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.27
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Development of triage process for emergency room in third zone network of
hospitals in Chiang Mai provincial area by using mobile application

• Authors: Tanasit Wijitraphan
Pages: 332 - 341
Abstract: This research and development project was aimed to develop a triage mobile application for emergency room in third zone network of hospitals in Chiang Mai provincial area. The innovative triage mobile application known as Speedy ER was developed based on Thailand national triage guidelines. A total of 5,390 patients who received healthcare services at emergency room (ER) of San Pa Tong Hospital, Mae Wang Hospital, Hang Dong Hospital, Sarapee Hospital, San Kamphaeng Hospital, Mae On Hospital, and Doi Saket Hospital were included in the study. Data were collected from medical records pre- and post-utilization of triage mobile application. Results showed improvements of triage accuracy rates in San Pa Tong Hospital, Mae Wang Hospital, Hang Dong Hospital, Sarapee Hospital, San Kamphaeng Hospital, MaeOn Hospital and Doi Saket Hospital after using the mobile application. The triage accuracy rates in ER of the aforementioned hospitals increased (Risk ratio were 1.88, 1.31, 1.18, 1.53, 1.70, 1.78 and 3.13 respectively). Findings from this research indicated that Speedy ER mobile application is a reliable tool for emergency room triage.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.28
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Factors associated with rational drug use awareness of drug operating
personnel in private drugstores at Chanthaburi province

• Authors: Areewan Mahathanarat, Roungtiva Muenpa
Pages: 342 - 357
Abstract: The purpose of this study: (1) to study the awareness of the rational drug use (RDU) among drug operating personnel in private drugstores at Chanthaburi province; (2) to study the factors (personal factor, knowledge of antibiotic use and the perception of information on RDU operations) that affect the awareness of RDU among drug operating personnel; and (3) to study problems and obstacles in the implementation of RDU in private drugstores. A total of 151 samples were recruited from the drug operating personnel in private drugstores. The tool used in the study is a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and One-way ANOVA statistics. The results showed that 60.3% of drug operating personnel reported having a high level of awareness on RDU. The perception of RDU information of the drug operating personnel was a statistically significant factor affecting the awareness of RDU. Other factors did not affect awareness of RDU. Drug operating personnel are most concern on the potential risks related to prescribing practices including contraindications, precautions and drug interactions. The problems and obstacles are that the service recipients still lack of knowledge and understanding on drug use and have wrong attitude that antibiotics can cure every disease, as well as the drug operating personnel still lack of knowledge and cooperation in the rational use of drugs. The recommendations are that RDU should be promoted through various channels continuously and widely by emphasizing on the participation from all sectors, and the distribution of drugs must strictly comply with the law.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.29
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Factors associated with household food security among people living in
repeated flooding areas in Phatthalung province

• Authors: Saowanee Posakaboot, Pattama Rukkua, Bhunyabhadh Chaimay, Somkiattiyos Woradet, Supaporn Meksawi
Pages: 358 - 367
Abstract: The purpose of this analytic cross-sectional study aimed to investigate factors associated with household food security among people living in repeated flooding areas in Phatthalung province. In total, 368 samples experienced a problem of flooding in resident areas or lived in the lowland of the western Songkhla Lake in Phatthalung province were enrolled. The data were collected using questionnaires of which the content validity was checked by three experts. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of household food security was 0.88. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The factors associated with household food security among people living in repeated flooding areas were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results found that the household food security was rated at the good level. Factors statistically significantly associated with household food security among people living in repeated flooding areas were family members 4-6 person (regression coefficient 4.87, 95% CI: 1.23 to 8.51) and unemployment / house working (regression coefficient-8.76, 95% CI: -13.65 to -3.86). The study suggests that public and related private sectors should launch the activities / projects which promote household occupation among family members or basically training of working professionals in the community in order to be able to approach food consumption and have sustainability in household food security.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.30
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Health literacy on gastrointestinal disease prevention among Myanmar
migrant workers in Mae Ramat district, Tak province, Thailand

