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Applied Biology
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ISSN (Print) 2251-7901 - ISSN (Online) 2538-2187
Published by Alzahra University Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Plant-derived Molecules for the Treatment of Tuberculosis: A Review

    • Authors: Meena Yadav, Poonam Sharma
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Synthetic anti-TB drugs are being used to treat tuberculosis (TB) as they are effective, however, they are accompanied by many side effects. The disease has remained largely uncured till date. The use of plant extracts or phytochemicals along with the anti-TB drugs is a very attractive strategy to make the treatment more effective as phytochemicals have no side-effects, are much less toxic than synthetic anti-TB drugs, are safe to use and most importantly, do not produce resistant strains as opposed to synthetic anti-TB drugs. Approximately 420,000 plant species have been identified globally and among them only a few have been explored for their therapeutic potential. Traditional medicine in different parts of the world has employed crude extracts of several plant species to cure tuberculosis. Several anti-TB phytochemicals have been found in plants that are identified to have therapeutic qualities.  These phytochemicals are majorly glycosides, flavonoids, triterpenes, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, diterpenoid, lipids, tannins, sterols etc. by nature. They are either antimycobacterial or act synergistically with anti-TB drugs and reduce their adverse effects. Phytochemicals ameliorate the symptoms either by reducing the oxidative stress in the afflicted tissues or by regulating the inflammatory response. Hence, plant derived molecules have great potential to be used for the alternative treatment strategy for TB in future.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp1-13
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Aspirin Derivatives Exploration: A Review on Comparison Study with Parent

    • Authors: Azni Izwati Hamdan, Norsyafikah Asyilla Nordin, Dike Dandari Sukmana
      Pages: 14 - 32
      Abstract: In recent decades, drug modification is no longer unusual in the pharmaceutical world as living things are evolving in response to environmental changes. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin is a common over-the-counter drug that can be purchased without medical prescription. Aspirin can inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin by blocking the cyclooxygenase (COX) which contributes to its properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiplatelet and etc. It is also being considered as a chemopreventive agent due to its antithrombotic actions through the COX’s inhibition. However, the prolonged use of aspirin can cause heartburn, ulceration, and gastro-toxicity in children and adults. This review article highlights the recent derivatives of aspirin, either to reduce the risk of side effects or to obtain better physicochemical properties. Aspirin derivatives can be synthesized in various pathways and have been reported to give better biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, etc., compared to the parent drug. The presence of significant moieties such as nitric oxide (NO), NOSH, thiourea, azo, amide, and chalcone on the modified aspirin play important roles in achieving desired biological activities. The addition of the halogen in the modification has also become a preference among researchers as it also affects the actions due to its ability to hinder bacterial activity. This review is also sharing about the bulkiness effect of certain aspirin modifications that may cause steric hindrance of the compounds and influence their penetration into the enzyme’s active site. Overall, these aspirin modifications are safe to be considered as potential pharmaceutical agents.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp14-32
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Mitochondrial Copies Number and Some Renal Function Biomarkers in Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin

    • Authors: Samara Sameer Yonus, Muhammad Abdulgafoor Ahmed AlKataan
      Pages: 33 - 38
      Abstract: One of the most common metabolic illnesses in the world is diabetes mellitus. This metabolic disease is responsible for a large percentage of the burden of kidney damage and dysfunction. The goal of this study was to look into the renal function of diabetic patients using metformin monotherapy who came to Mosul's Al-Wafaa diabetes care and research facility. During the period 1 January 2021 to 30 April 2021, 47 patients with T2DM (age 50.48 7.74 years) were enrolled in this case-control study. These patients' results were compared to a control group of 47 seemingly healthy people (age 45.89 9.06 years). All participants' demographic and medical histories were acquired through the delivery of a questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and tested for the mt-ND1 gene, HbA1c, uric acid, urea, and creatinine, among other things. In diabetics, there were extremely significant increases in HbA1c, Urea, and Creatinine (p < 0.001, 0.003, and 0.043, respectively) when compared to the control group. In diabetic patients, however, uric acid levels did not change significantly. HbA1c and uric acid had a strong negative connection (r = -0.045 and 0.05, respectively). In diabetic individuals, the number of mitochondrial copies was substantially lower than in the control group (p < 0.001). In comparison to non-diabetic controls, diabetic patients treated with mono-metformin treatment had a lower mitochondrial copy number and moderate renal impairment.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp33-38
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Descriptive, Prospective Observational Study- Studying Possible Prediction
           Factors for Disease Severity and Progression among a Sample of COVD 19
           Patients in Iraq

    • Authors: Duaa Mohammed Habeeb, Zinah M. Anwer
      Pages: 39 - 49
      Abstract: Abstract Coronavirus has affected many people around the world and caused an increase in the number of hospitalized patients and deaths. The prediction factor may help the physician to classify whether the patient needs more medical attention to decrease mortality and worsening of symptoms. We aimed to study the possible relationship between C reactive protein level and the severity of symptoms and its effect on the prognosis of the disease. And determine patients who require closer respiratory monitoring and more aggressive supportive therapies to avoid poor prognosis. The data was gathered using medical record data, the patient's medical history, and the onset of symptoms, as well as a blood sample to test the C-reactive protein level. The patients were divided into three groups based on the severity of the disease.  A prospective cohort study of 246 patients over the age of 18 years discovered that c-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in more severe cases than in mild cases, and that older patients with high levels of AST, TSB, Urea, Creatinine, and CRP were associated with the need for a high flow of oxygen, an intensive care unit, a longer length of hospitalization, and a have a high mortality rate. The study concluded several predictor factors for the disease (COVID-19) severity, duration of hospitalization, ICU admission and need for oxygen therapy.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp39-49
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Preparation and in-vitro Evaluation of Secnidazole as Periodontal In-situ
           Gel for Treatment of Periodontal Disease

