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Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1680-0087 - ISSN (Online) 2311-5270
Published by U of Baghdad Homepage  [3 journals]
  • In vitro assessment of bracket adhesion post enamel conditioning with a
           novel etchant paste

    • Authors: Hayder A. Kadhim, Sanjukta Deb, Ali I. Ibrahim
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Background: 37% phosphoric acid (PA) is the traditional enamel etching technique prior to bracket ‎adhesion, yet it has been implicated in numerous enamel injuries. The purpose of the current study was to create a calcium phosphate (CaP) etching paste in a ‎‎simplified capsule ‎formula that can underpin clinically ‎adequate bracket bond strength ‎without jeopardizing the ‎integrity of enamel upon ‎the debracketing procedure. Materials and Methods: micro-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was mixed with 40% PA solution to prepare ‎experimental acidic CaP paste. Sixty human premolars were ‎assigned into two groups of 30 each. ‎Enamel conditioning was accomplished using 37% PA-gel‎ for control group and CaP paste for experimental group. Each group was further divided into two subgroups regarding the water storage (WS) period (24 h and 30 days). Shear bond strength (SBS) test conducted with examination of debonded surfaces for adhesive remnants and enamel damage using a digital microscope. Results: CaP paste produced significantly lower SBS values than PA (p < 0.01), yet sufficient for clinical use. PA etching caused often cracked enamel surfaces with excessive ‎retention of adhesive remnants (mainly ARI scores 2 and 3). Contrarily, enamel treated with the experimental CaP paste exhibited smooth, ‎unblemished surfaces mostly clean of adhesives residues (scores 0 and 1). Conclusion: a newly developed CaP paste in a capsule formula fosters ‎clinically adequate bracket ‎adhesion with a sustained bonding performance, allows a harmless bracket removal with ‎minimal or no adhesive residues on debonded surfaces; thus, it can be introduced as a suitable ‎alternative to PA‎.  
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3309
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of manuka honey on salivary cytokines (clinical

    • Authors: Mustafa W. Al-Kubaisi, Batool H. Al-Ghurabi, Waqar Alkubaisy, Nik N. ABDULLAH
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Background: Manuka honey (MH) is a mono-floral honey derived from the Manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium). MH is a highly recognized for its non-peroxide antibacterial activities, which are mostly related to its unique methylglyoxal content (MGO) in MH. The beneficial phytochemicals in MH is directly related to their favorable health effects, which include wound healing, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of MH on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α) in patients with gingivitis and compare it with chlorhexidine (CHX) and distilled water (DW). Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, double blinded, and parallel clinical trial. Forty-five young participants aged (20–40) years were randomly selected and allocated into three groups: MH, CHX, and DW mouthwash groups. Each participant was given a random bottle. Five milliliters each of honey-based mouthwash formulation, CHX mouthwashes (0.2%) and DW were used twice daily for 21 days. All the participants were examined twice, once on the zero day (base line) and once after 21 days. Before and after each participant's mouthwash use IL-8 and TNF-α were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The results revealed a drop in the level of interleukin-8 in the manuka honey group which was statistically significant, but the decrease in the same biomarker in the chlorhexidine group was insignificant statistically. TNF-α levels were found to be insignificantly reduced in both the MH and CHX groups (P˃0.05). The DW group, on the other hand, obtained the opposite outcome in both biomarkers. Conclusion: Mouthwash containing MH had an anti-inflammatory impact, indicating an immunomodulatory action. These signs may be encouraging and promising for the use of MH in treating gingivitis.
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3310
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effect of a novel coating material on the microleakage of glass hybrid
           restoration in primary teeth – An in vitro study

