Publisher: Razi University (Total: 2 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Aging Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
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Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2476-6283
Published by Razi University Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) coated with fatty acids and
           surfactants and their application in demulsification of crude oil-in-water

    • Abstract: By the entry of crude oil into the water during exploration, extraction or displacement operations; due to the partial dissolution, it can remain as a layer on the surface of the water or become emulsive due to environmental forces such as tides or waves. Emulsion crude oil is very stable due to the presence of asphaltene and cannot be removed by the customary methods used for macro mode. In this research, iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with OA (oleic acid), SA (stearic acid), SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) and POE (polyoxyethylene), by using the same method. After synthesizing iron oxide nanoparticles and coating their surface with fatty acids and surfactants, we have tried to break the crude oil emulsion in water and remove the crude oil from the environment by adsorption via these nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), TGA, VSM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential devices were used to identify nanoparticles and their physical, chemical and morphological properties. Demulsification of crude oil in water (O/W) emulsion with nanoparticles coated with fatty acids and surfactants was studied. UV-Vis spectrophotometery was used to determine the amount of crude oil adsorption by nanoparticles. In the case of nanoparticles with a fatty acid coating, the smaller fatty acid chain shows absorption. The highest adsorption was recorded for iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polyoxyethylene (Fe3O4@POE) with 98.03% and the lowest percentage is related to nanoparticles coated with palmitic acid in an alkaline environment with 46.69%. Alkalinization of the medium while coating the nanoparticles with fatty acid has only increased the efficiency in the case of oleic acid and a significant decrease in the case of palmitic and stearic compared to the neutral state.
  • Performance of polyculture constructed wetland compared with monoculture
           in treating domestic wastewater

    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the performance of polyculture constructed wetlands compared with monocultures and to monitor plant type influence in treating wastewater. Four pilot scales were used and planted with three plant kinds (Phragmites Australis, Cyperus Papyrus, and Scirpus). Three of them were monoculture systems, and the last one was a polyculture system with all these plants. The filters had identical sizes and the same density. After seven days of retention time, results showed that the pH obtained was around neutral ranging from 6.91 to 7.32; the electrical conductivity increased significantly and it was between 4.47-5.47 mS/cm. Removal efficiencies of phosphate, ammonium, nitrite, and chemical oxygen demand were between 75.29-79.90%, 91.27-92.51 %, 83.33-86.32%, and 84.61-88.52%, respectively. Papyrus filter had the higher removal efficiencies in most of these parameters, and the polyculture system didn’t increase the filter performance; however, the differences between these filters were not significant, except for the electrical conductivity.
  • Feasibility study of using UV/H2O2/O3 advanced oxidation in phenol removal
           from petrochemical wastewater

    • Abstract: Pollution from industrial effluents is more diverse and complex than municipal wastewater due to the use of thousands of new chemical compounds in industry every year. Subsequent introduction of small quantities of these compounds into water streams through industrial effluents has complicated water pollution problems and posed many challenges in removing contaminants from water. The purpose of the present study was to remove phenol contaminants from the effluent of petrochemical wastewater treatment plants using advanced photochemical oxidation method (ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide/ozone) in a laboratory scale. The experiments were performed using UVC light, 30 % H2O2 as oxidizer and phenol (100 mg/L). The effective parameters studied in phenol removal included pH, H2O2concentration, solution temperature and UVC irradiation time. The experimental results showed an increase in phenol removal efficiency with increasing H2O2 concentration up to 400 mg/L while decreasing with increasing oxidizerconcentration to 500 mg/L, thus suggesting a concentration of 400 mg/L as the optimal value. Using a flow rate of 200 mg/L of ozone for 80 min, by optimizing other conditions, increased the phenol removal efficiency by 98 %. The phenol removal efficiency was much higher at acidic conditions than at alkaline and neutral ones. The phenol content decreased significantly with increasing contact time. In other words, prolonged contact time increased the phenol removal efficiency in the tested sample. The highest phenol removal efficiency (75.7 %) occurred at the pH value of 4 and the phenol removal efficiency in the sample decreased with increasing pH value. Prolonged contact time caused more phenol concentration to be removed from the test sample, so that 69.8 % of the phenol concentration in the sample was reduced. The results of this study showed that advanced oxidation reduced the phenol content in the analyzed sample. To conclude, the advanced oxidation methods can be useful in the process of treating petrochemical wastewater andeffluent of units containing toxic aromatic compounds such as phenol.
  • Google Earth Engine platform to calculate the hydrometeorology and
           hydrological water balance of wetlands in arid areas and predict future

