Publisher: AIP   (Total: 28 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

Showing 1 - 27 of 27 Journals sorted by number of followers
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.66, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 2)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.19, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.382, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 1)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.156, CiteScore: 12)
J. of Laser Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.63, CiteScore: 4)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.592, CiteScore: 2)
Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 1)
Structural Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.625, CiteScore: 4)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.046, CiteScore: 3)
Virtual J. of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Surface Science Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
APL Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scilight     Full-text available via subscription  
APL Bioengineering     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Review of Scientific Instruments
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.585
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0034-6748 - ISSN (Online) 1089-7623
Published by AIP Homepage  [28 journals]
  • Design of soft x-ray laminar-type gratings coated with supermirror-type
           multilayer to enhance diffraction efficiency in a region of 2–4 keV

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      Authors: M. Koike, T. Hatano, A. S. Pirozhkov, Y. Ueno, M. Terauchi
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Soft x-ray diffraction gratings coated with a supermirror-type multilayer were designed to enhance diffraction efficiency in the energy range of 2–4 keV by means of numerical calculations. The optimized groove depth and incidence angle are 2.05 nm and 88.65°, respectively, for the grating having a groove density of 3200 grooves/mm. Regarding the multilayer structure, the optimum number of B4C/W layers pair was 11 and the thickness of B4C was increased from bottom to top, while that of W was kept constant. The replacement of the top layer of W by either Co, Cr, or Ni was an effective means of obtaining uniform diffraction efficiency. In the region of 2–4 keV, the calculated diffraction efficiency of the designed gratings was up to ∼5.3%, on average, and almost eight times larger than that of ∼0.7% of an Au coated grating.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-17T12:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0148908
       
  • Neutron interferometry using a single modulated phase grating

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      Authors: I. Hidrovo, J. Dey, H. Meyer, D. S. Hussey, N. N. Klimov, L. G. Butler, K. Ham, W. Newhauser
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Neutron grating interferometry provides information on phase and small-angle scatter in addition to attenuation. Previously, phase grating moiré interferometers (PGMI) with two or three phase gratings have been developed. These phase-grating systems use the moiré far-field technique to avoid the need for high-aspect absorption gratings used in Talbot–Lau interferometers (TLI) that reduce the neutron flux reaching the detector. We first demonstrate, through theory and simulations, a novel phase grating interferometer system for cold neutrons that requires a single modulated phase grating (MPG) for phase-contrast imaging, as opposed to the two or three phase gratings in previously employed PGMI systems. The theory shows the dual modulation of MPG with a large period and a smaller carrier pitch P, resulting in large fringes at the detector. The theory was compared to the full Sommerfeld–Rayleigh diffraction integral simulator. Then, we proceeded to compare the MPG system to experiments in the literature that use a two-phase-grating-based PGMI with best-case visibility of around 39%. The simulations of the MPG system show improved visibility in comparison to that of the two-phase-grating-based PGMI. An MPG with a modulation period of 300 µm, the pitch of 2 µm, and grating heights with a phase modulation of ([math], illuminated by a monochromatic beam produces visibility of 94.2% with a comparable source-to-detector distance (SDD) as the two-phase-grating-based PGMI. Phase sensitivity, another important performance metric of the grating interferometer, was compared to values available in the literature, viz. the conventional TLI with the phase sensitivity of 4.5 × 103 for an SDD of 3.5 m and a beam wavelength of 0.44 nm. For a range of modulation periods, the MPG system provides comparable or greater theoretical maximum phase sensitivity of 4.1 × 103 to 10.0 × 103 for SDDs of up to 3.5 m. This proposed MPG system appears capable of providing high-performance PGMI that obviates the need for the alignment of two phase gratings.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-17T12:57:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0106706
       
  • Operation characteristics of soil blasting vibration test device under
           vibration load

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      Authors: Dongdong Guo, Meng Wang, Nan Jiang, Yinyong Zeng, Haiqing Cao, Dianyong Wang, Jun Lu, Tingyao Wu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      To improve the accuracy of vibration velocity monitoring during blasting in soil layers, this paper provides a method and device for data correction by combining finite element software and actual engineering test data. Based on the length of the test pedestal exposed to the surface of the geotechnical body, the finite element structural model corresponding to each length of the test pedestal is established. Moreover, a predetermined external excitation load is applied outside the finite element model and the correction function of the vibration data is obtained by analysis of the stress and vibration data. The device solves the problem of low accuracy of vibration velocity measurement in soil and establishes a correction method for measurement data. The results show the following: (1) With the propagation of blasting seismic waves, the maximum stress values of the test device appear in the footwall position, the middle of the extension rod, and the bottom position in that order. (2) At the end of the test, there is an obvious phenomenon of speed amplification at the top of the test device. (3) As the length of the test device exposed to the ground increases, the particle peak vibration velocity (PPV) of the test device varies exponentially with the PPV of the ground and the range of variation of the vibration velocity in the X-direction is the largest.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-17T12:55:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0130333
       
