Publisher: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Total: 4 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Beyond : Undergraduate Research J.     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Digital Forensics, Security and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-130x
Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Evaluating the Variable Stride Algorithm in the Identification of Diabetic
           Retinopathy

    • Authors: Ying Zheng et al.
      Abstract: An experiment was performed to investigate a modified pooling method for use in convolutional neural networks for image recognition. This algorithm–Variable Stride–allows the user to segment an image and change the amount of subsampling in each region. This control allows for the user to maintain a higher amount of data retention in more important regions of the image, while more aggressively subsampling the less important regions to increase training speed. Three Variable Stride methods were compared to the preexisting pooling algorithms, Maximum Pool and Average Pool, in three different network configurations tasked with classifying Diabetic Retinopathy images between its early and advanced stages. Each combination was run multiple times and the AUC, Validation Loss, Validation Accuracy, and number of training epochs until convergence of each run was all collected. Maximum Pool and Average Pool were both found to be superior to Variable Stride when deployed in these scenarios.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Aug 2022 11:35:36 PDT
       
  • Hydroponically Growing a Holistic Superfood Diet for Mars Exploration

    • Authors: Marianna Pezzella et al.
      Abstract: In “Hydroponically Growing a Holistic Superfood Diet for Mars Exploration,” Project H.O.M.E. members conducted an experiment to help determine ways to provide future astronauts with a complete, balanced diet on a planet that does not receive as much sunlight as Earth. Sending massive amounts of food into space is incredibly expensive, takes up valuable spacecraft area, and is, overall, not a feasible way to provide astronauts with sustenance. Project H.O.M.E. has thus developed a hydroponic system to evaluate the growth and yield of various superfoods - including Moringa Oleifera, goji berries, and kale - under simulated Mars lighting conditions. Data suggests that these three plants are perennial hydroponic crops, which can be grown under reduced illumination, and are candidate food sources for Mars explorers. Based on the hypothesis that the growth of the superfood plants in simulated lighting conditions will be similar to their growth in regular lighting conditions here on Earth, Project H.O.M.E. members created a Dutch bucket, tower garden, and nutrient flow table indoor hydroponics systems to grow superfoods in a solar-powered 8x16ft greenhouse for the past 13 months. In conclusion, this project determined that the growth of superfoods using hydroponics systems would be a preferred farming method for space, demonstrating the incredible potential for future missions to Mars.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jul 2022 12:40:28 PDT
       
  • Computational Models to Detect Radiation in Urban Environments: An
           Application of Signal Processing Techniques and Neural Networks to
           Radiation Data Analysis

    • Authors: Jose Nicolas Gachancipa
      Abstract: Radioactive sources, such as uranium-235, are nuclides that emit ionizing radiation, and which can be used to build nuclear weapons. In public areas, the presence of a radioactive nuclide can present a risk to the population, and therefore, it is imperative that threats are identified by radiological search and response teams in a timely and effective manner. In urban environments, such as densely populated cities, radioactive sources may be more difficult to detect, since background radiation produced by surrounding objects and structures (e.g., buildings, cars) can hinder the effective detection of unnatural radioactive material. This article presents a computational model to detect radioactive sources in urban environments, which uses signal processing techniques to identify radiation signatures. Moreover, the model uses artificial neural networks to identify types of radiation sources, classifying them as innocuous or harmful, and discerning between weapons-grade material and radioactive isotopes used in medical or industrial settings.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jul 2022 10:15:25 PDT
       
  • A Nature-Inspired Approach for Scenario-Based Validation of Autonomous
           Systems

    • Authors: Quentin Goss et al.
      Abstract: Scenario-based approaches are cost and time effective solutions to autonomous cyber-physical system testing to identify bugs before costly methods such as physical testing in a controlled or uncontrolled environment. Every bug in an autonomous cyber-physical system is a potential safety risk. This paper presents a scenario-based method for finding bugs and estimating boundaries of the bug profile. The method utilizes a nature-inspired approach adapting low discrepancy sampling with local search. Extensive simulations demonstrate the performance of the approach with various adaptations.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2022 14:05:17 PDT
       
