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J. of the Faculty of Medicine Baghdad     Open Access  
J. of Baghdad College of Dentistry     Open Access  
Iraqi J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
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Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1683-3597 - ISSN (Online) 2521-3512
Published by U of Baghdad Homepage  [3 journals]
  • A Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Interleukin-10 Gene is Linked to
           Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Iraqi Patients with Toxoplasmosis(Conference
           Paper )#

    • Authors: Omar Salman, Maysoon Abdul Zahra Merdaw, Ahmed A. Almaliky
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disorder that is a serious health concern all over the globe, it is linked to Interleukin-10 (IL-10) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the promoter region. On the other hand, diabetes influences the cellular and humoral immunity predisposing the patient to a variety of opportunistic parasites one of them is Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), which may infect any nucleated cell, including pancreatic cells. The purpose of this research was to explore the association of IL-10 genetic polymorphisms with T2DM and latent toxoplasmosis among Iraqi patients with T2DM. Fifty-five and fifty-eight venous blood samples were taken from T2DM patients and age-matched non-diabetic persons, respectively. Sera from all samples had been tested for the presence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed by specific primers and the products were sequenced at Macrogen /Korea. A higher percentage of T. gondii infection was found in T2DM patients (52.1%) and 31.5% of non-diabetic persons. The high frequency of the SNP at position -3952 among T2DM patients, and this is a novel finding. An interesting result, an increased risk of T2DM was observed in carriers of -1082 A/G variants, which was high frequency among studied subjects. The carriers of both -1082 AG+GG and -3952 AG+GG genotypes had a synergistic effect on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly. A significant association between T2DM and polymorphisms at positions -1082 A/G and -3952 A/G of the IL-10 gene.  
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp1-8
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Self-Medication Towards Antibiotic Use Among Non- Medical University Staff
           (Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Haydar Al-Tukmagi, Harith Al-Qazaz, Sadeel Shanshal, Muhanad Al-Kaisey
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: The use of antibiotics without prescription (self-medication) is growing globally and is associated with increased bacterial resistance, ineffective treatment and adverse reactions. This study aimed at assessing the practice of antibiotic self-medication in the Iraqi population. A cross-sectional study design was adopted in this work. The sample was comprised of 303 staff members from the non-medical colleges in Iraq. An online questionnaire was distributed between the 29th of June to the 14th of September 2021 to collect data including socio-demographic characteristics and questions about antibiotic self-medication. Most of the participants had a university degree and a moderate monthly income. The majority (88%) have practiced self-medication at least once before. A “simple” condition and convenience were the main motivators behind self-medication, which was mainly used for sore throat, fever and cough. Own experience was the most reported determining factor for selecting an antibiotic, and community pharmacies were the main source for obtaining the antibiotics. About 40% of the participants admitted to switching the antibiotic or changing its dose during the treatment course. Self-medication with antibiotics is a major issue in our community and measures have to be taken to reduce its impact on public health through the development of bacterial resistance.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp9-17
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Combination of FDM 3D Printing and Compressed Tablet for Preparation of
           Baclofen as Gastro-Floating Drug Delivery System (Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Nuha Mohammed Abdulkhaleq, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: This study aimed to develop an oral drug delivery system for gastro-retentive sustained drug release of baclofen by using a 3D printed capsular device since baclofen has a short half-life of 2.5 to 4 hours and has a narrow absorption window. Firstly sustained-release tablets of baclofen were formulated through the hot-melt extrusion of various thermoplastic polymers and direct compression of the extrudate, then a capsular device was designed and 3D printed to contain two air pockets to enable floating of the device and has four windows for drug release. 3D printing of the capsular device was done by an FDM printer using biodegradable PLA filament, and the sustained release tablets were inserted into the device to allow the medicine to be released into the stomach over a longer period. An in vitro buoyance test and an in vitro dissolution test were used to examine the buoyancy and sustained-release features of the formulated gastro-floating system. Five sustained release formulas were developed using different thermoplastic polymers in hot-melt extrusion. Produced tablets were assayed for drug content, hardness, and friability while a DSC study was done on the selected formula. F 5 which contains 20% baclofen, 55% Eudragit RS-100, 20% ethylcellulose, and 5% PEG 4000 showed sustained release where the complete dissolution of the drug occurred in 12 hours, and the gastro-floating device remained floating all the time. This method has a great potential for developing various floating drug delivery systems with the required release profile.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp18-24