    • Authors: Dheyaa A Raheema, Hanan Jalal Kassab
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: This study aims to develop a thermosensitive mucoadhesive periodontal in situ gel of secnidazole for local release of drug for treatment of periodontitis, in order to increase the drug residence time and to increase patient compliance while lowering the side effects of the drug. Cold method was used to prepare 30 formulas of secnidazole periodontal in situ gel, using different concentrations of thermosensitive polymers (poloxamer407 alone or in combination with poloxamer 188) and methyl cellulose (MC ) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M )in different concentrations used as mucoadhesive polymer and the resultant formulations were subjected to several tests such as gelation temperature GT, appearance and pH value. The formulas with the most appropriate GT were subjected to in-vitro drug release. Three formulas were chosen with appropriate release, F6 (15% P407, 1% MC), F29 (18%P407,3% P188, 0.8% HPMC) and F30 (18%P407,3% P188, 1% HPMC). These formulas were subjected to mucoadhesive force, viscosity, drug content, spreadability, gelation time and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) compatibility studies. The results indicates that formula F29 and F30 have best gelation temperatures (33°C, 32°C) gel strength (1.5h,2h) mucoadhesive force of (17.1, 23.4 dyne/cm2 ) and in-vitro drug release (98.2%, 100%) respectively during 3.5h and gelation, time about 10 seconds for both formulas and FTIR spectrum study show absence of important interaction between secnidazole and the polymers used.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp50-61
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact and Association of Anaemia Severity and Its Treatment With Quality
           of Life of Breast Cancer Patients in Malaysia

    • Authors: Ali Haider Mohammed, Fares Mohammed Saeed Muthanna, Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan, Mahmathi Karuppannan, Abdulrasool M. Wayyes
      Pages: 62 - 70
      Abstract: Anaemia is a crucial issue among cancer patients and need to be treated properly. High incidence of anaemia in patients with cancer have been associated with several physiological manifestations, leading to decreased quality of life (QOL). The current study aimed to assess the severity of anaemia, evaluate the current treatment guideline of anaemia, and to determine the association between the level of anaemia and its treatment on quality of life of breast cancer patients in Malaysia. This prospective study conducted among breast cancer patients in multicancer centers in Malaysia including three follow ups after receiving their chemotherapy. Clinical data were collected from their medical records and at each follow up, they asked to fill up a functional assessment chronic therapy (FACT-An) questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were done using SPSS. The mean age of participants was 52 ± 11 years old, and out of 120 participants, 32% received anti-anaemic treatments including 87% of them were prescribed with iron supplementation and only 13% received combination of blood transfusion and iron therapy. Surprisingly, none of the participants received erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs). Statistical tests also indicated a significant association between anti-anaemic treatments with haemoglobin level and QOL scores. However, this association was insufficient to significantly improve QOL or palliate anaemia severity among participants. This study showed a great evidence that, the current practice of anaemia treatment (iron therapy) among breast cancer patients in Malaysia’s healthcare setting, was not sufficient to palliate anaemia severity or to improve patients’ QOL. There is still a lot of gaps to improve in the management of anaemia among breast cancer patients to show a significant improvement in haemoglobin level. Therefore, respective organisations and oncologists are required to raise awareness about the optimal treatment of anaemia among breast cancer patients, as a result, improve their general wellbeing
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp62-70
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Exploring the Capability of the Hospital Pharmacists in Conducting
           Pharmacy Practice Research: A Study from Malaysia

    • Authors: Ali Blebil, Juman Abdulelah Dujaili, Ali Haider Mohammed, Ahmed Awaisu, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali, Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan, Abdulrasool M. Wayyes
      Pages: 71 - 82
      Abstract: The engagement of pharmacists in research activities is pivotal in the advancement of the pharmacy practice. The study aims to evaluate the confidence and competence of Malaysian hospital pharmacists in conducting clinical and practice-based research. A cross-sectional study was carried out between September 2019 and April 2020 using an online survey. Pharmacists from eight different hospitals in Malaysia were involved in the study. The survey link was sent to all pharmacists of the included hospitals via email. Data were analysed using SPSS version 25. A total of 226 pharmacists participated in this study, and their average age was 28 years old. About 82 % of the participants reported that they did not have any previous research experience, and around 62% of them indicated that the research training during their undergraduate study was inadequate. At least 60% of the participants reported inadequate competence and/or confidence in developing research protocols, critically appraising the literature, undertaking and applying appropriate statistical techniques, and interpreting research findings. There is an urgent need to reinforce undergraduate and postgraduate research training in the institutions among potential and current pharmacists to build competence in research techniques such as literature reviews and scholarly participation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp71-82
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sensitive Cloud Point Extraction Method for the Determination of

    • Authors: Hind Hadi, Wasan A. Al-Uzri
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract:       A simple and highly sensitive cloud point extraction process was suggested for preconcentration of micrograms amount of isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISX) in pure and pharmaceutical samples. After diazotization coupling of ISX with diazotized sulfadimidine in alkaline medium, the azo-dye product quantitatively extracted into the Triton X-114 rich phase, dissolved in ethanol and determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm. The suggested reaction was studied with and without extraction and simple comparison between the batch and CPE methods was achieved. Analytical variables including concentrations of reagent, Triton X-114 and base, incubated temperature, and time were carefully studied. Under the selected optimum conditions, the linearity ranges of calibration curves were 1-9 and 0.5-8 µg/mL with detection limits of 0.26 and 0.09 µg/mL of ISX for batch and CPE methods respectively. A relative standard deviation (RSD %) best than 1.98 and 2.67 % with the percentage recoveries range 100.14 and 99.63 % were obtained for both methods respectively. The proposed methods were successfully used in routine analysis of ISX in pharmaceutical forms with high accuracy and reproducibility.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp83-90
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Preparation and Evaluation of Oroslippery Tablets Contain Irbesartan and
           Hydrochlorothiazide Combination for Dysphagia Patients

    • Authors: Yasir Q. almajidi, Yaseen T. Khalaf , Naeem M. Shalan, Israa H. Alani, Wael A. Abu Dayyih
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: Oro slippery tablets (OSTs) is a technique used to improve swallowing of tablets for patients with dysphagia. The aim of this study was to formulate irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide as Oroslippery tablets (OST) containing 150 mg irbesartan and 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide for dysphagia patients. A simple and rapid method of analysis was developed and validated according to the ICH guideline using HPLC with UV detector. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and then coated with the slippery coat of three different concentrations of the slippering substance “xanthan gum’ (2%, 3% and 4%) in Opadry Colorcone® and evaluated according to USP. Slipperiness test was performed using Albino rabbits. Results showed that 2% xanthan gum gave the shortest swallowing time. Also, disintegration time was increased by the coat significantly with the increase of the gum’s concentration in the coat. The release kinetics study of the tested formulations (uncoated versus coated with 2% gum) gave the highest correlation for the "first-order release model" for both drugs in the absence and presence of the slippering agent which indicates that the coating did not interfere with the release kinetics of both drugs.  In a conclusion, 2% xanthan gum as slippering agent the optimum concentration used to promote easy ingestion of this tablet.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp91-100
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anti-obesity effect of simvastatin and omega-3 and its combination on
           obese model male Wistar rats