  • Greater Understanding of Human Factors will Lead to Improved Aviation
           Safety

    • Authors: Alaba Gabriel Idowu
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to reveal the impact of human factors on flight safety and provide corrective recommendations that can mitigate human errors in the aviation industry. The method of investigation included an evaluation of the crash of Avianca Airlines Flight 052, which resulted in findings of probable cause of the accident and evaluated how human factors, including a lack of effective communication, stress, fatigue, complacency, lack of awareness, norms, assumptions, and pressure affected the safety of flight. In addition, an analysis of the data and information synthesis was done to arrive at results, conclusions, and recommendations to improve aviation safety. The corrective recommendations that were considered include: (a) promoting human factors awareness to enhance human performance, increase the awareness of hazards associated with flight operations, improve safety consciousness, introduce newly identified hazards, and improve aviation safety; (b) implementation of aeronautical decision making (ADM) and risk management (RM) cognitive tests in flight training curriculum to mitigate threats and errors, improve aviation safety, and help determine pilots’ thinking and reasoning abilities on risk management and decision making; (c) encouragement of a high standard of professionalism in all aviation sectors; and (d) having an excellent reward package for pilots. The conclusion of the study confirmed that a greater understanding of human factors would improve aviation safety due to the enormous impacts human factors have on flight safety and that adequate awareness regarding human limitations will minimize human errors and ensure improved human performance in the aviation industry.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Apr 2022 07:30:28 PDT
       
  • Determining the Sources of the Zodiacal Cloud Using Relative Velocities of
           Dust Particles From High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Philip B. Mann III
      Abstract: The zodiacal cloud is the Solar System debris disk in which the Earth’s orbit is located. The dust that comprises the cloud comes from cometary, asteroidal, interstellar, and other source populations, but the relative ratios have proven hard to determine. However, asteroidal and cometary particles typically have different types of orbits, with asteroidal particles having more circular and lower inclination orbits than cometary particles. Accordingly, the relative velocities of these groups of particles with respect to Earth are also different, and measurements of these relative velocities can help distinguish between the sources. The spectrum of the zodiacal light contains solar absorption lines that are Doppler-shifted by moving dust particles. It is possible to determine dust particle velocities by observing the Doppler-shifted zodiacal light using the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper (WHAM) — a specialized Fabry-Perot spectrometer. Focusing on a pair of scattered solar Mg I Fraunhofer lines, we have recently begun a three-year observing campaign with WHAM. In order to interpret these observations we need to produce synthetic observations of how different orbital distributions of dust particles would shift and modify the observed spectral lines. Comparing these synthetic spectra to the actual observations will allow us to constrain the sources of the dust composing the zodiacal cloud. Here I present an overview of this new project and my work in analyzing the Ipatov et al (2008) code that will be altered to generate the synthetic spectra.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 11:30:34 PDT
       
  • Vertically Air Lifted High Altitude Light Launch Apparatus (VALHALLA)

    • Authors: Benjamin E. Chaback et al.
      Abstract: Project VALHALLA aims to get collegiate level rockets to reach higher altitudes by providing a launch platform that shall allow them to be launched from 100,000 ft. This shall allow researchers to pass ninety percent of Earth's dense atmosphere when launching their rockets and shall allow for research at altitude. VALHALLA’s design consists of using multiple high-altitude balloons arranged around a launch platform to reach the target altitude with the rocket. The project shall consist of the following subsystems: policy, structure and design, helium recovery system, and electronics. The policy team shall be responsible for ensuring that this platform conforms to all US regulations. The structures team shall be responsible for designing and building the design. VALHALLA will be reusable, being an economical option, with the development of a system to recycle the helium in the balloons. All coding, wiring, and communications shall be completed by the electronics team. VALHALLA has contacted the Federal Aviation Administration, is continuing research, and has started building the first prototype which shall be tested in Fall 2021. The group has been providing our team with practical business and scientific experience that shall prepare them for leadership roles in their professional careers.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 11:40:24 PDT
       
