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Journal of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2575-0143
Published by Heighten Science Publication Corporation Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Associations of arterial stiffness with left ventricular mass index and
           carotid intima-media thickness in the hypertensives

    • Authors: Hoang P Le; Binh G Nguyen
      Abstract: Background: Arterial stiffness has been considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in addition to the traditionally known cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the associations between arterial stiffness with left ventricular mass index and carotid intima-media thickness in the hypertensives. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study compared a control group in 210 study subjects (105 hypertensives and 105 normotensives). Measuring left ventricular mass index by echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness by carotid doppler ultrasonography. Pulse wave velocity was measured using the Agedio B900 device and the Agedio K520 application. The manual method was measured by the ankle-brachial index.Results: There was a statistically significant positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and age (r = 0.922, p < 0.001). The ankle-brachial index had a statistically significant positive correlation at a weak level with left ventricular mass index and carotid intima-media thickness, in which the coefficient r was equal to 0.219 (p < 0.05) and 0.250 (p < 0,001), respectively. Pulse wave velocity also had a statistically significant positive correlation at a weak level with left ventricular mass index and carotid intima-media thickness, in which the coefficient r was equal to 0.188 (p < 0.05) and 0.289 (p < 0,001), respectively. Pulse wave velocity had a multivariable linear correlation with gender, pulse, mean blood pressure, and ankle-brachial index with statistical significance; and they were written in the form of the following equation: Pulse wave velocity (R2: 41.3%) = 0.641*(Gender) – 0.027*(Pulse) + 0.043*(Mean blood pressure) + 8.378*(Ankle-brachial index) – 3.254.Conclusion: Arterial stiffness was statistically correlated with left ventricular mass index and carotid intima-media thickness in the hypertensives. Through the above research results, we suggest that the hypertensives should be combined with the evaluation of hemodynamic parameters and arterial stiffness for contributing to the diagnosis and detection of cardiovascular complications, thereby improving the quality of monitoring and treatment in hypertensive patients.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05 15:44:32
  • FDG PET/CT of uncommon cardiac angiosarcoma with bone metastases: a case

    • Authors: Tatiana Moreno Monsalve; Laura Frutos-Esteban, Jose Luis Navarro-Fernández, Jose Fulgencio Contreras-Gutierrez
      Abstract: Cardiac angiosarcomas are rare malignant neoplasms with an aggressive clinical course. These are characterized by the absence of specific clinical findings, rapid growth with frequent metastasis at the time of diagnosis, correlated with poor prognosis, and reduced response to treatment. But with early diagnosis, more possibilities for treatment and survival can be provided. We report the case of a young woman diagnosed with right atrial angiosarcoma locally advanced with bone metastases detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT, which revealed distant disease extent at diagnosis, consequently, chemotherapy was started.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26 15:39:02
  • Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease among children with
           Down syndrome seen in a Federal Medical Centre in the Niger Delta Region,

    • Authors: Ujuanbi Amenawon Susan; Onyeka Adaeze Chiemerie
      Abstract: Background: Down syndrome (DS), or Trisomy 21, is the most common genetic disorder in the world and congenital heart disease (CHD) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in this population. Early diagnosis and prompt cardiac intervention improve their quality of life. This study was done to determine the prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease among children with Down syndrome seen at the Paediatric Cardiology Unit of Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Bayelsa State.Method: A prospective study of children with Down syndrome referred for cardiac evaluation and echocardiography at the Paediatric Cardiology Unit of FMC, Bayelsa State over four years from 1st January 2016 to 30th December 2019. Data on socio-demographic information, echocardiographic diagnosis, and outcome were retrieved from the study proforma and analyzed.Results: A total of 24 children with Down syndrome were seen over the study period. Their age ranged from 0 to 16years. The majority, 20 (83.3%) of the children with Down syndrome were aged 5 years and below. There were 13 males and 11 females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. A total of 23 (95.8%) of the children with Down syndrome had CHD. The most common CHD was AVSD (including complete, partial, isolated, or in association with other defects) in 66.6% followed by TOF in 8.3%. Multiple CHDs were seen in 43.5% of the children. Only one child (4.2%) had a structurally normal heart on echocardiography. All the children with Down syndrome had pericardial effusion of varying severity while 33% had pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). The fatality rate among the children seen with Down syndrome over the study period was 34.8% and only one child (4.2%) had open-heart surgery with the total repair of cardiac defect during the study period. Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality are high among children with Down syndrome due to the high prevalence of CHD. Early referral, diagnosis, and prompt intervention are encouraged.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11 17:41:03
  • Save the radial: go distally