    • Authors: Rasha Abdullatif ALJuboury, Nada N Al-Shawi
      Pages: 101 - 112
      Abstract:       Strategies to reduce obesity have become main priority for many health institution and health staff around the world, as the prevalence of obesity has risen and exacerbated in most of the world mainly because of the modern life style which tend to be more sedentary with an increase eating unhealthy fast western food. Many years ago, the lipid-lowering drug simvastatin; and omega-3 were considered as a traditional lipid-lowering drug that have been well-documented to possess anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and triglyceride-lowering properties; and their co-administration may demonstrate a complementary effect in lowering patients' triglycerides and total cholesterol to treat atherosclerosis. Many previous studies have been found other beneficial effects for simvastatin, and omega-3; since, simvastatin can be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; and for prevention of prostate cancer; while omega 3 can reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death in addition to preventing obesity that has been documented by recent studies. But, the effect of simvastatin alone or its combination with omega-3 as potential anti-obesity therapy and /or protection against obesity is not yet known through their effects on thermogenic factors. Aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on thermogenic genes including (UCP1) using quantitative real time PCR, while the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) protein was detected in iBAT and iWAT adipocyte by immunohistochemistry. Method One hundred twenty (120) male Wistar rats (five-six week age and weighing 100-150g) were allocated into five groups: treated with two different doses of simvastatin, omega-3 and mixed treatment, in addition to high fat diet group which considered as a control group. Treatments were given for eight weeks. Three rats from each group were weekly-authenticated along the 60 days interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and inguinal white adipose tissues (iWAT) were obtained. Results; showed that simvastatin and omega-3 have an obvious activation of UCP1genes, this reflects an increase in thermogenic process in adipose tissue in obese high fat diet rats and their combination exert a synergistic increase in the thermogenic mechanism when compared to simvastatin 9mg/ kg /day alone. Conclusion this study gives a hope for the utilization of simvastatin either alone or in combination with omega-3 as anti-obesity therapy; through their enhancement of thermogenic in white and brown adipose tissues with a consequent weight loss.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp101-112
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Effect of TNF-Alpha Gene Polymorphisms At -376 G/A, -806 C/T, and
           -1031 T/C on The Likelihood of Becoming a Non-Responder to Etanercept in A
           Sample of Iraqi Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    • Authors: Samer Imad Mohammed, Munaf Hashim Zalzala, Faiq Isho Gorial
      Pages: 113 - 128
      Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonists’ therapy are expensive and has a non-responsive rate between 30% to 40% in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Genetic variation plays a vital role in the responsiveness to this type of therapy.The aim of this study is to investigate if the presence of genetic polymorphism in the TNF-α gene promoter region at locations -376 G/A (rs1800750), -806 C/T (rs4248158), and -1031 T/C (rs1799964) affects rheumatoid arthritis patient's tendency to be a non-responder to etanercept. Eighty RA patients on etanercept (ETN) for at least six months were recruited from the Rheumatology Unit at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Based on The European League Against Rheumatism response (EULAR) criteria, patients were divided into two groups: responders and non-responders. After polymerase chain reaction amplification of their DNA, the amplified DNA was sequenced by Sanger method to determine the polymorphisms at the positions -376G/A, -806 C/T, and -1031T/C. The results of this study found that equally Phi correlation and binary logistic regression analysis revealed a non-significant association for all genotypes in the three polymorphic sites with the tendency for being non-responder. Moreover, there was no significant difference in TNF-α mean level or the change in disease activity score for 28 joints (DAS28) after six months of etanercept therapy between all genotypes for each polymorphic site. The present study concludes that there was no correlation between the polymorphisms in the TNF-α promoter region at -376G/A, -806 C/T, and -1031T/C with the tendency for being non-responder to ETN.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp113-128
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Neuroprotective Effect of Vinpocetine against Lead Acetate-Instigated
           Neurotoxicity in Rats by Evaluation Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha,
           Interleukin-1Beta and Interleukin-10

    • Authors: Manal Abdulkhaliq Ibrahim, Wameed Hashim Abbas, Muhsin Sagheer Ghalib, Nada N. Najia Al-Shawi
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: Lead toxicity elicits neurological damage which is a well-known disorder that has been considered to be a major cause for multiple condition such as behavioral defect; mental retardation; and nerve insufficient activity. This research is designed to estimate potential protective effect of vinpocetine on neurotoxicity stimulated by lead acetate in rats. Eighteen adult rats of both sexes were randomly enrolled into three groups. Each group includes 6 rats as followings: Group I- Rats were given 0.3ml normal saline solution orally; then intraperitoneal injection of 100μl of the normal saline was given 1h later; this group was considered as control. Group II- Rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of 20mg/kg lead acetate for 5 days. Group III- Rats were orally given 3mg/kg vinpocetine, which was given 1hr before [(the IP injection of Pb every 24 hours at a dose of 20mg/kg) for 5 days and continued for 10 days]. On 11th day of the study, the brain of each animal has been surgically cut-out to make homogenate preparation to estimate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Lead significantly elevated TNF-α and IL-1beta; while, it significantly decreased IL-10 levels. Vinpocetine significantly minimized IL-1beta and TNF-α; furthermore, vinpocetine significantly raise IL-10 levels at (P<0.05). Vinpocetine may have a neuro-protective activity against lead-stimulated toxicity brain of rats.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp129-134
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Therapeutic Effects of Vitamin E in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An
           Open-Labeled Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Amal jawad Fairooz, Mohammed yawuz Jamal, Nawal mehdi Alkhalidi
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: Abstract: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the widespread chronic liver diseases; it is ranging from simple fat buildup in the liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) presence of inflammation and hepatocyte injury.                                                                                                                                                                                                          This study aims to assess the effect of vitamin E on the degree of fatty infiltration in the liver, liver enzymes, and lipid profile.                                                           A prospective open-labeled clinical trial involved (39) Participants diagnosed with NAFLD depending on ultrasonography findings, they were administered vitamin E 800IU\day for 12wks and advised to take low fat, low carbohydrate diet and to do regular sport. Steatosis score, liver enzymes, fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were measured at baseline and repeated at 4wks and 12wks of the study period.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Results of this study found that vitamin E reduces steatosis score significantly at 12wks (p=0.0001), while liver enzymes ALT and ALP did not show significant difference throughout the study period at 12wks (p=0.081 for ALT, P=0.117 for ALP) only AST showed significant difference ( p=0.008 at 12wks ), total cholesterol and triglyceride were reduced significantly (p=0.0001 for both) at 4wks and 12wks where HDL and fasting blood glucose were not altered significantly through the study period.  In conclusion, vitamin E and lifestyle modifications have a positive impact on patients with NAFLD by reducing steatosis score, lipid profile, and BMI      
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp135-143
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Health Hazards, Hematological and Biochemical Alterations in Dry-Cleaning
           Workers using Perchloroethylene.