  • Cepheid Variable Light Curve Analysis on the Embry-Riddle 1-meter
           Telescope

    • Authors: Kayla Taylor
      Abstract: This report details light curve analysis for four Cepheid variable stars (Polaris, RT Aurigae, RX Aurigae, and Zeta Geminorum) using Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's 1-meter reflecting telescope and a SBIG-STX 16803 camera with a g filter. Observations were conducted once per week during the Spring 2021 semester; at least one three-hour shift was allotted per week according to the Observational Astronomy Telescope Allocation Committee (TAC). Individual light curves for each target Cepheid were then compared to published data to analyze evidence of evolution on the Instability Strip. Although the light curves showed the sinusoidal nature of brightness oscillations, amplitudes of the three latter Cepheids varied significantly from accepted values. It is possible that the maximum or minimum brightness was missed for these targets during the constrained observational timeframe. The resulting light curves were then used to establish a period range reference of 15 days or less for future variabe photometry observations with the Embry-Riddle 1-m telescope.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 09:55:19 PDT
       
  • Primacy and Recency Effects on Position Error in Short-Term Memory Recall

    • Authors: Weerachet Sinlapanuntakul et al.
      Abstract: Position error is the most common error in serial recall of short-term memory, especially when environment, language, or similarity factors are presented. Previous studies demonstrate some support for the serial recall resulting in less error-prone for the first and last positions than the middle positions. This study investigates the accuracy of recalling letters and their positions when given a random sequence with minimal to no external factors. The significant predictors influencing position error were the primacy and recency effects. Participants completed a 20-trial experiment on the CogLab Experimental Control Software, which presented a series of letters one at a time in order, but the order of letters varied in each trial. After displaying all the letters in each trial, participants were asked to select letters according to their original positions. The results from this study indicated that participants were most likely to recall the first letter, somewhat likely to recall the last letter, and least likely to recall the middle letters of a random sequence in their correct original positions.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 14:05:20 PST
       
  • Stress Intensity Factor - Simple Solution for a Complex Problem

    • Authors: Hamid A. Ghassri et al.
      Abstract: This research explores the modeling of a cracked structure using a linear elastic finite element method (FEM) analysis with the objective of determining the stress intensity factor (SIF) for complex geometries. The analysis uses a mapping of the stress concentration area ahead of the crack tip to asymptotically determine the SIF. For model calibration, Irwin’s approximation method was used in two known crack case solutions subjected to a uniform tensile loading (Mode I – Opening) with fixed geometric dimensions. With focus on aircraft airworthiness application, two more complex geometries with irregular stress distributions were analyzed and the results were extracted for future use in crack growth simulation.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 12:40:25 PST
       
  • The Development and Evaluation of the Atlantic Tropical Cyclone
           Intensification Regression Model (ATCIRM)

    • Authors: Bruno Platero Huarcaya et al.
      Abstract: Operational track forecasts of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) have been improved substantially in recent years and nowadays are sufficiently accurate. However, intensity forecasts have not shown similar improvements, especially for rapidly intensifying storms. The improvement of intensity forecast accuracy can help authorities in risk management and decision making to prevent loss of life and property. The purpose of our project is to develop a statistical linear regression model that provides better predictions for TC intensification over the ocean. Here, different predictor variables are studied, and 2011-2017 Atlantic basin storms are investigated. The final set of predictor variables selected for the model are Reynolds sea surface temperature, 700-500 hPa relative humidity, 200-800 km disk average 850-200 hPa wind shear magnitude, and 200 hPa divergence. We identify the variables that are the most deterministic in predicting TC intensification. Model performance tests, based on the 2018 Atlantic TC season, reveal a mean absolute error of 10.43 knots in the 24-hour intensity forecast. We conclude that Reynolds sea surface temperature is the most deterministic predictor, having the largest coefficient and test statistic, what is consistent with known TC physical mechanisms.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jun 2021 14:45:50 PDT
       
