Publisher: AIP   (Total: 27 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

Showing 1 - 27 of 27 Journals sorted by number of followers
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.66, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.456, CiteScore: 1)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.19, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.382, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 1)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Laser Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 2)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.63, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 4.156, CiteScore: 12)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.592, CiteScore: 2)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 1)
Structural Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.625, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.046, CiteScore: 3)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.716, CiteScore: 2)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Surface Science Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Scilight     Full-text available via subscription  
APL Bioengineering     Open Access  
APL Photonics     Open Access  
Similar Journals
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Review of Scientific Instruments
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.585
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0034-6748 - ISSN (Online) 1089-7623
Published by AIP Homepage  [27 journals]
  • A high pressure, high temperature gas medium apparatus to measure acoustic
           velocities during deformation of rock

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      Authors: C. Harbord, N. Brantut, E. C. David, T. M. Mitchell
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A new setup to measure acoustic wave velocities through deforming rock samples at high pressures (up to 1000 MPa), temperatures (up to 700 °C), and differential stresses (up to 1500 MPa) has been developed in a recently refurbished gas medium triaxial deformation apparatus. The conditions span a wide range of geological environments and allow us to accurately measure differential stress and strains at conditions that are typically only accessible in solid medium apparatus. Calibrations of our newly constructed internal furnace up to 1000 MPa confining pressure and temperatures of up to 400 °C demonstrate that the hot zone is displaced downward with increasing confining pressure, resulting in temperature gradients that are minimized by adequately adjusting the sample position. Ultrasonic velocity measurements are conducted in the direction of compression by the pulse-transmission method. Arrival times are corrected for delays resulting from the geometry of the sample assembly, and high-precision relative measurements are obtained by cross correlation. Delays for waves reflected at the interface between the loading piston and sample are nearly linearly dependent on differential applied load due to the load dependence of interface stiffness. Measurements of such delays can be used to infer sample load internally. We illustrate the working of the apparatus by conducting experiments on limestone at 200 MPa confining pressure and room temperature and 400 °C. Ultrasonic data clearly show that deformation is dominated by microcracking at low temperature and by intracrystalline plasticity at high temperature.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:27:08Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0084477
       
  • Development of a pulsed vacuum ultraviolet light source with adjustable
           intensity

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      Authors: A. D. McDonald, M. Febbraro, J. Asaadi, C. C. Havener
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      This paper describes the development of a pulsed light source using the discharge from an electrode in a medium of various noble gases. This source can be used to aid in the characterization and testing of new vacuum-ultraviolet sensitive light detection devices. The source includes a novel spark driver circuit, a spark chamber into which different noble gases can be introduced, and an optical attenuation cell capable of being filled with different gases to allow for the attenuation of the pulsed light down to single photon levels. We describe the construction, calibration, and characterization of this device deployed at a dedicated light detection test stand at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0081175
       
  • A compact x-ray diffraction system for dynamic compression experiments on
           pulsed-power generators

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      Authors: T. Ao, D. V. Morgan, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. N. Austin, J. Usher, E. Breden, L. M. Pacheco, S. Dean, J. L. Brown, S. Duwal, H. Fan, P. Kalita, M. D. Knudson, M. A. Rodriguez, J. M. D. Lane
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Pulsed-power generators can produce well-controlled continuous ramp compression of condensed matter for high-pressure equation-of-state studies using the magnetic loading technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from dynamically compressed samples provide direct measurements of the elastic compression of the crystal lattice, onset of plastic flow, strength–strain rate dependence, structural phase transitions, and density of crystal defects, such as dislocations. Here, we present a cost-effective, compact, pulsed x-ray source for XRD measurements on pulsed-power-driven ramp-loaded samples. This combination of magnetically driven ramp compression of materials with a single, short-pulse XRD diagnostic will be a powerful capability for the dynamic materials’ community to investigate in situ dynamic phase transitions critical to equation of states. We present results using this new diagnostic to evaluate lattice compression in Zr and Al and to capture signatures of phase transitions in CdS.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0074467
       
  • Active micromixer platform based on Lorentz force for lab-on-a-chip
           application

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      Authors: Aniket Kandalkar, Nachiket Pathak, Atharva Kulkarni, Amit Morarka
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Mixing in an active micromixer was achieved using Lorentz force-assisted actuation of an enameled copper wire. A single-step template-assisted soft lithography technique was used to construct the mixing chamber. The chamber had a volume of 1.86 µl. The application of a square wave alternating current in tandem with tension in the wire provided the necessary conditions for the resonant oscillation frequency of the wire. The repeatability of the ratio of higher harmonics to the fundamental frequencies of the oscillating wire conforms to standardization of the device fabrication, assembly, and functionality. Simulations and experiments were performed to validate uniform temperature distribution in the mixing chamber. Real-time optical detection of the sample assisted in sensing the completion of chemical reactions in the chamber. Mixing of various aqueous based chemical reactions was performed. It was found that mixing efficiency was greater than 95 percent. Multiple devices were fabricated to show the usability and reproducibility of the system.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:27:04Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0081151
       
  • High precision, low excitation capacitance measurement methods from 10 mK
           to room temperature

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      Authors: Lili Zhao, Wenlu Lin, Xing Fan, Yuanjun Song, Hong Lu, Yang Liu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Capacitance measurement is a useful technique in studying quantum devices, as it directly probes the local particle charging properties, i.e., the system compressibility. Here, we report one approach that can measure capacitance from mK to room temperature with excellent accuracy. Our experiments show that such a high-precision technique is able to reveal delicate and essential properties of high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:27:03Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0087772
       
  • Large-scale and high-depth three dimensional scanning measurement system
           and algorithm optimization

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      Authors: Fan Zhang, ZhenYang Li, Liansheng Zhang, Rongjun Cheng, Qiangxian Huang, Ruijun Li, Chaoqun Wang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Tapping scanning mode is an important method for measuring surface topography at the nanometer scale. It is widely used because it can eliminate lateral force and reduce damage to the tested sample. Research on three dimensional (3D) scanning technology with a large range and high depth-to-width ratio has important practical significance and engineering application value because the current scanning probe microscope has the limitations of small measurement ranges and weak Z-direction measurement ability. The high-frequency resonance of the quartz tuning fork, combined with the tungsten stylus, is used in this paper. It has the ability to measure the surface profile of the microdevice with a large aspect ratio. The proposed 3D scanning measurement system has realized a microstructure measurement with a depth of ∼58 µm. The entire measuring range is 400 × 400 × 400 µm3, and the vertical resolution reaches 0.28 nm. The system can accurately obtain the 3D surface topography of the microfluidic biochip. In addition, a sliding window algorithm (SWA) based on errors in the scanning process and low scanning efficiency is proposed. Compared with the point-by-line scanning algorithm, the proposed SWA reduces the mean value of the squared residuals of the 3D profile by 7.70%, thereby verifying the feasibility of the algorithm. The 3D scanning measurement system and the algorithm in the tap mode provide an important reference for the 3D topography measurement of microstructures with large aspect ratios.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T12:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0085229
       
  • An angular-resolved scattered-light diagnostic for laser-plasma
           instability studies