    • Authors: Bushra Hassan Marouf
      Pages: 144 - 149
      Abstract: Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry-cleaning solvent, it is attributed to many deleterious effects in the biological system. The study aimed to investigate the harmful effect associated with PERC exposure among dry-cleaning workers. The study was carried out on 58 adults in two groups. PERC-exposed group; include thirty-two male dry-cleaning workers using PERC as a dry-cleaning solvent and twenty-six healthy non-exposed subjects. History of PERC exposure, use of personal protection equipment (PPE), safety measurement of the exposed group was recorded. Blood sample was taken from each participant for measurement of hematological markers, liver and kidney function tests. The results showed that 28.1% of the workers were using PPE regularly while 71.9% of the workers were not. Most of the workers 31(96.9%) were disposed of their waste products in improper way. Non-significant differences were observed in hematological indices between PERC-exposed group and non-exposed group. Serum level of kidney and liver function markers of the dry-cleaning workers were higher with statistically significant difference compared with the non-exposed group. In conclusion, a non-significant alteration in hematological parameters, while significant changes in part of liver and kidney functions indices have been demonstrated. Clinical observation indicated a harmful effect in PERC-exposed group. Key words: Occupational, PERC, personal protective equipment, dry cleaner
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp144-149
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Characterization of Alginate with Natural Polymers Combination for Drug

    • Authors: Viviane Annisa, Teuku Nanda Saifullah Sulaiman, Akhmad Kharis Nugroho, Agung Endro Nugroho, Roman Kutsyk
      Pages: 150 - 159
      Abstract: Alginate is one of the natural biopolymers that is widely used for drug formulations, combination of alginate with other polymers, such as gum acacia, pectin, and carrageenan can increase mechanical strength, therefore, can reduce leakage of the encapsulated active pharmaceutical ingredient from the polymer matrix. Interaction of alginate and these polymers can occur via intermolecular hydrogen bonds causing synergism, which is determined from the viscosity of polymer mixture. Alginate was combined with gum acacia/pectin/carrageenan in different blending ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) with and without addition of CaCl2. The synergism effect is obtained from the design of experimental (DoE), and calculation the percentage value of viscosity deviation viscosity synergism index, then the strength of gel was analyzed. The interaction between two polymers was observed using FTIR spectroscopy. In distilled water, the synergistic effect was found in the combination of alginate-carrageenan at ratios 25:75 and 50:50. Otherwise, in CaCl2 solution, synergistic effect appears in alginate-gum acacia (75:25), alginate-pectin (50:50 and 75:25), and alginate-carrageenan (50:50 and 75:25). The synergistic effect and strength of gel polymers increased, with the addition of CaCl2.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp150-159
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Comparative Study for the Accuracy of Three Molecular Docking Programs
           Using HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors as a Model

    • Authors: Twana Mohsin Salih
      Pages: 160 - 168
      Abstract: Flexible molecular docking is a computational method of structure-based drug design to evaluate binding interactions between receptor and ligand and identify the ligand conformation within the receptor pocket. Currently, various molecular docking programs are extensively applied; therefore, realizing accuracy and performance of the various docking programs could have a significant value. In this comparative study, the performance and accuracy of three widely used non-commercial docking software (AutoDock Vina, 1-Click Docking, and UCSF DOCK) was evaluated through investigations of the predicted binding affinity and binding conformation of the same set of small molecules (HIV-1 protease inhibitors) and a protein target HIV-1 protease enzyme. The tested sets are composed of eight receptor-ligand complexes with high resolution crystal structures downloaded from Protein Data Bank website. Molecular dockings were applied between approved HIV-1 protease inhibitors and the HIV-1 protease using AutoDock Vina, 1-Click Docking, and DOCK6. Then, docking poses of the top-ranked solution was realized using UCSF Chimera. Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and coefficient of determination (r2) between the experimental results and the top scored docking results of each program were calculated using Graphpad prism V9.2. After comparing saquinavir top scored binding poses of each docking program with the crystal structure, various conformational changes were observed. Moreover, according to the relative comparison between the top ranked calculated 'Gbinding values against the experimental results, r2 value of AutoDock Vina, 1-Click Docking, and DOCK6 were 0.65, 0.41, and 0.005, respectively. The outcome of this study shows that the top scored binding free energy could not produce the best pose prediction. In addition, AutoDock Vina results have the highest correlation with the experimental results.  
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp160-168
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Study the Effect of 12-Hydroxyoctadecanoic Acid Concentration on
           Preparation and Characterization of Floating Organogels using Cinnarizin
           as Modeling Drug

