Publisher: AIP   (Total: 28 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

Showing 1 - 27 of 27 Journals sorted by number of followers
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.66, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 2)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.19, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.382, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 1)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Laser Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 4.156, CiteScore: 12)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.63, CiteScore: 4)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.592, CiteScore: 2)
Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 1)
Structural Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.625, CiteScore: 4)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.716, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.046, CiteScore: 3)
Virtual J. of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Surface Science Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
APL Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scilight     Full-text available via subscription  
APL Bioengineering     Open Access  
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APL Bioengineering
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2473-2877
Published by AIP Homepage  [28 journals]
  • Drug/gene delivery and theranostics

    • First page: 040401
      Abstract: Highlight Image
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0165227
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Decoding bladder state from pudendal intraneural signals in pigs

    • First page: 046101
      Abstract: Neuroprosthetic devices used for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction, such as incontinence or urinary retention, apply a pre-set continuous, open-loop stimulation paradigm, which can cause voiding dysfunctions due to neural adaptation. In the literature, conditional, closed-loop stimulation paradigms have been shown to increase bladder capacity and voiding efficacy compared to continuous stimulation. Current limitations to the implementation of the closed-loop stimulation paradigm include the lack of robust and real-time decoding strategies for the bladder fullness state. We recorded intraneural pudendal nerve signals in five anesthetized pigs. Three bladder-filling states, corresponding to empty, full, and micturition, were decoded using the Random Forest classifier. The decoding algorithm showed a mean balanced accuracy above 86.67% among the three classes for all five animals. Our approach could represent an important step toward the implementation of an adaptive real-time closed-loop stimulation protocol for pudendal nerve modulation, paving the way for the design of an assisted-as-needed neuroprosthesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0156484
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Scheduled dosage regimen by irreversible electroporation of loaded
           erythrocytes for cancer treatment

    • First page: 046102
      Abstract: Precise control of cargo release is essential but still a great challenge for any drug delivery system. Irreversible electroporation (IRE), utilizing short high-voltage pulsed electric fields to destabilize the biological membrane, has been recently approved as a non-thermal technique for tumor ablation without destroying the integrity of adjacent collagenous structures. Due to the electro-permeating membrane ability, IRE might also have great potential to realize the controlled drug release in response to various input IRE parameters, which were tested in a red blood cell (RBC) model in this work. According to the mathematical simulation model of a round biconcave disc-like cell based on RBC shape and dielectric characteristics, the permeability and the pore density of the RBC membrane were found to quantitatively depend on the pulse parameters. To further provide solid experimental evidence, indocyanine green (ICG) and doxorubicin (DOX) were both loaded inside RBCs (RBC@DOX&ICG) and the drug release rates were found to be tailorable by microsecond pulsed electric field (μsPEF). In addition, μsPEF could effectively modulate the tumor stroma to augment therapy efficacy by increasing micro-vessel density and permeability, softening extracellular matrix, and alleviating tumor hypoxia. Benefiting from these advantages, this IRE-responsive RBC@DOX&ICG achieved a remarkably synergistic anti-cancer effect by the combination of μsPEF and chemotherapy in the tumor-bearing mice model, with the survival time increasing above 90 days without tumor burden. Given that IRE is easily adaptable to different plasma membrane-based vehicles for delivering diverse drugs, this approach could offer a general applicability for cancer treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0174353
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • PCSK9 activation promotes early atherosclerosis in a vascular
           microphysiological system