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      Authors: X. Zhao, X. H. Yuan, J. Zheng, Y. F. Dong, K. Glize, Y. H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      We developed an angular-resolved scattered-light diagnostic station (ARSDS) to extend the study of laser-plasma instabilities (LPIs) by simultaneously diagnosing their features at different angles in a single shot. The ARSDS angularly samples the scattered light using an array of fibers with flexible setups. The collected light is detected with an imaging spectrometer, a streaked spectrometer, or a fiber-optic spectrometer to provide time-integrated/time-resolved spectral information. The ARSDS was implemented at Shenguang-II Upgrade laser facility for the double-cone ignition campaigns. Preliminary results confirm the importance of an angular-resolved detection due to the angular dependence of LPI processes, such as stimulated Raman scattering.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T12:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0090841
       
  • Easy and computer-time-saving implementation of the van der Pauw method
           including anisotropy and probe positioning correction factors using
           approximate closed-form analytical functions

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      Authors: Simon Hurand, Thibault Chommaux, Pierre-Olivier Renault, Thierry Girardeau, Fabien Paumier
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Measurements in a van der Pauw configuration often require the use of complicated mathematical expressions or implicit relations, which may be computer-time-consuming or tedious to implement in a given software. Thus, a closed-form expression is often desirable. We propose to approximate these relations by closed-form analytical functions using only basic operators that can be easily implemented. We present explicitly the functions and the numerical values of their parameters for the cases of standard van der Pauw measurement, anisotropic resistivities, and the probe position correction factor. The discrepancy with the exact values is smaller than 10−5, which is sufficient for practical purposes.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T12:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0068682
       
  • Magnetic communication by polarization helicity modulation using atomic
           magnetometers

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      Authors: Isaac Fan, Svenja Knappe, Vladislav Gerginov
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The radio frequency telecommunication at a kilohertz range through an electrically conductive medium is often impeded by the strong reflection and absorption at the interface. The polarization helicity of the magnetic field can be modulated/demodulated to provide a new communication protocol to potentiality circumvent these issues. Here, a miniature magnetic quantum receiver, capable of simultaneously discriminating the two possible helicities of a magnetic field, is presented. The core physics package constitutes two optically pumped atomic magnetometers. It is shown that a data rate of 500 bits/s with a carrier frequency of 2 kHz can be efficiently demodulated in an unshielded environment, paving a promising route for the future of radio frequency communication through a conductive barrier.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T12:25:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0086169
       
  • Effective magnetic path length in Epstein frame test of electrical steels

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      Authors: Du-Xing Chen, Yong-Hong Zhu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The effective magnetic path length lm for a 25 cm Epstein frame test is studied on the basis of a relevant demagnetizing model and determined by a comparative measurement of dc and ac hysteresis loops at each value of peak flux density Bp, with the field recorded by H-coils placed above the mid-section of the limbs or calculated from the magnetizing current. The obtained Bp and frequency dependences of lm for testing core loss Ps and peak field Hp of an electrical steel are explained in terms of differential susceptibility along the measured loops and demagnetizing and eddy-current effects on local magnetization processes.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T12:25:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0084859
       
  • Incipient fault diagnosis for the cam-driven absolute gravimeter

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      Authors: Ruo Hu, Jinyang Feng, Zonglei Mou, Xunlong Yin, Zhenfei Li, Hongrong Ma
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The vibration disturbance caused by incipient faults is an important factor affecting the measurement accuracy of the cam-driven absolute gravimeter. Based on the characteristics of the cam-driven absolute gravimeter, such as the small amplitude of the incipient faults, the inadequate representation of features for the faults, and hard-to-find in the noise, a novel method for incipient fault diagnosis of the cam-driven absolute gravimeter is put forward in this paper, which integrates the parameter-optimized Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) with Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM). The sparrow search algorithm is used to optimize the VMD parameters. The parameter-optimized VMD algorithm is used to adaptively decompose the vibration signals of the gravimeter under different cases, and then an effective intrinsic mode function (IMF) is selected based on the Pearson correlation coefficient. Some high-frequency IMFs are subjected to adaptive noise reduction combined with low-frequency IMF reconstruction, and then the multi-scale permutation entropy with sensitive characteristics under different time scales is extracted as the fault feature vectors. The extracted multi-dimensional vector matrix is entered into the LightGBM classifier to realize the accurate diagnosis of the incipient faults for the cam-driven absolute gravimeter. The test results show that this method can effectively detect various incipient failures of the cam-driven absolute gravimeter, with an identification accuracy of 98.41%. With this method, the problem of low measurement accuracy for the cam-driven absolute gravimeter caused by the incipient faults is solved, and the rapid tracing and accurate positioning of these faults for the gravimeter are realized, promising a good prospect for engineering application.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T12:29:07Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079424
       
  • Identification and assessment method of cable joint health status based on
           traveling wave reflection

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      Authors: Feng Zhou, Fan Zhu, Qiang Lyu, Xingzhen Bai, Baochun Cui, Pengfei Wang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Due to the difficulty in accurately detecting the health status of cable joints, a new method of identifying and assessing the cable joints’ health status based on traveling wave reflection is proposed. By transmitting nanosecond pulse signals at the head end of the cable, the health status characteristics of the cable joints can be obtained, and the noise reduction of the measurement signals is performed by the wavelet function to identify the reflected wave at the joint and the end of the cable. The equivalent circuits and simulation models of contact resistance and leakage resistance are established, and the contact resistance and leakage resistance of the cable joints are calculated according to the amplitude and phase of the reflected signals at the joint and the end of the cable. By comparing with the resistance when the joint is in healthy operation, any measured parameter exceeding the corresponding standard is considered a joint fault. Simulations and test results show that the method can accurately identify the reflected signals of the cable joints in different operating states, and with changes in joint health, clear regular features can be extracted from the reflected signals, and the quality and health of the joints can be determined. The traveling wave method can be used to detect cable joint faults and provide an early warning of defects, which provides a new idea for online monitoring and early warning of cable joints in both theory and engineering practice.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T12:29:06Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0085007
       
  • Direct current magnetic Hall probe technique for measurement of field
           penetration in thin film superconductors for superconducting radio
           frequency resonators

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      Authors: I. H. Senevirathne, A. Gurevich, J. R. Delayen
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators are typically formed from or coated with superconducting materials. Currently, high purity niobium is the material of choice for SRF cavities that have been optimized to operate near their theoretical field limits. This brings about the need for significant R & D efforts to develop next generation superconducting materials that could outperform Nb and keep up with the demands of new accelerator facilities. To achieve high quality factors and accelerating gradients, the cavity material should be able to remain in the superconducting Meissner state under a high RF magnetic field without penetration of quantized magnetic vortices through the cavity wall. Therefore, the magnetic field at which vortices penetrate a superconductor is one of the key parameters of merit of SRF cavities. Techniques to measure the onset of magnetic field penetration on thin film samples need to be developed to mitigate the issues with the conventional magnetometry measurements that are strongly influenced by the film orientation and shape and edge effects. In this work, we report the development of an experimental setup to measure the field of full flux penetration through films and multi-layered superconductors. Our system combines a small superconducting solenoid that can generate a magnetic field of up to 500 mT at the sample surface and three Hall probes to detect the full flux penetration through the superconductor. This setup can be used to study alternative materials that could potentially outperform niobium, as well as superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) multilayer coatings on niobium.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T12:29:05Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083309
       
  • Realization of parallel experiments in a diamond anvil cell and their
           application to water–mineral interactions at high-pressure and
           high-temperature conditions