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Drug Information Resources in Iraqi Community Pharmacies (Conference
           Paper) #

    • Authors: Mohanad Yasir Radeef, Khalid Saud Saleh
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Abstract      Drug information resources are the information that is used in medications discovery, utilization, and management. Little information about different types of resources used by Iraqi community pharmacists is known. Therefore, the objectives were to determine drug information resources' type do the pharmacists used and the common drug information questions they faced during their work in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in different Iraqi provinces and online self-reported survey was introduced through Google Form Software to an appropriate sample of graduated pharmacists who were working in a private community pharmacy and having at least one year of experience between February 27 and May 15, 2021. The researchers received 201 usable surveys. British National Formulary was used by 47% of the surveyed pharmacists to find specific information, followed by "Pharmacotherapy(s) and Applied Therapeutics" (16.9% for both). On the other hand, internet was used by 93% of the surveyed pharmacists and Google search engine (65%) and Medscape application (62%) were frequently surfed to find specific drug information and 81% of pharmacists trusted in this information and passed them to consumers. Safety of drugs during pregnancy and lactation periods was the most frequently question received from the patients (60.7%). In conclusion pharmacists prefer to surf specific internet websites to collect specific information about medicines and they referred to pharmaceutical textbooks if available at their pharmacies to get such information. The pharmacist is the person who is more often accessed by patients and the patients follow pharmacist's instruction for specific drug related questions.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp25-31
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Formulation Variables Effect on Gelation Temperature of Nefopam
           Hydrochloride intranasal in Situ Gel (Conference Paper) #

    • Authors: Ammar Alabdly, Hanan J. Kassab
      Pages: 32 - 44
      Abstract: Nefopam (N.F.) HCl is a non-narcotic centrally-acting, non-opioid benzoxazocine analgesic to relieve acute and chronic pain. It exhibits low bioavailability (about 36%) due to its first-pass degradation in the liver. Intranasal administration has been used as a new route for targeting active brain sites and enhancing the bioavailability of N.F. HCl bypassing hepatic metabolism. In situ gel of N.F. HCl was prepared by the cold method using different concentrations of Poloxamer 407, Poloxamer 188, HPMC K4M, Carbapol 934, and Hyaluronic acid polymers. The results show that identification tests are superimposed with references, solubility study shows that N.F. HCl is suitable to be administered intranasally; Compatibility studies reveal incompatibility of Nefopam HCl with HPMC K4M and Carbapol 934; meanwhile, no interaction with Methylcellulose and Hyaluronic acid. In conclusion, the obtained results revealed the incredible ability of the produced N.F. HCl intranasal in situ gel is intended to enhance drug bioavailability bypassing the metabolizing effect of the liver that N.F. HCl is facing when given orally.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp32-44
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Osteospermum ecklonis Extract of
           Aerial Parts against Leishmania donovani: in vitro(Conference Paper) #

    • Authors: Hind Mohammed Jewely, Thukaa Zuhair
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Abstract   Lack of safe available non-resistant treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) keeps limiting the complete cure of this disease ,drugs that have  toxic side effects or lack of effectiveness  have led to disease relapse ,all these factors have lightened  the way to the search for imperative drugs from natural resources that have been shown to have antileishmanial activity through literature survey . In the present study, the comparative in vitro anti-leishmania activity of various fractions of Osteospermum ecklonis aerial parts fractions have been evaluated. Extracts were prepared through maceration and Soxhlet apparatus using 85% methanol and fractionation was done by separating the active constituents according to the differences in their polarities using petroleum ether and n-butanol respectively. The resultant fractions( petroleum ether as well as n-butanol fractions )were chosen for effective inhibition of Leishmania donovani, The results prove with no doubt that the petroleum ether fraction of the maceration aerial parts in a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml had better antileishmanial activity than other concentrations of tested samples and the result coincided with the anti-leishmaniasis activity of official treatment (pentostam®) ,This finding  can be attributed to the terpene nature of the materials used to be existed in such fraction. This observation have paved the road to step in for extended studies in relation to the conventional herbal medicines for better and safe alternatives to available synthetic chemical drugs.  