    • First page: 046103
      Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a primary precursor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death worldwide. While proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) contributes to CVD by degrading low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) and altering lipid metabolism, PCSK9 also influences vascular inflammation, further promoting atherosclerosis. Here, we utilized a vascular microphysiological system to test the effect of PCSK9 activation or repression on the initiation of atherosclerosis and to screen the efficacy of a small molecule PCSK9 inhibitor. We have generated PCSK9 over-expressed (P+) or repressed (P−) human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and further differentiated them to smooth muscle cells (viSMCs) or endothelial cells (viECs). Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) made from P+ viSMCs and viECs resulted in increased monocyte adhesion compared to the wild type (WT) or P− equivalents when treated with enzyme-modified LDL (eLDL) and TNF-α. We also found significant viEC dysfunction, such as increased secretion of VCAM-1, TNF-α, and IL-6, in P+ viECs treated with eLDL and TNF-α. A small molecule compound, NYX-1492, that was originally designed to block PCSK9 binding with the LDLR was tested in TEBVs to determine its effect on lowering PCSK9-induced inflammation. The compound reduced monocyte adhesion in P+ TEBVs with evidence of lowering secretion of VCAM-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that PCSK9 inhibition may decrease vascular inflammation in addition to lowering plasma LDL levels, enhancing its anti-atherosclerotic effects, particularly in patients with elevated chronic inflammation.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0167440
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Survivin regulates intracellular stiffness and extracellular matrix
           production in vascular smooth muscle cells

    • First page: 046104
      Abstract: Vascular dysfunction is a common cause of cardiovascular diseases characterized by the narrowing and stiffening of arteries, such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, and hypertension. Arterial narrowing results from the aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their increased synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. These, in turn, are modulated by arterial stiffness, but the mechanism for this is not fully understood. We found that survivin is an important regulator of stiffness-mediated ECM synthesis and intracellular stiffness in VSMCs. Whole-transcriptome analysis and cell culture experiments showed that survivin expression is upregulated in injured femoral arteries in mice and in human VSMCs cultured on stiff fibronectin-coated hydrogels. Suppressed expression of survivin in human VSMCs significantly decreased the stiffness-mediated expression of ECM components related to arterial stiffening, such as collagen-I, fibronectin, and lysyl oxidase. By contrast, expression of these ECM proteins was rescued by ectopic expression of survivin in human VSMCs cultured on soft hydrogels. Interestingly, atomic force microscopy analysis showed that suppressed or ectopic expression of survivin decreases or increases intracellular stiffness, respectively. Furthermore, we observed that inhibiting Rac and Rho reduces survivin expression, elucidating a mechanical pathway connecting intracellular tension, mediated by Rac and Rho, to survivin induction. Finally, we found that survivin inhibition decreases FAK phosphorylation, indicating that survivin-dependent intracellular tension feeds back to maintain signaling through FAK. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which survivin potentially modulates arterial stiffness.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0157549
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Investigations on artificially extending the spectral range of natural

    • First page: 046105
      Abstract: Organic semiconductors are being explored as retinal prosthetics with the prime attributes of bio-compatibility and conformability for seamless integration with the retina. These polymer-based artificial photoreceptor films are self-powered with light-induced signal strength sufficient to elicit neuronal firing events. The molecular aspect of these semiconductors provides wide spectral tunability. Here, we present results from a bulk heterostructure semiconductor blend with a wide spectral response range. This combination elicits clear spiking activity from a developing blind-chick embryonic retina in the subretinal configuration in response to white light. The response is largely triggered by the blue–green spectral regime rather than the red-NIR regime for the present polymer semiconductor layer attributes.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0156463
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Programmable all-DNA hydrogels based on rolling circle and multiprimed
           chain amplification products