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      Authors: Runze Jiang, Chunyuan Lan, Jinxue Du, Renbiao Tao
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Parallel experiments are normally used to compare different chemical systems and conditions simultaneously. In the field of high-pressure experimental science, parallel experiments are hard to realize due to very limited reaction chamber size for the generation of high-pressure conditions, especially in diamond anvil cells (DACs). Multiple holes, instead of a single hole, can be drilled into a gasket (i.e., multihole gasket technique) to realize parallel experiments in a DAC. In this study, we conducted a series of systematic calibration experiments on multihole gasket techniques using statistical methods. Multiple (two or three or four) holes 100 µm in diameter were symmetrically drilled into a gasket by a laser drilling instrument with the help of a coded Python program. The pressure deviations among different holes in a gasket at average pressures below 10 GPa are constrained to less than 0.2 GPa in all calibration experiments at room temperature. We further checked the influences of the gasket material, hole number, pre-indented gasket thickness, and temperature on the pressure deviations among different holes in a gasket. Finally, we applied the multihole gasket technique in a DAC experiment and compared the solubility of calcite in different chemical environments at the same pressure and temperature conditions. The experimental results showed that the multihole gasket technique could be widely applied to study water–mineral interactions at high-P (
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T12:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0075021
       
  • A near-ambient pressure flow reactor coupled with polarization-modulation
           infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for operando studies of
           heterogeneous catalytic reactions over model catalysts

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      Authors: Peng Chai, Yuekang Jin, Guanghui Sun, Liangbing Ding, Longxia Wu, Haocheng Wang, Cong Fu, Zongfang Wu, Weixin Huang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The model catalyst approach is often used for fundamental investigations of complex heterogeneous catalysis, in which operando characterizations are critical. A flow reactor is usually adopted for gas–solid heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Herein, we report a home-designed near-ambient pressure (NAP) flow reactor coupled with polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) and an online quadrupole mass spectrometer for operando studies of heterogeneous catalytic reactions over model catalysts. A unique gas supply system is designed and manufactured to enable a stable gas inlet to the NAP flow reactor at pressures up to ∼100 mbar. An ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with the facilities for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, thermal desorption spectroscopy, E-beam evaporation source, and ion sputtering gun is connected to the NAP flow reactor via a gate valve for preparations and routine characterizations of model catalysts. The functions of the system are demonstrated by in situ PM-IRAS characterization of CO adsorption on Pt(111) and operando characterizations of CO oxidation on Pt(111) under NAP conditions.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T12:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0081102
       
  • Activation characterization of a novel quinary alloy Ti–Zr–V–Hf–Nb
           non-evaporable getters by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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      Authors: Jie Wang, Yong Gao, Yaocheng Hu, Jing Zhang, Zhiming You, Qiuyu Sun, Qingyu Si, Zhanglian Xu, Sheng Wang, Guoming Liu, Aijun Mi
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The first results on the activation process and mechanisms of novel quinary alloy Ti–Zr–V–Hf–Nb non-evaporable getter (NEG) film coatings with copper substrates were presented. About 1.075 µm of Ti–Zr–V–Hf–Nb NEG film coating was deposited on the copper substrates by using the DC sputtering method. The NEG activation at 100, 150, and 180 °C, respectively, for 2 h was in situ characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-deposited NEG film mainly comprised the high valence state metallic oxides and the sub-oxides, as well as a small number of metals. The in situ XPS studies indicated that the concentrations of the high-oxidized states of Ti, Zr, V, Hf, and Nb gradually decreased and that of the lower valence metallic oxides and metallic states increased in steps, when the activation temperature increased from 100 to 180 °C. This outcome manifested that these novel quinary alloy Ti–Zr–V–Hf–Nb NEG film coatings could be activated and used for producing ultra-high vacuum.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T12:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079537
       
  • 3D flow field measurements outside nanopores

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      Authors: Jeffrey Mc Hugh, Alice L. Thorneywork, Kurt Andresen, Ulrich F. Keyser
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      We demonstrate a non-stereoscopic, video-based particle tracking system with optical tweezers to study fluid flow in 3D in the vicinity of glass nanopores. In particular, we used the quadrant interpolation algorithm to extend our video-based particle tracking to displacements out of the trapping plane of the tweezers. This permitted the study of flow from nanopores oriented at an angle to the trapping plane, enabling the mounting of nanopores on a micromanipulator with which it was then possible to automate the mapping procedure. Mapping of the voltage driven flow in 3D volumes outside nanopores revealed polarity dependent flow fields. This is in agreement with the model of voltage driven flow in conical nanopores depending on the interaction of distinct flows within the nanopore and along the outer walls.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T12:33:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083054
       
  • Time-resolved vibrational-pump visible-probe spectroscopy for thermal
           conductivity measurement of metal-halide perovskites

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      Authors: Shunran Li, Zhenghong Dai, Linda Li, Nitin P. Padture, Peijun Guo
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Understanding thermal transport at the microscale to the nanoscale is crucially important for a wide range of technologies ranging from device thermal management and protection systems to thermal-energy regulation and harvesting. In the past decades, non-contact optical methods, such as time-domain and frequency-domain thermoreflectance, have emerged as extremely powerful and versatile thermal metrological techniques for the measurement of material thermal conductivities. Here, we report the measurement of thermal conductivity of thin films of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), a prototypical metal-halide perovskite, by developing a time-resolved optical technique called vibrational-pump visible-probe (VPVP) spectroscopy. The VPVP technique relies on the direct thermal excitation of MAPbI3 by femtosecond mid-infrared optical pump pulses that are wavelength-tuned to a vibrational mode of the material, after which the time dependent optical transmittance across the visible range is probed in the ns to the μs time window using a broadband pulsed laser. Using the VPVP method, we determine the thermal conductivities of MAPbI3 thin films deposited on different substrates. The transducer-free VPVP method reported here is expected to permit spectrally resolving and spatiotemporally imaging of the dynamic lattice temperature variations in organic, polymeric, and hybrid organic–inorganic semiconductors.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T11:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083763
       
  • Embedded AI system for interactive vision screen based on human action
           recognition

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      Authors: Duan Chi, Wang Zhi, Hao Luo, Feng Li, Lianzhong Sun
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      In recent years, vision screening has emerged globally for employment (on a yearly basis) within primary and high schools since myopia heavily affects school-aged children. However, this is a laborious and time-consuming task. This article proposes an intelligent system for “self-service” vision screening. Individuals can accomplish this task independently—without any assistance by technical staff. The technical solution involved within this platform is human action recognition realized by pose estimation (real-time human joint localization in images, including detection, association, and tracking). The developed system is based on a compact and embedded artificial intelligence platform, aided by a red–green–blue-D sensor for ranging and pose extraction. A set of intuitive upper-limb actions was designed for unambiguous recognition and interaction. The deployment of this intelligent system brings great convenience for large-scale and rapid vision screening. Implementation details were extensively described, and the experimental results demonstrated efficiency for the proposed technique.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0076398
       
  • A high-speed variable-temperature ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling
           microscope with spiral scan capabilities