    • Authors: Masar Basim Mohsin Mohamed , Zainab Saad Qaddoori, Ghaidaa Sulaiman Hameed
      Pages: 169 - 176
      Abstract: This work targeted studying organogel as a potential floating system. Organgel has an excellent viscoelastic properties, floating system posses a depot property. Different formulations of 12-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (HOA) in sesame oil were gelled and selecting F1, F3 and F5 HOA organogels for various examinations: tabletop rheology, optical microscopy, and oscillatory rheology studies. Also, the floating properties studies were conducted at in vitro and in-vivo levels. Lastly, the in-vitro release study using cinnarizine (CN) was to investigate the organogel depot property. Based on the results, the selected concentrations of HOA in sesame oil organogels showed temperature transitions from gel to sol higher than body temperature. These organogels scaffolds inner structures were a star-like shape. The formulation F5 HOA/SO organogels were developing higher storage modulus values, which resulted from the amplitude sweep study. Indeed, all the selected organogels were frequency sweep independent. The organogel’s in vitro floating properties were found positively proven our work’s aim and were buoyant for 24 hours as F5 HOA organogels remained for 12 hours in the rat’s stomach. The depot property showed the slow release of CN from F5 HOA/SO organogel and not more than 65% w/w of CN released after 24 hours.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp169-176
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Potential Positive Effects using Coenzyme Q10 Supplement as Adjuvant
           Therapy to Gabapentin for Managing Diabetic Neuropathy

    • Authors: Mohammed Mahmood Mohammed, Rusul AbdulKareem Hadi , Isam Noori Salman
      Pages: 177 - 183
      Abstract: The most prevalent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus is diabetic neuropathy. The pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy is exacerbated by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, which causes nerves to deteriorate in a programmed manner. Many clinical trials depend on supplement in an attempt to improve neuropathy symptoms such as (pain & tingling) and patient quality of life, one of them is Coenzyme Q10 which is reported to have an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and was totally nontoxic and non-reported side effects. This study aimed to evaluate using a Coenzyme Q10 supplement as an adjuvant therapy to gabapentin to improve the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy in relation to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This open-label interventional study involved 33 diabetic neuropathy patients divided into two groups: group (1) 16 patients were given 300 mg of gabapentin once a day at evening, plus group (2) 17 patients received 300 mg of gabapentin once a day in the evening plus Coenzyme Q10 200mg once daily. Pre- and post-3 months of treatment, blood samples used to measure metabolic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant biomarkers (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, tumor necrosis factor-α, Iinterleukin-6 & Superoxide dismutase) , as well as the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument for assessment of clinical symptoms. After 3 months of Coenzyme Q10 use, the results showed that the group 2 produced a highly significant change in glycated hemoglobin & fasting blood glucose levels. Meanwhile, there is no significant change in glycated hemoglobin & fasting blood glucose values in patients receiving just gabapentin. Moreover, results showed highly significant differences in Michigan neuropathy screening instrument, tumor necrosis factor-α, iinterleukin-6 & superoxide dismutase between the study groups at the completion of the research. Finally, addition of Coenzyme Q10 to gabapentin for diabetic neuropathy patients result in improving the glycemic control & symptoms of the diabetic neuropathy, as well as decreasing effects of the inflammation in addition to oxidative stress after three months of treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp177-183
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Comparison of Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities for Black and
           White Desert Truffles Spread in Syria

    • Authors: Abdullah Zuhair Al-Atassi, Racha Aboualkher AL-KHATIB, Mohammad Abdulraouf OTHMAN
      Pages: 184 - 192
      Abstract: Desert truffle is considered as a type of Syrian wild fungi that spreads heavily, and it occupies important rank in folk medicine, where its aqueous extract is used for the treatment of some eye and skin illnesses, and people prefer the use of black truffle. This work interested in studying of the most available species; Terfezia claveryi (black) and Tirmania pinoyi (white). The extracts of the two species of truffle were prepared by maceration with water, methanol, and ethanol 70%. Their total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were analyzed using Folin-ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods respectively, and their antioxidant activities was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods, after microscopic examination and detection of phytochemical components. Then, phenolic profile of ethanolic 70% extract of black truffle T.claveryi was studied by using LC-MS/MS. The values of TPC were between 25.3-43.6 mg GAE/g dry extract and TFC were between 2.5-6.8 mg QE/g dry extract. The values of DPPH (IC50) and FRAP were between 5.6-9.0 mg/ml and 90.1-153.4 µmol AAE/g dry extract respectively. There is a great similarity in content and activity of two species, also the aqueous extract is similar to other extracts in content and activity, and this means that the method of extract preparation in traditional medicine is reliable. It has been predicted about 14 phenolic compounds in the extract; as p-Hydroxy benzoic acid, Syringic acid and trans-Cinnamic acid. As a result, both truffle species are a new rich resource of antioxidant compounds which are usable in nutritional, cosmetic, and therapeutic applications.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp184-192
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Nitrogen-Containing Anthraquinone

    • Authors: Vasyl Shupeniuk, Tatiana Taras, Oksana Sabadakh, Eugene Luchkevich, Mykola Matkivskyi
      Pages: 193 - 201
      Abstract: New substituted anthraquinones with amino derivations fragments were synthesized through the substitution of bromine atom by different amines using the Ullmann coupling reaction. Obtained compounds based on anthraquinone used for experimental antimicrobial studies. The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by LC-MS and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy. Studies on planktonic microorganisms have shown that the first synthesized anthraquinone derivatives have an inhibitory effect against bacteria and fungi. The triazene 1-(3-(benzoic acid(triaz-1-en-1-ol(-4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl(-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene -2-sulfonic acid, have wide spectrum of activity, growth retardation zones against gram-positive microorganisms in the range of 8.41-11.5 mm, gram-negative bacteria 5.87-8.18 mm, fungi of the genus Candida 5.81-7.48 mm. The high antimicrobial activity of this compound is probably due to the presence of benzoic acid in its molecule.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp193-201
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Prevalence of AGER gene polymorphism in post menopause Iraqi sample with
           Osteoporosis and osteopenia in type 2DM

    • Authors: Murooj G Jameel , Zainab M Alhakeem, Mohammad H Al-Osami
      Pages: 202 - 210
      Abstract: Osteoporosis (OP)is one of the most important metabolic disorder also affected by interaction of genetic and environmental factors by almost 70% and 30% respectively. Genetic components are identified to strongly effect bone mineral density, bone building and turnover, so they play an important role in determining risk of OP and fragility fractures. This study consists of patient and control group; Group A: (70) postmenopausal women with OP and osteopenia, Group B: (20) control group.  five milliliters of blood sample were divided into three tubes; one tube (1ml) contain gel for obtain serum to measure glucose level, the others tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), in 2 tube 2ml stored in deep freeze at (–40 Co) until genomic analysis of DNA for the performance of PCR genotyping of gene polymorphisms of RAGE, in 3 tube 2ml used to perform Glycated Hemoglobin % (HbA1c) assays. HbA1c and Serum glucose levels is significantly increased in Group A. a high prevalence of RAGE polymorphism rs1800625 and rs1800624 were detected in postmenopausal women with OP with type2DM. Homozygous 1800625 were (31%) and heterozygous 1800625(31%) compared to control homozygous 1800625 were (5%) and heterozygous 1800625 were (5%) respectively. Homozygous 1800624 were (28.5%) and heterozygous 1800624(28.5%) compared to control homozygous 1800624 were (5%) and heterozygous 1800624 were (20%) respectively. In conclusion, the rs1800625 and rs1800624 polymorphism might be a causal risk allele for OP in post menopause Iraqi women with type2 DM.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp202-210
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Possible protective effects of two different doses of cyanocobalamin
           against methotrexate nephrotoxicity in rats

