Publisher: Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Architecture and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Architecture and Engineering
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2500-0055
Published by Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering Homepage  [1 journal]

    • Authors: Jorge Gallego Sánchez-Torija, María Antonia Fernández Nieto, Jesús García Herrero
      Pages: 3 - 16
      Abstract: Introduction: The modern heritage of 20th century Spanish architecture, particularly in the city of Madrid, includes an extensive range of high-quality social housing that, due to its peripheral location and economic restrictions, can be lost without public policies to preserve it. Updating this housing to meet the current habitability requirements, as well as enhancing and transforming it into high-quality 21st century residential buildings, is a task that cannot be postponed. Purpose of the study: The issues of energy efficiency, habitability and accessibility are very salient today, so it seems pertinent to recover relevant examples of 20th century architecture and investigate to what extent the parameters with which they were designed are still valid. Methods: This paper reviews housing case studies in two neighborhoods, Poblado Dirigido de Fuencarral and Colonia Juan XXIII de Carabanchel, comprehensively analyzing the original buildings and their current rehabilitation. This includes comparing the buildings’ energy efficiency before and after the intervention carried out. Approach: This study verified that in both cases, an attempt was made to recover several elements of the original design during rehabilitation. Results: We found that both projects were originally committed to creating an open, pedestrian-friendly city with abundant vegetation, which is still a valid value today. Despite the economic restrictions at the time of construction, both projects used advanced energy strategies, such as the passive design offered by cross ventilation, the unusual thermal insulation envelope, or the efficient district heating. Novelty: In addition, this paper aims to incorporate the heritage of the great mid-20th century architect José Luis Romany, author of both projects, into modern Spanish architecture.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.23968/2500-0055-2022-7-4-03-16
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)

    • Authors: Asmaaa M. Hassan, Naglaa A. Megahed
      Pages: 17 - 35
      Abstract: Introduction: Climate change and global warming are among the greatest challenges facing the world today. A new concept, known as urban resilience, has been developed in response. There are various approaches to urban resilience. Among them, is the urban energy resilience (UER) approach, which poses a considerable challenge. Machine learning (ML), as an application of artificial intelligence (AI), provides powerful and affordable computing resources, large-scale data mining, advanced algorithms, and real-time monitoring. However, very few studies have investigated how such aspects can be integrated into urban resilience in general, and UER in particular. Purpose of the study: The study develops an integrative framework that can improve UER, based on ML methods. Methodology: We carried out a bibliometric analysis and a systematic review of UER in accordance with AI concepts, models, and applications. Results: The findings of this study were used to create an integrative framework, based on three hierarchical phases, which effectively addressed the main capabilities of UER, identified its priorities, and shed light on how ML can benefit UER as a whole. Novelty: The framework developed in this study also offers insights in integrating ML methods into UER as strategically as possible, especially in the context of climate change and urban energy systems. This framework can serve as reference for specialists and decision-makers aiming to expand AI and ML applications to optimize UER.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.23968/2500-0055-2022-7-4-17-35
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)

    • Authors: Carlos Rosa-Jiménez, Carlos Prados-Gomez
      Pages: 36 - 48
      Abstract: Introduction: Outdoor parking lots have been a common and cost-effective solution for private mobility in European social housing districts built between the 1960s and 1980s, but this solution has significant, particularly environmental and spatial, impacts. The future of urban mobility requires changes to an electrified community model, based on shared vehicle fleets. Purpose of the study: We aimed to analyze the transport, social, and environmental improvements of a smart multi-functional micro-hub for neighborhoods — a theoretical proposal designed to facilitate the transition toward a decarbonized city. Methods: The literature is therefore reviewed and a case study of the city of Malaga is provided. Results: On the one hand, the findings show the environmental, economic, and spatial advantages of this model compared to traditional underground parking lots. On the other hand, the paper proposes the design characteristics that could be adopted by a particular type of buildings and their urban space. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of setting up a citywide network of micro-hubs and the ensuing benefits.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.23968/2500-0055-2022-7-4-36-48
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)