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      Authors: Zechao Yang, Leonard Gura, Florian Kalaß, Patrik Marschalik, Matthias Brinker, William Kirstaedter, Jens Hartmann, Gero Thielsch, Heinz Junkes, Markus Heyde, Hans-Joachim Freund
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      We present the design and development of a variable-temperature high-speed scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The setup consists of a two-chamber ultra-high vacuum system, including a preparation and a main chamber. The preparation chamber is equipped with standard preparation tools for sample cleaning and film growth. The main chamber hosts the STM that is located within a continuous flow cryostat for counter-cooling during high-temperature measurements. The microscope body is compact, rigid, and highly symmetric to ensure vibrational stability and low thermal drift. We designed a hybrid scanner made of two independent tube piezos for slow and fast scanning, respectively. A commercial STM controller is used for slow scanning, while a high-speed Versa Module Eurocard bus system controls fast scanning. Here, we implement non-conventional spiral geometries for high-speed scanning, which consist of smooth sine and cosine signals created by an arbitrary waveform generator. The tip scans in a quasi-constant height mode, where the logarithm of the tunneling current signal can be regarded as roughly proportional to the surface topography. Scan control and data acquisition have been programmed in the experimental physics and industrial control system framework. With the spiral scans, we atomically resolved diffusion processes of oxygen atoms on the Ru(0001) surface and achieved a time resolution of 8.3 ms per frame at different temperatures. Variable-temperature measurements reveal an influence of the temperature on the oxygen diffusion rate.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079868
       
  • Tellurium spectrometer for 1S0–1P1 transitions in strontium and
           other alkaline-earth atoms

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      Authors: T. G. Akin, Bryan Hemingway, Steven Peil
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      We measure the spectrum of tellurium-130 in the vicinity of the 461 nm [math] cycling transition in neutral strontium, a popular element for atomic clocks, quantum information, and quantum-degenerate gases. The lack of hyperfine structure in tellurium results in a spectral density of transitions nearly 50 times lower than that available in iodine, making use of tellurium as a laser-frequency reference challenging. By frequency-offset locking two lasers, we generate the large frequency shifts required to span the difference between a tellurium line and the [math] resonance in strontium or other alkaline-earth atoms. The resulting laser architecture is long-term frequency stable, widely tunable, and optimizes the available laser power. The versatility of the system is demonstrated by using it to quickly switch between any strontium isotope in a magneto-optical trap and by adapting it to spectroscopy on a thermal beam with a different alkaline-earth atom.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0084122
       
  • Improving signal-to-noise ratio of magnetic tunnel junction based radio
           frequency detector via spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance

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      Authors: Dhananjay Tiwari
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      This article focuses on the spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (STFMR) technique, which was developed and optimized to investigate spin-transfer effects in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) and spin Hall effect phenomena in ferromagnet/non-magnetic heavy metal bilayer systems. The devices for STFMR are typically fabricated with co-planar waveguides with contact pads for applying radio frequency or direct current, Irf(Idc). The device under investigation was a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB based MTJ with a resistance-area product of 1.5 Ω (μm)2 having a circular cross section with a diameter of 180 nm and tunneling magneto-resistance in the range of 60%–80%. The development of the STFMR setup and its optimization for achieving higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is discussed using two modulation schemes, namely, radio-frequency modulation and field modulation (FM). The FM-STFMR method reduces frequency-dependent noise and offers a higher SNR of 30 dB compared to other modulation schemes in the literature. In addition, a vector network analyzer based STFMR technique is developed, which provides a simple and fast means for characterizing MTJ devices. Furthermore, to calculate the exact power reaching the MTJ, impedance mismatch is calculated using the de-embedding method. The magnitude of in-plane torkance and out-of-plane torkance with dc bias is measured, and the results are found to be consistent with the results of STFMR techniques. The results show that the magnitude of out-of-plane torkance is substantially smaller than that of in-plane torkance in MTJ.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0087860
       
  • Design and manufacture of a radiative cooler to measure the subambient
           cooling effect and cooling power

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      Authors: Jie Qin, Zihan Zhang, Yanwen Li, Yuanzhu Cai, Hongqiang Zhang, Lianhua Liu, Lijin Xu, Weidong Zhang, Xiao Xue
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The obscure theory of passive subambient daytime radiative cooling (PSDRC) was deduced in a more understandable way using an arithmetic formula rather than integro-differential equations. Based on two boundary conditions of the equations, an innovative radiative cooler was successfully developed to qualitatively observe PSDRC phenomena and quantitatively characterize the cooling effect and cooling power of radiative cooling coatings (RC coatings). The remarkable subambient temperature reduction over 4.0 °C was successfully achieved in a completely open environment without minimizing the parasitic conduction and convection from the ambient. Prominent PSDRC phenomena could even be observed in such an open environment on very cloudy days, which generally compromise the RC. A much more prominent subambient cooling depression of 10.0 °C was observed when a wind shield was employed to minimize the convection. With suppression of convection, the subambient daytime cooling effect on cloudy days was even more noticeable than that occurred on clear sunny days. The subambient cooling effect was still very remarkable even on clear sunny days in the winter. The average cooling power measured on a clear sunny day was 154.8 ± 9.7 W/m2, corresponding to an average solar irradiance of 680 ± 90 W/m2 with a peak value of ∼820 W/m2. Both the subambient RC effect and the cooling power measured under real weather conditions using the radiative cooler agreed excellently with the theoretical prediction, sufficiently demonstrating the great innovation, validity, and effectiveness of the device.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0087494
       
  • Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the XuanLong-50 experiment

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      Authors: H. Y. Li, S. J. Li, Q. F. Xie, J. H. Liu, R. H. Bai, R. Y. Tao, X. C. Lun, N. Li, X. K. Bo, C. Q. Liu, L. Han, B. H. Deng
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A 15-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system is developed for ENN’s spherical torus experiment XuanLong-50 (EXL-50). A BeamTech laser with 3 J/pulse (1064 nm wavelength) at 50 Hz repetition rate is chosen for measurements during EXL-50 plasma operations. To enable measurements at low density (∼0.5 × 1018 m−3) plasma operations, the opto-mechanical subsystems are carefully designed to maximize the collection and transmission of the scattered light and to minimize the stray light level. In addition, the high bandwidth trans-impedance amplifiers and segmented high speed waveform digitizers allow for the application of muti-pulse averaging to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Details of the diagnostic system are described and initial experimental results are presented.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T12:31:45Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0088785
       
  • New advances in solid-state pulse generator based on magnetic switches

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      Authors: Qi Yuan, Zichen Deng, Weidong Ding, Yanan Wang, Jiawei Wu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Pulsed power technology is gradually forming a development trend of civil-military integration, which puts forward more requirements for pulsed power generators. This paper takes magnetic switches (MSs) as the starting point and reviews recent advancements in pulse generators based on MSs. First, the working mechanism of the MS “rapid inductance drop after magnetic core saturation” is analyzed. Second, the basic uses of MSs are introduced with specific examples, namely, magnetic compression unit, saturated pulse transformer, and magnetic delay switches. Then, the typical topologies of pulse generators based on MSs are discussed, including transmission line, Marx, Fitch, linear transformer driver, and semiconductor opening switch pumping circuits. These circuits’ technical characteristics and parameter levels are highlighted. Finally, the existing problems and future development trends of MS-based solid-state pulse generators are discussed.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T12:28:18Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079583
       
  • Measurement of total electron emission yield of insulators based on
           self-terminating charge neutralization

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      Authors: Yahui Cai, Dan Wang, Kangcheng Qi, Yongning He
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      For insulators, the accumulated charge on the surface after electron bombardment will interfere with the total electron emission yield (TEEY) measurement. This work develops a novel method to automatically measure the TEEY of insulators based on self-terminating charge neutralization using two neutralization electron guns. We perform theoretical analysis and experimental design for the neutralization of positive and negative charges. Positive charges are neutralized by an electron gun whose cathode is equipotential to the sample. Negative charges are neutralized by another electron gun whose cathode is adjusted to a negative potential with respect to the grounded sample, which is set between EP1/e and EP2/e. We test the control and stability performance of the TEEY measurement system based on the timing design of the electron gun switching and believe that it meets the TEEY measurement requirements. The TEEY measurements of glass, Si, and SiO2 are in good agreement with the data reported in the references, which validates the accuracy of our method in this work. We anticipate that our method provides an essential reference for the rapid TEEY measurements of insulators.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T12:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0080414
       