    • Authors: Rima Chaddad; Hussein Rabah, Batoul Awada, Malek Hmadeh
      Abstract: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide.Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is one of the most widely performed medical procedures used to save lives, currently over 3 million annually worldwide.The femoral artery has been the preferred vascular access site. However, radial access is gaining extensive popularity due to the benefits of earlier ambulation, fewer access site complications, and decreased rates of bleeding. Improvements in technology and understanding of the anatomic features of the vascular system have led to new insights into coronary angiography procedures.Distal radial access, which was first used in 2017, shows a higher success rate and fewer complications than previous sites; therefore, it might be the future for cardiovascular intervention.For this purpose, we conducted this prospective study at Beirut Cardiac Institute (BCI) comparing the two arms: radial vs. distal radial artery techniques through the anatomical snuffbox, in terms of patient’s length of stay, complication rate, and success rate of each procedure.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07 16:18:54
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia and aortic dissection

    • Authors: Antonio M Puppo; Manuel Fernández Caro, Sara Martín Sastre, Francisco T Gómez, Jose Mariá López Sánchez
      Abstract: Fibromuscular dysplasia is a rare, non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory vascular disease that typically affects women between the ages of 20 and 60 years.Although any artery can be affected fibromuscular dysplasia most commonly affects the renal and carotid arteries. Fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal arteries usually presents with hypertension, while carotid or vertebral artery disease causes transient ischemic attacks, strokes, or dissection. Aortic dissection is rare. We present the clinical case of a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia with type B aortic dissection.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30 15:36:33
  • Control of arterial hypertension and risk of new-onset of atrial
           fibrillation in patients with metabolic syndrome

    • Authors: Ylber Jani; Kastriot Haxhirexha, Ferizat Haxhirexha, Bekim Pocesta, Atila Rexhepi, Fatmir Ferati, Ahmet Kamberi, Agim Zeqiri, Sotiraq Xhunga, Artur Serani, Lutfi Zylbeari
      Abstract: Background: An association between Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and Metabolic Syndrome (MS) a constellation of abnormalities (high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity), has been demonstrated. There have been many studies that have shown that elevated blood pressure (BP), was significantly associated with an increased risk of AF. It is uncertain whether maintaining the optimal BP levels can prevent AF in the patients with MS categorized as ‘high-risk’ patients.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of control of BP on the occurrence of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with Metabolic Syndrome.Methods: Into this observational study, was enrolled 435 consecutive patients (210 males and 225 females) aged 45-79 years who fulfilled criteria for MS. Participants were selected among primary and secondary care patients, who were receiving ongoing care for arterial hypertension in the period from November 2018 till November 2021. The study was conducted at outpatients in 5 Health Care Clinics (3 Secondary Health Care Clinics and 2 Primary Health Clinics). Patient were categorized according to their BP levels as Group 1-patients with controlled BP, {(patients aged < 65 years Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of 120 - 130 mmHg, patients aged ≥ 65 years SBP of 130 - 139 mmHg)} and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), {(patients aged < 65 years of < 80 mmHg. but not < 70 mmHg; patients aged ≥ 65 years of 85 - 89 mmHg)}, or Group 2-patients with uncontrolled BP(> 130/80 mmHg),and in patients aged ≥ 65 years BP (≥ 140/90 mmHg ). Results: New-onset of AF, was more frequent in participants with uncontrolled BP, respectively (34.7% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.009).Patients with uncontrolled BP have more frequent persistent AF (15.2% vs. 0.04%) and permanent AF (0.08% vs. 0.02%), whereas there was not significant changes between groups in relation to frequency of paroxysmal AF, respectively (12.8% vs. 10.9%, p = 0.29). There was observed significant association of uncontrolled BP with: increased frequency of AF (OR = 2.193; 95% CI 1.390 - 3.439), persistent AF (OR = 3.931; 95% CI 1.771 - 8.084), permanent AF (OR = 4.138; 95% CI 1.383-12.381), LA. Dimension ≥ 2.2 cm/m2 (OR = 2.089, 95% CI 1.330 - 3.252), BMI (OR = 5.226, 95% CI 3.155 - 8.659) and 5-risk factors for MS, respectively (OR = 2.998, 95% CI 1.833 - 4.901).Conclusion: Optimal BP levels, can reduce the frequency of new-onset AF in patients with MS categorized as ‘high-risk’ patients. Uncontrolled BP was associated with an increased risk of both subtypes of AF (persistent and permanent) in the patients with MS categorized as ‘high-risk’ patients.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10 14:20:58
  • Overview of glycemic control among admitted patients with diabetes in
           Tripoli University Hospital

