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Journal of Plant Science and Phytopathology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2575-0135
Published by Heighten Science Publication Corporation Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Exploring the Complexity of Protein Structure Determination Through
           X-ray Diffraction

    • Authors: Sarah Otun*; Ikechukwu Achilonu
      Abstract: The determination of a protein structure by using X-ray diffraction encompasses a series of sequential steps (including gene identification and cloning, protein expression and purification, crystallization, phasing model building, refinement, and validation), which need the application of several methodologies derived from molecular biology, bioinformatics, and physical sciences. This article thoroughly examines the complicated procedure of elucidating protein structures within plant biology, using X-ray diffraction as the primary methodology. Commencing with the gene identification process and progressing toward crystallography, this article explores the many obstacles and achievements in acquiring diffraction pictures and their subsequent conversion into electron density maps. The ensuing phases of model construction, refinement, and structural validation are thoroughly examined, providing insight into the inherent complexity associated with each stage. The paper also discusses the critical component of understanding the resultant model and scrutinizing its biological significance. By comprehensively examining these stages, this article presents a nuanced comprehension of the intricate procedure in ascertaining protein structures within plant biology. It offers valuable insights into the obstacles encountered and the biological importance of the acquired structural data.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21 12:07:41
  • Nitrogen supply effect on lettuce response to Botrytis cinerea and
           Sclerotinia minor

    • Authors: Chayma Ouhibi*; Majd Darwish, Laurent Urban, Mokhtar Lachaal, Jawad Aarrouf
      Abstract: Background information: Cultural practices play an important role on the development of pathogens (Datnoff, et al. 2007). In this context, several authors have been interested in studying the effects of mineral nutrition on the resistance of vegetables and fruits to fungi during storage, especially nitrogen.The purpose of the study: In this work we tested the effects of three contrasted regimes of nitrogen supply, with nitrate concentrations in the nutrient solutions of 2 mM (low), 10 mM (normal) and 20 mM (high) on the susceptibility of Lactuca sativa L towards Botrytis cinerea (BC87) and Sclerotinia minor (SM) during storage.Once harvested, the outerleaves of the plants derived from the three nitrogen regimes were inoculated with either Botrytis cinerea (BC87) or Sclerotinia minor (SM). Data showed that the resistance to this two pathogens increase when plants were developed under low nitrogen concentration. This resistance observed is correlated with low values in oxidative stress indicators (MDA and H2O2) and high values in total phenols.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06 00:00:00
  • Fallow Lands of Tuva (Russia): 30 years of Steppe Demutation

    • Authors: Makunina NI*
      Abstract: Tuva has been a cattle-breeding region since ancient times, extremely continental climate of this region is little suitable for agriculture. However, the steppes of intermountain depressions in Tuva were heavily plowed by the early 1980s. In the 1990s most of the arable lands were abandoned; the process of restoration (demutation) of natural vegetation on fallow lands began. By now, 30 years later, the old fallows are expected to achieve the stage of the secondary steppe.The purpose of this work is to estimate the differences between virgin steppes and corresponding secondary steppes in Tuva. Tussock, hummock, and desert virgin steppes have been compared with corresponding to three types of 30-year-old fallow communities. For this study, 330 geobotanical releves have been used. The criteria for comparison have been chosen as follows: the similarity of species composition, the spectrum of dominant species, species richness, grass cover, and grass height. The statistical validity of their differences has been verified. According to these criteria, virgin steppes and their 30-year-old fallow derivatives are shown to differ significantly.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27 15:33:22
  • Determination of the Potential for use of Plant Essential Oils as a
           Fungicide Against Fusarium Oxysporum (OG10)