• Authors: Chuthaporn Suntayakorn, Chanjar Suntayakorn, Primprapha Konkaew
Pages: 368 - 380
Abstract: The development of migrant health service is an important Thai national agenda. This qualitative research aimed to explore the health literacy skills of Myanmar migrant workers in preventing gastrointestinal diseases. The samples of this study were Myanmar migrant workers from large industries (n=22) as well as those from small industries and household (n=20). The research site is located at Mae Ramat district, Tak province. This research used purposive sampling and the data were collected through focus group discussion and in-depth interviews. The results of this study indicated that the level of information access skills related to gastrointestinal disease prevention was dependent on age, gender, culture, experience, and communication skills of the migrant workers. While the decision-making skills and health behavior depended on their individual health literacy. The decision and the health behaviors of the migrant workers were likely to change after experiencing the gastrointestinal illness and utilized the health facilities and services from both hospitals and private clinics in Thailand. Nevertheless, the migrant workers still face several challenges in changing their health behaviors to prevent gastrointestinal disease due to economic condition, working condition and the consumption behavior. For the media literacy in gastrointestinal disease prevention, the migrant workers who worked in large industries have more channels in checking and learning the health information from a variety of sources when compared to workers in small industries/household workers. Finally, the research found the culture and gender of migrants are important elements in developing health literacy skills on gastrointestinal disease prevention among Myanmar migrant workers. Findings from this study indicated that female workers were more enthusiastic than their male counterparts in obtaining health literacy information. This is possibly due to the Asian culture, in which women are expected to take care of household and well- being of family members.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.31
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Effects of hand hygiene education on hand hygiene behavior of visitors

• Authors: Orathai Rungvachira, Nopbhornphetchara Maungtoug, Peeraya Suteerangkul, Metta Srisoy
Pages: 381 - 393
Abstract: The objectives of the study were to compare the hand hygiene knowledge and behavior between pre-education and post-education and to study the opinion of visitors about the problem and solution for handwashing. Forty-three visitors were selected by purposive sampling from the medical-surgical unit of Sanam Chai Khet Hospital. The research instruments were the hand hygiene knowledge and hand hygiene behavior questionnaires. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, means, standard deviation, and paired t-test was conducted to compare the different between pre and post-education. The result showed that the knowledge of pre-education was at medium level (x=11.30, SD=1.23), and the knowledge of post-education was at high level (x=13.20, SD=1.01) with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The hand hygiene behavior of respondents in pre-education was at high level (x=2.81, SD=0.57), and in post-education was at high level (x=3.00, SD=0.42) with no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Most of the respondents suggested that an alcohol hand rub should be provided beside the patient’s bed as well as scatter around the wards. Therefore, nurse managers and infection control nurses should utilize the collected data for hand hygiene training plan for visitors to increase the knowledge and having correct health behavior as well as provide sufficient equipment to promote hand hygiene for visitors.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.32
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• NIOSH significant threshold shift and OSHA standard threshold shift
criteria for early detection of noise-induced hearing loss

• Authors: Nicha Wongkeereepiboon, Aurapan Chaimanee
Pages: 394 - 403
Abstract: Interpretation of audiograms by using a comparison with baseline audiograms is effective early detection of noise-induced hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hearing threshold shift with NIOSH significant threshold shift criteria and OSHA standard threshold shift criteria in addition to evaluate the degree of hearing loss. This analysis included workers at an electronic factory, followed between 2018 and 2020. Multivariable Multilevel Gaussian Regression was conducted to estimate hearing threshold shift. The mean age of 598 workers was 37.2±8.4 years in 2018 and most of them were female (77.6%). The prevalence of NIOSH Significant threshold shift was 41.5% (95% CI=37.49-45.54) and the prevalence of OSHA Standard threshold shift was 25.3 (95% CI=21.81-28.93). Hearing loss was most severe at 6,000 Hz. After adjustment for gender, age, and departments, there was a change of 2.0-4.4 dB in threshold shift over 1 year and 3.9 - 6.2 dB over 2 years. These results revealed that the NIOSH significant threshold shift criteria or OSHA standard threshold shift criteria can be used to detect noise-induced hearing loss earlier than interpretation without a baseline audiogram. In addition, it is important to provide an annual audiogram to comply with legislation and prevent irreversible hearing loss.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.33
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Guardian’s protective behaviors towards respirable particulate matter
exposure among children in a public primary school in Samut Prakan
province

• Authors: Pitchanan Kajonpet, Arthit Phosri, Natnaree Aimyong, Tanasri Sihabut
Pages: 404 - 414
Abstract: This cross-sectional research aimed to study guardians’ knowledge, attitudes and protective behaviors towards respirable particulate exposure among children in a public primary school located in Pak Nam Subdistrict, Mueang Samut Prakan District, Samut Prakan Province. Additionally, factors associated with their behaviors were explored. To conduct the study, data from 122 Prathom 1-6 children’s guardians were collected using questionnaires and then expressed as frequency, percentage and mean. The associations between variables were quantified using either Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. The results showed that although 52.50% (95% CI: 43.57-61.43) of the respondents had good knowledge levels and 43.44% (95% CI: 34.64-52.24) had good attitude levels, only 27.00% (95% CI: 19.12-34.88) of the respondents exhibited good protective behaviors. These resulted from improper practices in irregularly checking the ambient air monitoring report, allowing children to perform activities outdoors during particulate matter episodes and selecting unsuitable personal protective equipment for their children. Considering variable associations, children’s sex, guardian’s education level and attitudes were significantly associated with protective practices (p<0.05).Therefore, increasing guardian’s awareness towards the harmful effects from ambient particulate exposure and use of unsuitable mask, as well as creating easily accessible social media platforms for reporting air quality, probably under school operations, are required to reduce the children’s risk to respirable particulate exposure.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.34
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Factors affecting of silicosis among stone grinding mill workers in
Chonburi province

