Publisher: Brno University of Technology (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Mendel : Soft Computing J.     Open Access  
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Mendel : Soft Computing Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1803-3814 - ISSN (Online) 2571-3701
Published by Brno University of Technology Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The Use of an Incremental Learning Algorithm for Diagnosing COVID-19 from
           Chest X-ray Images

    • Authors: Rimah Amami, Suleiman Ali Al Saif, Rim Amami, Hassan Ahmed Eleraky, Fatma Melouli, Mariem Baazaoui
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: he new Coronavirus or simply Covid-19 causes an acute deadly disease. It has spread rapidly across the world, which has caused serious consequences for health professionals and researchers. This is due to many reasons including the lack of vaccine, shortage of testing kits and resources. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to present an inexpensive alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of Covid-19 infection by using chest radiographs and Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) technique. In this paper, we have proposed a reliable and economical solution to detect COVID-19. This will be achieved by using X-rays of patients and an Incremental-DCNN (I-DCNN) based on ResNet-101 architecture. The datasets used in this study were collected from publicly available chest radiographs on medical repositories. The proposed I-DCNN method will help in diagnosing the positive Covid-19 patient by utilising three chest X-ray imagery groups, these will be: Covid-19, viral pneumonia, and healthy cases. Furthermore, the main contribution of this paper resides on the use of incremental learning in order to accommodate the detection system. This has high computational energy requirements, time consuming challenges, while working with large-scale and regularly evolving images. The incremental learning process will allow the recognition system to learn new datasets, while keeping the convolutional layers learned previously. The overall Covid-19 detection rate obtained using the proposed I-DCNN was of 98.70\% which undeniably can contribute effectively to the detection of COVID-19 infection.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
  • Identifying Optimal Baseline Variant of Unsupervised Term Weighting in
           Question Classification Based on Bloom Taxonomy

    • Authors: Anbuselvan Sangodiah, Tham Jee San, Yong Tien Fui, Lim Ean Heng, Ramesh Kumar Ayyasamy, Norazira A Jalil
      Pages: 8 - 22
      Abstract: Examination is one of the common ways to evaluate the students’ cognitive levels in higher education institutions. Exam questions are labeled manually by educators in accordance with Bloom’s taxonomy cognitive domain. To ease the burden of the educators, several past research works have proposed the automated question classification based on Bloom’s taxonomy using the machine learning technique. Feature selection, feature extraction and term weighting are common ways to improve the accuracy of question classification. Commonly used term weighting method in the past work is unsupervised namely TF and TF-IDF. There are several variants of TF and TFIDF and the most optimal variant has yet to be identified in the context of question classification based on BT. Therefore, this paper aims to study the TF, TF-IDF and normalized TF-IDF variants and identify the optimal variant that can enhance the exam question classification accuracy. To investigate the variants two different classifiers were used, which are Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes. The average accuracies achieved by TF-IDF and normalized TF-IDF variants using SVM classifier were 64.3% and 72.4% respectively, while using Naïve Bayes classifier the average accuracies for TF-IDF and normalized TF-IDF were 61.9% and 63.0% respectively. Generally, the normalized TF-IDF variants outperformed TF and TF-IDF variants in accuracy and F1-measure respectively. Further statistical analysis using t-test and Wilcoxon Signed also shows that the differences in accuracy between normalized TF-IDF and TF, TF-IDF are significant. The findings from this study show that the Normalized TF-IDF3 variant recorded the highest accuracy of 74.0% among normalized TF-IDF variants. Also, the differences in accuracy between Normalized TF-IDF3 and other normalized variants are generally significant, thus the optimal variant is Normalized TF-IDF3. Therefore, the normalized TF-IDF3 variant is important for benchmarking purposes, which can be used to compare with other term weighting techniques in future work.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
  • Grouped Pointwise Convolutions Reduce Parameters in Convolutional Neural

    • Authors: Joao Paulo Schwarz Schuler, Santiago Romani, Mohamed Abdel-Nasser, Hatem Rashwan, Domenec Puig
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: In DCNNs, the number of parameters in pointwise convolutions rapidly grows due to the multiplication of the number of filters by the number of input channels that come from the previous layer. Our proposal makes pointwise convolutions parameter efficient via grouping filters into parallel branches or groups, where each branch processes a fraction of the input channels. However, by doing so, the learning capability of the DCNN is degraded. To avoid this effect, we suggest interleaving the output of filters from different branches at intermediate layers of consecutive pointwise convolutions. We applied our improvement to the EfficientNet, DenseNet-BC L100, MobileNet and MobileNet V3 Large architectures. We trained these architectures with the CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Cropped-PlantDoc and The Oxford-IIIT Pet datasets. When training from scratch, we obtained similar test accuracies to the original EfficientNet and MobileNet V3 Large architectures while saving up to 90% of the parameters and 63% of the flops.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
  • Intelligent Sampling of Anterior Human Nasal Swabs using a Collaborative
           Robotic Arm

    • Authors: Roman Parak, Martin Juricek
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Advanced robotics does not always have to be associated with Industry 4.0, but can also be applied, for example, in the Smart Hospital concept. Developments in this field have been driven by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and any improvement in the work of medical staff is welcome. In this paper, an experimental robotic platform was designed and implemented whose main function is the swabbing samples from the nasal vestibule. The robotic platform represents a complete integration of software and hardware, where the operator has access to a web-based application and can control a number of functions. The increased safety and collaborative approach cannot be overlooked. The result of this work is a functional prototype of the robotic platform that can be further extended, for example, by using alternative technologies, extending patient safety, or clinical tests and studies. Code is available at
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
  • Meta-Heuristics Based Inverse Kinematics of Robot Manipulator’s Path
           Tracking Capability Under Joint Limits

    • Authors: Ganesan Kanagaraj, SAR Sheik Masthan, Vincent F Yu
      Pages: 41 - 54
      Abstract: In robot-assisted manufacturing or assembly, following a predefined path became a critical aspect. In general, inverse kinematics offers the solution to control the movement of manipulator while following the trajectory. The main problem with the inverse kinematics approach is that inverse kinematics are computationally complex. For a redundant manipulator, this complexity is further increased. Instead of employing inverse kinematics, the complexity can be reduced by using a heuristic algorithm. Therefore, a heuristic-based approach can be used to solve the inverse kinematics of the robot manipulator end effector, guaranteeing that the desired paths are accurately followed. This paper compares the performance of four such heuristic-based approaches to solving the inverse kinematics problem. They are Bat Algorithm (BAT), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA). The performance of these algorithms is evaluated based on their ability to accurately follow a predefined trajectory. Extensive simulations show that BAT and GSA outperform PSO and WOA in all aspects considered in this work related to inverse kinematic problems.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
  • Color-Aware Two-Branch DCNN for Efficient Plant Disease Classification

    • Authors: Joao Paulo Schwarz Schuler, Santiago Romani, Mohamed Abdel-Nasser, Hatem Rashwan, Domenec Puig
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have been successfully applied to plant disease detection. Unlike most existing studies, we propose feeding a DCNN CIE Lab instead of RGB color coordinates. We modified an Inception V3 architecture to include one branch specific for achromatic data (L channel) and another branch specific for chromatic data (AB channels). This modification takes advantage of the decoupling of chromatic and achromatic information. Besides, splitting branches reduces the number of trainable parameters and computation load by up to 50% of the original figures using modified layers. We achieved a state-of-the-art classification accuracy of 99.48% on the Plant Village dataset and 76.91% on the Cropped-PlantDoc dataset.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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