  • Ultra-high vacuum cleaver for the preparation of ionic crystal surfaces

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      Authors: Tim Sander, Yi Liu, Tuan Anh Pham, Maximilian Ammon, Mirunalini Devarajulu, Sabine Maier
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Cleaving single crystals in situ under ultra-high vacuum conditions provides a reliable and straightforward approach to prepare clean and atomically well-defined surfaces. Here, we present a versatile sample cleaver to efficiently prepare ionic crystal surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, which is suitable for preparation of softer materials, such as alkali halides, and harder materials, such as metal oxides. One of the advantages of the presented cleaver design is that the cleaving blade and anvil to support the crystal are incorporated into the device. Therefore, no particularly strong mechanical manipulator is needed, and it is compatible with existing vacuum chambers equipped with an xyz-manipulator. We demonstrate atomically flat terraces and the atomic structure of NaCl(001), KBr(001), NiO(001), and MgO(001) cleavage planes prepared in situ under ultra-high vacuum conditions and imaged by low-temperature non-contact atomic force microscopy.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T12:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0088802
       
  • 10-nanosecond dead time and low afterpulsing with a free-running
           reach-through single-photon avalanche diode

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      Authors: S. Farina, I. Labanca, G. Acconcia, M. Ghioni, I. Rech
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The reduction of detector dead time represents an enabling factor in several photon counting applications. In this work, we investigate the free-running operation of reach-through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) at ultra-low dead times. By employing a fast active quenching circuit with direct bonding to the detector, we are able to achieve a 10 ns dead time with a thick SPAD by Excelitas, still maintaining extremely low afterpulsing probabilities (below 1.5%).
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:31:25Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0086312
       
  • Dynamic mass isolation method utilized in self-moving precision
           positioning stage for improved speed performance

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      Authors: Xinxin Liao, Qingbo He, Zhihua Feng
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The method of dynamic mass isolation is utilized in a self-moving precision positioning stage actuated by a piezostack to increase its moving speed. Two prototypes, namely, the referenced stage and the modified stage, have been fabricated. The only difference between the two stages is the flexure hinge manufactured in the modified stage to achieve an efficient dynamic mass isolation method. The step response has been investigated. The modified stage with dynamic mass isolation presents the average displacement of 6.6 µm with the applied step voltage being 55 V. By contrast, the referenced stage without dynamic mass isolation presents the average displacement of 1.6 µm. As a type of quasi-static piezoactuator/motors, the modified stage moves approximately four times faster than the referenced stage under the same driving frequency. By utilizing the dynamic mass isolation method, the modified stage still features the advantages of the referenced stage, such as cost-effective controllers, heavy-load capability, and motion of nanoscale. The concept and technique presented in this study can be applied to precision positioning stages for improved speed performance.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:31:25Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079742
       
  • A three-dimensional small angle measurement system based on
           autocollimation method

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      Authors: Wenran Ren, Jiwen Cui, Jiubin Tan
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A laser autocollimator based on transmission grating and combined reflector is proposed to simultaneously measure a three-dimensional angle. The optical configuration of the proposed autocollimator is designed, and a mathematical model for measuring a three-dimensional angle is established. The three-dimensional angle is obtained by detecting the change in the direction of the three measurement beams generated by grating diffraction and reflected by a combined reflector. The experimental setup based on the proposed autocollimator was constructed, and a series of experiments were performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed autocollimator for precision angle measurement. The experimental results showed that the measurement resolution of three-dimensional angles is better than 0.01", with measurement repeatability of yaw, pitch, and roll angles being 0.013", 0.012", and 0.009", respectively.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0089964
       
  • Simultaneous imaging and diffraction in the dynamic diamond anvil cell

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      Authors: R. J. Husband, J. Hagemann, E. F. O’Bannon, H.-P. Liermann, K. Glazyrin, D. T. Sneed, M. J. Lipp, A. Schropp, W. J. Evans, Zs. Jenei
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The ability to visualize a sample undergoing a pressure-induced phase transition allows for the determination of kinetic parameters, such as the nucleation and growth rates of the high-pressure phase. For samples that are opaque to visible light (such as metallic systems), it is necessary to rely on x-ray imaging methods for sample visualization. Here, we present an experimental platform developed at beamline P02.2 at the PETRA III synchrotron radiation source, which is capable of performing simultaneous x-ray imaging and diffraction of samples that are dynamically compressed in piezo-driven diamond anvil cells. This setup utilizes a partially coherent monochromatic x-ray beam to perform lensless phase contrast imaging, which can be carried out using either a parallel- or focused-beam configuration. The capabilities of this platform are illustrated by experiments on dynamically compressed Ga and Ar. Melting and solidification were identified based on the observation of solid/liquid phase boundaries in the x-ray images and corresponding changes in the x-ray diffraction patterns collected during the transition, with significant edge enhancement observed in the x-ray images collected using the focused-beam. These results highlight the suitability of this technique for a variety of purposes, including melt curve determination.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:31:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0084480
       
  • Nanosecond-scale impulse generator for biomedical applications of
           atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

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      Authors: Vladislav Gamaleev, Naohiro Shimizu, Masaru Hori
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      This study proposes an improved high-voltage fast impulse generator based on an inductive energy storage system with a 4 kV static induction thyristor. Nanosecond-scale impulses with pulse widths below 100 ns and a peak voltage of up to 15 kV can be generated by modifying the high-voltage transformer in the circuit and tuning the circuit capacitor. The resulting device is highly stable and can perform continuously if the discharge parameters are chosen within the recommended range. A plasma jet was operated using the generator at low temperature (below 37 °C). Together with its high stability and potential for continuous operation, the proposed generator offers promise for use in biomedical and agricultural applications. Furthermore, the nanosecond-scale high-voltage impulses produced by the generator enable it to achieve an electron density in the plasma one order of magnitude higher than the commercially available radio frequency plasma jet analog. We also show how to reduce the total cost of the generator.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T12:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0082175
       
  • Investigation on behavior of the backpressure based piezoelectric energy
           harvester driven by compressed air

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      Authors: Yingting Wang, Zi Wang, Gang Bao
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A piezoelectric energy harvester with backpressure pre-loaded is designed to investigate the performance that can be driven by the compressed air load in the pneumatic system. The power generation principle and microelement mechanics model are established, which can explain the principle that backpressure changes the internal energy of materials. The backpressure affects the internal stress of materials. The electromechanical coupling coefficient can be adjusted by the backpressure. The power generation obviously changes as the electromechanical coupling coefficient is adjusted. An experimental testing system is established, and the experimental results are analyzed to prove the effect of backpressure on the output power. There is a linear relationship between the peak voltage and backpressure. When the backpressure increases every 1 kPa, the voltage increases by 0.667 V. The voltage increment under backpressure is 5.13 times that without backpressure. The optimal output power is 12.3 mW in 30 kPa backpressure pre-load. The output power increases to the original 237% under the backpressure. The prototype can directly supply energy to the temperature sensor, and it can supply power to a magnetic switch with capacitor energy storage.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:42:43Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0086093
       