    • Authors: Halah Abdulkareem A. Alkhawaja , Aseel Haidar M.J. Al Haidar
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Background: Glass ionomer restorations are widely employed in the field of pediatric dentistry. There is a constant demand for a durable restoration that remains functional until exfoliation. This study aimed to measure and compare the effect of a novel coating material (EQUIA Forte Coat) on the microleakage of glass hybrid restoration (EQUIA Forte HT) in primary teeth. Material and method: Thirty cavitated (class-II) primary molars were allocated randomly into two groups based on the coat application; uncoated (control) and coated group (experimental). Cavities were prepared by the use of a ceramic bur (CeraBur) and restored with EQUIA Forte HT with or without applying a protective coat (EQUIA Forte Coat). Samples went through the thermocycling process and dipped in 2% methylene blue dye before being sectioned through the center of the restoration. Microleakage was evaluated digitally using software and a camera connected to a stereomicroscope (30 x magnification) to assess dye penetration of the sectioned samples at both the occlusal and gingival marginal levels. Results: There was a significant difference between the coated and uncoated groups at both occlusal (p=.029) and gingival margin sites (p=.001). Conclusion: Higher microleakage values were associated with the uncoated group compared to the coated one. The application of a protective coating to the restorations is an efficient approach to decrease the microleakage of the restorations that can be usefully adopted in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3311
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
  • Salivary protein carbonyl and selected antioxidants in relation to dental
           caries among pregnant women

    • Authors: Baydaa H. Awn
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Background: Pregnancy is a physiological condition that affects the general and oral health.It is also associated with an increase in oxidative stress, which may presispose to oral diseases including dental caries. Aim of the study: This study aimed to measure salivary protein carbonyl, glutathione peroxidase and selenium levels of women who are pregnant and their association with dental caries in comparison to non-pregnant women, and to find out the mostly affected biomarker of oxidative stress during pregnancy. Subjects, materials and methods: A cross-sectional research was performed for a samples of 30 pregnant and 30 non-pregnant women who were chosen from city of Baghdad's Primary Healthcare Centers. Both groups aged 25-30 years. In unstimulated salivary samples protein carbonyl and glutathione peroxidase were determined colorimetrically using spectrophotometer by utilizing ready-made assay kits. Salivary selenium level was obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plaque index had been used to determine the thickness of dental plaque. Caries was recorded using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled (DMF) index. described by WHO in 1997. Data was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics method and Student's t-test, Wilcoxon sum rank test and Spearman’s correlation in addition to Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC test) (α=5%). Results: The plaque index and salivary protein carbonyl values were significantly higher among pregnant while salivary selenium and glutathione peroxidase recorded significantly lower levels among pregnant women. Dental caries parameters were higher among pregnant with significant difference for MS fraction only. ROC area for protein carbonyl equal one with highest sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Pregnant women recorded higher dental caries severity with higher salivary protein oxidation but lowers salivary antioxidant defense mechanisms. Salivary protein carbonyl is more ideal, valid and mostly affected biomarker in revealing the oxidative stress status during pregnancy
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3312
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effect of adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles on anti-microbial activity
           and surface detail reproduction of dental alginate

    • Authors: Ranj A. Omer , Hoshang Kh. Abdel-Rahman, Mahabad M. Saleh, Sazgar S.Q. Al-Hawezi, Fahd S. Ikram
      Pages: 36 - 48
      Abstract: Most dental works require a diagnostic impression; alginate is contemplated as the most popular material used for this purpose. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles show evidence of antimicrobial activity in the recent era, for this purpose, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on antimicrobial activity and surface detail reproduction of alginate impression material. Materials and methods: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (purity = 99%, size= 20nm) was added to alginate at three different concentrations (2%, 3% and 5%). 84 samples were prepared in total. Samples were tested for antimicrobial activity using a disc diffusion test, and surface detail reproduction was done using (ISO 21563:2021). One-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used for data analysis through SPSS software. Results: for the antimicrobial test, inhibition zones for Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans showed significant changes concerning the alteration in Titanium dioxide nanoparticle concentrations. The inhibition zone significantly increased with an increase in the percentage of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The mean of the inhibition zone for S. mutans was superior to C. albicans and the difference was statistically significant. Regarding surface detail reproduction, the control group, 2% and 3% groups manifested very similar results, only the group to which 5% of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were added showed a decline in detail reproduction when compared to the other three groups. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that the antimicrobial activity against S mutans and C. albicans were significantly increased in modified groups, and this escalation was directly linked to the increase in Titanium dioxide nanoparticles concentration. In contrast, the surface detail reproduction was decreased when adding 5% Titanium dioxide nanoparticles to alginate.
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3313
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
  • Crystallization firing effect on the marginal discrepancy of the IPS. emax
           CAD crowns using two different CAD/CAM systems