    • Authors: Haifa Elhadi Alshwikh; Faiza Hander
      Abstract: Aim: To examine the relationship between the levels of HbA1c and hospital admission rates.Methods: We recorded HbA1c levels of all diabetic patients in Tripoli University Hospital over one year.Results: The mean HbA1c was 8.03%, with no difference between males and females. Over half of patients (56.5%) were admitted through their diabetes was well-controlled. Over half of the patients with type 1 diabetes (57/102, 55.9%) had a high HbA1c at admission compared to 42.1% of patients with type 2, who were mainly admitted with HbA1c level within the acceptable range set for this study. The HbA1c level was positively and significantly correlated with the length of hospital stay (R = 0.93, p = 0.000), and was significantly associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, coronary artery disease, limb ischemia, cataract, osteomyelitis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.Conclusion: HbA1c is correlated significantly with hospitalization in type 1 diabetes but not in type 2.
      PubDate: 2022-02-18 10:51:56
  • Lifestyle modification practice and associated factors among diagnosed
           hypertensive patients in selected Hospitals in West Arsi Zone, Oromia
           Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Hika Wakjira; Tesfaye Gobena, Hirbo Shore
      Abstract: Background: Globally 1.13 billion people were living with hypertension, Out of this two-thirds of them were living in low and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, Non-Communicable Disease deaths are estimated at around 42%. However, it remains widely undetected and poorly controlled. To resolve these, lifestyle modification approaches that are often overlooked are the cornerstone of the prevention and management of hypertension. Objective: To assess lifestyle modification practice and associated factors among hypertensive patients in selected hospitals in West Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional, Ethiopia December 7 to 21, 2019. Method: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the selected public hospital among 299 hypertensive patients. Systemic random sampling methods were used to select the study participants. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression method to identify predictors of the outcome (p < 0.05). Results: Of the total participants, only 25.2% (95% CI: 18.8-32.9) of the patients were practiced recommended lifestyle modifications. Patients Age older than 65 years (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.17 - 7.0), the patients with 2-5 years’ time since diagnosed hypertension (AOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.9), multiple co-morbidity (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.25 - 5.8,) and their knowledge on hypertension management (AOR = 14.6, 95% CI: 4.6 - 45.9) have an independently associated with recommended lifestyle modification. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification practices among hypertensive patients were low in this study. Age, comorbidity, time since diagnoses of hypertension, and knowledge of lifestyle were identified as predictors of the outcome.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01 14:44:18
  • Age, smoking, hypertension, and aortic aneurysm: Interactions and risks