  • Project HOME Hydroponic Operations for Mars Exploration

    • Authors: Deanna DeMattio et al.
      Abstract: This report considers the challenges NASA, SpaceX, and other private companies will face in the approaching two decades when sending astronauts on missions to Mars. The longest exploration is planned to take place in the 2030's, sending a crew of, at minimum, four astronauts to Mars for a year of research. The research conducted is assisting space exploration companies’ with ways to grow a complete diet on a planet that does not receive enough sunlight. Agriculture in enclosed and buried structures on Mars will enable astronauts to conduct extended surface exploration missions. We evaluated a deep-water culture indoor hydroponics system to grow Moringa oleifera (M. Oleifera), a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich plant with leaves containing all nine essential amino acids. After initial aquaponics growth and 3 prior harvests, the lighting intensity was set to 590 W/m^2 in a twelve hour on/off cycle, in normal indoor atmosphere. This simulates an ambient light collection and reflection system on Mars illuminating an insulated, pressurized underground chamber for agriculture. All plants (N = 32) were harvested 17 times over a 9 month period at regular intervals, when plant heights reached an average of 0.9 m. Consumable leaf yield averaged 0.18 dry g per plant per day. Data suggests that M. Oleifera as a perennial hydroponic crop is possible under reduced illumination, and is a candidate food source for Mars explorers. Preliminary research has expanded to utilizing natural light, five additional plants, three more hydroponic systems, and greenhouse ran entirely by solar power. Currently a solar powered eight by twelve foot greenhouse is being used to hydroponically grow goji berries, M. Oleifera, bamboo, kale, chia, and sweet potatoes. When these foods are combined with each other they contain a complete necessary set of amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fiber, carbohydrates, and nutrients for a balanced human diet. The plants receive 590 W/m^2 by utilizing a shade cloth over the entire greenhouse and the solar panels. In conclusion, the report states that NASA, and alike companies, will obtain valuable stepping stones in future missions to Mars by maximizing the growth of superfoods with utilization of natural light, and a focus on a hydroponics system as the farming method for space.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Mar 2021 08:50:39 PDT
       
  • A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study of Photodouble Ionization of
           Water at 32 eV Excess Energy and Unequal Energy Sharing

    • Authors: Conner Penson et al.
      Abstract: In this paper we present a part of our investigation of the photodouble ionization (PDI) of gaseous water. Synchrotron radiation from ELETTRA storage ring was used to ionize the water molecule, and the two emitted electrons were collected in coincidence after angle and energy selection. We have compared the measured dication states with those known from literature and showed the angular distributions of the two photoelectrons measured for the first time, for different excess energies and under different energy sharing conditions. A detailed comparison with theoretical calculations is given to help understand some details of the PDI mechanism.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Feb 2021 08:15:36 PST
       
  • Can the Timeframe of Reported UAS Sightings Help Regulators'

    • Authors: Spencer Erik Pitcher et al.
      Abstract: Remotely controlled small aircraft, otherwise known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) or drones have started to impact the United States National Airspace System by interfering with the safe flight of aircraft. As the UAS industry continues its expected growth into the future, lawmakers, as well as regulators at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation community must be able to predict when there will be more UAS craft in the air that could cause an interruption to air traffic so that more resources can be allocated optimally to counter the threat of UAS craft. The purpose of this study to determine if there is seasonal variation in the calendar year when a plane would be more likely to encounter a UAS using reported sightings data from the FAA. The data collected contained 36 months of sightings from June 2015 – July 2018. This study will give the aviation community the ability to better forecast high demand of reported sightings. Regulators and anyone operating within the manned airspace would be better informed by knowing what times of the year yield a higher frequency of UAS sightings so that appropriate mitigation and safety strategies can be developed and followed. Further, the FAA can also engage in preemptive educational strategies in an effort to avoid unsafe incidents. According to the results, the months of May and June, followed by December and January, will have the highest incidence of UAS sightings.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jan 2021 08:07:25 PST
       