    • Authors: Noor Mohammed Alduboni, Nada N Al-Shawi
      Pages: 212 - 217
      Abstract: Abstract    Nephrotoxicity is defined as rapid deterioration in kidney functions. It arises from direct exposure to drugs or their metabolites. Methotrexate is a famous chemotherapeutic drug with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. A high-dose methotrexate-induced renal dysfunction can be life threatening. Cyanocobalamin, one of the forms of vitamin B12, acts as a coenzyme in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine in the cytosol, and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. This study is designed to examine the effect of cyanocobalamin in two different doses each co-administered with methotrexate at 20 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats through the involvement of Nrf2/keap1 molecular mechanism in this respect. Rats utilized in this study were randomized into 4 groups (ten rats per each group); Group 1- (Control) rats intraperitoneally injected with 0.5ml normal saline once daily for 7 consecutive days. Group 2- Rats intraperitoneally injected with 0.5ml normal saline once daily for 7 consecutive days; and at day 2, a single intraperitoneal dose of methotrexate (20mg/kg) is to be injected. Group 3- Rats intraperitoneally injected with a 0.5mg/kg cyanocobalamin once daily for 7 consecutive days, and at day 2, a single intraperitoneal dose of methotrexate (20mg/kg). Group 4- Rats intraperitoneally injected with a 2mg/kg cyanocobalamin once daily for 7 consecutive days, and at day 2, a single intraperitoneal dose of methotrexate (20mg/kg). Co-administration of cyanocobalamin at doses cyanocobalamin 0.5mg/kg and 2mg/kg with methotrexate showed significant  reduction  (P<0.05) in malondialdehyde, significant elevation (P<0.05)  in reduced glutathione level, significant upregulation in  renal Nrf2 expression and significant down regulation in renal keap1 expression each compared to corresponding levels in methotrexate-only treated group. In conclusion this study demonstrated that co-administration of cyanocobalamin at two different doses with MTX resulted in attenuation of its nephrotoxicity by the utilization of selected parameters. Keywords: Nephrotoxicity, methotrexate, cyanocobalamin, malondialdehyde, glutathione, Nrf2, Keap1.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp212-217
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Occurrence of Quinolone-Resistance Genes in Ciprofloxacin-Resistant
           Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhi Isolated form Blood Sample of Patients
           with Typhoid Fever

    • Authors: Jabbar S. Hassan, Bushra J. Al-Tamimi, Fuad Ghazi Hassan
      Pages: 218 - 222
      Abstract: Salmonella is approved as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems throughout the world particularly in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Low-level fluoroquinolone resistance is conferred by both chromosomal and plasmid-encoded resistance, this research was carried out look into the occurrence rate of qnrA,qnrB and qnrS genes in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi Cipr ofloxacin-resistant insulate from blood samples of patients with typhoid fever. Fifteen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolated previously from patients with typhoid fever were included in this study. All bacterial isolates were confirmed to have ciprofloxacin resistant by VITEK 2 microbial identification system; after plasmid DNA extraction; multiplex-PCR was done with primer sequences intended to plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes which is qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS. In this study; it was 21 qur genes amongst 15 isolates. The qnrS gene was the commonest (10/21, 47.6%) followed by qnrA (6/21, 28.5%), whereas only 4 isolates were positive for qnrB (5/21, 23.8%). Some isolates had more than one qnr genes. So, Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella typhi can have more than one gene at the same time; and the most occurrence rate in regards to qnr gene in this study was qnrS compared to qnrA and qnrB
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp218-222
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Highlighting the Treatment Regimens used in COVID-19 epidemic in Iraq with
           Special Regards to Vitamin D

    • Authors: Zinah Mudhafar AL-Nema, Ruaa Natiq Yahya, Noor Mubdir Khalf
      Pages: 223 - 232
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a flu-like infection caused by a novel virus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After the widespread around the world, it was announced by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global pandemic. The symptoms of COVID-19 may arise within 2 weeks and the severity ranged from mild with signs of respiratory infection to severe cases of organ failure and even death. Management of COVID-19 patients includes supportive treatment and pharmacological medications expected to be effective with no definitive cure of the disease. The aims of this study are highlighting the management protocol and supportive therapy especially vitamin D and manifesting the clinical symptoms by patients in Iraq. An observational study was conducted on 200 patients and descriptive parameters for data were calculated to analyze the results. The mean age was 42.56±17.49 years and the majority of patients were presented with mild to moderate symptoms (78%). There were many different pharmacological treatment regimens and random doses and duration of vitamin D were taken by the patients. In conclusion, a non-specific treatment protocol was used for the patients without compliance to the national guidelines for management and treatment of COVID-19 patients in Iraq with the administration of a wide range of pharmaceutical agents that required monitoring for their safety and efficacy. Vitamin D is administered in different doses and duration without depending on the basal serum concentration.
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp223-232
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Study of the inhibitory effect of Terpinen-4-ol on Amastigote Forms of
           Leishmania tropica within Macrophages of Mouse in vitro