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp45-53
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Phytosterol Profile in Iraqi Lactuca serriola after Purification and
           Isolation by Combiflash and HPLC (Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Murtadha Saleh Hussien, Ayad A. Al-Hamashi
      Pages: 54 - 61
      Abstract: One of these plants utilized in traditional medicine is Lactuca seriolla Linn., which belongs to the Asteraceae family. It goes by a variety of common names in the world, including prickly lettuce, wild lettuce, jagged lettuce, and Kahu and khas. The work aimed to isolate and characterize some bioactive constituent(s) from the aerial part of Lactuca serriola utilizing Combiflash NEXTGEN and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lactuca serriola (aerial part) was extracted with 80% ethanol, then fractionated with hexane. Then 250 mg of hexane extract was mixed with 4 g of silica gel and loaded in cartilage, then bounded to the gold column of combi flash using a solvent system comprised of ethyl acetate: n-hexane (10% ethyl acetate 90% hexane v/v) to elute the column. The fractions resulting were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). white needle-like crystalline substances were isolated via combi flash column chromatography. The isolated product was analyzed by thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). β-sitosterol (11 mg) and stigmasterol (7 mg) were obtained from 250 mg of hexane fraction.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp54-61
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Phytochemical Screening of Petroleum Ether Fractions by GC/MS and
           Isolation of Lupeol from Two Different Parts of Iraqi Leucaena
           leuco-cephala. (Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Azal Satar_Al_Baaj, Thukaa Z. Abdul-Jalil1
      Pages: 62 - 74
      Abstract: Abstract This work is considered the first study for the components of the Iraqi Leucaena leucocephala plant, where the different phytochemical compounds that present in the aerial parts were identified by using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique (GC/MS). The type of the components and their concentration will differ according to the part of the plant used and the method of extraction (hot and cold). This study made a comparison in lupeol concentration that was identified and isolated from petroleum ether fractions of Leucaena leucocephala by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (P-HPLC). The plant leaves and stems were collected in September, dried under shade, and powdered (separately), then extracted by two extraction methods: hot Soxhlet and cold maceration method using 85% ethanol, then the result crude extract was fractionation with petroleum ether by using a separator funnel. The results of GC/MS, HPTLC, and PHPLC indicated that the leaves contain a higher concentration of lupeol than the stems and the cold maceration method is more efficient than the hot Soxhlet extraction method. Lupeol has many pharmacological activities applied in alternative medicine such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-arthritic, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antioxidant activities with wide future applications.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp62-74
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation or Chemical Constituents from
           Leaves and Roots of Iraqi Agave Attenuata by GC-MS and RP-HPLC(Conference
           Paper) #

    • Authors: Sherine Majeed Shah, Thukaa Z. Abdul-Jalil
      Pages: 75 - 85
      Abstract: This research concentrate on cultivated Iraqi Agave attenuata dried leaves and roots, because of little studies on this plant especially on the root that lead to the eager of study and comparison of phytochemical constituents between leaves and root. Extraction of bioactive constituents was carried out using several solvents with increasing polarity (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) by soxhlet apparatus. Steroidal saponins in Agave genus is well documented in many species, lightening the minds in this research on extraction method which is specific for steroidal saponins. Phytochemical screening was done by GC/MS for n-hexane fraction, qualitative and quantitative estimation of several bioactive constituents (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and quercetin) for ethyl acetate and methanol fractions while for steroidal saponins (sarsasapogenin, hecogenin and tigogenin) in both leaves and root by using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among those identified phytochemical constituents, several constituents have not been detected in Agave attenuata leaves and roots before. This study is the first to describe the results in which the highest concentration of caffeic acid was found in leaves ethyl acetate fraction, p-coumaric acid and quercetin in root ethyl acetate fractions. While for steroidal saponins, the hecogenin, tigogenin and sarsasapogenin highest concentrations were found in leaves.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp75-85