    • Authors: Seriki SA; Otoikhila OC
      Abstract: Background/Aim: Aortic aneurysm is the bulging of a weakened portion of the aorta. The aorta is the major blood vessel that feeds blood (carrying oxygen, nutrients and water) to the tissues of the body. When a portion of the wall of the aorta becomes weak, blood pushing against the vessel wall can cause it to bulge like a balloon (aneurysm) leading to aortic dissection (a tear in the wall of the aorta that can cause life-threatening bleeding or sudden death). Blood pressure is the force arterial blood exerts on the wall of the artery. When this pressure is consistently high above 140/100 mmHg it is referred to as hypertension. As an individual gets older over time, physiological functions of the body depreciate leading to some abnormalities. Smoking is the consumption of tobacco mostly by inhalation of the smoke that is produced from burning the tobacco. This review article examines the close interactions between age, smoking, hypertension and aortic aneurysm, with a view to understanding mechanisms by which these factors predispose a patient to an aortic aneurism. It is also to observe if these factors interfere with treatment and recovery from aneurysms. Conclusion: After careful review, it is observed that age and smoking are risk factors for hypertension, and together with hypertension, the three factors predispose an individual to high risk for aortic aneurysm.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06 17:46:31
  • Stiff “Left Atrial” syndrome post-mustard procedure

    • Authors: Joshua A Cowgill; Adrian M Moran
      Abstract: Objectives: We describe the clinical course and management of two patients with post-capillary pulmonary hypertension due to diffuse pulmonary venous baffle calcification decades post-Mustard procedure.Background: From the late 1950s to the early 1990s, the definitive surgical repair for children with D-transposition of the great vessels (D-TGA) was an atrial switch procedure (either Senning or Mustard operation) which utilizes atrial-level baffles to shunt pulmonary venous blood to the morphologic right (systemic) ventricle and caval blood to the morphologic left (sub-pulmonary) ventricle. From a hemodynamic standpoint, baffle leaks and stenoses as well as precapillary pulmonary hypertension have all been described as both early and late complications [1]. Recently, delayed post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (in the absence of discrete baffle obstruction) decades post-atrial switch has also been described [2]. The underlying pathophysiology for this postcapillary pulmonary hypertension is unclear but is theorized to involve impaired diastology referable to the pulmonary venous baffle. Methods/Results: Using hemodynamic and imaging data, we describe two patients with extensive pulmonary venous baffle calcification and resultant pulmonary hypertension from the so-called “stiff left atrial (LA) syndrome.” This problem can be difficult to treat medically and is not amenable to catheter-based interventions. We hypothesize that this is an underlying mechanism for pulmonary hypertension in at least some post-Mustard and Senning patients. Conclusion: We describe the treatments and clinical course for each of these patients, and in particular describe how the surgical revision of the pulmonary venous baffle in one case led to the complete resolution of symptoms.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01 16:36:09
  • Mouth-to-mouth ventilation through cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is there
           any other way'

    • Authors: Aini Maimaitiming; Xiaohai Wang
      Abstract: Objective: to provide and explore possibility of new idea that perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation through cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods: stage one was establishing the ventilation technique using cola bottles, stage two was measuring the tidal volume when different sized cola bottles were used. Result: the smallest sized cola bottle (500 ml) could also make obvious thorax rise in manikin CPR model. The tidal volume was 174.5 ± 9.1 ml, 220 ± 7.6 ml and 447 ± 15.9 ml respectively for 500 ml, 600 ml and 1.25 L cola bottles when using single hand performance. There were statistical differences (0.001) in tidal volume of different sized cola bottle by using one hand performance and two hands. Conclusion: Larger sized cola bottles (600 ml, 1.25 L) could be used as substitute ventilation technique for mouth-to-mouth ventilation in special circumnutates.
      PubDate: 2021-11-29 16:44:18
  • RV Function by cardiac magnetic resonance and its relationship to RV
           longitudinal strain and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in patients with acute
           inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary
           percutaneous intervention