  • Air Traffic Safety Management: The Significance of Voluntary Reporting and
           Data Distribution

    • Authors: Xavier M. Ashley
      Abstract: This study primarily investigated inadequacies identified through the utilization of the Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP), a Voluntary Safety Reporting Program (VSRP) overseen by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The primary objective of this research was to ascertain whether the FAA was properly managing the ATSAP and if the program was capable of effectively identifying safety hazards present in the national airspace. To assist in this determination, this study communicated the basic characteristics and significance of safety management and voluntary reporting in aviation. This served to clarify the intended function of the ATSAP and to articulate contributions that modern voluntary disclosure programs provide to the air traffic community and larger aviation community. It was discovered that several issues primarily relating to ATSAP data dissemination require attention from government regulators. Furthermore, due to previous scholarly research into the program being rather limited and dated, it was noted that this research was unable to fully portray the current state of the ATSAP. In response to the findings, two recommendations are provided. The first encourages the FAA to implement a more comprehensive and intuitive VSRP, one which can be utilized by both air traffic personnel and other aviation professionals. The second recommendation affirms the importance of continued research in to the ATSAP and that additional studies have the potential to reveal further improvements that can be made to the voluntary reporting process.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 11:10:24 PST
       
  • Creating a Competitive Environment for Defense Aerospace in a
           Protectionist Multipolar World: A Study of India and Israel

    • Authors: Shlok Misra et al.
      Abstract: The paper studies protectionism in defense aerospace in a multipolar world and analyzes the strategies of two emerging powers: India and Israel. The emergence of protectionism in a multipolar world has left a visible and influential impact in the globally integrated defense industry. As the world has become increasingly multipolar, new military powers have emerged around the world. India and Israel are disparate in terms of their size, wealth, and international relations. There are interesting similarities between them when it comes to their defense strategies. As a result, they also present compelling case studies for understanding protectionism in a multipolar world, specifically in the defense aerospace sector. This paper studies the current strategies adopted by the two nations in their defense aerospace manufacturing sectors. The paper evaluates differences and similarities between the two nations in terms of the issues faced by the defense aerospace sectors of the two nations and the potential that lies ahead for them. In the recommendations made, it was discussed how Israel needs new defense partners to reduce its over dependence on the United States, while India needs to boost manufacturing in its defense aerospace industry through specific tax reforms and bureaucratic reforms. While India and Israel need to regulate the defense aerospace industry to some extent for national security reasons, they should open their industries to other countries and find favorable partners to do so.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Sep 2020 08:49:43 PDT
       
  • How Airport Construction will Evolve with the Increased Effects of Climate
           Change

    • Authors: Xavier M. Ashley
      Abstract: This report addressed the effects rising global temperatures resulting from climate change have had on flight operations in their entirety. The research objective was to discover what methods could enhance climate adaptation in airport construction, as higher mean-surface temperatures have an increasingly negative effect on aircraft performance. The findings would primarily be of interest to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Primary Office presiding over the planning and development of airports. Overall, the report provided a comprehensive analysis of global warming’s effects on aviation, including the implications of degraded aircraft performance and sea-level rise for coastal airports. Additionally, it examined comparative solutions relating to the improved development of aircraft engine efficiency and takeoff weight (TOW) restrictions, as well as explored established airport construction practices. The study revealed that the most effective way to acclimatize to rising global temperature is to develop innovative airport architecture, while also modernizing present structures. Furthermore, solutions worth considering include the construction of airports at locations with higher latitudes and medium-elevations, and equipping airport terminal areas with advanced heating/cooling systems.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 11:10:33 PST
       