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Determining the Prevalence of Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Infections’
           Pathogens and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile for Adult Patients
           in Al-Diwaniya, Iraq (Conference Paper) #

    • Authors: Bashar Alfetlawi, Ali Jasim
      Pages: 86 - 91
      Abstract: Until today, one of the leading predominant infections is Urinary tract infection (UTI). It exerts a huge burden on health systems worldwide each year. Treating UTIs empirically with antimicrobials improves morbidity rates. This study aims to assess the prevalence of UTI-associated bacteria in adult patients and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility profile. A retrospective study was conducted for adult outpatients who visited Al-Diwaniya tertiary hospitals from January 2020 till February 2022 to review their medical and lab records in addition to sociodemographic data. A total of 256 patients’ records were included of which 204 (79.7%) belong to females and 52 (20.3%) were males with an average age of 39.22±17.10 years. The predominant organisms’ isolates were Staphylococcus spp. found in 100 records (39.1%), Escherichia coli (E. coli) demonstrated in 90 records (35.2%), and Klebsiella spp. (K. spp.) revealed in 23 records (9%). Staphylococcus spp. (Staph. spp.) showed high resistance to ampicillin (92.9%) followed by ceftazidime (87.5%), and were highly sensitive to vancomycin. The higher resistance profile of E. coli was to ampicillin (97.9%) and ceftriaxone (81.3%) while was highly susceptible to meropenem (97.9%) and amikacin (97.6%). Additionally, Klebsiella spp. was highly susceptible to nitrofurantoin (78.6%), while was completely resistant to ampicillin. This study presents Staphylococcus spp. as the most prevalent gram-positive uropathogen and E. coli as the most prevalent gram-negative bacteria with a multidrug resistance profile to commonly used antimicrobials which is an alarming situation to implement an immediate effective stewardship program.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp86-91
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Cytotoxic Evaluation of Doxorubicin Combination with Baicalein and
           Resveratrol Against Hct116 and Hepg2 Cancer Cell Lines (Conference Paper)

    • Authors: Wafa Naji Shniakat, Ekbal H. Ekbal H. Al-Khateeb, Nawfal A.M. Numan, Manal M. Abbas, Ashok Shakya
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: Combination of natural poly-phenolic compounds with chemotherapeutic agents is recently being a novel strategy in cancer therapy researches owing to their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that modulate several intracellular signaling pathways. Resveratrol and Baicalein are well known poly-phenolic compounds that belong to stilbene and flavone subclasses, respectively. This study aims to investigate the possible enhancement effect of resveratrol and Baicalein when combined with doxorubicin using a different combination ratio and applied on two cancer cell lines: HCT116 (colorectal cancer cells) and HepG2 (hepatocellular cancer cells). It also investigates the possibility of such natural compounds to provide a protection effect on cardiocytes (H9C2) when resveratrol and Baicalein treatment followed by doxorubicin is used.  The two cancer cell lines were treated with different combination groups, including the combination between doxorubicin and Baicalein or resveratrol and the combination between the three compounds using a different combination ratio for both treatment groups (i.e., two drugs or three drugs combination). Treatment applied on cells, using cell density of 7000 cells /well and incubation time was 48 hrs. MTT test was performed to assay the cell viability. The results obtained showed that the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in the two cancer cell lines has increased when combined with Baicalein and resveratrol. Doxorubicin IC50 decreased from 4.99 µg/ml to 0.3657 µg/ml and from 7.3 µg/ml to 0.676 µg/ml on HCT116 and HepG2 cells, respectively, using constant combination ratio (1:1:1). The combination of doxorubicin, Baicalein, and resveratrol has resulted in a less cardiotoxic effect compared to treatment with doxorubicin alone. This decrease was obviously seen when the three compounds were combined using a low concentration range and with a constant combination ratio. Conclusion: combinations of Baicalein and resveratrol with doxorubicin chemotherapeutic drug In Vitro had enhanced the cytotoxic activity of such a chemotherapeutic drug, while simultaneously eliminating its cardio-toxicity side effect.  