  • Discharge characteristics of steady-state high-density plasma source based
           on cascade arc discharge with hollow cathode

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      Authors: K. Yamasaki, O. Yanagi, Y. Sunada, K. Hatta, R. Shigesada, M. Sumino, T. Yamaguchi, Md. Anwarul Islam, N. Tamura, H. Okuno, S. Namba
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      We developed a steady-state high-density plasma source by applying a hollow cathode to a cascade arc discharge device. The hollow cathode is made of a thermionic material (LaB6) to facilitate plasma production inside it. The cascade arc discharge device with the hollow cathode produced a stationary plasma with an electron density of about 1016 cm−3. It was found that the plasma source produces a strong pressure gradient between the gas feed and the vacuum chamber. The plasma source separated the atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) and a vacuum (100 Pa) when the discharge was performed with an argon gas flow rate of 5.0 l/min and a discharge current of 40 A. An analysis of the pressure gradient along the plasma source showed that the pressure difference between the gas feed and the vacuum chamber can be well described by the Hagen–Poiseuille flow equation, indicating that the viscosity of the neutral gas is the dominant factor for producing this pressure gradient. A potential profile analysis suggested that the plasma was mainly heated within cylindrical channels whose inner diameter was 3 mm. This feature and the results of the pressure ratio analysis indicated that the temperature, and, thus, viscosity, of the neutral gas increased with the increasing number of intermediate electrodes. The discharge characteristics and shape of the hollow cathode are suitable for plasma window applications.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0076388
       
  • Instrument for tensile testing of individual collagen fibrils with facile
           sample coupling and uncoupling

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      Authors: Mathis Nalbach, Franziska Chalupa-Gantner, Felix Spoerl, Victor de Bar, Benedikt Baumgartner, Orestis G. Andriotis, Shingo Ito, Aleksandr Ovsianikov, Georg Schitter, Philipp J. Thurner
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Collagen is the major structural protein in human bodies constituting about 30% of the entire protein mass. Through a self-assembly process, triple helical collagen molecules assemble into high aspect-ratio fibers of tens to hundreds of nanometer diameter, known as collagen fibrils (CFs). In the last decade, several methods for tensile testing these CFs emerged. However, these methods are either overly time-consuming or offer low data acquisition bandwidth, rendering dynamic investigation of tensile properties impossible. Here, we describe a novel instrument for tensile testing of individual CFs. CFs are furnished with magnetic beads using a custom magnetic tweezer. Subsequently, CFs are lifted by magnetic force, allowing them to be picked-up by a microgripper structure, which is mounted on a cantilever-based interferometric force probe. A piezo-lever actuator is used to apply tensile displacements and to perform tensile tests of tethered CFs, after alignment. Once the mechanical tests are finished, CFs are removed from the microgripper by application of a magnetic field. Our novel instrument enables tensile tests with at least 25-fold increased throughput compared to tensile testing with an atomic force microscope while achieving force resolution (p–p) of 10 nN at a strain resolution better than 0.1%.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:42:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0072123
       
  • Optimization of transverse emittance for RF-driven negative hydrogen ion
           source developed at China Spallation Neutron Source

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      Authors: Renli Zhu, Weidong Chen, Hui Li, Huafu Ouyang, Shengjin Liu, Yongchuan Xiao, Yongjia Lü, Xiuxia Cao, Fang Li, Jilei Sun, Shunming Liu, Kangjia Xue
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The China Spallation Neutron Source project Phase-II aims to deliver 500 kW beam power to the spallation target. To meet the beam power requirement, an RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source with an external-antenna has been developed. In order to optimize the beam transmission through the radio frequency quadrupole and the downstream linac, the low energy beam transport line needs to be carefully studied and the transverse emittance is focused in this paper. With computational simulation and experimental verification, the emittance growth caused by nonlinear magnetic fields of the solenoid and the residual magnetic fields at the measuring position has been carefully analyzed. The measurement uncertainty of the double-slit scanner has also been quantitatively estimated. Using the same plasma-beam boundary setting, the beam extraction system is also optimized with particle tracking simulation in CST PARTICLE STUDIO.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0086220
       
  • A strong anti-noise segmentation algorithm based on variational mode
           decomposition and multi-wavelet for wearable heart sound acquisition
           system

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      Authors: Shiji Xiahou, Yuhang Liang, Min Ma, Mingrui Du
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Wearable devices have now been widely used in the acquisition and measurement of heart sound signals with good effect. However, the wearable heart sound acquisition system (WHSAS) will face more noise compared with the traditional system, such as Gaussian white noise, powerline interference, colored noise, motion artifact noise, and lung sound noise, because users often wear these devices for running, walking, jumping or various strong noise occasions. In a strong noisy environment, WHSAS needs a high-precision segmentation algorithm. This paper proposes a segmentation algorithm based on Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) and multi-wavelet. In the algorithm, various noises are layered and filtered out using VMD. The cleaner signal is fed into multi-wavelet to construct a time–frequency matrix. Then, the principal component analysis method is applied to reduce the dimension of the matrix. After extracting the high order Shannon envelope and Teager energy envelope of the heart sound, we accurately segment the signals. In this paper, the algorithm is verified through our developing WHSAS. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high-precision segmentation of the heart sound under a mixed noise condition.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T12:35:22Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0071316
       
  • Self-triggering topology for high-power nanosecond pulse generators based
           

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      Authors: Zichen Deng, Qi Yuan, Weidong Ding, Yanan Wang, Linyuan Ren, Zhenbo Wan
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      In recent years, several novel avalanche transistor-based power synthesis topologies have been proposed to improve the output performance of pulse generators based on avalanche transistors. The most promising is the topology based on avalanche transistors Marx Bank Circuits (MBCs) and linear transformer driver (LTD). However, it suffers from the same problems as other semiconductor switch-based LTD generators. The greater the number of LTD modules, the higher the requirements for synchronization and drive capability of the trigger system. This paper proposes a new self-triggering topology for pulse generators based on avalanche transistors MBCs and LTD, which significantly simplifies the entire generator's requirement for trigger system synchronization and driving capability. First, the circuit topology and its operation principle are introduced. Then, three prototypes with one trigger LTD module and three self-triggering LTD modules are developed. The output characteristics are experimentally investigated. The results verify the feasibility of the proposed topology. Finally, the output amplitude and the rise time are 3.35 kV/3.7 ns, 4.12 kV/3.7 ns, and 4.88 kV/4.0 ns on a 25 Ω resistive load, respectively. All generators can operate at 1 kHz. The topology proposed in the article maximally simplifies the requirements for synchronization and drive capability of the trigger system for generators based on avalanche transistor MBCs and LTD.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T12:35:22Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0088708
       
  • Modulation-free portable laser frequency and power stabilization system

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      Authors: Mengke Wang, Jia Kong, Jiqing Fu, Hao Liu, Xiao-Ming Lu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The performance of laser-based instruments heavily depends on the stability of their laser source. Some instruments, such as the Cs–4He magnetometer, even require the frequency stabilization and the power stabilization at the same time. In this work, we design a double-locking system with a fiber-coupled output on a small bread board and apply it to the pump laser of a Cs–4He magnetometer. By carefully choosing the stabilization methods, we significantly improve the long-term simultaneous stability of frequency and power of the pump laser. The laser frequency drifts in 2 h are reduced from 100 to 10 MHz. For 10 h continuous measurements, their Allan deviation obtains about two orders of magnitude improvement for the averaging time larger than 200 s and reaches σ(τ) = 1.57 × 10−9 with a 200 s averaging time. The laser power stability for 1.8 h also obtains two orders of magnitude improvement from 3.22% to 0.031%, and its power noise reaches a level that is very close to the electronic noise of the detector. Applying this stabilization system to the pump laser of a fiber-coupled Cs–4He magnetometer, its magnetic sensor noise is significantly reduced from 0.158 to 0.009 nT, which is a reasonable noise for magnetic field detection. With this on-board design of the laser stabilization system, it is more convenient to transform the magnetometer into an outdoor device.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T12:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083923
       