    • Authors: Elif Tan*; Ebru Gezgincioğlu, Özlem Gülmez Özlem Barış
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine whether the essential oils of thyme, ginger, and mint from medicinal aromatic plants can provide resistance to the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in the maize plant. To this end, the antifungal effect of 0.1 ml, 0.25 ml, 0.5 ml, and 1 ml essential oil amounts was determined by the agar disc diffusion method.  It was determined that concentrations containing 0.1, and 0.25 ml essential oil showed no antifungal effects, however, concentrations containing 0.5 and 1 ml essential oil had antifungal effects. The most effective concentration was found to be 1 ml of essential oil in all three species. The maize was grown under hydroponic conditions. Thyme, ginger, and mint essential oils (1 g/100 ml) were applied to the root medium of the grown maize plant on the 8th day. An F. oxysporum suspension containing 107 spores was applied after 24 hours and harvested 3 days later. When the reactive oxygen species (H2O2) and MDA amounts of the harvested plants were examined, it was observed that there was an increase in the population of F. oxysporum. However, applications of thyme, ginger, and mint essential oil have been observed to significantly reduce these. It was also determined that essential oils protected the plant against F. oxysporum by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities. Although these three essential oils applied have antifungal properties, it has been observed that the best effect belongs to thyme essential oil. The results show that essential oils of thyme ginger and mint can be used as potential fungicides against the pathogen F. oxysporum in maize cultivation
      PubDate: 2023-09-22 11:25:10
  • Analysis of Microbial Diversity and Community Structure in the Rhizosphere
           of Cigar Tobacco in Different Agroecological Zones

    • Authors: Junru Shen; Guoyou He, Xubing Tang*, Longhui Ren, Bao Fang, Anzhong Zhen, Tao Yang*, Chuisi Kong*
      Abstract: To reveal the influence of ecological zones on the structure of microbial communities in cigar rhizosphere soils, Yunnan's cigar tobacco production region was first divided into three ecological zones. Soil samples were collected at maturity and the community structure of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere soil was analyzed using 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing techniques. The results showed that the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Mortrellomycota, and Basidiomycota, and the dominant bacteria were Ascomycota and Proteobacteria. The dominant genera and relative abundances of fungi and bacteria differ at the genus level. Ecoregions may affect the community structure and distribution of fungal and bacterial diversity in the rhizospheric soil of cigars at maturity, which may provide a theoretical basis for the selection of high-quality cigar-producing regions in the future.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13 11:02:14
  • Impact of Biofertilizers & Different doses of NPK on Growth and
           Photosynthetic Pigments of Okra Plant (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. Moench)

    • Authors: Reena Kujur*; Heba I Khan, Eugenia P Lal, Lalit Kumar Verma
      Abstract: Okra is an herbaceous hairy annual plant that belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is cultivated in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions around the world. The present work was carried out to study the effect of biofertilizers (Azotobacter + Bacillus) and different concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium i.e.NPK on growth and photosynthetic pigments of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Okra can be named a multipurpose crop as its various parts such as leaves, buds, flowers, pods, stems and seeds can be used for different purposes [1]. Okra is rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, oils, etc. Application of hazardous fertilizers causes a nutrient imbalance in soil, With respect to reducing the causes due to chemical fertilizers, biofertilizers are suited best to maintain higher productivity and yield of crops. Random block design (RBD) was selected as an experimental design. The treatments combination taken are T0- Control, T1- Azotobacter + 50% NPK, T2- Azotobacter (2.5 kg/ha) + 100% NPK, T3- Bacillus (2.5 kg/ha) + 50% NPK, T4- Bacillus (2.5 kg/ha) + 100% NPK, and T5 with NPK 100%. The final result revealed, that the treatment combination with Azotobacter + 100% NPK (T2) showed the highest value of plant height (65.60 cm), number of leaves per plant(62.36), number of flowers per plant (27.40), and also carotenoid content (2.82 mg/g), chlorophyll a(2.47 mg/g) and chlorophyll b(3.25 mg/g) were observed maximum. So, it can be concluded through this paper that the combination of Azotobacter 2.5 kg/ha + 100% NPK (T2) is suitable for the okra plant for better growth and enhancement of photosynthetic potential in-field practices.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01 16:26:27
  • THz Analysis in the Depth of a Sunflower Leaf