  • Mass Evacuation Effects on Transportation: A Comparative Analysis

    • Authors: Emily M. Jannace
      Abstract: Mass evacuations have changed greatly in the past two decades. Evacuations such as Louisiana during Hurricane Katrina, Florida during Hurricane Irma, and New York during the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks, Hurricane Sandy, and Hurricane Irene have had significant impacts on future mass evacuations in terms of transportation. This paper takes these methods and analyzes the best approach in given situations based on volume capacity, impact, and cost to make recommendations that can be used by the three previously mention municipalities. With so many different techniques available, it is important to choose the one that moves the most people out of harm’s way as quickly and effectively as possible while still being economical. Data from various transportation engineering professionals is used to examine different techniques. Many of these papers have been published by Transportation Research Board. Additionally, a subject matter expert interview was conducted with Dr. Scott Parr, Ph.D. from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Based on the research conducted, Emergency Shoulder Usage (ESU) is a superior option to contraflow. Fee suspension also has a significant impact on areas with a low-income area. In areas where there was a switch from pretimed signal timing to semi-actuated or fully actuated signal timing a better LOS during mass evacuations was seen. For the implementation of these techniques to be beneficial, resiliency is important and why the last recommendation calls for professionals to petition for better infrastructure and resiliency.Based on the research conducted, Emergency Shoulder Usage (ESU) is a superior option to contraflow. Fee suspension also has a significant impact on areas with a low-income area. In areas where there was a switch from pretimed signal timing to semi-actuated or fully actuated signal timing a better LOS during mass evacuations was seen. For the implementation of these techniques to be beneficial, resiliency is important and why the last recommendation calls for professionals to petition for better infrastructure and resiliency.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jul 2019 14:04:21 PDT
       
  • Data Mining and Machine Learning to Improve Northern Florida’s
           Foster Care System

    • Authors: Daniel Oldham et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this research project is to use statistical analysis, data mining, and machine learning techniques to determine identifiable factors in child welfare service records that could lead to a child entering the foster care system multiple times. This would allow us the capability of accurately predicting a case’s outcome based on these factors. We were provided with eight years of data in the form of multiple spreadsheets from Partnership for Strong Families (PSF), a child welfare services organization based in Gainesville, Florida, who is contracted by the Florida Department for Children and Families (DCF). This data contained a number of different aspects of the clients (“participants”) who were entered into the system as part of PSF’s record keeping. These aspects included dates, ages, removal types, disabilities, demographics, case details, and more of the parents, children, relatives, and caregivers involved. We analyzed and mined through this data using statistical analysis software (mostly R Studio), searching for correlations that could help us predict if a child is to be removed from their home and enter back into the foster care system. This research was overall a success, and we found significant insights into the cases that allowed us to predict their success or failure; we also built multiple machine learning models and prediction schemes that facilitated further understanding of statistically significant insights about the cases.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jun 2019 15:57:25 PDT
       
  • Forward Osmosis Flow Rate Differential Using Different Osmotic Agents

    • Authors: John M. Trzinski
      Abstract: Life support is one of the most vital systems flown on manned spaceflight missions. The systems currently used are large, heavy, inefficient, and power consuming in an environment that requires nearly perfect conditions to function. Forward Osmosis (FO) is a form of filtration that uses the natural properties of water and concentration gradients to filter water without the need for any electricity. An experiment was conducted during the Embry Riddle Summer 2018 study abroad to the LUNARES research station in Piła, Poland. This experiment explored how the flow rate of water through a FO filtration system could be affected by the use of different osmotic feed solutions. The results show the differences in average flow rate and flow rate consistency. The findings could be used to improve the efficiency of the FO system which in turn could be used in future life support systems in long-term manned space exploration missions.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 22:17:09 PDT
       
 
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