  • Image shift correction, noise analysis, and model fitting of
           (cathodo-)luminescence hyperspectral maps

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      Authors: Nicolas Tappy, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Christian Monachon
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Hyperspectral imaging is an important asset of modern spectroscopy. It allows us to perform optical metrology at a high spatial resolution, for example in cathodoluminescence in scanning electron microscopy. However, hyperspectral datasets present added challenges in their analysis compared to individually taken spectra due to their lower signal to noise ratio and specific aberrations. On the other hand, the large volume of information in a hyperspectral dataset allows the application of advanced statistical analysis methods derived from machine-learning. In this article, we present a methodology to perform model fitting on hyperspectral maps, leveraging principal component analysis to perform a thorough noise analysis of the dataset. We explain how to correct the imaging shift artifact, specific to imaging spectroscopy, by directly evaluating it from the data. The impact of goodness-of-fit-indicators and parameter uncertainties is discussed. We provide indications on how to apply this technique to a variety of hyperspectral datasets acquired using other experimental techniques. As a practical example, we provide an implementation of this analysis using the open-source Python library hyperspy, which is implemented using the well established Jupyter Notebook framework in the scientific community.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T12:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0080486
       
  • Study of beamlets extracted from a multi-aperture and five-stage
           acceleration system

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      Authors: M. Kashiwagi, M. Kisaki, G. Q. Saquilayan, A. Kojima, J. Hiratsuka, M. Ichikawa, Y. Shimabukuro, M. Murayama, H. Tobari
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A beam optics study using the ITER-relevant high intense negative ion beams, such as 1 MeV, 200 A/m2, has been performed experimentally and analytically using a multi-aperture and five-stage accelerator. Initially, multi-beamlets generated from this accelerator were deflected in various directions due to the magnetic field and space charge repulsion between beams and showed various divergences. These had limited the pulse length and the beam energy. Compensation methods of the beamlet deflections have worked effectively and contributed to achieving the ITER requirement, the divergence angle of
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0080804
       
  • Development of a transient complex impedance measurement device used in
           quasi-isentropic compression experiments

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      Authors: Zhongyu Zhou, Zhuowei Gu, Fuli Tan, Jianheng Zhao, Chengwei Sun, Cangli Liu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A complex impedance measurement device with a short response time and high noise immunity is presented in this paper. The device based on a radio-frequency reflectometer was specially developed for electro-physical property investigations of materials in quasi-isentropic compression experiments. The maximum operating frequency of the device is up to 600 MHz for reducing intense low-frequency noises. Meanwhile, an off-line signal processing code was developed to improve the response time of the device to less than 10 ns. Using the device, the complex impedance and electrical conductivity of water compressed by an explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generator were measured, and an abrupt change in the complex impedance of water caused by a liquid–solid transition was directly observed under intense electromagnetic interference.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079336
       
  • X-ray source design optimization using differential evolution
           algorithms—A case study

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      Authors: Weizhong Yan, Ye Bai, Rui Xu, V. Bogdan Neculaes
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Traditional x-ray sources used today for multiple applications, such as medical imaging (computed tomography, radiography, mammography, and interventional radiology) or industrial inspection, are vacuum based electron beam devices that include several key components, such as electron emitters, electron guns/cathodes, and anodes/targets. The associated electronics for electron beam generation, focusing and control, and beam acceleration are located outside the vacuum chamber. The general topology of these tubes has been directionally unchanged for more than 100 years; however, tube design remains a long, inefficient, tedious, and complex process; blind design of experiments do not necessarily make the process more efficient. As a case study, in this paper, we introduce the differential evolution (DE), an artificial intelligence-based optimization algorithm, for the design optimization of x-ray source beam optics. Using a small-scale design problem, we demonstrate that DE can be an effective optimization method for x-ray source beam optics design.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T12:22:22Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079389
       
  • In situ measurements of electrical resistivity of metals in a cubic
           multi-anvil apparatus by van der Pauw method

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      Authors: Fan Yang, Xiaojun Hu, Yingwei Fei
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      On the basis of the van der Pauw method, we developed a new technique for measuring the electrical resistivity of metals in a cubic multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus. Four electrode wires were introduced into the sample chamber and in contact with the pre-pressed metal disk on the periphery. The sample temperature was measured with a NiCr–NiSi (K-type) thermocouple, which was separated from the sample by a thin hexagonal boron nitride layer. The electrodes and thermocouple were electrically insulated from each other and from the heater by an alumina tube as well. Their leads were in connection with cables through the gap between the tungsten carbide anvils. We performed experiments to determine the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of pure iron at 3 and 5 GPa. The experiments produce reproducible measurements and the results provide an independent check on electrical resistivity data produced by other methods. The new technique provides reliable electrical resistivity measurements of metallic alloys and compounds at high pressure and temperature.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T12:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0082207
       
  • Structured light illumination for pressure-sensitive paint measurement
           under ambient light

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      Authors: Yu Matsuda, Satoshi Katayama, Tsubasa Ikami, Yasuhiro Egami, Hiroki Nagai
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      We propose a pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) method under ambient light based on structured light illumination. In the PSP method, pressure is obtained by measuring the variation of the emission light intensity from a PSP coating when it is illuminated by a light source. Since the extraction of the emission light from ambient light is difficult in the conventional PSP method, the existence of ambient light induces a noticeable measurement error. While spatially uniform light is used as illumination light in the conventional PSP method, structured light, the spatial intensity of which is actively controlled, is used in the proposed method. By measuring the PSP emission by varying the spatial pattern of the structured light illumination, one can eliminate ambient light, which is not synchronized with the structured light and can measure pressure without the effect of ambient light. In this study, we demonstrate the pressure measurement under ambient light using structured light with a sinusoidal wave generated by a digital mirror device. The measured pressure agrees well with the pressure measured by a pressure transducer connected to a pressure tap. The proposed method is promising under ambient light conditions.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T12:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0089000
       
  • Working characteristics of a magnetostrictive vibration energy harvester
           for rotating car wheels

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      Authors: Huifang Liu, Weiwei Dong, Yunlong Chang, Yifei Gao, Wencheng Li
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      The practice of harvesting vibration energy from machine tools, windmill blades, etc., and converting it into electric energy to power low-power electronic circuits has attracted wide attention from experts and scholars. Abundant vibrations that exist in the moving vehicle can be harvested to power sensors in tire pressure monitoring. In this paper, for the first time, a device is proposed to harvest the rotational vibration energy with the iron–gallium alloy (magnetostrictive material) as the core material. Such a device utilizes the coupling characteristics of Villarreal effect and Faraday electromagnetic effect to convert the vibration energy generated by the moving vehicle into electric energy. Upon completion of the design of the magnetostrictive rotational vibration energy harvester, the influence law of key factors, including substrate material, substrate size, and pre-magnetization field arrangement on the harvesting capability of the device, was studied in detail through experiments. An electric motor and vibration exciter were used to apply varied excitation forms to the harvester, and the output patterns of the harvester under conditions of wheel rotation, road bumps, and random vibration were fully analyzed. In addition, the correlation between the deformation of the cantilever beam and harvester performance was also investigated. The results have shown that at the acceleration of 9.6 g and the rotational speed of 90 r/min, the harvester can reach the output voltage of 1.22 V. Consequently, it demonstrates the feasibility of employing the magnetostrictive harvester to gather rotational vibration energy and provides theoretical guidance for further and deeper research on the harvester.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T12:04:19Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0078131
       