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp92-99
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Reference Infliximab (Remicade) Compared to
           its Biosimilar (Remsima) in Iraqi Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
           (Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Hasan Raid Fadhil, Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili, Nizar Abdulateef Al-Ani
      Pages: 100 - 110
      Abstract: The study objective was to conduct Pharmacoeconomics study (cost-effective analysis) between infliximab reference (Remicade) and its biosimilar (Remsima) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Iraqi hospitals. This is a retrospective multicenter pharmacoeconomic analysis conducted at two large teaching governmental hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq which provided infliximab to patients with RA. Data were collected from patient’s medical records and face-to-face interviews with the patients from December 2021 to April 2022. The study included 57 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).  The patients were categorized into two groups according to the type of infliximab they received over 30 weeks: 27 patients received reference infliximab (Remicade) and 30 patients received biosimilar infliximab (Remsima). The two groups had comparable demographic and baseline disease parameters, with a mean age of 49.6 years and a BMI of 30.0. The vast majority of participants were women (82.5%) with low level of formal education (65%). Overall, both infliximab biopharmaceuticals had good effectiveness to reduce the RA disease activity (CDAI) and improve patient quality of life. They both had comparable adverse reactions including UTI, fatigue, and headache. There was no significant difference (P-value >0.05) in disease activity between the two groups according to RA clinical disease activity index (CDAI) score across all three-time measures: before biological therapy, 14 weeks post-therapy and 30 weeks post-therapy. In 2019, Remicade was slightly more effective and provide better quality of life, but costlier ($41,896 per QALY) compared to Remsima. It was not clear whether the reference biologic (Remicade) or its biosimilar (Remsima) was more cost effective. In 2021, Remicade was more cost effective compared to Remsima because Remicade was less expensive and relatively more effective according to CDAI and EQ-5D-5L scores. Registering and purchasing both reference infliximab and its biosimilar was good idea to keep the competition in the price and maintain infliximab for RA patients. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp100-110
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Online Distance Learning Experience
           of Malaysian University Students towards COVID-19: A Cross Sectional
           Study(Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Ehab Mudher Mikhael, Siew Chin Ong
      Pages: 111 - 120
      Abstract: Some new norms need to be adapted due to COVID-19 pandemic period where people need to wear masks, wash their hands frequently, maintain social distancing, and avoid going out unless necessary. Therefore, educational institutions were closed to minimize the spread of COVID-19. As a result of this, online education was adapted to substitute face-to-face learning. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the Malaysian university students’ adaptation to the new norms, knowledge and practices toward COVID-19, besides, their attitudes toward online learning. A convenient sampling technique was used to recruit 500 Malaysian university students from January to February 2021 through social media. For data collection, all students were asked to fill in a questionnaire that was developed based on previous literature, using Google Forms. 498 students completed the questionnaire (response rate 99.6%). Malaysian Ministry of Health was the main source (83.73%) that students refer to when looking for information on COVID-19. Only 40% of the participants had good overall knowledge about COVID-19; such knowledge was influenced by the students' field of study. The current practice towards COVID-19 was good only by 26.1% of participating students; such practice was influenced by the ethnic groups. Additionally, 60% of participated students agreed that COVID-19 can be successfully controlled. About one-third of participants had positive attitudes toward online learning. The major challenges facing students during online learning include distraction of the learning environment (80%), unstable internet connectivity (75%), lack of motivation (70%), limited technical skills (41%), and limited broadband data (34%). In conclusion, the knowledge and practice toward COVID-19 was good in less than half of Malaysian university students. Attitudes to the controlling of COVID-19 were positive, while the attitudes toward online learning were neutral among most of the Malaysian university students. Challenges toward online learning are diverse and include both technical and student-related problems.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp111-120