    • Authors: Yannick Abautret; Dominique Coquillat, Myriam Zerrad, Gabriel Soriano, Michel Lequime, Claude Amra*
      Abstract: The internal structure of a sunflower leaf could be reconstructed by applying RET reverse engineering techniques on measurements from terahertz time-domain probing (Time Domain Spectroscopy TDS). This new and non-destructive method allows us to follow the evolution of this structure in time during a process of dehydration. This paper is a synthesis of our previous work.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01 16:20:49
  • Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet and Plasma Lamp Interaction with
           Plants: Electrostimulation, Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, and Side

    • Authors: Alexander G Volkov*; Jewel S Hairston, Darayas Patel, Sergey Sarkisov
      Abstract: Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) treatment is a highly effective method of protecting seeds, plants, flowers, and trees from diseases and infection and significantly increasing crop yields. Here we found that cold atmospheric pressure He-plasma jet (CAPPJ) can also cause side effects and damage to plants if the plasma exposure time is too long. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), electromagnetic fields, and ultraviolet photons emitted by CAPPJ can cause both positive and negative effects on plants. CAPPJ can interact with biological tissue surfaces. The plasma lamp has no visible side effects on Aloe vera plants, cabbage, and tomatoes. A plasma lamp and a cold atmospheric pressure plasma He-jet cause strong electrical signaling in plants with a very high amplitude with frequencies equal to the frequency of plasma generation. The use of plasma lamps for electrostimulation of biological tissues can help to avoid side processes in biological tissues associated with the generation of RONS, UV photons, and direct interaction with cold plasma. CAPP technology can play an important role in agriculture, medicine, the food industry, chemistry, surface science, material science, and engineering applications without side effects if the plasma exposure is short enough.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22 17:04:59
  • Ethno-Medicinal Plants from the North-Central Western Ghats of India for
           Alternative Health Care

    • Authors: Pramod J Hurkadale*; Chaitrali M Bidikar
      Abstract: Ethnomedicine, synonymous with traditional medicine, is a crucial healthcare system practiced by various ethnic groups worldwide, especially among those with limited access to modern Western medicine. This study explores the rich bio-cultural diversity of the North Central Western Ghats in Karnataka, India, which harbors diverse ethnomedicinal practices. The region's tropical forests are home to an extensive array of plant species, with over 600 endemic to southern India and 95 exclusively endemic to Karnataka. The research focuses on documenting and analyzing the traditional knowledge of local communities regarding the use of plants for treating various human diseases. However, this task presents significant challenges and requires collaborative efforts from the government, NGOs, and Herbal Drug Companies. Over the last decade, ethnomedicinal studies have seen a rise, but there is still limited understanding of ethnomedicine's role in the traditional healthcare system in India. The forests of North Central Western Ghats, including Agumbe, Arbail Ghat, Chorla Betta, and others, exhibit a combination of deciduous and evergreen vegetation. These forests hold a variety of medicinal plants, adding to the region's bio-cultural richness. Scientific validation of the locally used ethnomedicinal plants further supports the development of herbal drug formulations with the support of the Ministry of Ayush, enabling the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened and endangered species. The study emphasizes the importance of preserving traditional healers' knowledge and promoting collaboration for the preservation of ethnomedicinal practices in the region.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14 12:40:09
  • Conservation Threats to Ethnomedicinal plants in Kore District, South
           Eastern, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Selamawit Nega*; Agete Jerena, Mesfin Boja
      Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the threats to the biodiversity of ethnomedicinal plants and to find consensus information on conservation and management practices of ethnomedicinal plants to contribute sustainable utilization of ethnomedicinal plants in Kore district, Southeastern Ethiopia. The result of the survey revealed that sixty-one medicinal plants were reported by the informants from the study area. These plants are distributed in 59 genera and 37 families. Family Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were represented by 5 (8.2%) species for each family and this is the highest number of species and followed by 4 (6.5%) species of Solanaceae and Fabaceae for each family. Preference ranking analysis shows that Eucalyptus globulus scored 47, indicating that it is the most used plant for firewood in the community, followed by Olea europaea (45) and the least used plant for firewood is Juniperus procera scored 36. Paired comparison analysis showed that Olea Europeae ranked first followed by Podocarpus falcatus for the use of charcoal production in the study area. The major purposes of plant species in the study area were construction, Charcoal, Firewood, Furniture, and Fences as well as for medicinal uses. Based on direct matrix ranking analysis Juniperus procera, Eucalyptus globulus, Podocarpus falactus, Olea europaea, Hagenia abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, and Cordia africana were the most preferred medicinal plants by local people in the study area. The analysis's findings indicated that anthropogenic influences are endangering medicinal plants. In this study area, only about 13% of medicinal plants are collected from home gardens. This shows that the effort made by the community to conserve medicinal plants is not satisfactory. Therefore, encouraging NGOs and Government offices to participate in the conservation of medicinal plants to encourage the local people to plant indigenous trees for domestic use is necessary.
      PubDate: 2023-08-04 10:56:14
  • Sunflower Diseases and Downy Mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) in Adana