    • Abstract: The goal of this study was to check the climatological, hydrological, hydrogeological, topographical, and also vegetation cover situation of the wetland by using the google earth engine cloud system and calculation of current and future hydrological water balance of the wetland. For this purpose, data from TRMM, MODIS, Terra, LANDSAT, GRACE, and ALOS satellites were used. The results showed that GEE has a lot of potential and application for preparing time series and monitoring areas where little information is available about its past situation. According to the rainfall of 1.1333 mm3, surface runoff of 12.20 mm3, and evapotranspiration of 13.875 mm3 in the wetland area, the water balance of the wetland is -0.452 mm3. This amount indicates the volume of water that the wetland has based on climatic and hydrological relations. This amount will be equal to 1.4 mm3 in 2040, which shows that the wetland condition will improve in the future.
  • Hargreaves-Samani method: Estimation of historical annual, seasonal, and
           monthly Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) in Dadu District, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) counted as the main factor for assessing the amount of water, needed for crops as well as for the planning of water resources management. Several techniques, methods, and equations have been used for computing ETo. Thus, required weather data sets are the main challenge for evaluating this factor. FAO Penman-Monteith is the most popular technique to determine the ETo. The FAO 56-PM equation requires accurate weather data like air temperature, humidity, solar radiations, and wind speed. Unfortunately, not all these data are possible to reach easily on the station's side. Therefore, FAO 56 recommended another equation namely Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation when sufficient weather data may not be available to estimate ETo by FAO56-PM. In the context of this, this study aimed to estimate ETo using the HS equation. For this purpose, historical annual, seasonal, and monthly temperature and wind data were collected from 1981 to 2020 using ‘The Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER)’ web portal. It is concluded that the HS method in conjunction with the POWER datasets and spatially mapping with IDW interpolation gave reliable and accurate results of ETo. This technique gives an idea of water losses in a district and demonstrates a trend of historical annual, seasonal, and monthly ETo.
  • Assessing the suitability of river water quality using water quality
           indices: A Case study on Balikhlou river in northwest of Iran

    • Abstract: Rivers are valuable sources of water supply for various purposes. These sources are seriously exposed to quality degradation due to the entry of various contaminants. Therefore, proper monitoring and quality management of these resources could be very important. In the present study, the quality of the Balikhlou river in Ardabil province, northwest of Iran, was investigated by surveying the trend of changes in river quality parameters, as well as water quality indices. In this study, after collecting the available data, by determining the trend of changes in quality parameters, the suitability of the studied river water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes was determined. The results indicated that there is an inverse relationship between changes in river discharge rate and the concentration of qualitative parameters. Therefore, it was found that salinity-containing pollution sources enter the river upstream of the desired station. Besides, the results of water quality indices showed that the water quality of the studied river is very poor for drinking (WQI>75). In addition, the results of water quality assessment for irrigation use based on SAR, KI, and SSP indices were generally considered inappropriate (SAR>26, KI>1, SSP>50), EC was often permissible (750<EC<2250), and MH was appropriate (MH<50). Our study highlights the importance of river water quality studies over time and thus can lead to better management of these valuable resources.
  • Experimental study of polyaluminum chloride-chitosan coagulant for water
           treatment using response surface methodology

    • Abstract: Water shortages and pollution are so severe that the last decade has been called the international decade for water. In water treatment plants, coagulation and flocculation are used to remove turbidity. This study examined the use of naturalcoagulants and its efficiency compared with existing coagulants. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments. Type of coagulant and coagulant aid, as well as pH, were considered important factors during experiments. Results of the tests indicate that pH has a significant impact on turbidity removal. The combination of chitosan and polyaluminum chlirode reduces water turbidity effectively. A combination of polyaluminum chlirode (7.6 mg/L) and chitosan (9.28 mg/L) at pH= 8.52 removed 99.85 % of the turbidity. Accordingly, the combined use of polyaluminum chlirode and chitosan reduced the amount of material and enhanced turbidity removal.
  • Comparison of results of flood hazard zoning using AHP and ANP methods in
           GIS environment: A case study in Ardabil province, Iran

    • Abstract: Zoning of flood hazards in a dam catchment plays an essential role in water resources planning and management. In the present study, nine lithogenic and anthropogenic parameters including slope, elevation, curve number, distance to river, rainfall, geology, soil texture, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land use are used to achieve a flood hazard map in downstream of Sabalan dam basin in Ardabil province, Iran. After categorizing the criteria, the layers were weighted by two multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods including analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and analytic network process (ANP). The results showed that among the factors affecting flood formation in the study basin by AHP method were the elevation and slope factors with the weights of 0.31 and 0.18 respectively, have the highest effect; however, curve number and distance to river factors with the weights of 0.04 and 0.02 have the lowest effect. Similarly, in the ANP method, the elevation and slope factors with the weights of 0.30 and 0.21 respectively, have the highest effect and the curve number and distance to river factors with the weights of 0.02 and 0.006 have the lowest impact on flood hazard potential in the study area. The results obtained in this study can be useful in achieving sustainable management of water resources.
  • Palm leaf ash as a biosorbent for improving the efficiency of the silver
           removal process