  • A compact and highly collimated atomic/molecular beam source

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      Authors: Geetika Bhardwaj, Saurabh Kumar Singh, Pranav R. Shirhatti
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We describe the design, characterization, and application of a simple, highly collimated, and compact atomic/molecular beam source. This source is based on a segmented capillary design, constructed using a syringe needle. Angular width measurements and free molecular flow simulations show that the segmented structure effectively suppresses atoms traveling in off-axis directions, resulting in a narrow beam of Helium atoms having a width of 7 mrad (full width half maximum). We demonstrate an application of this source by using it for monitoring real-time changes in surface coverage on a clean Cu(110) surface exposed to oxygen by measuring the specular reflectivity of the Helium beam generated using this source.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-17T12:55:03Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0145956
       
  • Implementation and validation of swept density reflectometry for
           integrated data analysis at ASDEX Upgrade

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      Authors: D. J. Stieglitz, J. Santos, R. Fischer
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      In the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) is used to infer plasma quantities, such as electron density, using heterogeneous data sources. Essential is forward modeling from the parameter space into the data space with physically reasonable models for probabilistic evaluation. This paper presents a new forward model for O-mode profile reflectometry, a necessary prerequisite for Bayesian inference and inclusion in IDA. An efficient forward model based on the analytic solution for a piece-wise linear density description allows IDA to overcome problems associated with the established determination of cut-off locations via Abel inversion and Bottollier-Curtet’s method. Instead of using a hard-coded initialization for densities below the first measured cut-off density, other diagnostics, such as the lithium beam, are used to analyze the shape of the initial part of the profile. Error propagation from the measured data, and other uncertain sources, to the uncertainties in the density profile and also its gradient is an intrinsic property of the probabilistic approach, which benefits from the joint analysis. Missing or ambiguous data do not prevent the profile evaluation, but only increase the uncertainty for densities in the affected range. Density profiles together with their uncertainties are determined by the joint analysis of complementary diagnostics, with the newly added reflectometry closing a gap in the outer core region. A stand-alone inversion based on the new forward model, including uncertainty quantification, is introduced, optionally providing an n(R) profile with uncertainties and a gradient. This method is a candidate for real-time analysis, providing error bars.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-17T12:55:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0143198
       
  • Experimental setup for measuring the dispersion forces by the adhered
           cantilever method

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      Authors: Alexander V. Postnikov, Ilia V. Uvarov, Vitaly B. Svetovoy
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Dispersion forces start to play role in modern micro/nanoelectromechanical devices, but the methods to measure these forces at distances close to contact ([math] nm) suffer from pull-in instability. The method of adhered cantilever proposed recently has no instability and is able to make measurements at short separations. To measure the force at the average distance between surfaces in contact, one has to know the shape of an elastic beam with one end fixed at a height of 1–10 μm and the other end adhered to the substrate. The maximum contribution to this shape from the dispersion forces is in a range of 30–100 nm, which is well measurable by the interferometric methods. This paper describes the instrument, measurements, and data processing that make possible the reconstruction of the beam shape with an accuracy of 1 nm in a height range of at least 5000 nm. Critical steps of the fabrication procedure of cantilevers that are 12 mm long, 200 μm wide, and 10 μm thick are described. The interferometer measures the shape based on the differential interference-contrast method; the scanning is realized by a stage with a step of 0.1 μm. The signal recorded from the adhered cantilever has a noise level of 0.33 nm at a maximum sensitivity in a frequency band of 20 MHz. It is concluded that the instrument and data processing algorithm can be used to measure the dispersion forces and adhesion energies between rough surfaces in unloaded contact.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-17T12:54:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0147016
       
  • Modeling of a spatially resolved ion temperature diagnostic for inertial
           confinement fusion

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      Authors: C. R. Danly, N. Birge, V. Geppert-Kleinrath, B. M. Haines, S. Ivancic, H. J. Jorgenson, J. Katz, F. E. Merrill, E. F. Mendoza, A. Sorce, L. R. Tafoya, P. L. Volegov, C. H. Wilde, D. C. Wilson
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The performance of modern laser-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is degraded by contamination of the deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel with high-Z material during compression. Simulations suggest that this mix can be described by the ion temperature distribution of the implosion, given that such contaminants deviate in temperature from the surrounding DT plasma. However, existing neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) diagnostics only measure the spatially integrated ion temperature. This paper describes the techniques and forward modeling used to develop a novel diagnostic imaging system to measure the spatially resolved ion temperature of an ICF implosion for the first time. The technique combines methods in neutron imaging and nTOF diagnostics to measure the ion temperature along one spatial dimension at yields currently achievable on the OMEGA laser. A detailed forward model of the source and imaging system was developed to guide instrument design. The model leverages neutron imaging reconstruction algorithms, radiation hydrodynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, optical ray tracing, and more. The results of the forward model agree with the data collected on OMEGA using the completed diagnostic. The analysis of the experimental data is still ongoing and will be discussed in a separate publication.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-14T01:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0101892
       