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Isolation and Structural Characterization of Quercetin 3-O-Rhamnoside and
           Essential oil Estimation from Leaves of Iraqi Cupressus sempervirens L
           (Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Amani Amer Tawfeeq, Shatha H Ali
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract:      Cupressus sempervirens L., Cupressaceae, that is known as evergreen cypress, Mediterranean cypress and in Arabic called “al -Sarw. It is an evergreen, medium sized, longevity, and wide distributed over all the world. The plant represents an important member of conifer plants which characterized with aromatic leaves and cones. Cupressus sempervirens have been ethnobotanical uses as an antiseptic, relief of cough, astringent, antispasmodic, wound healing and anti-inflammatory. Aims of this work are phytochemical analysis, isolation and structural identification of Quercitroside (quercitrin) and essential oil in Iraqi C. sempervirens. Isolation of quercitrin was performed by preparative HPLC from n-butanol fraction that prepared and extracted from Cupressus sempervirens leaves using ultrasound probe extraction, the structural identification of isolated quercitrin done by FT-IR characterized by bands at varies of frequency ranges. Moreover, LCMSMS; molecular ion at 448 m/z and base peak m/z 301. Furthermore, isolation of essential oil using hydro-distillation and estimated by GC-MS, the results show a good essential oil yield 0.9% with an interesting concentration of alpha-pinene 44%, carene10%, cedrol 4.86%, and β- myrcene 3.67%. A new Quercetin-glycoside in Cupressus Semperviren species in addition, 0.9% essential oil yield considered important phytochemicals with good concentration in Iraqi cypress plant.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp121-130
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • The Insights of Experienced Pharmacists Regarding the Iraqi health
           Insurance Program: A Qualitative Study(Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili, Hayder Naji Sameer
      Pages: 131 - 140
      Abstract: The aim of study was to explore pharmacist insights toward the impact of prospective implementation of the national health insurance program on patients, providers and Iraqi health system. This was a qualitative study including semi-structured face-to-face (mostly) interviews with experienced pharmacists. The interview guide included open-ended questions about the impact of the national health insurance program on patients and healthcare providers at three levels: quality of services, costs, and frequency of visits. Potential challenges were also discussed. Interviews were conducted in four provinces from March to May 2022. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview findings and generate themes and subthemes. The study recruited 21 pharmacists till the saturation point has been reached. Most of the participants were aware of the new health insurance law. Most participants believed that the program can enhance patient health and would increase the income of healthcare providers (HCPs) in the private sector. They also expected that patients would use private-sector services more frequently. Additionally, the implementation of the health insurance can improve the quality of healthcare services and reduce the financial burden regarding private sector fees. The potential challenges of the program include people's resistance to paying a monthly premium, difficulties in claims processing, potential delays in the reimbursement of HCPs, potential patient misuse of the insurance program, and the absence of an electronic system and database. There are not an adequate number of priced and tested medications. The health insurance program has several potential advantages, but at the same time it can face several technical challenges. The program should be well studied before implementing and it needs to be piloted at small scale before national implementation. The electronic system must be implemented by healthcare settings to facilitate transferring of the information/bills to the health authority. It is recommended to hire international team of experts to supervise the management this new system.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp131-140