    • Authors: Hale Gunacti*
      Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important vegetable oil sources in the world and in our country. The preference for sunflower oil in the consumption of vegetable oil increases the importance of sunflowers in our country. Rust, downy mildew, Verticillium wilt, Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, charcoal rot, blight, and leaf spot are some of the important diseases most commonly seen in sunflowers. In some years, depending on the climatic conditions, Downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) is widely observed and it causes an epidemic in sunflower-planted areas in the Adana province. Genetically resistant hybrids have started to be grown in Turkey in recent years due to the resistance of downy mildew disease to fungicides. The aim of the study was to determine the status of sunflower diseases and Downy Mildew disease in Adana.
      PubDate: 2023-07-28 17:45:50
  • The Effect of Zinc Oxide, Copper, and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by
           the Green Method for Controlling Strawberry Gray Mold Fungus, B. Cinerea

    • Authors: Sareh Hashemi*; Masoud Ahmadzadeh
      Abstract: Gray mold disease, caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea, causes heavy losses in strawberries. The use of chemical fungicides due to the dangers for humans and the environment has caused attention to reduce their consumption and use biological methods. In this research, the effects of zinc oxide, copper, and silver nanoparticles have been synthesized from an aqueous extract of cloves, and the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei by the green method was investigated on the gray mold disease of strawberries. The results showed that concentrations of 10% of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of cloves can completely control this pathogen on the culture medium and the fruit. Zinc and silver nanoparticles produced by Lactobacillus casei prevented 93.7% and 81% of fungal growth in the culture medium, respectively. Other treatments did not show a good inhibitory effect on the fungus. All treatments were able to prevent 100% to 50% of fungal growth after 96 hours on strawberries. The investigation of the storage characteristics showed the positive effect of the examined nanoparticles on reducing the rate of change of the physicochemical characteristics of the strawberry fruit tissue. Apparent decay was significantly reduced and samples treated with nanoparticles scored higher in sensory evaluation compared to control. Also, investigating the toxicity of nanoparticles in this experiment on the HepG2 cell line showed that Compared to the control, copper and zinc nanoparticles did not have significant toxicity on cells, but silver nanoparticles led to 25% cell death. This research provides promising results in the field of using nanoparticles for pre-harvest and post-harvest control of plant diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-07-10 09:34:51
  • Management of Fungal Diseases of Temperate Rice in the Kashmir Valley,