    • First page: 046106
      Abstract: Soft, biocompatible, and tunable materials offer biomedical engineers and material scientists programmable matrices for a variety of biomedical applications. In this regard, DNA hydrogels have emerged as highly promising biomaterials that offer programmable self-assembly, superior biocompatibility, and the presence of specific molecular identifiable structures. Many types of DNA hydrogels have been developed, yet the programmability of the DNA building blocks has not been fully exploited, and further efforts must be directed toward understanding how to finely tune their properties in a predictable manner. Herein, we develop physically crosslinked all-DNA hydrogels with tunable morphology and controllable biodegradation, based on rolling circle amplification and multiprimed chain amplification products. Through molecular engineering of the DNA sequences and their nano-/microscale architectures, the precursors self-assemble in a controlled manner to produce soft hydrogels in an efficient, cost-effective, and highly tunable manner. Notably, we develop a novel DNA microladder architecture that serves as a framework for modulating the hydrogel properties, including over an order of magnitude change in pore size and up to 50% change in biodegradation rate. Overall, we demonstrate how the properties of this DNA-based biomaterial can be tuned by modulating the amounts of rigid double-stranded DNA chains compared to flexible single-stranded DNA chains, as well as through the precursor architecture. Ultimately, this work opens new avenues for the development of programmable and biodegradable soft materials in which DNA functions not only as a store of genetic information but also as a versatile polymeric biomaterial and molecularly engineered macroscale scaffold.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0169063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Supershear Rayleigh wave imaging for quantitative assessment of
           biomechanical properties of brain using air-coupled optical coherence

    • First page: 046107
      Abstract: Recently, supershear Rayleigh waves (SRWs) have been proposed to characterize the biomechanical properties of soft tissues. The SRWs propagate along the surface of the medium, unlike surface Rayleigh waves, SRWs propagate faster than bulk shear waves. However, their behavior and application in biological tissues is still elusive. In brain tissue elastography, shear waves combined with magnetic resonance elastography or ultrasound elastography are generally used to quantify the shear modulus, but high spatial resolution elasticity assessment in 10 μm scale is still improving. Here, we develop an air-coupled ultrasonic transducer for noncontact excitation of SRWs and Rayleigh waves in brain tissue, use optical coherent elastography (OCE) to detect, and reconstruct the SRW propagation process; in combing with a derived theoretical model of SRWs on a free boundary surface, we quantify the shear modulus of brain tissue with high spatial resolution. We first complete validation experiments using a homogeneous isotropic agar phantom, and the experimental results clearly show the SRW is 1.9649 times faster than the bulk shear waves. Furthermore, the propagation velocity of SRWs in both the frontal and parietal lobe regions of the brain is all 1.87 times faster than the bulk shear wave velocity. Finally, we evaluated the anisotropy in different brain regions, and the medulla oblongata region had the highest anisotropy index. Our study shows that the OCE system using the SRW model is a new potential approach for high-resolution assessment of the biomechanical properties of brain tissue.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0160213
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Survivin as a mediator of stiffness-induced cell cycle progression and
           proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    • First page: 046108
      Abstract: Stiffened arteries are a pathology of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and coronary artery disease and a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease events. The increased stiffness of arteries triggers a phenotypic switch, hypermigration, and hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), leading to neointimal hyperplasia and accelerated neointima formation. However, the mechanism underlying this trigger remains unknown. Our analyses of whole-transcriptome microarray data from mouse VSMCs cultured on stiff hydrogels simulating arterial pathology identified 623 genes that were significantly and differentially expressed (360 upregulated and 263 downregulated) relative to expression in VSMCs cultured on soft hydrogels. Functional enrichment and gene network analyses revealed that these stiffness-sensitive genes are linked to cell cycle progression and proliferation. Importantly, we found that survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, mediates stiffness-dependent cell cycle progression and proliferation as determined by gene network and pathway analyses, RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and cell proliferation assays. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of cell cycle progression did not reduce survivin expression, suggesting that survivin functions as an upstream regulator of cell cycle progression and proliferation in response to ECM stiffness. Mechanistically, we found that the stiffness signal is mechanotransduced via the FAK-E2F1 signaling axis to regulate survivin expression, establishing a regulatory pathway for how the stiffness of the cellular microenvironment affects VSMC behaviors. Overall, our findings indicate that survivin is necessary for VSMC cycling and proliferation and plays a role in regulating stiffness-responsive phenotypes.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0150532
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Finite element analysis of electric field distribution during direct
           current stimulation of the spinal cord: Implications for device design