    • Authors: Yuri Dmitriev
      Pages: 49 - 59
      Abstract: Introduction: The main task of cooling systems in the machine room of a data center is to maintain optimal air parameters at the inlet to IT equipment in accordance with the applicable regulatory documents. If the value of air temperature at the inlet to IT equipment exceeds the optimal value, then so-called hot spots occur — the operation of IT equipment in such places can lead to its overheating and failure. The main reason for the occurrence of hot spots is the violation of air circulation between the hot and cold aisles. Purpose of the study: We aimed to analyze the influence of different methods of hot aisle isolation on the efficiency of IT equipment cooling. Methods: We performed modeling of different methods of hot aisle isolation at different capacity values of IT equipment in the STAR-CCM+ program. Result: As a result of studying temperature and air conditions in a data center, we found the most rational way of isolating the hot aisle — top horizontal containments with vertical blind panels in the free rack space.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.23968/2500-0055-2022-7-4-49-59
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)

    • Authors: Valentin Ushkov, Ruslan Ibragimov, Oleg Figovsky, Svetlana Samchenko
      Pages: 60 - 69
      Abstract: Introduction. The service life of reinforced-concrete structures can be increased with the use of effective repair compositions obtained by activating the original components. Purpose of the study: We aimed to develop effective repair compounds obtained by activating the original components. Methods: To process the original components, low-temperature non-equilibrium plasma (LTNP) and electromagnetic activation in a vortex layer device were used. In the course of the study, we used polypropylene, steel, glass, and basalt fiber and fiber made of structured ferromagnetic microwire. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were applied. Results: It was established that the combined use of the above methods for the modification of raw components makes it possible to improve the strength of these materials by more than 50%, which is due to the characteristics of structure formation in the developed compositions. For instance, LTNP increases the amount of portlandite and reduces the main phases of cement stone — C3S and β-C2S, and vortex activation contributes to an increase in the total number of crystalline phases. Quartz powder particles processed in an electromagnetic mill are characterized by layered structure, high surface roughness, large developed cracking, as well as inclusions as a result of impact action. All that improves the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting repair compositions by an average of 20%. Repair compositions additionally treated with plasma modification feature new hydrated formations on quartz grains.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.23968/2500-0055-2022-7-4-60-69
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)

    • Authors: Artem Tiraturyan, Evgeniya Uglova, Vladimir Akulov
      Pages: 70 - 83
      Abstract: Introduction: The deteriorating operating conditions of roads is one of the most important problems facing specialists in the road industry. It is mainly associated with a reduction in the rigidity of road pavements made as extended multi-layer structures. To identify the causes of rigidity reduction, non-destructive testing is used, which is based on solving the inverse coefficient problem of restoring the elastic constants based on the response on the surface. Purpose of the study: We aimed to provide a rationale for a new pavement condition indicator that would take into account the history of deformation and loading from a source on the surface, based on which it would be possible to solve the inverse problem of restoring the elastic and viscous characteristics of pavement layers. Methods: To do that, we performed mathematical modeling of the stress-strain state of a multi-layer medium based on the solution of a system of dynamic Lame equations. Viscosity is taken into account by introducing tangents of the angles of wave energy losses in the materials of layers. Results: The results obtained in modeling for the first time made it possible to establish the relationship between changes in the modulus of elasticity as well as tangents of the angles of energy losses in pavement layers and the amount of energy dissipation in the structure. Discussion: It should be noted that it is possible to switch from the bowl of maximum dynamic deflections as the main pavement condition indicator to the analysis of hysteresis loops on the road structure surface, recorded at different distances from the point of load application and being an analogue of the full bowl of dynamic deflections showing the history of the test object loading.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.23968/2500-0055-2022-7-4-70-83
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2022)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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