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Iraqi Community Pharmacists Toward
           Emergency Contraceptives (Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Basma Zuheir Al-Metwali, Juan Majid Shaukat
      Pages: 141 - 152
      Abstract: Emergency contraceptives (ECs) are indicated for preventing the chance of unintended pregnancy that follows unprotected sexual intercourse in cases of incorrectly used regular contraceptives and in sexual assault. It is considered a safe choice to prevent pregnancy than abortion which is considered life threating. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of community pharmacists towards emergency contraceptives and their association with sociodemographic variables. This study was a cross sectional study conducted between August and September 2021 on a convenient sample of community pharmacists from Iraq. The survey tool was an online, self-administered questionnaire, in English language and a paper-based copy of the questionnaire was delivered face-to-face to some of the study participants. The questionnaire consisted of four parts, sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of community pharmacists toward emergency contraceptives. A total of 212 community pharmacists participated in the study. Of the study participants, 67.9% were in the age range of (24-29) years, 61.8% were females,60% had less than 5 years of experience, the majority (73.1%) were from Baghdad. This study showed that the majority of community pharmacists (74%) had good knowledge and 95% of them had a very positive attitude. However, 51% of the participants had poor practice where 62.5% of the pharmacists did not make counselling during dispending on mechanism of action. This study results have shown no significant relationship between demographic characteristics and KAP of participants towards emergency contraceptives. The majority of the study participants had good knowledge and very positive attitude too, whereas poor practice was observed in more than half of the participants. Educational programs and training sessions are required to raise knowledge about the importance of emergency contraceptives and also to improve the dispensing practice of these products.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp141-152
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Fluoxetine in Healthy Male Adult
           Volunteers(Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Duaa Al-Tamimi, Khalid Al-Kinani, Salam Taher, Ahmed Hussein
      Pages: 153 - 161
      Abstract: Fluoxetine (FX) is an antidepressant drug administered only orally in humans. Despite the wide use of FX, until now, there is only limited literature concerning the pharmacokinetics (PK) of FX and the effect of food on its PK. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to study the PK of FX in Arabic healthy male adult volunteers under fasting and fed conditions. In the fasting study, FX 20 mg capsules (Prozac®, Eli Lilly, Canada) were administered to 41 volunteers after overnight fasting of 12 hours, followed by blood sampling from each volunteer immediately before dosing (zero time) and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, and eventually at 144 hours after FX dosing. The fed study was conducted after 90 days wash-out period following the completion of the fasting study. The same subjects who received FX in the fasting study were administered the drug directly after a fatty breakfast (fed study), followed by blood sampling intervals similar to the schedule mentioned above for the fasting study. The current investigation demonstrated no statistical differences in the FX pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, Kel, T1/2, MRT, Cl/F, and Vd/F after fasting compared to the fed conditions, whereas there was statistically significant elongation in the Tmax values after food intake. Therefore, this study concludes the absence of food effect on the PK of FX (except Tmax) in the Arabic population and confirms the method of administration mentioned in the product information but also concludes high interindividual variation in FX exposure (AUC), which suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) might be advisable when feasible.