  • Test technique for arbitrary length high dielectric sheet materials based
           on perturbation method

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      Authors: Hangyu Wang, Chengyong Yu, Hu Zheng, Jin Cheng, En Li
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      In this article, a very effective method is proposed to measure the permittivity of sheet materials with a high dielectric constant and loss. To meet the constraints of the perturbation method, controlling the magnitude of the perturbation by reducing the sample size is necessary. However, this will cause significant changes in the polarization field within the sample and, consequently, affects the accuracy of the calculations. To solve the problem, the effects of the polarized electric field and the non-uniformity of the electric field in the resonant cavity have been considered and an empirical model is developed based on this using curve fitting techniques. Taking the optimized depolarization factor into the resonant perturbation equation, the dielectric properties of arbitrary length of the sample can be accurately calculated when the frequency shift and the quality factor variation are known. Then, the method is validated and analyzed by numerical simulations. Finally, practical tests are carried out on a variety of materials at different sizes, and the results are stable and in excellent agreement with the simulated ones. Therefore, we can conclude that the method can accurately measure the complex permittivity of high dielectric sheet materials.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-14T01:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0131615
       
  • New applications for the world’s smallest high-precision capacitance
           dilatometer and its stress-implementing counterpart

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      Authors: R. Küchler, R. Wawrzyńczak, H. Dawczak-Dębicki, J. Gooth, S. Galeski
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We introduce a new stress dilatometer with exactly the same size and mass as the world’s smallest miniature capacitance dilatometer (height × width × depth = 15 × 14 × 15 mm3, mass: 12 g). To develop this new device, only a single part of the most recently developed mini-dilatometer, the so-called “body,” needs to be replaced. Therefore, the new mini-dilatometer with an interchangeable body can be used for high-resolution measurements of thermal expansion and magnetostriction with and without large stress. We also report two novel applications of both mini-dilatometer cell types. Our new setup was installed for the first time in a cryogen-free system (PPMS DynaCool). The first new setup allows the rotation of both dilatometers in situ at any angle between −90° ≥ μ ≥ +90° in the temperature range from 320 to 1.8 K. We also installed our mini-cells in a dilution refrigerator insert of a PPMS DynaCool, in which dilatometric measurements are now possible in the temperature range from 4 to 0.06 K. Because of the limited sample space, such measurements could not be performed so far. For both new applications, we can resolve the impressive length changes to 0.01 Å.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T12:32:31Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0141974
       
  • A ring shear device to simulate cryosphere processes

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      Authors: L. K. Zoet, P. Sobol, N. Lord, D. D. Hansen
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We have developed a new cryogenic ring shear device at the University of Wisconsin–Madison to simulate cryosphere processes, with an emphasis on the physics of glacier slip. The device spins a ring of ice (inner diameter of 20 cm, outer diameter of 60 cm, height of ∼20–30 cm) at the pressure melting point over a rotationally fixed bed. The ice ring is spun at a prescribed velocity (range of ∼0.01–1000 m a−1) while the resistance to slip is measured. A ram at the base of the device applies a vertical load to the sample chamber to simulate the overburden pressure (range ∼5–915 kPa) felt at a glacier’s base. The sample chamber is constructed with transparent acrylic walls, allowing subglacial processes to be observed directly by a series of cameras. The entire device is housed in a large walk-in freezer. In the freezer, the sample chamber is submerged in a tub of temperature-controlled fluid that precisely regulates heat flux into the sample chamber, replicating in situ conditions and allowing for prolonged experiments that last weeks to months. This device can be used to study several of the most unconstrained physical processes that regulate glacier movement and, in doing so, greatly improve predictions of glacier contributions to sea-level rise.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T12:30:11Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0142933
       
  • Research on the performance of a valveless piezoelectric pump with a
           herringbone bluffbody

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      Authors: Dahai Yu, Renhui Hu, Yongxin Huang, Dianbin Hu, Lipeng He, Guangming Cheng
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Aiming to improve the output performance of a valveless piezoelectric pump, this article presents a valveless piezoelectric pump with a herringbone bluffbody. The bluffbody is herringbone shaped and distributed in a tapered chamber. The tapered chamber and the bluffbody create a large reverse resistance in the chamber, thus effectively mitigating the backflow problem of the valveless pump. The theoretical analysis determined the relationship between the flow rate and the flow resistance coefficient as well as the variation of the pump chamber volume. It was also concluded that the piezoelectric pump has the best output flow at intrinsic frequencies. Through simulation calculations, the effectiveness of the bluffbody structure in mitigating backflow in piezoelectric pumps is analyzed to provide a reference for experimental prototype design parameters. Finally, a range of prototypes is produced for experimentation. The experimental results show that the designed bluffbody shape can increase the return energy loss to effectively mitigate the return flow issues of the valveless piezoelectric pump, thus improving the output performance. The optimum output flow rate is 158.5 ml/min at 200 V and 52.5 Hz and the tapered chamber angle of 6°, and the bluffbody height, angle, and quantities are 2 mm, 40°, and 2, respectively. The construction of the valveless piezoelectric pump proposed in this research can be used as a reference for subsequent improvements in the performance of valveless piezoelectric pumps, and due to the high output performance, experimental studies can be carried out in applications such as dispensing and heat dissipation in electronic products.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T12:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0128739
       