    • Authors: Salma Taha; Shrouk Kelany Ali, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo, Hosam Hasan-Ali, Yousra Ghzally, Mohamed Abdel Ghany
      Abstract: Background: Although acute inferior myocardial infarction (MI) is usually regarded as being lower risk compared with acute anterior MI, right ventricular (RV) myocardial involvement (RVMI) may show an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with inferior MI. CMR is ideal for assessing the RV because it allows comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular morphology and physiology without most limitations that hinder alternative imaging modalities. Objectives: To evaluate the sensitivity of strain and strain rate of the RV using 2D speckle tracking echo and the neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio (NLR) compared to cardiac MRI (CMR) as the gold standard among patients with inferior STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methodology: 40 Patients with inferior MI who had primary PCI were included in the study; they were divided into two groups according to the RVEF using CMR. NLR was done in comparison to RVEF.Results: out of the 40 patients, 18 (45%) patients had RV dysfunction. 2D echocardiography was done for all patients, where fractional area change (FAC) in the RV dysfunction group appeared to be significantly reduced compared to the group without RV dysfunction (p value = 0.03). In addition, RV longitudinal strain (LS) by speckle tracking echo was reduced with an average of 19.5 ± 3.9% in the RV dysfunction group.Both CMR- derived RV SV, and EF were lower among the RV dysfunction group, (26.8 ± 15.8) ml and (35.4 ± 6.9)% respectively, with large RV systolic volume, with a highly statistically significant difference in comparison to the other group (p value = 0.000). Complications, heart block was significantly higher in patients with RV dysfunction (p value = 0.008) as it occurred in 5 (27.8%) patients.N/L ratio for predicting RV dysfunction by CMR had a cut-off value of > 7.7 with low sensitivity (38.8%) and high specificity (77.3 %). In contrast, LS for predicting RV dysfunction by CMR had high sensitivity (83.3%) and high specificity (63.6%) with p value = 0.005.Conclusion: Our results showed that RV dysfunction in inferior MI is better detected using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In inferior STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI, NLR has low sensitivity but high specificity for predicting RVD when measured by cardiac MRI.
      PubDate: 2021-11-23 12:26:10
  • Percutaneous treatment of severe retroperitoneal hematoma after
           percutaneous coronary intervention

    • Authors: Agarwal Rajendra Kumar; Agarwal Rajiv
      Abstract: We describe a patient who developed severe retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal bleeding complicating femoral arterial catheterization for Percutaneous coronary intervention. Balloon tamponade of the actively bleeding femoral artery was effective in sealing off the leakage.This management strategy for this problem emphasizing an anatomical based interventional approach if the patient does not stabilize with volume resuscitation.
      PubDate: 2021-09-25 12:09:45
  • The complex interplay in the regulation of cardiac pathophysiologic
           functionalities by protein kinases and phosphatases

    • Authors: Chrysanthus Chukwuma Sr
      Abstract: Protein phosphorylation regulates several dimensions of cell fate and is substantially dysregulated in pathophysiological instances as evident spatiotemporally via intracellular localizations or compartmentalizations with discrete control by specific kinases and phosphatases. Cardiovascular disease manifests as an intricately complex entity presenting as a derangement of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac or heart failure connotes the pathophysiological state in which deficient cardiac output compromises the body burden and requirements. Protein kinases regulate several pathophysiological processes and are emerging targets for drug lead or discovery. The protein kinases are family members of the serine/threonine phosphatases. Protein kinases covalently modify proteins by attaching phosphate groups from ATP to residues of serine, threonine and/or tyrosine. Protein kinases and phosphatases are pivotal in the regulatory mechanisms in the reversible phosphorylation of diverse effectors whereby discrete signaling molecules regulate cardiac excitation and contraction. Protein phosphorylation is critical for the sustenance of cardiac functionalities. The two major contributory ingredients to progressive myocardium derangement are dysregulation of Ca2+ processes and contemporaneous elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen species, ROS. Certain cardiac abnormalities include cardiac myopathy or hypertrophy due to response in untoward haemodynamic demand with concomitant progressive heart failure. The homeostasis or equilibrium between protein kinases and phosphatases influence cardiac morphology and excitability during pathological and physiological processes of the cardiovascular system. Inasmuch as protein kinases regulate numerous dimensions of normal cellular functions, the pathophysiological dysfunctionality of protein kinase signaling pathways undergirds the molecular aspects of several cardiovascular diseases or disorders as related in this study. These have presented protein kinases as essential and potential targets for drug discovery and heart disease therapy.
      PubDate: 2021-08-26 00:00:00
  • Open heart surgery in Nigerian children the need for international and
           regional collaboration: The Bayelsa and Enugu experience