    • Authors: Abdulazim Mohammed Hami
      Pages: 233 - 236
      Abstract: It was recorded that Terpinen-4-ol has an anti-parasitic properties, so it will be noteworthy to intensify the studies about this compound. This study aims to test the effectiveness of terpinen-4-ol on amastigote forms of Leishmania parasite in macrophages. This effect was studied by adding increasing concentrations  of  Terpinen-4-ol to  culture wells containing mouse macrophages that were previously incubated with the promastigote forms of the parasites for 24 hours .Then, they were incubated for another 24 hours with increasing concentrations of Terpinen-4-ol.  After, Parasites were enumerated into macrophages in wells either treated with Terpinen-4-ol or in control wells. Treatment with Terpinen-4-ol at concentrations (0.01%, 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.1%) (v/v) decreased the viability of the amastigote forms inside macrophages (24.02%, 32.74%, 66.72%, 100%) respectively, compared to control wells (water only).  This study demonstrated an activity of Terpinen-4-ol against amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica in vitro with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) value was 0.0416% (v/v).
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp233-236
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Evaluation of Hepatic Enzymes in major β-thalassemic Patients using

    • Authors: Ahmed Yahya Dallal Bashi, Fatimah Haitham Fathi
      Pages: 237 - 243
      Abstract: Abstract β-thalassemia major is a genetic disease that causes sever defect in normal hemoglobin synthesis. The patients with β-thalassemia major need periodic blood transfusions that can result in accumulation of body iron, so treatment with iron chelating agent is required. Complications of this iron overload affecting many vital organs, including the liver. The aim of this work was to evaluate liver enzymes in β -thalassemia major patients with deferasirox versus without it. Two groups of β-thalassemia major patients were involved in this study named group A; 40 β-thalassemia patients of blood transfusion dependent without deferasirox, group B; 40 β-thalassemia patients of blood transfusion dependent on deferasirox. In addition to group C, 40 normal subjects as a control group. Samples of serum were obtained from all participants to be tested for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and ferritin. The biochemical data of the patients on blood transfusion without deferasirox showed significant increases in the mean serum levels of aminotransferases and ferritin in comparison with control. Whereas the patients on blood transfusion with deferasirox exhibit significant increases in the means serum levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and ferritin in comparison with control. Iron overload may cause liver injury, shown by significant increases of; ALT and AST activities and elevated ferritin level in serum of transfusion dependent patients of β-thalassemia major. Administration of deferasirox for β-thalassemia major patients causes elevation of serum ALP activity and ferritin level.
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp237-243
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Quantitative Determination and Cytotoxic Effect of Oleanolic Acid from
           Olea europaea Leaves Extract Cultivated in Iraq

    • Authors: Noor S Jaafar , Dhuha A. Alshammaa, Thukaa zuhair Abdul-lalil, Nabaa M. Ibrahem
      Pages: 244 - 250
      Abstract: Since its first description as a cytotoxic agent, Olea europaea leaves extract gained significant popularity against human breast cancer, ethyl acetate extract of Olea europaea leaves obtained by acid hydrolysis method was evaluated in vitro as cytotoxic agent against new human breast cancer (AMJ13) cell line, using the MTT assay. One main pentacyclic triterpenoid; oleanolic acid, was isolated from leaves of Olea europaea by well-known two different methods, but not used for this compound before, the acidic hydrolysis method and basic acidic method. The presence of oleanolic acid was proved in both methods with qualitative and quantitative determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which was active against breast cancer AMJ13 cell line with IC50 value of 0.8936 'g/ml.  
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp244-250
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • The correlation between CYP2C19 Polymorphisms and recurrent risk in
           Patients with Ischemic Stroke treated with Clopidogrel in Kurdistan

    • Authors: Hind Salim Jardaq, Mohammed Y. Jamal
      Pages: 251 - 259
      Abstract:     Clopidogrel is a prodrug that must be transformed into an active metabolite by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes to prevent platelet clotting. Polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 gene can cause a reduction or complete loss of CYP2C19 enzyme activity resulting in inhibiting clopidogrel metabolism, effectiveness and increase stroke recurrence risk in ischemic stroke patients. This study aims to investigate the correlation between genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C19*2 and*3 and recurrent risk in patients with ischemic stroke taking clopidogrel 75mg in Kurdistan region –Iraq. This retrospective case-control study was carried out at Kurdistan, Erbil, Medicina medical center, and Rizgary general hospital from January 2021 to August 2021. The blood sample was taken from the participants and tested for genotyping. The collection of data was taken from patients' medical charts in the hospital and patients’ electronic medical records from the neurology clinic.  Sixty patients participated, (34) were male and (26) were female, with age range (38-96) years, diagnosed from not more than two years with ischemic stroke and taking 75 mg clopidogrel maintenance dose. Genotyping analysis showed 61.7 % were homozygotes for wild allele *1, the heterozygotes divided into 26.7% (*1/*2) and 6.7 % (*1/*3) genotype, while the homozygotes for mutant alleles CYP2C19*2,*3 distributed in 3.3 %(*2/*2) and 1.7 %(*3/*3). The (*2/*3) was not detected in the study population. A significant relation was found between risk of stroke recurrence with carrying the variant allele CYP2C19 *2, reduced CYP2C19 enzyme metabolic activity, and ACEIs/ARBs usage (P = 0.024, P = 0.039, P=0.24 respectively). On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between the risk of stroke recurrence and carrying the variant allele CYP2C19 *3 (P = 1.000). Ischemic stroke patients treated with clopidogrel and carrying a CYP2C19*2 allele had a higher risk of recurrent stroke as it is associated with reduced the metabolic activity of CYP2C19 enzyme leading to reduction of clopidogrel effect.
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp251-259
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Role of Topical Ritodrine Hydrochloride in Experimentally Induced
           Hypertrophic Scar in Rabbits