  • Large-capacity AC superimposed DC power supply for the degradation
           evaluation of DC-link capacitors

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      Authors: Guohao Zhang, Hua Li, Haobo Li, Jing Lan, Qin Zhang, Fuchang Lin
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The DC-link capacitor, whose operating voltage is a periodic irregular waveform, is a key device in the converter. A large-capacity DC/AC superimposed experimental power supply above 100 kVA is an important piece of equipment that must be used in the aging research of DC-link capacitors. The irregular periodic operating voltage of the DC support capacitor is equivalent in the form of DC voltage superimposed with multiple harmonics based on the Fast Fourier transform analysis. The power supply is mainly divided into four parts: an AC module, a DC module, a protection module, and an isolation component. The composited harmonics are output by the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) inverter of the AC module. The soft start method is applied to the AC module in order to ensure the long-term reliable operation of the power supply. The kV-level high-voltage is output by four inverter units connected in series. The amplitude and phase control of harmonic decomposition is adopted, and the inverter is controlled by Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation. The output voltage of the power supply is close to the operating voltage of the capacitor. Based on the designed power supply, the degradation experiment was carried out. The temperature rise and aging characteristics of DC-link capacitors under different AC/DC ratios were studied.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T12:25:11Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0138117
       
  • Design and testing of a high perveance sheet beam electron gun

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      Authors: A. V. Smirnov, R. Agustsson, D. Chao, D. Gavryushkin, K. J. Hoyt, D. Shchegolkov, A. Zavadtsev
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      This paper presents the design, prototype engineering, and initial testing of a relatively low-voltage, high aspect ratio electron gun for versatile pulsed power applications. The sheet beam, diode electron gun is designed for (23–25) kV voltage and 6 µA/V1.5, as is required for x-band klystron, as a part of a compact Klylac delivering electron beam energy in the MeV range. The gun prototype was engineered, built, and tested using a Scandinova M1-0.5 modulator. Beam loss on the anode aperture is evaluated from transient waveforms and equivalent circuit modeling.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T12:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0084116
       
  • Erratum: “A variable-speed-condition bearing fault diagnosis methodology
           with recurrence plot coding and MobileNet-v3 model” [Rev. Sci. Instrum.
           94, 034710 (2023)]

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      Authors: Yingkui Gu, Ronghua Chen, Kuan Wu, Peng Huang, Guangqi Qiu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.

      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-12T12:36:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0151864
       
  • Highly flexible anisotropic magnetoresistance sensor for wearable
           electronics

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      Authors: Yanning Chen, Dongyan Zhao, Jin Shao, Zhen Fu, Chenying Wang, Shuaipeng Wang, Jian Du, Mingchen Zhong, Junbao Duan, Yang Li, Zhongqiang Hu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The emerging market of wearable devices for tracking and positioning requires the development of highly flexible magnetic sensors. Due to the stable magnetoresistance ratio and simple fabrication process, sensors based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect have been proposed as promising candidates. However, the stability of AMR sensors under different bending situations has rarely been investigated. In this work, we proposed a flexible AMR magnetic sensor deposited on an ultra-thin Kapton substrate, which exhibits excellent anti-fatigue behavior at different bending curvatures ranging from 1/3 to 1/10 mm−1. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of our proposed flexible AMR sensor remains as high as 0.25 Oe−1 after being bent 500 times, showing promising potential for application in wearable electronic devices.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-12T12:35:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0140013
       
  • The yaq project: Standardized software enabling flexible instrumentation

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      Authors: Kyle F. Sunden, Daniel D. Kohler, Kent A. Meyer, Peter L. Cruz Parrilla, John C. Wright, Blaise J. Thompson
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Modern instrumentation development often involves the incorporation of many dissimilar hardware peripherals into a single unified instrument. The increasing availability of modular hardware has brought greater instrument complexity to small research groups. This complexity stretches the capability of traditional, monolithic orchestration software. In many cases, a lack of software flexibility leads creative researchers to feel frustrated, unable to perform experiments they envision. Herein, we describe Yet Another acQuisition (yaq), a software project defining a new standardized way of communicating with diverse hardware peripherals. yaq encourages a highly modular approach to experimental software development that is well suited to address the experimental flexibility needs of complex instruments. yaq is designed to overcome hardware communication barriers that challenge typical experimental software. A large number of hardware peripherals are already supported, with tooling available to expand support. The yaq standard enables collaboration among multiple research groups, increasing code quality while lowering development effort.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-12T12:33:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0135255
       