    • Authors: Ujunwa FA; Ujuanbi AS, Chinawa JM, Allagoa DO, Onwubere B, Chinawa JM, Ujunwa FA
      Abstract: Background: Children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) often require palliative or definitive surgical heart interventions to restore cardiopulmonary function. Lack of early cardiac intervention contributes to large numbers of potentially preventable deaths and sufferings among children with such conditions.Objectives: The aim of this study was to highlight our experience and the importance of international and regional collaboration for open heart surgery in children with CHD and capacity building of local cardiac teams in Bayelsa and Enugu States.Methodology: In November 2016, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed by the managements of FMC, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, UNTH, Enugu and an Italian-based NGO- Pobic Open Heart International for collaboration in the area of free open heart surgery for children with CHDs and training of local cardiac teams from both institutions either in Nigeria or in Italy. Patients for the program were recruited from Bayelsa and Enugu States with referrals from all over the country with combined screening and selection done in UNTH. Selected patients were operated on and funded free of charge by the Italian NGO. Hands on training of the local cardiac teams and cardiac intervention was done twice yearly in Nigeria.Result: From inception of the program in November, 2016 to May, 2019 a total of 47 children (21 Males, 26 Females; age range 6 months to 14 years) with various types of congenital heart defects had free open heart surgery from the program with 41 surgeries done in UNTH & 6 in Italy (complex pathologies). Also, home cardiac teams from UNTH and FMC, Yenagoa gained from on-site capacity training & retraining from the Italian cardiac team both in Nigeria and in Italy. The Success rate was 95.7% (44) and Case Fatality rate was 4.3% (2).Conclusion: There is a great efficacy in early cardiac intervention. This is with respect to a high success rate and minimal Case Fatality seen in this study. This was achieved through Regional and international collaboration.
      PubDate: 2021-07-09 00:00:00
  • Unusual and severe peripartum cardiomyopathy: A case report

    • Authors: Lamanna B; Vinciguerra M, Crupano FM, Cicinelli R, Cicinelli E, Vimercati A
      Abstract: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a relatively rare cardiac disease that manifests in the final stage of pregnancy and in the first months after delivery in women with no preexisting heart disease. Many etiological processes have been suggested: viral myocarditis, abnormal immune response to pregnancy, excessive prolactin excretion, prolonged tocolysis and a familiar predisposition to PPCM. Its diagnosis is often delayed because its symptoms, which include fatigue, dyspnea and palpitations are nonspecific. For this reason the diagnosis of PPCM is still made by exclusion of other etiologies. The long-term prognosis, once the acute phase is over, is a function of myocardial damage, this varies from complete functional recovery to chronic HF. The outcome of PPCM is highly variable with an alevated risk of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. We report a serious case of a 40 years old female with biamniotic bicorionic twin pregnancy (PMA) who delivered by caesarean section and developed acute PPCM on post-operative. Symptoms occurred two hours after an intramuscular injection of two vials of methylergonovine the same day of cesarean delivery. These manifested in sudden tachypnoe, tachycardia and the appearance itchy maculopapular rash on her chest. On further evaluation, ECHO revealed cardiomegaly with reduced ejection fraction (< 15%). The case was successfully managed by a multidisciplinary team, using drugs like levosimendan and cabergoline, which rapresent emerging strategy in this clinical context.
      PubDate: 2021-05-05 00:00:00
  • Sildenafil citrate in healthy and diseased hearts