    • First page: 046109
      Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) arises from damage to the spinal cord, often caused by trauma or disease. The resulting sensorimotor dysfunction is variable and dependent on the extent of the injury. Despite years of research, curative options for SCI remain limited. However, recent advancements in electric field stimulated axonal regrowth have shown promise for neuronal regeneration. One roadblock in the development of therapeutic treatments based on this is a lack of understanding of the exogenous electric field distribution in the injured tissue, and in particular, how this is influenced by electrode geometry and placement. To better understand this electric field, and provide a means by which it can be optimized, we have developed a finite element model of such spinal cord treatment. We investigate the impact of variations in electrode geometry, spinal cord size, and applied current magnitude as well as looking at several injury models in relation to clinically observed outcomes. Through this, we show that electrode shape has little effect on the induced electric field, that the placement of these electrodes has a noticeable influence on the field distribution, and that the magnitude of this field is governed by both the applied current and the spinal cord morphology. We also show that the injury modality influences the induced field distribution and that a stronger understanding of the injury will help decide treatment parameters. This work provides guidance in the design of electrodes for future clinical application in direct current electric field stimulation for axonal regeneration.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0163264
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Selective recording of physiologically evoked neural activity in a mixed
           autonomic nerve using a minimally invasive array

    • First page: 046110
      Abstract: Real-time closed-loop control of neuromodulation devices requires long-term monitoring of neural activity in the peripheral nervous system. Although many signal extraction methods exist, few are both clinically viable and designed for extracting small signals from fragile peripheral visceral nerves. Here, we report that our minimally invasive recording and analysis technology extracts low to negative signal to noise ratio (SNR) neural activity from a visceral nerve with a high degree of specificity for fiber type and class. Complex activity was recorded from the rat pelvic nerve that was physiologically evoked during controlled bladder filling and voiding, in an extensively characterized in vivo model that provided an excellent test bed to validate our technology. Urethane-anesthetized male rats (n = 12) were implanted with a four-electrode planar array and the bladder instrumented for continuous-flow cystometry, which measures urodynamic function by recording bladder pressure changes during constant infusion of saline. We demonstrated that differential bipolar recordings and cross-correlation analyses extracts afferent and efferent activity, and discriminated between subpopulations of fibers based on conduction velocity. Integrated Aδ afferent fiber activity correlated with bladder pressure during voiding (r2: 0.66 ± 0.06) and was not affected by activating nociceptive afferents with intravesical capsaicin (r2: 0.59 ± 0.14, P = 0.54, and n = 3). Collectively, these results demonstrate our minimally invasive recording and analysis technology is selective in extracting mixed neural activity with low/negative SNR. Furthermore, integrated afferent activity reliably correlates with bladder pressure and is a promising first step in developing closed-loop technology for bladder control.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0164951
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Structure–function relationships for squid skin-inspired wearable
           thermoregulatory materials

    • First page: 046111
      Abstract: Wearable thermoregulatory technologies have attracted widespread attention because of their potential for impacting individual physiological comfort and for reducing building energy consumption. Within this context, the study of materials and systems that can merge the advantageous characteristics of both active and passive operating modes has proven particularly attractive. Accordingly, our laboratory has drawn inspiration from the appearance-changing skin of Loliginidae (inshore squids) for the introduction of a unique class of dynamic thermoregulatory composite materials with outstanding figures of merit. Herein, we demonstrate a straightforward approach for experimentally controlling and computationally predicting the adaptive infrared properties of such bioinspired composites, thereby enabling the development and validation of robust structure–function relationships for the composites. Our findings may help unlock the potential of not only the described materials but also comparable systems for applications as varied as thermoregulatory wearables, food packaging, infrared camouflage, soft robotics, and biomedical sensing.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0149289
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • OCT angiography in the monitoring of vaginal health