  • Simultaneous direct measurement of the electrocaloric and dielectric
           dynamics of ferroelectrics with microsecond temporal resolution

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      Authors: J. Fischer, J. Döntgen, C. Molin, S. E. Gebhardt, Y. Hambal, V. V. Shvartsman, D. C. Lupascu, D. Hägele, J. Rudolph
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      A contactless technique for direct time-resolved measurements of the full dynamics of the adiabatic temperature change in electrocaloric materials is introduced. The infrared radiation emitted by the electrocaloric sample is sensitively detected with μs time resolution and mK temperature resolution. We present time-resolved measurements of the electrocaloric effect up to kHz frequencies of the driving electric field and down to small field strengths. The simultaneous recording of transients for applied electric field and induced polarization gives a comprehensive view of the correlation of electrocaloric and ferroelectric properties. The technique can further be applied to the continuous measurement of fatigue for [math] electric field cycles.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-12T12:31:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0143706
       
  • GermanIum array for non-destructive testing (GIANT) setup for muon-induced
           x-ray emission (MIXE) at the Paul Scherrer Institute

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      Authors: Lars Gerchow, Sayani Biswas, Gianluca Janka, Carlos Vigo, Andreas Knecht, Stergiani Marina Vogiatzi, Narongrit Ritjoho, Thomas Prokscha, Hubertus Luetkens, Alex Amato
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The usage of muonic x-rays to study elemental properties like nuclear radii ranges back to the seventies. This triggered the pioneering work at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), during the eighties on the Muon-induced x-ray emission (MIXE) technique for a non-destructive assessment of elemental compositions. In recent years, this method has seen a rebirth, improvement, and adoption at most muon facilities around the world. Hereby, the PSI offers unique capabilities with its high-rate continuous muon beam at the Swiss Muon Source (SμS). We report here the decision-making, construction, and commissioning of a dedicated MIXE spectrometer at PSI, the GermanIum Array for Non-destructive Testing (GIANT) setup. Multiple campaigns highlighted the outstanding capabilities of MIXE at PSI, e.g., resolving down to 1 at. % elemental concentrations with as little as 1 h data taking, measuring isotopic ratios for elements from iron to lead, and characterizing gamma rays induced by muon nuclear capture. On-target beam spots were characterized with a dedicated charged particle tracker to be symmetric to 5% with an average σ = 22.80(25) and 14.41(8) mm for 25 and 45 MeV/c, respectively. Advanced analysis of the high-purity germanium signals further allows us to improve energy and timing resolutions to ∼1 keV and 20 ns at 1 MeV, respectively. Within the GIANT setup, an average detector has a photopeak efficiency of [math]% and an energy resolution of [math] at E = 1000 keV. The overall performance of the GIANT setup at SμS allowed us to start a rich user program with archaeological samples, Li-ion battery research, and collaboration with the industry. Future improvements will include a simulation-based analysis and a higher degree of automation, e.g., automatic scans of a series of muon momenta and automatic sample changing.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T12:55:19Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0136178
       
  • Calibration and compensation of the angle measurement error caused by the
           torsional deformation of the industrial reducer performance test
           instrument

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      Authors: Zhen Yu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The measurement of the reducer stiffness plays a vital role in evaluating the robot’s performance. Since the angle measurement error caused by the instrument’s torsional deformation is included in the angular sensor’s measurement results, it cannot be used as the actual torsional deformation of the reducer. This paper analyzes the instrument’s torsional deformation characteristics. Based on the features, a new method of calibration and compensation of the angle measurement error based on the improved B-spline curve fitting-gradient descent and particle swarm optimization-radial basis function neural network (IBSCF-GDPSO-RBF) method is proposed to eliminate the influence of the instrument torsional deformation. The steps of the IBSCF-GDPSO-RBF method are introduced, and the error compensation of angular measurement is carried out under load conditions. The experimental results show that the angle measurement error caused by the instrument deformation after compensation is within ± two angular seconds. The contribution of this paper is that the method calibrates and compensates for the angle measurement error based on the IBSCF-GDPSO-RBF method, which is not limited to measuring the RV reducer torsional deformation. It provides a reference for measuring and evaluating the actual RV reducer torsional rigidity under any load.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T12:52:19Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0131029
       
  • A new magnetic state selection method in high-performance optically
           detected compact cesium beam clocks