    • Authors: Ali Anwar*; Mohammad Najeeb Mughal, Efath Shahnaz, Sabiya Bashir, Qadrul Nisa, Fazil Fayaz Wani, Asha Nabi
      Abstract: Over half of the world's population is fed by rice. It is consumed as a staple food by many countries worldwide. It is affected by a number of diseases among which fungal diseases contribute to its significant loss. Kashmir Valley located in the North Western Himalayan region of India is known for various coarse varieties of rice for their taste and elite class. However, the diseases cause a serious problem for the local farmers as well as the people who also consume rice as their staple food. One of the best remedies for disease management is the adoption of integrated disease management strategies, which include the use of resistant varieties, cultural practices, and judicious use of fungicides. In this review, we present the major fungal diseases affecting rice in Kashmir Valley and their management using Integrated Plant Disease Management (IDM).
      PubDate: 2023-07-04 11:13:39
  • Evaluation of Biostimulants Based on Recovered Protein Hydrolysates from
           Animal By-products as Plant Growth Enhancers

    • Authors: H Pérez-Aguilar*; M Lacruz-Asaro, F Arán-Ais
      Abstract: Free amino acids-based biostimulants are gaining momentum in Europe for sustainable agriculture. They stimulate plant growth, improve crop productivity, and reduce reliance on harmful fertilizers. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to develop biostimulants from animal by-products, such as greaves and protein-rich wastewater from processed animal proteins. The effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis depends on selecting the appropriate conditioning stage for the by-products, yielding protein in the range of 86% to 97%. These protein hydrolysates, with optimal amino acid compositions, are evaluated as biostimulants. Promising results show growth improvements of 17% to 31% in Chinese cabbage and lettuce seeds. The optimal dilution concentration ranges from 0.05% to 0.3%, depending on the protein hydrolysate used. The findings highlight the potential of these biostimulants to enhance plant growth and productivity while reducing environmental impact by replacing chemical fertilizers. They offer sustainable alternatives for promoting environmentally friendly practices in agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-07-03 10:44:50
  • Snapshot of the Involvement of Glutathione in Plant-Pathogen

    • Authors: Aparupa Bose Mazumdar Ghosh; Sharmila Chattopadhyay*
      Abstract: Glutathione (GSH), a dynamic biomolecule, is popularly called the “master antioxidant”. This tripeptide thiol is almost ubiquitously found in prokaryotes, and eukaryotes, with some organism exceptions, and is known for its several significant roles including in plants. GSH in plant systems restricts itself not only to plant growth and development but its role is crucial in providing resistance to plants against several environmental hazards also. 
      PubDate: 2023-06-27 11:49:01
  • The secondary metabolites profiling of the phytopathogenic fungus
           Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum

    • Authors: Sarah Otun*; Ikechukwu Achilonu, Khayalethu Ntushelo
      Abstract: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic plant pathogen causing more than 60 different disease symptoms in approximately 400 plants globally. Hence, due to this distinctive characteristic, S. sclerotiorum has been the subject of various research to comprehend its pathogenicity mechanism, including virulent genes, proteins, and metabolites. Likewise, the genomic annotation of S. sclerotiorum uncovered its remarkable potential for producing secondary metabolites, of which genome mining has additionally prompted the disclosure of these uncharacterized metabolic pathways, which might aid the pathogenicity process. To comprehend the secondary metabolites secreted by S. sclerotiorum that might be involved in its pathogenicity, a secondary metabolite-level investigation of this plant pathogen was performed. Profiling and characterizing these secondary metabolites produced during in vitro germination would increase the current knowledge of this pathogen. In this study, S. sclerotiorum secondary metabolites profile examination was conducted, utilizing the Ultra-High Resolution Qq-Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (UHR-QqTOF). Proficient data analysis and verification with the genomic pathways of S. sclerotiorum gave an unequivocal metabolome profile of this pathogen. Two hundred and thirty secondary metabolites were identified in all three biological replicates, and their bodily functions were identified.
      PubDate: 2023-06-10 11:10:37
  • Insights from selected ancient Mesopotamian medicinal plants: an opinion

    • Authors: Jo Ann Scurlock*
      Abstract: This paper is grounded in a series of medical texts that survive from ancient Mesopotamia. It seeks to show the relevance of these texts for the modern researcher. Key findings are that the ancient Mesopotamian physician had already discovered many of the herbal treatments currently being verified by modern science. Armed with what these ancient texts tell us, we are in a position to offer advice on ways to ensure the most effective use of and avoid the dangers presented by selected medicinal plants.
      PubDate: 2023-06-08 11:07:26
  • Water, energy, and food nexus with agroforestry system for sustainable
           development goals