      PubDate: 2023-02-18
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp153-161
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Preparation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Floating Oral In- Situ Gel of
           Montelukast Sodium (Conference Paper) #

    • Authors: Manar Adnan, Roa Abud Hameed, Shaimaa Nazar Abd-Al Hameed, Haneen Abdulhadi Kharaba
      Pages: 162 - 167
      Abstract: There were several goals in this study, the most important of which was to create an oral liquid preparation (Ion sensitive floating oral in situ gel system for sustained delivery of Montelukast Sodium for pediatric patients) that would make administration easier, provide the correct therapeutic dose, and allow the drug to be released more slowly into the digestive tract (GIT) for better control. Montelukast Sodium in situ gels at different concentration (w/v) of natural polysaccharides (Gellan gum and sodium alginate) and natural polymer (Pectin) were prepared and characterized in the terms of preparation, viscosity and In vitro release. As the concentrations of ion-sensitive gel-forming components (Gellan gum, sodium alginate, and pectin) and gas-generating ingredients increased, the viscosity of formulations in solution (CaCO3). In vitro release study showed that the release of Montelukast Sodium from these gels was characterized by an initial phase of high release (burst effect), followed by a more gradual release in the second phase. The oral distribution of Montelukast Sodium using the in situ gel system manufactured by Montelukast Sodium can be seen as a viable strategy for the improvement of therapeutic effects. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-18
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp162-167
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • Knowledge, Perception, and Reporting Practices of Healthcare Providers
           about Adverse Events Following the COVID-19 Vaccination in Iraq(Conference
           Paper )#

    • Authors: Basma Zuheir Al-Metwali, Farah Hatem Nsaif
      Pages: 168 - 177
      Abstract: Routine vaccination activities, such as detection, reporting, and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs), are generally handled by healthcare providers (HCPs). Safe vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) were introduced to control the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and practice of HCPs in Iraq about reporting adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination, and their association with sociodemographic variables. The study was a cross-sectional study that was carried out between August and September 2021 at the COVID-19 vaccination centers in Iraq. This study used an online and paper-based questionnaire, which was distributed among HCPs (physicians and pharmacists) in COVID-19 vaccination centers. A total of 117 pharmacists and physicians responded to the survey. Two-thirds of respondents were pharmacists. The majority of the respondents (49.6%) had fair knowledge levels on AEFIs. The perception of 43% of the participants was very good, whereas the perception of 28%, 23%, and 6% of the participants was fair, good, and poor, respectively. The reporting practice of HCPs was inadequate in 53% of respondents. The number of pharmacists who had good knowledge of AEFIs was significantly higher than that of the physicians. The age group (30-39) years of HCPs was significantly associated with more positive perception towards AEFIs. The number of pharmacists that had good perception was significantly higher than that of the physicians. Furthermore, HCPs aged 30 to 39 years had significantly higher reporting practices than other age groups. The study highlighted that the HCPs working at the COVID-19 vaccination centers have low knowledge of AEFIs. On the other hand, HCPs had more positive perception towards reporting AEFIs. Education programs and reference materials are needed to increase their awareness about AEFIs.
      PubDate: 2023-02-18
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp168-177
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
  • A Cross-Sectional Survey of Iraqi Herbalist Practicing in the Middle
           Euphrates Area with a Recognition of their Knowledge, Practice and
           Attitude(Conference Paper )#

    • Authors: Suhad Humadi, Saif M. Hassan, Salam W. Ahjel
      Pages: 178 - 187
      Abstract: High percentage of the Iraqi population profoundly rely on folk medicine to meet their health needs which makes their safety questionable. This study aims to evaluate Iraqi herbalists' knowledge and practice to ensure the public's safety. This study was conducted in a cross-sectional design between October 2021 and March 2022, using a pretested questionnaire administered to Iraqi herbalists practicing in Middle Euphrates Area. Through face-to-face meetings, participants completed a multicomponent questionnaire comprising 15 items in four sections. The data obtained were analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences; Chi-square was used to correlate some variables, and P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. A total of 54 male herbalists from five Iraqi provinces joined this survey, the majority practicing in Kabala. Most herbalists had 10- 20 years of experience, and more than 50% had a university degree. Data showed that 72.2% of herbalists identify their herbal items using their own experience, and 35.2% use this experience as their sole source of knowledge. Only 35.1% use herbal books in conjugation with their experiences, and a few (1.9%( use multiple sources of information. Herbalists with more years of experience (79.6%( evaluate patient conditions properly, follow up (40.7%(, and refer patients to their physicians when needed (42.6%(. Although fifty percent of herbalists educate their patients regarding the storage condition of remedies, most of them refrain from writing the complete ingredients on their final product regardless of their experience. Results also showed that most herbalists do not have a record tracking adverse reaction. Most Iraqi herbalists lack the proper system for prescribing and dispensing their remedies and adequately identifying the sold herbs. The study showed a variation in practice among herbalists using approaches based mainly on their experience.
      PubDate: 2023-02-18
      DOI: 10.31351/vol31issSuppl.pp178-187
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. Suppl. (2023)
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