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      Authors: Sifei Chen, Chen Liu, Lifeng Fan, Chaojie Li, Yuanhao Li, Chang Liu, Yanhui Wang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We perform a new scheme of magnetic state selection in optically detected compact cesium beam clocks. Unlike the conventional method, we select atoms in the ground state F = 4, mF ≠ −4⟩ by pointing the atomic collimator to the convex pole of the magnet realizing the two-wire magnetic field and detect atoms in F = 3⟩ after interacting with the microwave field using a distributed feedback laser. The fluorescence background is greatly reduced as the inherent residual atoms F = 4, mF = −4⟩ are avoided in this reversed scheme. The velocity distribution is narrowed, and the most probable velocity is decreased, since atomic trajectories are close to the weak-field region. We also investigate the relationship between the position of the atomic collimator and the distributions of the atomic beam, which is consistent with the Monte Carlo-based simulation model. By applying the reversed scheme and setting the deviated position of the collimator to 1.3 mm, the signal contrast is improved from 0.7 to 3, and the short-term frequency stability reaches 3.0 × 10−12 τ−1/2, nearly three times better than that of the high-performance version of Microsemi 5071A.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T12:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0147451
       
  • A spatially resolved optical method to measure thermal diffusivity

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      Authors: F. Sun, S. Mishra, P. H. McGuinness, Z. H. Filipiak, I. Marković, D. A. Sokolov, N. Kikugawa, J. W. Orenstein, S. A. Hartnoll, A. P. Mackenzie, V. Sunko
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We describe an optical method to directly measure the position-dependent thermal diffusivity of reflective single crystal samples across a broad range of temperatures for condensed matter physics research. Two laser beams are used, one as a source to locally modulate the sample temperature, and the other as a probe of sample reflectivity, which is a function of the modulated temperature. Thermal diffusivity is obtained from the phase delay between source and probe signals. We combine this technique with a microscope setup in an optical cryostat, in which the sample is placed on a three-axis piezo-stage, allowing for spatially resolved measurements. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally and mathematically that isotropic in-plane diffusivity can be obtained when overlapping the two laser beams instead of separating them in the traditional way, which further enhances the spatial resolution to a micron scale, especially valuable when studying inhomogeneous or multidomain samples. We discuss in detail the experimental conditions under which this technique is valuable and demonstrate its performance on two stoichiometric bilayer ruthenates: Sr3Ru2O7 and Ca3Ru2O7. The spatial resolution allowed us to study the diffusivity in single domains of the latter, and we uncovered a temperature-dependent in-plane diffusivity anisotropy. Finally, we used the enhanced spatial resolution enabled by overlapping the two beams to measure the temperature-dependent diffusivity of Ti-doped Ca3Ru2O7, which exhibits a metal–insulator transition. We observed large variations of transition temperature over the same sample, originating from doping inhomogeneity and pointing to the power of spatially resolved techniques in accessing inherent properties.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-10T12:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0098800
       
  • Processing methods of the pipeline crack detection signal by a balanced
           field electromagnetic technique based on phase characteristics

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      Authors: Wenxue Zheng, Jiayin Li, Yingxin Xiao
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The balanced field electromagnetic technique is an effective way of in-line inspection to detect cracks in pipelines. A signal demodulation method based on phase characteristics is proposed for the problem of interference signals generated by the sensor tilt shaking during the detection, which affects the judgment of the cracks. The method uses a reference signal whose phase is orthogonal to the signal generated by the sensor shaking to demodulate the detection signal to eliminate the shake interference. The generation principles of crack detection signals and interference signals generated by sensor shaking are analyzed, and the influence of sensor lift-off on detection is compared. A demodulation model is established based on the characteristic of that same frequency and different phases of crack and shake signals. The feasible conditions of the method are analyzed by simulation, and the phase value of the reference signal in the demodulation method is determined. The platform detection experiment and pulling tests at different speeds are carried out, respectively, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that there is a significant phase difference between the signals generated by the sensor shaking and the crack. For carbon steel pipelines, the signal phase of different shake angles is −4°. When the sensor structure and excitation frequency in this study are used, the reference signal phase is chosen to be 86°. The method preserves the detection signal characteristics before processing and enables the linear output responses to be obtained for different depths of cracks.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-07T12:39:04Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0137924
       
  • Synchronization of parallel intense electron beam accelerators based on
           single trigger generator

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      Authors: Jiu-yuan Geng, Jian-hua Yang, Ting Shu, Xin-bing Cheng, Rong Chen, Chaoran Chen, Yunrui Yue
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      In this study, the authors provide results of the precisely synchronized triggering of an intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA). The trigger generator was composed of a fractional-turn ratio saturable-pulse transformer and a compact six-stage Marx generator. The main switch of the IEBA was a corona-stabilized triggered switch (CSTS) based on the stabilized corona mechanism. The output voltage of a single IEBA exceeded 500 kV with less than 4 ns of jitter on a 50 Ω dummy load. We also conducted an experiment on the synchronous triggering of two IEBAs by using two independent trigger generators. The synchronization-related jitter was 6.1 ns, while the average time difference was 1.3 ns. We used this to attempt to trigger two parallel IEBAs by using a single trigger generator. The results showed a reduction in the synchronization-related jitter of 31% to 4.2 ns. The designs of the CSTS and the trigger generator guaranteed a precisely synchronous trigger by using a single trigger generator. Thus, the proposed method appears to be promising for accurately and synchronously triggering multiple IEBAs by using a single trigger generator. This provides an effective method to generate pulses with high power.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-07T12:34:43Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0138307
       