  • Spectral and polarization based imaging in deep-ultraviolet excited
           photoelectron microscopy

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      Authors: Thomas E. Beechem, Sean W. Smith, R. Guild Copeland, Fangze Liu, Taisuke Ohta
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      Using photoelectron emission microscopy, nanoscale spectral imaging of atomically thin MoS2 buried between Al2O3 and SiO2 is achieved by monitoring the wavelength and polarization dependence of the photoelectron signal excited by deep-ultraviolet light. Although photons induce the photoemission, images can exhibit resolutions below the photon wavelength as electrons sense the response. To validate this concept, the dependence of photoemission yield on the wavelength and polarization of the exciting light was first measured and then compared to simulations of the optical response quantified with classical optical theory. A close correlation between experiment and theory indicates that photoemission probes the optical interaction of UV-light with the material stack directly. The utility of this probe is then demonstrated when both the spectral and polarization dependence of photoemission observe spatial variation consistent with grains and defects in buried MoS2. Taken together, these new modalities of photoelectron microscopy allow mapping of optical property variation at length scales unobtainable with conventional light-based microscopy.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T12:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0077867
       
  • Collective Thomson scattering diagnostic with in situ calibration system
           for velocity space analysis in large helical device

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      Authors: Masaki Nishiura, Shun Adachi, Kenji Tanaka, Shin Kubo, Naoki Kenmochi, Takashi Shimozuma, Ryoma Yanai, Teruo Saito, Hideo Nuga, Ryosuke Seki
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic with a ±3 GHz band around a 77 GHz gyrotron probe beam was developed to measure the velocity distribution of bulk and fast ions in high-temperature plasmas. We propose a new in situ calibration method for a CTS diagnostic system combined with a raytracing code. The method is applied in two situations for electron cyclotron emission in plasmas and in a CTS diagnostic with a modulated probe beam. Experimental results highlight the importance of refraction correction in probe and receive beams. The CTS spectrum is measured with the in situ calibrated CTS receiver and responds to fast ions originating from a tangential neutral beam with an energy of 170 keV and from a perpendicular beam with an energy of 60 keV, both in the large helical device. From a velocity space analysis model, the results elucidate the measured anisotropic CTS spectrum caused by fast ions. The calibration methods and analyses demonstrated here are essential for CTS, millimeter-wave diagnostics, and electron cyclotron heating required under fusion reactor conditions.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T12:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079296
       
  • A cryo-bulge apparatus for in situ weather balloon crystallization
           capturing during blowing by synchrotron radiation x-ray scattering

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      Authors: Pinzhang Chen, Zhijie Xia, Yongyue Luo, Wei Chen
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      A cryo-bulge apparatus, which can be directly installed in the synchrotron radiation x-ray scattering beamline, is designed and manufactured. Using the cryo-bulge apparatus, the crystallization of natural rubber during blowing can be captured in situ. For mechanical measurements, the rubber film is tightly clamped at the periphery of a circular window. A low temperature measurement is achieved by the presence of a large iron block, which ensures low temperature variation ( 21 kPa. This suggests that the crystallization of rubber during blowing can occur under the equibiaxial deformation condition at low temperatures. The power scaling law is found to be 0.52%/kPa. The cryo-bulge apparatus is capable of clarifying the microstructural evolution of rubber during multi-dimensional deformation, which can provide guidance for the optimization of a weather balloon.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T12:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0071132
       
  • Integration of electroencephalogram (EEG) and motion tracking sensors for
           objective measure of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MAHD) in
           pre-schoolers

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      Authors: Neha Bhattacharyya, Soumendra Singh, Amrita Banerjee, Ria Ghosh, Oindrila Sinha, Nairit Das, Rajkumar Gayen, Somya Shubhra Pal, Sahely Ganguly, Tanmoy Dasgupta, Tanusree Dasgupta, Pulak Mondal, Aniruddha Adhikari, Sharmila Sarkar, Debasish Bhattacharyya, Asim Kumar Mallick, Om Prakash Singh, Samir Kumar Pal
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      We developed an integrated device composed of a single-probe Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Charge Coupled Device (CCD) based motion sensors for objective measurement of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). While the measurement of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MAHD) relies on the EEG signal for the assessment of attention during a given structured task, the CCD sensor depicts the movement pattern of the subjects engaged in a continuous performance task. A statistical analysis of attention and movement patterns was performed, and the accuracy of completed tasks was analyzed using indigenously developed software. The device with the embedded software is intended to improve certainty with criterion E. We used the EEG signal from a single-channel dry sensor placed on the frontal lobe of the head of the subjects (3–5 year old pre-schoolers). During the performance of the task power for delta and beta, EEG waves from the subjects are found to be correlated with relaxation and attention/cognitive load conditions. While the relaxation condition of the subject hints at hyperactivity, a more direct CCD-based motion sensor is used to track the physical movement of the subject engaged in a continuous performance task. We used our indigenously developed software for statistical analysis to derive a scale for the objective assessment of ADHD. We also compared our scale with clinical ADHD evaluations and found a significant correlation between the objective assessment of the ADHD subjects and the clinician’s conventional evaluation. MAHD, the integrated device, is supposed to be an auxiliary tool to improve the accuracy of ADHD diagnosis by supporting greater criterion E certainty.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T12:04:16Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0088044
       
  • A stick–slip linear actuator with high speed and nano-resolution by
           resonance/non-resonance hybrid driving

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      Authors: Peng Ning, Guangda Qiao, Xiao Xia, Xiaohui Lu, Tinghai Cheng
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 2022.
      To achieve high speed, nano-resolution, and large stroke, a resonance/non-resonance hybrid piezoelectric stick–slip actuator with a lever-type flexure hinge (LTFH-PSSA) is proposed in this work. The actuator can achieve high speed and large stroke in the resonance mode by the stick–slip working principle and achieve nano-resolution in the non-resonant mode by the direct drive working principle. The excitation electrical signals used in the two working modes are the sine waveform and half-sine waveform, respectively. Compared with the traditional sawtooth waveform, the excitation signal of the sine and half-sine waveforms have no sudden change of voltage, which are more conducive to reduce the impact and vibration of the system. Moreover, a series of static analysis and modal analysis of the stator are carried out by the finite element method. The experimental system is built to test the output characteristics of the LTFH-PSSA. In the resonance state by the stick–slip working principle, the impedance analysis and frequency characteristic test of the LTFH-PSSA are carried out, which states that the tested resonance frequency agrees well with the simulated ones. When the locking force, the voltage, and the frequency are 2 N, 100 Vp–p, and 1850 Hz, the speed of the LTFH-PSSA is up to 52.71 mm/s, and the backward motion is suppressed completely as well. In the non-resonance state, the resolution can reach 2.19 nm and 2.69 nm in the forward and backward motion, respectively. So far, the proposed actuator ranks first in speed and resolution among all reported LTFH-PSSAs.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T12:04:16Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0082660
       
 
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