    • Authors: Seriki Samuel Adinoyi
      Abstract: Sildenafil citrate is one of the frontline drugs used to manage erectile dysfunction (ED). Chemically, it is described as 1-[[3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H –pyrazolo [4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)-4 ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl]-4-methylpiperazine citrate (C22H30N6O4 S). It is a highly selective inhibitor of cyclic guanine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type-5. There had been heightened concerns following reports that sildenafil citrate may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly fatal arrhythmias, in patients with cardiovascular disease. So the cardiac electrophysiological effects of sildenafil citrate have been investigated extensively in both animal and clinical studies. This article ties up the various outcomes of the investigations with a view to guiding physicians and patients that use sildenafil citrate to manage erectile dysfunction, especially as it concerns its effect on their cardiovascular function in health and in disease. Sildenafil citrate could impact negatively on ailing hearts, but on a healthy heart, there may not be any such impact, rather, it improves on heart performance as it lowers the blood pressure.
      PubDate: 2021-04-23 00:00:00
  • pVAD-assisted left main DK-Crush Bifurcation PCI Post-ViV TAVR

    • Authors: Anshuman Das; Maria Isabel Camara Planek, Steve Attanasio, Steve Attanasio, Maria Isabel Camara Planek, Anshuman Das
      Abstract: We describe successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of significantly diseased ostial left main (LM) and distal LM bifurcation (Medina 1,1,1) in a patient with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and a recent valve-in-valve balloon-expandable TAVR using the DK-Crush technique with the support of a percutaneous left ventricular assist device.
      PubDate: 2021-04-16 00:00:00
  • Abdominal obesity in predicting myocardial infarction risk. Waist-to-Hip
           Ratio: The metric that confused cardiology worldwide for a long time

    • Authors: Nelson I Oguanobi; Angel Martin Castellanos
      Abstract: Important differences has been found in assessing the effects of obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk [1]. Interestingly, accurate estimation of the body composition (BC) is highly relevant from a public health perspective [2], and it has the importance of being essential in establishing the impact of adiposity on increased myocardial infarction (MI) risk. However, in non-randomized studies, baseline differences of BC between groups to be compared may introduce bias in results.
      PubDate: 2021-03-24 00:00:00
  • Management of hypertension in Nigeria: The barriers and challenges

    • Authors: Nelson I Oguanobi
      Abstract: In recent years there has been increasing concern about the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developing countries. Systemic hypertension remains the commonest form of CVD and is identified as a key modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular adverse events are public health priorities. This review highlights the potential barriers and challenges to hypertension care in Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria, and proffers relevant recommendations.
      PubDate: 2021-03-19 00:00:00
  • Muscle growth and control of production of sarcomere components

    • Authors: Gerry A Smith
      Abstract: Here I contrast the skeletal and cardiac muscle in terms of the control muscle growth and of sarcomere component synthesis. The differences are major and reflect the long term needs of the two systems. With the skeletal system there is growth of both the number of myocytes and the sarcomere components within them dependent on demand made of the muscle. Unlike skeletal muscles the normal adult heart is greatly restricted in size, number of myocytes and their content of contractile proteins, i.e. there is little change on demand. Over time proteins get damaged or decay and for the normal heart this implies a strictly controlled maintenance synthesis of sarcomere components. From the studies of abnormal, mutated systems there is one thing inherent to and more pronounced in cardiac muscle, the FrankStarling Law of the Heart derived from the angiotensin ii type 1 receptor that my studies indicate is central to the control of sarcomere component synthesis.
      PubDate: 2021-03-12 00:00:00
  • An unusual presentation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia

    • Authors: Florina-Adriana Ghitun; Stefan Ailoaei, Dan Ursu, Raluca Chistol, Grigore Tinica, Cristian Statescu, Mihaela Grecu, Mihaela Grecu, Florina-Adriana Ghitun, Stefan Ailoaei, Dan Ursu, Raluca Chistol, Grigore Tinica, Cristian Statescu
      Abstract: Introduction: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most frequent supraventricular tachycardia, commonly manifesting as autolimited paroxysmal episodes of rapid regular palpitations that exceed 150 beats per minute (bpm), dizziness and pounding neck sensation.Case presentation: We present a case of a male patient, 70 years old, with ischemic heart disease and slow-fast AVNRT treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in March 2019, with regular 6-months follow-ups. He was readmitted in our department in November 2020 for rest dyspnea and incessant fluttering sensation in the neck, without palpitations. The event electrocardiogram (ECG) was initially interpreted by general cardiologist as accelerated junctional rhythm, 75 bpm. Due to the persistence of symptoms and ECG findings, a differential diagnosis between reentry and focal automaticity was imposed. The response to vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring characteristics provided valuable information. We suspected recurrent slow ventricular rate typical AVNRT, which was confirmed by electrophysiological study and we successfully performed the RFCA of the slow intranodal pathway.Conclusion: AV nodal reentry tachycardia may have an unusual presentation, occurring in elder male patients with structural heart disease. Antiarrhythmic drugs can promote reentry in this kind of patients. In cases of slow ventricular rate, vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring can help with the differential diagnosis. The arrhythmia can be successfully treated with RFCA with special caution regarding the risk of AV block.
      PubDate: 2021-02-12 00:00:00
  • New insights from cardiac muscle applied to skeletal muscle

    • Authors: Gerry A Smith
      Abstract: I have recently described the origin of the second Ca2+ binding in the triggering of contractile activity in cardiac myofibrils that is the origin of the Ca2+ Hill coefficient of 2 for the ATPase. This site is not a simple protein binding site and cannot be measured by 45Ca2+ binding. The myofibril protein unit requirements are described by me and so are the consequences of disruption of the function of these units and the related medical outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the topic and extend the reasoning to the function of skeletal muscle and cite the literature that supports this.
      PubDate: 2021-01-15 00:00:00
  • Evidence of woven bone formation in carotid artery plaques

    • Authors: Mirzaie Masoud; Zaur Guliyev, Michael Schultz, Peter Schwartz, Johann Philipp Addicks, Sheila Fatehpur, Mirzaie Masoud, Zaur Guliyev, Michael Schultz, Peter Schwartz, Johann Philipp Addicks, Sheila Fatehpur
      Abstract: Objective: Plaque morphology plays an important prognostic role in the occurrence of cerebrovascular events. Echolucent and heterogeneous plaques, in particular, carry an increased risk of subsequent stroke. Depending on the quality of the plaque echogenicity based on B-mode ultrasound examination, carotid plaques divide into a soft lipid-rich plaque and a hard plaque with calcification. The aim of this study was to investigate structural changes in the basement membrane of different carotid artery plaque types.Patients and methods: Biopsies were taken from 10 male patients (average age; 75 + 1 years) and 7 females (68 + 3 years). The study population included patients suffering from a filiform stenosis of the carotid artery, 8 patients with acute cerebrovascular events and 9 with asymptomatic stenosis. Scanning electron and polarised light microscopic investigations were carried out on explanted plaques to determine the morphology of calcified areas in vascular lesions.Results: By means of scanning electron microscopy, multiple foci of local calcification were identified. The endothelial layer was partially desquamated from the basement membrane and showed island-like formations. Polarised light microscopy allows us to distinguish between soft plaques with transparent structure and hard plaques with woven bone formation.Conclusion: The major finding of our study is the presence of woven bone tissue in hard plaques of carotid arteries, which may result from pathological strains or mechanical overloading of the collagen fibers. These data suggest a certain parallel with sclerosis of human aortic valves due to their similar morphological characteristics.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05 00:00:00
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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