  • Time-resolved ARPES with tunable 12–21.6 eV XUV at 400 kHz
           repetition rate

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      Authors: Famin Chen, Ji Wang, Mojun Pan, Junde Liu, Jierui Huang, Kun Zhao, Chenxia Yun, Tian Qian, Zhiyi Wei, Hong Ding
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Time-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (trARPES) is a powerful method to detect the non-equilibrium electronic structure in solid systems. In this study, we report a trARPES apparatus with tunable photon energy selectively among 12, 16.8, and 21.6 eV at a repetition rate of 400 kHz. The energy and temporal resolutions of the three harmonics are determined as 104/111/157 meV and 276/190/154 fs, respectively. The photon flux on the sample is estimated to be 1010–1011 photons/s by using a photodiode. Finally, the performance of this setup is verified by both equilibrium and non-equilibrium ARPES measurements on topological materials Zr2Te2P and Bi2Se3. Meanwhile, the importance of the tunability of the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is highlighted by comparing experimental results measured with the three different photon energies.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-07T12:32:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0143485
       
  • Ultra-low oxygen, liquid sample cell for in situ synchrotron-based
           small-wide angle scattering (SAXS-WAXS)

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      Authors: M. Hassan Sk, S. Agrawal, M. Woolley, S. M. Clarke, A. Osundare, D. Craske, R. Lindsay, A. Smith, T. Snow, T. Zinn, N. Terrill
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Here, we report the design and successful implementation of an ultra-low oxygen sample cell for use on the SAXS-WAXS (small-wide angle x-ray scattering) beamline I22 at DIAMOND. The rigorous exclusion of oxygen is found to require double jacketing with purge gas throughout the entire system, pipework, pumps, and the sample cell itself. This particularly includes a “double-window” arrangement at the sample location to accommodate the very tight geometrical restrictions of the sample position. The in situ cell design also requires the additional complexity of heating the sample/solution and real-time electrochemical measurements. We demonstrate the successful implementation of this arrangement with real-time in situ characterization of an iron foil corrosion evolving under the “sweet-scale environment,” very anoxic conditions common, in particular, commercial situations. The formation of iron carbonate, siderite, rather than iron oxide, indicates that our system is oxygen free down very low levels (
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-07T12:30:04Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0146013
       
  • An analog fiber optic link developed for electrical pulse signal
           transmission

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      Authors: Z. J. Lv, L. Sheng, Y. Li, M. Zhang, G. Tian, L. B. Ruan, Y. X. Zhang, J. Z. Zhao
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The electromagnetic interference (EMI) around the devices for ionizing radiation experiments is a serious concern. In order to reduce EMI and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, a new type of analog fiber optic link (FOL) has been developed for fast pulse signal transmission under complicated electromagnetic fields. Electrical signals are converted to optical signals through an electro-optical conversion process using the amplitude modulation mechanism. After long-distance transmission, optical signals can also be restored via photoelectric conversion. Each link has a transmitter unit connected via a fiber optic cable to the receiver unit. The transmitter unit consists of a distributed feedback laser, a driver circuit made of amplifiers, and an automatic temperature control module, while the receiver unit consists of a PIN detector, a transimpedance amplifier, a main amplifier, and a third order active low-pass filter. A prototype of this link has been fabricated and tested. The test results show that the transmission bandwidth of the analog signals is DC ∼ 155 MHz, the transmission delay is a typical 21 ns, the linear dynamic range is greater than 56 dB (692 times larger), the output noise is less than 4.5 mV, and the transmission distance is up to several kilometers, which can meet the requirements of ionizing radiation experiments. The FOL demonstrates great performance in transmission for scientific research with high quality in terms of transmission bandwidth, linearity, security, and stability.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-06T12:32:40Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0132828
       
  • An X-band compact rectangular waveguide TE10-circular waveguide TE01 mode
           converter

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      Authors: Tao Jiang, Zili Jiang, Weida Bai, Guang Yang, Zhengfeng Xiong
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      This paper proposed an X-band compact efficient rectangular waveguide TE10-circular waveguide TE01 mode converter and conducted its structure design, theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental research. This mode converter is composed of a rectangular waveguide TE10–TE20 mode converter and a rectangular waveguide TE20-circular waveguide TE01 mode converter. In the design of the rectangular waveguide TE20-circular waveguide TE01 mode converter, a rectangular waveguide step is used to counteract the microwave reflection due to the discontinuity of the rectangular–circular waveguide connection, and two choke slots are involved to suppress the TE21 mode in the circular waveguide by cutting off the axial component of its surface current on the waveguide wall, so as to improve the TE01 mode conversion efficiency. The simulation results show that the reflection coefficient of the mode converter is less than 5% and the TE01 mode conversion efficiency is about 98.4% at the operation frequency of 9.3 GHz. The bandwidth with a transmission coefficient greater than 98% is about 200 MHz. The back-to-back experimental system is demonstrated, and the experimental results show that the measured TE01 mode conversion efficiency is about 98.2%, which is consistent with the simulation result.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-06T12:31:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0146263
       