• Authors: Eakkarin Lukkanalikitkul
Pages: 415 - 427
Abstract: The objective of this research is to study the factors influencing silicosis among stone grinding mill workers in Chonburi province by data analysis of health examination results from Chonburi Hospital in 2020. There were 957 workers receiving health examinations. The study was Cross-sectional descriptive study and analyzed by multiple logistic regression statistics. Workers were overweight, Obesity class 1 and 2 equal to16.9%, 36.9%, 20.1%, respectively and were diabetic, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia equal to 6.1%, 16.1%, 4.2%, respectively and smoking 31.3%. Prevalence of silicosis was 32.9%. Workers with silicosis had a higher proportion of obstructive and mixed pattern of pulmonary function than workers without silicosis. The 18.3 percent of workers wore N95 Masks and 55.9 percent of workers wore mask at all times. Factors that influenced silicosis were age, with increasing age of 1 year increased the risk of silicosis by 1.12 times (95% CI=1.09-1.15), 1-year extended working period increased the risk of silicosis by 1.06 times (95% CI=1.04-1.09), Jaw crusher unit and production unit were 4.41 and 2.38 times more at risk of silicosis than office unit (95% CI=3.31-15.22, 1.23-4.81) respectively and wearing an N95 mask reduced the risk of silicosis by 14.8% (95% CI=0.79-0.94). The Relevant organizations should have screening program, health promotion and smoking cessation program in workplace regarding to chronic non – communicable diseases, education of workers, and raising awareness on the use of protective masks. The factory should provide N95 or standard mask type to employees and pay attention to surveillance and prevention of silicosis, especially for high-risk process such as jaw crusher unit, production unit, etc.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.35
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Health determinants influencing on cholinesterase level in serum of
agriculturist: A case study of agriculturist in Huaphai sub-district,
Kaendong district, Buriram province

• Authors: Chawiwan Yord-in, Kanittha Chodnock, Sunee Lamthong
Pages: 428 - 439
Abstract: The objective of the cross-sectional survey research was to study health determinants influencing cholinesterase level in serum of agriculturists in Huaphai Subdistrict, Kaendong District, Buriram Province. We conducted a structured interview and determined cholinesterase enzyme level in blood samples of 165 voluntary agriculturists. The demographic data was summarized by descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean; the correlation between health determinants and cholinesterase level in volunteers’ serum was examined by Fisher’s Exact Test. The results indicated the majority of agriculturists were female (63.64%), age ranging from 49 to 65 years old (51.52%), normal body mass index (32.73%), no underlying disease (64.24%), graduated from primary school (76.36%), average income per month less than 6,000 baht (69.10%), rice farming (47.58%), more than 15 rai of cultivation land (47.27%), using pesticides longer than 10 years (53.94%), duration of pesticides contact 1-3 hours (56.36%), gained the supportive information of how to use pesticides for agriculturist (59.39%) and reported gaining the knowledge from agricultural officers (23.18%). The knowledge of agriculturists on how to use pesticides was high level at 51.52%; their attitude and practices concerning pesticide use were reported in moderate level at 68.48% and 46.67%, respectively. The cholinesterase level in serum were at unsafe level (84.24%), risk level (13.33%), and safety level (2.43%). The health determinants indicated body mass index and average family income per month were significantly related to cholinesterase level in agriculturists’ serum (p-value<0.05). The agriculture officers and the health officers of Khok Sawang Health Promoting Hospital should provide guidelines for reduction of chemical accumulation in the risk group by providing knowledge support of pesticides safe use, conducting the surveillance and periodically follow up, and screening for chemical accumulation in all occupations in the community.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.36
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• Polio outbreak simulation exercise in Thailand’s border areas

• Authors: Chaninan Sonthichai
Pages: 440 - 447
Abstract: Polio eradication was initiated in 1988 as a global commitment. Even polio incidence has greatly declined but a number of cases are still being detected in some parts of the world. In the past few years, an increasing trend of global cases has been observed including detection of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis cases in neighboring countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended its member states to prepare for emergency response to contain potential polio outbreaks. Thailand also has a risk of imported cases which comes to its concern. To address this important health concern, a table-top simulation exercise was conducted on 30 July 2020 in Tak province, which is located on Thailand’s western border. Even OPV coverage of its border districts was as high as 94.2%, the province was still considered as high-risk area for polio outbreaks. Participants attending the exercise included health officials working in the areas of epidemiology, immunization, risk communications, emergency response, and control of international communicable diseases representing relevant health agencies at provincial, regional and national levels under the Ministry of Public Health. The objectives were to test an emergency plan, response procedures, and review the lessons learned. The exercise was considered a great success as it had received strong support from senior leadership from relevant health agencies and successfully met its objectives. Subject matter experts have recommended improvements of the guidelines on system management, immunization, logistics/supply, surveillance/investigation, and risk communications, which was similar to this type of exercise in other countries. This activity helped raise awareness about polio outbreak preparedness among related agencies and could also be adopted as a model for other high-risk areas to conduct a simulation exercise in the future.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.37
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• An outbreak investigation of Salmonella food poisoning in a primary school
of Mueang district, Nakhon Sawan province, July 2020