    • First page: 046112
      Abstract: Fractional-pixel CO2 laser therapy shows promise for treating the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Nevertheless, it remains controversial in the field of female pelvic medicine. This is due to the inherent difficulties in obtaining noninvasive biopsies to evaluate the treatment's efficacy and safety objectively. To address this challenge, we developed a noninvasive intravaginal optical coherence tomography (OCT)/OCT angiography (OCTA) endoscopic system, whose probe features a shape identical to the laser treatment probe. This system can provide high-resolution OCT images to identify the microstructure of vaginal tissue and visualize the vasculature network in vivo. We conducted clinical research on 25 post-menopausal patients with GSM. OCT/OCTA scans were acquired at four different locations of the vagina (distal anterior, distal posterior, proximal anterior, and proximal posterior) during the whole laser treatment session. A U-Net deep learning model was applied to segment the vaginal epithelium for assessing vaginal epithelial thickness (VET). Blood vessel density and VET were quantified to monitor the efficacy of fractional-pixel CO2 laser therapy. Statistical correlation analyses between these metrics and other clinical scores were conducted, validating the utility of our system. This OCT/OCTA endoscopic system has great potential to serve as a noninvasive biopsy tool in gynecological studies to screen, evaluate, and guide laser treatment for GSM.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0153461
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • FRESH™ 3D bioprinted cardiac tissue, a bioengineered platform for in
           vitro pharmacology

    • First page: 046113
      Abstract: There is critical need for a predictive model of human cardiac physiology in drug development to assess compound effects on human tissues. In vitro two-dimensional monolayer cultures of cardiomyocytes provide biochemical and cellular readouts, and in vivo animal models provide information on systemic cardiovascular response. However, there remains a significant gap in these models due to their incomplete recapitulation of adult human cardiovascular physiology. Recent efforts in developing in vitro models from engineered heart tissues have demonstrated potential for bridging this gap using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) in three-dimensional tissue structure. Here, we advance this paradigm by implementing FRESH™ 3D bioprinting to build human cardiac tissues in a medium throughput, well-plate format with controlled tissue architecture, tailored cellular composition, and native-like physiological function, specifically in its drug response. We combined hiPSC-CMs, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts in a cellular bioink and FRESH™ 3D bioprinted this mixture in the format of a thin tissue strip stabilized on a tissue fixture. We show that cardiac tissues could be fabricated directly in a 24-well plate format were composed of dense and highly aligned hiPSC-CMs at >600 million cells/mL and, within 14 days, demonstrated reproducible calcium transients and a fast conduction velocity of ∼16 cm/s. Interrogation of these cardiac tissues with the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol showed responses consistent with positive chronotropy and inotropy. Treatment with calcium channel blocker verapamil demonstrated responses expected of hiPSC-CM derived cardiac tissues. These results confirm that FRESH™ 3D bioprinted cardiac tissues represent an in vitro platform that provides data on human physiological response.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0163363
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Self-organizing behaviors of cardiovascular cells on synthetic nanofiber

    • First page: 046114
      Abstract: In tissues and organs, the extracellular matrix (ECM) helps maintain inter- and intracellular architectures that sustain the structure–function relationships defining physiological homeostasis. Combining fiber scaffolds and cells to form engineered tissues is a means of replicating these relationships. Engineered tissues' fiber scaffolds are designed to mimic the topology and chemical composition of the ECM network. Here, we asked how cells found in the heart compare in their propensity to align their cytoskeleton and self-organize in response to topological cues in fibrous scaffolds. We studied cardiomyocytes, valvular interstitial cells, and vascular endothelial cells as they adapted their inter- and intracellular architectures to the extracellular space. We used focused rotary jet spinning to manufacture aligned fibrous scaffolds to mimic the length scale and three-dimensional (3D) nature of the native ECM in the muscular, valvular, and vascular tissues of the heart. The representative cardiovascular cell types were seeded onto fiber scaffolds and infiltrated the fibrous network. We measured different cell types' propensity for cytoskeletal alignment in response to fiber scaffolds with differing levels of anisotropy. The results indicated that valvular interstitial cells on moderately anisotropic substrates have a higher propensity for cytoskeletal alignment than cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. However, all cell types displayed similar levels of alignment on more extreme (isotropic and highly anisotropic) fiber scaffold organizations. These data suggest that in the hierarchy of signals that dictate the spatiotemporal organization of a tissue, geometric cues within the ECM and cellular networks may homogenize behaviors across cell populations and demographics.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0172423
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Fabrication and characterizations of simvastatin-containing mesoporous
           bioactive glass and molybdenum disulfide scaffold for bone tissue