    • Abstract: Abstract: Water pollution caused by heavy metals due to the increasing growth of industries is very worrying. Among heavy metals, evaluating the effect of silver (Ag) toxicity and its challenges on human and environmental health is very important and fundamental. This paper, for the first time, assessed the ability of palm leaf ash (PLA) as a biosorbent to reduce the amount of water-soluble Ag cations from water. To do so, the effect of adsorbent amount, contact time, initial concentration of Ag ions, pH of the solution, and the temperature was evaluated on the adsorption process. The adsorption process was more consistent with the Freundlich isothermal model and the pseudo-second-order model was in better agreement with experimental data. The results of the experiments showed that the removal percentage of Ag ions and adsorption capacity was accrued from 91.84 to 99.94% and from 25.89 to 52.771 mg/g with increasing pH from 3 to 8 respectively and the enthalpy of the adsorption process (ΔH) was 6996.36 j/mol. Furthermore the removal efficiency of Ag at the initial concentration was obtained at 99.7%, Therefore, it can be concluded that cheapness, and abundance and high sorption capacity are the main advantages of this adsorbent.
  • Effects of side orifice dimensions on characteristics of flow field in
           rectangular channels

    • Abstract: In this paper, the flow in the vicinity of rectangular side orifices placed in main channels is estimated by means of the FLOW-3D model. To reconstruct the flow free surface, the Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach is utilized. In addition, the standard k-ε and RNG k-ε turbulence models are employed to predict turbulence flow. According to the results obtained from  the numerical modeling, the RNG k-ε turbulence model has higher accuracy than the standard k-ε. The analysis of the numerical modeling results proved that this model forecasts the discharge coefficient of side weirs with suitable accuracy. On the other hand, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) is calculated equal to 12.204%. Also, the maximum pressure is simulated near the main channel bed. Moreover, the minimum pressure is estimated near the flow free surface. Regarding the numerical simulations, the maximum turbulence energy state occurs near the inlet of the side orifice and by increasing the side orifice dimensions the flow field turbulence energy value increases.
  • Color removal and antifouling capability of prepared fumarate-alumoxane
           nanoparticles blended PES nanofiltration membrane

    • Abstract: Fumarate-Alumoxane nanoparticles (Fum-ANPs) incorporated PES nanofiltration membrane was fabricated via phase inversion to achieve favorable performance as an antifouling nanofiltration membrane for dye removal. To investigate the effect of the Fum-ANPs on nanofiltration performance, pure water flux and water contact angle measurements were carried out. FTIR spectra of the Fum-ANPs revealed that the carboxylate and hydroxyl functional groups were created on the surface of Fum-ANPs. The strong affinity of Fum-ANPs functionalities with water molecules made the membrane surface more hydrophilic. Hence, this membrane sample had a higher pure water flux than the bare one. Zeta potential data showed that the Fum-ANPs blended PES membrane was negatively charged at a pH value of 6, which is favorable for negatively charged solute rejection. For investigating the antifouling behavior of the membranes, powder milk solution (8 g/l) were analyzed using a dead-end filtration apparatus. The results obtained from fouling analysis clearly demonstrated that the introduction of Fum-ANPs in the membrane matrix ameliorated the antifouling behavior of the resulting membrane. To study the performance of the Fum-ANPs incorporated PES membrane rejection of Direct red 16 dye was tested. The Direct red 16 rejection with the Fum-ANPs blended PES membrane was 99% while it was 88.2% for the bare membrane sample
  • Electrochemical biosensors for Atrazine detection as a highly toxic
           Triazine in wastewater

    • Abstract: Widespread use of pesticides and herbicides, and the contamination in river, lake and sea waters have been become a major environmental concern in recent years. A common example of such herbicides is atrazine and its derivatives, which have been widely used in recent years to control pests in agriculture and improve food production and meet the needs of the global population, which is increasing year by year. Most analytical methods are used to determine pesticides and herbicides in the environment which are usually highly reliable and sensitive, but they are often very complex and require advanced tools, and measurements should be performed directly in a lab. Atrazine electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic biosensors, immunosensors, and aptasensors are reviewed in this study. For atrazine detection by enzymatic biosensors, tyrosinase commonly is used. Phenols and atrazine are the substrates and inhibitor of this enzyme, respectively. These enzymatic biosensors are based on sensing of decreasing current in the presence of atrazine. Immunosensors based on the analyte size generally categorized into two detection methods including competitive and noncompetitive that both of them were used for atrazine detection. The several aptamer sequences were used for atrazine aptasensing that could detect it in nano and picomolar concentrations.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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