    • Authors: Aris Sudomo*; Agung Wahyu Nugroho
      Abstract: Food production program faces tight competition on land, water, energy, and efforts against the negative effects of food production on the environment [1,2]. 
      PubDate: 2023-05-30 15:08:07
  • Possible bases of the resistance of Coconut palm to the phytoplasma that
           causes lethal yellowing disease

    • Authors: Luis Sáenz-Carbonell; Iván Córdova-Lara
      Abstract: Phytoplasmas belong to the parasitic group of mollicutes, which represent a phylogenetically coherent group of pathogens that colonize a wide spectrum of hosts and insects [1].
      PubDate: 2023-02-17 17:26:28
  • Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Jatropha dioica

    • Authors: Diana Isela Araujo-Espino; Blanca Patricia Lazalde-Ramos, Ana Lourdes Zamora-Perez
      Abstract: Jatropha dioica sesse ex cerv is a specie native to Mexico and Texas, commonly known as “sangre de drago“, its name is due to its colorless juice turning dark at exposure to the wind. This mini-review aims to collect information about the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Jatropha dioica. The phytochemicals identified are diterpenes, (citlalitrione, jatrophone and riolozatrione), β-sitosterol, oxalic acid and ellagic acid. The stems, whole plant, or the root of J. dioica in traditional medicine are used to avoid hair loss, as an antibacterial, and antiviral, to strengthen teeth, and to heal some injuries among others uses. Among the biological activities attributed to Jatropha dioica are found in antiviral activity, antifungal, antimicrobial, chemopreventive, anti-hyperglycemic and cytotoxic. However, the little information about the chemical composition of this species and the scarce scientific studies validating its pharmacological properties make J. dioica an interesting species to study.
      PubDate: 2023-02-10 17:23:14
  • The needs and challenges for water footprinting in arid regions

    • Authors: Islam MM Khater; Omar Ghaly
      Abstract: Climate change has left its traces on the planet in the last 3 decades. Most of the influenced areas were occupied in the Middle East which was degraded to desertification phenomena today. The per capita share of renewable water has been reduced to less than the poverty line of 1,000 m3/(capita) and in some Arab countries, to less than the extremepoverty line of 500 m3/(capita).
      PubDate: 2023-01-12 10:54:26
  • Control of rice bakanae disease by seed dressing with mixed solution of
           fludioxonil, metalaxyl-M and azoxystrobin

    • Authors: Deng Chen; Qi-Juan Hu, Xiao-Feng Chen
      Abstract: Rice bakanae disease is a typical seed-borne disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi that occurs in seedling beds and in fields. Fungicide seed treatment is an effective solution to this disease. In this study, we used a triple-fungicide suspension identified as 11% FMA, which is composed of 1.1% fludioxonil, 3.3% metalaxyl-M and 6.6% azoxystrobin to coat rice seeds for the prevention of bakanae disease. 11% FMA is water-logging resistant for rice seed treatment. Results showed that the mycelial growth of F. fujikuroi was significantly inhibited by 11% FMA in the laboratory test. Seed dressing with FMA at the rate of 1, 2, and 4 g per kg of seeds promoted seed germination and growth of seedling roots. Treatment with 11% FMA under all dose rates prevented rice bakanae disease of seedlings by more than 90%, especially by more than 95% at 4, 6 and 8 g per kg of seeds. During the subsequent maturation period, rice bakanae control efficiency reaches above 95% as well at 6 or 8 g per kg of seeds, slightly larger than about 92% at 1 or 2 g per kg of seeds. Above all, the rice yield notably improved by 11% with 1 g/kg, by around 8% with 2, 4, or 8 g/kg and by 5% with 6 g/kg treatment. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-06 10:47:56
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