    • First page: 046115
      Abstract: Due to the limitations of the current treatment approaches of allograft and autograft techniques, treating bone disorders is a significant challenge. To address these shortcomings, a novel biomaterial composite is required. This study presents the preparation and fabrication of a novel biomaterial composite scaffold that combines poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and simvastatin (Sim) to address the limitations of current bone grafting techniques of autograft and allograft. The fabricated scaffold of PLGA–MBG–MoS2–Sim composites was developed using a low-cost hydraulic press and salt leaching method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed the scaffolds have a pore size between 143 and 240 μm. The protein adsorption for fabricated scaffolds was increased at 24 h. The water adsorption and retention studies showed significant results on the PLGA–MBG–MoS2–Sim composite scaffold. The biodegradation studies of the PLGA–MBG–MoS2–Sim composite scaffold have shown 54% after 28 days. In vitro, bioactivity evaluation utilizing simulated body fluid studies confirmed the development of bone mineral hydroxyapatite on the scaffolds, which was characterized using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and SEM analysis. Furthermore, the PLGA–MBG–MoS2–Sim composite scaffold is biocompatible with C3H10T1/2 cells and expresses more alkaline phosphatase and mineralization activity. Additionally, in vivo research showed that PLGA–MBG–MoS2–Sim stimulates a higher rate of bone regeneration. These findings highlight the fabricated PLGA–MBG–MoS2–Sim composite scaffold presents a promising solution for the limitations of current bone grafting techniques.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0172002
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Endothelial cells metabolically regulate breast cancer invasion toward a

    • First page: 046116
      Abstract: Breast cancer metastasis is initiated by invasion of tumor cells into the collagen type I-rich stroma to reach adjacent blood vessels. Prior work has identified that metabolic plasticity is a key requirement of tumor cell invasion into collagen. However, it remains largely unclear how blood vessels affect this relationship. Here, we developed a microfluidic platform to analyze how tumor cells invade collagen in the presence and absence of a microvascular channel. We demonstrate that endothelial cells secrete pro-migratory factors that direct tumor cell invasion toward the microvessel. Analysis of tumor cell metabolism using metabolic imaging, metabolomics, and computational flux balance analysis revealed that these changes are accompanied by increased rates of glycolysis and oxygen consumption caused by broad alterations of glucose metabolism. Indeed, restricting glucose availability decreased endothelial cell-induced tumor cell invasion. Our results suggest that endothelial cells promote tumor invasion into the stroma due, in part, to reprogramming tumor cell metabolism.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0171109
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • PEDOT:PSS-coated platinum electrodes for neural stimulation

    • First page: 046117
      Abstract: Safe and long-term electrical stimulation of neurons requires charge injection without damaging the electrode and tissue. A common strategy to diminish adverse effects includes the modification of electrodes with materials that increases the high charge injection capacity. Due to its high capacitance, the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS is a promising coating material; however, the neural stimulation performance in terms of stability and safety remains largely unexplored. Here, PEDOT:PSS-coated platinum (Pt-PEDOT:PSS) microelectrodes are examined for neural stimulation and compared to bare platinum (Pt) electrodes. Microelectrodes in a bipolar configuration are used to deliver current-controlled, biphasic pulses with charge densities ranging from 64 to 255 μC cm−2. Stimulation for 2 h deteriorates bare Pt electrodes through corrosion, whereas the PEDOT:PSS coating prevents dissolution of Pt and shows no degradation. Acute stimulation of primary cortical cells cultured as neurospheres shows similar dependency on charge density for Pt and Pt-PEDOT:PSS electrodes with a threshold of 127 μC cm−2 and increased calcium response for higher charge densities. Continuous stimulation for 2 h results in higher levels of cell survival for Pt-PEDOT:PSS electrodes. Reduced cell survival on Pt electrodes is most profound for neurospheres in proximity of the electrodes. Extending the stimulation duration to 6 h increases cell death for both types of electrodes; however, neurospheres on Pt-PEDOT:PSS devices still show significant viability whereas stimulation is fatal for nearly all cells close to the Pt electrodes. This work demonstrates the protective properties of PEDOT:PSS that can be used as a promising approach to extend electrode lifetime and reduce cell damage for safe and long-term neural stimulation.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0153094
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • SEM 2 : Introducing mechanics in cell and tissue modeling using
           coarse-grained homogeneous particle dynamics