    • Authors: Haitham Kadhim, Fouad Gatea, Ahmed Abu Raghif, Kholod Ali
      Pages: 260 - 270
      Abstract: Hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative illnesses caused by improper wound healing, during that, excessive inflammation, angiogenesis, and differentiated human dermal fibroblast (HDF ) function contribute to scarring, whereas hyperpigmentation negatively affects scar quality. Over 100 million patients heal with a scar every year. To investigate the role of the beta 2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR); Ritodrine, in wound scarring, the ability of beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist (β2ARag) to alter HDF differentiation and function, wound inflammation, angiogenesis, and wound scarring was explored in HDFs, zebrafish, chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), and a porcine skin wound model, respectively. A study identify a β2AR-mediated mechanism for scar reduction. β2ARag significantly reduced HDF differentiation, via multiple cAMP and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 or basic FGF (FGF2)-dependent mechanisms, in the presence of transforming growth factor betaβ1, reduced contractile function, and inhibited mRNA expression of a number of profibrotic markers. β2ARag also reduced inflammation and angiogenesis in zebrafish and CAMs in vivo, respectively. In Red Duroc pig full-thickness wounds, β2ARag reduced both scar area and hyperpigmentation by almost 50% and significantly improved scar quality. Indeed, mechanisms delineated in vitro and in other in vivo models were evident in the β2ARag-treated porcine scars in vivo. Both macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis were initially decreased, whereas DF function was impaired in the β2ARag-treated porcine wound bed. This data reveal the potential of β2ARag to improve skin scarring. The purpose of this study was to assess the therapeutic effect of topical Ritodrine hydrochloride on hypertrophic scars in rabbits. Thirty-two healthy male albino rabbits that divided in to 4 groups were included in the study (healthy; induced untreated hypertrophic scars; induced hypertrophic scars treated with 0.1% Triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) as a standard drug; and induced hypertrophic scars treated with 0.5% Ritodrine HCL gel twice daily for 21 days. Histopathology of skin sections, transforming growth factor beta1 TGFβ-1 level, and collagen III alpha1 in skin tissue were all used as outcome measures. Compared to the induced hypertrophic scar group; treatment with Ritodrine significantly reduced means of TGF β1 and collagen III (p ≤0.01); significantly reduce mean score of inflammation (p ≤0.001), significantly lowered scar size (P ≤ 0.001), and significantly lower mean scar height (P≤0.001), but no significant decrease in SEI (P>0.05). Therapy of induced hypertrophic scar with topical Ritodrine was successfully effective in rabbits. It reduced the immunological score (TGF-β1, collagen III), inflammation, and scar size in a substantial way. This effect was comparable (except in terms of SEI) to topical Triamcinolone acetonide efficacy
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp260-270
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Isolation of Catchin and Epigallocatchin From Iraqi Rhus coriaria By
           Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (PHPLC)

    • Authors: Nabaa Mohammed Ibrahem, Enas Jawad Khadum, Shihab Hattab Mutlag
      Pages: 271 - 282
      Abstract:  ABSTRACT Two compounds were isolated from the fruit part of Rhus coriaria that grow wildly or cultivated in the north of Iraq. The compounds were separated by preparative high-Performance Liquid Chromatography and their structures were established based on detailed spectroscopic techniques like FTIR and LC-MS/MS. Keywords: Rhus coriaria, Preparative HPLC, LC-MSMS, FTIR
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp271-282
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Synthesis, Molecular Docking Study and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of some
           Quinazolinone Derivatives as Nonclassical Antifolates and Potential
           Cytotoxic Agents

    • Authors: Mohammed Abdulameer Oleiwi, Munaf H. Zalzala
      Pages: 283 - 296
      Abstract: Abstract A series of new 4(3H)-quinazolinone derivatives (S1-S4) were synthesized and characterized   by FTIR,1HNMR and 13CNMR .Their cytotoxic activity against a set of human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast) and A549 (lung) was evaluated using MTT assay. To detect their selectivity toward cancer cells, the compounds were also tested against epithelial cells derived from normal human fibroblast (NHF). Methotrexate (MTX) was used as a reference for comparison . All the tested compounds exhibited toxicity against the normal cells lower than cancer cells. All the tested compounds displayed higher cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line (A549) than MTX with the most potent one is compound S2 (IC50: 5.73 µM). Among the tested compounds, compound S1 exhibited the highest antitumor activity against MCF-7cell line (IC50: 3.38 µM) compared to MTX (IC50: 27.32 µM). The binding modes of the synthesized compounds with the target proteins (DHFR and TS) were investigated by molecular docking studies using GOLD software.
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp283-296
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Deuterated Analogues of

    • Authors: Anjana G V
      Pages: 297 - 303
      Abstract: The discovery of novel therapeutic molecules is always difficult, and there are a variety of methodologies that use the most diverse and innovative medicinal chemistry approaches. One such approach is the deuteration technique: Deuteration is the process of substituting deuterium for hydrogen in a molecule. When compared to the drug molecule, its deuterated analogues may retain the features of the original molecule and, in some cases, improve its pharmacological activity, with fewer side effects and lower toxicity. Metronidazole is a commonly used antibiotic to treat anaerobic bacterial infections, protozoal and microaerophilic bacterial infections. Metronidazole has a half-life of 6.5 ± 2.9 hours. A number of studies have recently been conducted on the selective substitution of hydrogen with deuterium. which increases the bond strength, increasing the biological half-life and, consequently, the drug's metabolic stability also increases. In an attempt to address metronidazole's drawbacks and clinical resistance, deuterated metronidazole was synthesised, characterised, and tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-tubercular activities. The metronidazole and its deuterated compound showed equipotent antifungal activity and aerobic antibacterial activity. Also, when compared with the non-deuterated compound, deuterated metronidazole exhibited better anaerobic antibacterial and anti-tubercular activity.
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp297-303
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Detection of Epicatechin in Camellia sinensis Leaves by Thin Layer
           Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Techniques

    • Authors: Ruaa mohammed ibrahim, Zahraa Suhail Nassir
      Pages: 304 - 312
      Abstract: The current study performed in order to detect and quantify epicatechin in two tea samples of Camellia sinensis (black and green tea) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extraction of epicatechin from black and green tea was done by using two different methods: maceration (cold extraction method) and decoction (hot extraction method) involved using three different solvents which are absolute ethanol, 50% aqueous ethanol and water for both extraction methods using room temperature and direct heat respectively. Crude extracts of two tea samples that obtained from two methods were fractionated by using two solvents with different polarity (chloroform and ethyl acetate). Qualitative and quantitative determinations of epicatechin in tea samples were investigated. Epicatechin identification was made by utilizing preliminary chemical tests and TLC. This identification was also boosted by HPLC and the quantity of epicatechin was determined in all ethyl acetate fractions of two tea samples. This research revealed the existence of epicatechin in black and green tea according to TLC and HPLC. Aqueous ethanol 50% was the best solvent for extraction of epicatechin from leaves of tea. Quantitative estimation of epicatechin by HPLC revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of DGTAE contains the higher concentration of epicatechin than other analyzed fractions. Conclusion, tea is an excellent source of catechins particularly epicatechin that possessed various pharmacological effects.
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31iss2pp304-312
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
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