    • Authors: Fatima K Ghadeer , Lateef E Alwan , Abdul Kareem J Al-Azzawi
      Pages: 49 - 57
      Abstract: Background: Marginal adaptation is critical for long – term success of crown and bridge restoration. Computer aided design / computer aided manufacture (CAD/ CAM) system is gaining more importance in the fabrication of dental restoration. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crystallization firing on the vertical marginal gap of IPS. emax CAD crowns which fabricated with two different CAD/CAM systems .Materials and Methods: Twenty IPS e.max CAD crowns were fabricated. We had two major groups (A, B) (10 crowns for each group) according to the CAD/CAM system being used: Group A: fabricated with Imes - Icore CAD/CAM system; Group B: fabricated with In Lab Sirona CAD/CAM system. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups pre-crystallized (Group A1, B1) and crystallized crowns (Group A2, B2). At four points on each aspect of the crown, marginal gaps were assessed on the master metal die by using digital microscope at a magnification of (110X) and image- J program. The measurement was done twice for each crown; before and after crystallization process.Results: The lowest mean of marginal gap before and after crystallization was (29.387±2.774μm) and (70.108±5.569μm) respectively for Group A (Imes - Icore system) and the highest mean value before and after crystallization was (51.728 ±3.774μm) and (84.071 ±4.567μm) respectively for Group B (Sirona system). Paired sample t-test result showed a statistically highly significant difference in marginal gap between all groups.Conclusions: The crystallization process increases the vertical marginal gap. Imes - Icore system showed the lower marginal gap than Sirona system. The two systems have an acceptable marginal gap
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3316
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
  • Different methods of canine retraction- Part 2

    • Authors: Mohammed Nahidh , Yassir A. Yassir , Grant T. McIntyre
      Pages: 58 - 75
      Abstract: Background: This review aims to discuss various canine retraction techniques using frictionless mechanics. Methods: Between 1930 and February 2022, searches were conducted about various canine retraction techniques using fixed orthodontic appliances in various databases, including PubMed Central, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, the Cochrane Library, Textbooks, Google Scholar, Research Gate, and manual searching. Results: After removing the duplicate articles, publications that described how to use archwires to perform canine retraction with the archwires were included. Conclusions: The pros and cons of various canine retraction techniques using archwires were thoroughly discussed. T-loop is the preferred spring of all because of its characteristics
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3314
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
  • Complete Blood Count and saliva parameters as an indicator for infected
           patients with coronavirus covid-19

    • Authors: Sumaiah I Hussein, Suha T Abd, Fadia A AL-khayat, Heba k Mahmood
      Pages: 76 - 85
      Abstract: Background: Coronavirus, which causes respiratory illness, has been a public health issue in recent decades. Because the clinical symptoms of infection are not always specific, it is difficult to expose all suspects to qualitative testing in order to confirm or rule out infection as a test. Methods: According to the scientific studies and investigations, seventy-three results of scientific articles and research  were obtained using PubMed, Medline, Research gate and Google Scholar. The research keywords used were COVID-19, coronavirus, blood parameters, and saliva. Results: This review provides a report on the changes in the blood and saliva tests of those who are infected with the COVID-19.COVID-19 is a systemic infection that has a substantial influence on the hematological system and hemostasis, thus deviations from normal levels of laboratory tests, including the blood and saliva test show that specific testing for detecting COVID-19 infection is required. Conclusions: The blood and saliva tests aid in the clinical monitoring of the patient's health.  It has advantages such as the following: it has non-invasive properties, low cost, and good stability, addition to minimum risk of infection transport.
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3317
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 1 (2023)
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