    • First page: 046118
      Abstract: Modeling multiscale mechanics in shape-shifting engineered tissues, such as organoids and organs-on-chip, is both important and challenging. In fact, it is difficult to model relevant tissue-level large non-linear deformations mediated by discrete cell-level behaviors, such as migration and proliferation. One approach to solve this problem is subcellular element modeling (SEM), where ensembles of coarse-grained particles interacting via empirically defined potentials are used to model individual cells while preserving cell rheology. However, an explicit treatment of multiscale mechanics in SEM was missing. Here, we incorporated analyses and visualizations of particle level stress and strain in the open-source software SEM++ to create a new framework that we call subcellular element modeling and mechanics or SEM2. To demonstrate SEM2, we provide a detailed mechanics treatment of classical SEM simulations including single-cell creep, migration, and proliferation. We also introduce an additional force to control nuclear positioning during migration and proliferation. Finally, we show how SEM2 can be used to model proliferation in engineered cell culture platforms such as organoids and organs-on-chip. For every scenario, we present the analysis of cell emergent behaviors as offered by SEM++ and examples of stress or strain distributions that are possible with SEM2. Throughout the study, we only used first-principles literature values or parametric studies, so we left to the Discussion a qualitative comparison of our insights with recently published results. The code for SEM2 is available on GitHub at
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0166829
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • A novel portable in situ printer for hydrogel multi-structure molding and
           cell printing

    • First page: 046119
      Abstract: Skin lesions not only disrupt appearance and barrier functionality but also lead to severe microbial infections and immune-inflammatory responses, seriously affect physical and mental health. In situ printing involves the direct deposition of bio-ink to create or repair damaged tissues or organs within a clinical setting. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel portable in situ printer. This handheld instrument exhibits excellent printing performance, allowing hydrogels to be patterned and molded on surfaces according to specific requirements. By utilizing a dual-component hydrogels co-printing approach with high and low viscosities, we achieved in situ cell-laden printing using low-viscosity hydrogel. This demonstrates the advantages of the device in maintaining cell viability and achieving hydrogel structuring. This approach opens up the possibilities for the efficient encapsulation of active components such as drugs, proteins, and cells, enabling controlled macro- and micro-structuring of hydrogels. This breakthrough finding highlights the potential of our technical approach in dermatological treatment and wound repair, by dynamically adapting and regulating microenvironments in conjunction with hydrogel scaffolds and cell reparative impetus.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0176301
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Publisher's Note: “Magnetic force-based cell manipulation for in vitro
           tissue engineering” [APL Bioeng. 7 , 031504 (2023)]

    • First page: 049901
      Abstract: This article was originally published online on 19 September 2023 with an error in Fig. 6. Figure 6 is correct as it appears below:
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0181312
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
  • Publisher's Note: “Finite element analysis of electric field
           distribution during direct current stimulation of the spinal cord:
           Implications for device design” [APL Bioeng. 7 , 046109 (2023)]

    • First page: 049902
      Abstract: This article was originally published online on 2 November 2023 with an error in Yaw O. Ansong Snr's name. The affiliation appears correct above. AIP Publishing apologizes for the error. All online versions of the article were corrected on 15 November 2023.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0187849
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
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