• Authors: Nithiruj Phetsindechakul, Uthaiporn Arkaranupappong, Supalerk Chaiyanuwattiwong, Pornchanok Sehawong, Waraporn Keawluanthong
Pages: 448 - 457
Abstract: The outbreak investigation of Salmonella food poisoning in a primary school, Nakhon Sawan Province, was conducted from July 21-23, 2020. The objectives of the investigation were to confirm a diagnosis of Salmonella food poisoning, determine epidemiological characteristics, identify source and mode of transmission, and recommend for prevention and control measures. Descriptive and unmatched case-control studies served as the methodology for epidemiological study designs. Active case finding was conducted by interviews, an individual in school or a food handler who had developed watery diarrhea, mucous diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, fever, headache, and fatigue between 18 and 23 July 2020 were categorized as the suspected case and confirmed through laboratory tests to identify causative agents. Results indicated that 192 cases of Salmonella food poisoning were reported, the overall attack rate of 12.09 %. Of these 192 cases, 186 were students and 6 were educational personnel. Most cases presented with watery diarrhea, mucus diarrhea, and abdominal pain after consuming steamed Chinese Chive Dumplings (Gui Chai) in the afternoon of July 20, 2020. Multivariate analysis determined that consumption of Gui Chai was significant, adjusted OR=5.52 (95%CI; 2.26-13.99). Epidemiological findings revealed that Gui Chai was a suspected source of infection and its culture showed a positive result for Salmonella spp. Gui Chai was well steamed over boiling water for five minutes, but there was later contaminating. The outbreak of food poisoning in this primary school at Nakhon Sawan province, was caused by Salmonella spp. contaminated in Gui Chai. The personal hygiene practices of food sellers and the food sanitation adherence among subcontracting chain in food suppliers should be intensified. The surveillance following the outbreak of the disease had been monitored for one week, it revealed no additional cases. Thus, it was regarded as the end of the outbreak.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.38
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

• The survey of probable cases of diseases caused by arsenic in some wood
factory in Phrapradaeng district, Samutprakarn province, January 2021

• Authors: Thanwaporn Chaweepoonpermsin, Somkiat Siriruttanapruk, Prapasri Samjai, Kate Chaivatcharaporn
Pages: 458 - 470
Abstract: Four out of five wood factory workers who had been exposed to unknown wood preservative had an excess inorganic arsenic exposure. This study aims to determine epidemiologic characteristics of probable cases of diseases caused by arsenic in a wood factory and identify whether it was work related, and recommend preventive and control measure. This cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in January 2021 started by diagnosis verification of the four index cases. The active case finding was then conducted by collecting demographic information and interviewing by using the disease investigation form for arsenic- related diseases. Additionally, clinical study was also performed for diagnosis of the diseases caused by arsenic by history taking, physical examination, and laboratory analysis. An environmental investigation was conducted by workplace survey and collecting the workplace environmental samples. This study found that all four index cases are diagnosed as probable cases of diseases caused by arsenic, leading to further investigation which resulted in the detection of more cases involved. Attack rate of probable cases of diseases caused by arsenic in this factory is 93.33%. The vast majority of the cases is male (90%), an average age is 34.27 years, a nationality is mainly the Burmese (63.34%), and an average work experience is 5.53 years. All of them worked in a wooden wheel warehouse and were mostly in the wheel assembly department. The vast majority of them denied having arsenic exposure from the environments outside their work. None of them have had abnormal symptoms. There are no physical examination results/laboratory results specifically consistent with the diseases caused by arsenic. The average urine inorganic arsenic level is 114.69 Ug As/L. Based on the workplace survey, the wood preservative containing arsenic named chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was found in their work processes. An excess level of arsenic was found in all eight environmental surface samples. In conclusion, a large number of probable cases of diseases caused by arsenic were identified in a wood factory. However, they were not diagnosed as confirmed cases due to lack of symptoms specifically consistent with the diseases caused by arsenic. The cause of this outbreak is probably related to work. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate control measures and further follow-up on long-term health effects are needed.
PubDate: 2022-06-29
DOI: 10.14456/dcj.2022.39
Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 2 (2022)

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