  • Megahertz repetition rate-based lock-in detection scheme for rapid data
           acquisition in terahertz time domain spectroscopy

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      Authors: M. H. Balgos, N. Hayazawa, M. Tani, T. Tanaka
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We report a fast pump modulation scheme in a terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system by utilizing the intensity modulation from the megahertz repetition rate of the pump pulse for lock-in detection. In conventional THz-TDS, the modulation required for the high signal-to-noise ratio lock-in detection is achieved through the use of an optical chopper or an AC bias. Here, we propose the use of an electro-optic modulator (EOM), operated as a pulse picker, to vary the repetition rate of the pump pulse, relative to the probe pulse, allowing us to directly use the megahertz laser repetition rate as the reference modulation frequency for lock-in detection. Our proposed scheme is applicable to all types of pulsed THz emitters, including those that cannot be electronically biased. Since the maximum allowable modulation frequency is limited only by the laser repetition rate and/or by the bandwidth of the EOM, megahertz modulation rates, and, consequently, rapid data acquisition times, become possible. Using our technique, we were able to detect an oscillating signal with frequencies up to 10 kHz, using ∼1 µs integration time per point, ∼100× faster than previously reported values for THz-TDS systems.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-06T12:29:00Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0138938
       
  • Correlated ion-(ion/neutral) time of flight mass spectrometer

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      Authors: H. Abdoul-Carime, F. Mounier, F. Charlieux, H. André
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The fragmentation of molecular systems into ions and neutral species is ubiquitous in fundamental and applied science. While the ion fragments are relatively easily detected by mass spectrometry technique, the information on the neutral product that is formed in correlation is challenging. In this contribution, we present a detailed description of the correlated ion-(ion/neutral) time of flight mass spectrometer, which is dedicated to the study of molecular dissociation induced by electrons at low energies (
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T12:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0141540
       
  • Development of in-vitro pulsatile flow generator for evaluating the
           performance of hemodialysis catheters

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      Authors: Seongsu Cho, Jihyeong Lee, Sun Cheol Park, Hoon Suk Park, Dae Hee Lee, Jinkee Lee
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Hemodialysis (HD) using an HD catheter is performed widely on renal failure patients. The catheter was evaluated using the recirculation ratio in pre-clinical status, which is a crucial index indicating its performance. However, pre-clinical in-vivo experiments have limitations: high cost, and ethical issues. Hence, computational and in-vitro methods have been developed as alternatives. However, computational methods require fluid dynamic knowledge, whereas in-vitro experiments are complicated and expensive. In this study, we developed a pulsatile flow generator to mimic blood flow achieving cost effectiveness and user convenience. The device used iterative learning control, achieving blood flow in the superior and inferior vena cava within a 3.3% error. Furthermore, the recirculation ratios were measured based on two insertion directions and two different external pipe materials to evaluate the catheter regarding patients’ posture and blood vessel stiffness. The results provide a better understanding of cardiovascular device performance without complicated and costly pre-clinical tests.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T12:37:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0087584
       
  • Fabrication of ultrashort sub-meter-radius x-ray mirrors using dynamic
           stencil deposition with figure correction

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      Authors: Takenori Shimamura, Yoko Takeo, Takashi Kimura, François Perrin, Amparo Vivo, Yasunori Senba, Hikaru Kishimoto, Haruhiko Ohashi, Hidekazu Mimura
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      This paper presents nanometer-scale production and metrology methods for elliptic-cylindrical x-ray mirrors with an unprecedentedly small tangential radius of curvature of 160 mm. Sub-millimeter-scale figure correction is conducted based on dynamic stencil deposition. The deposition flux through one or two shadow masks is examined by a comparison to a simple model. The masked deposition flux distribution is improved, leading to film thickness profiles that are 50 times sharper in terms of aspect ratio than those obtained using existing differential deposition approaches. Surface roughness deterioration is also effectively suppressed. A 2-mm-long 160-mm-radius mirror is produced with a width of 10 mm and measured using simple interferometry. The results are confirmed by conventional mirror metrology, contact profilometry, and x-ray ptychography. The x-ray focusing profile is diffraction-limited with a 142-nm focus size at a photon energy of 300 eV. The proposed methods have the potential to enhance the ultraprecise fabrication of highly curved mirrors, thus benefiting nanoscale photon-hungry x-ray techniques.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T12:35:42Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0135367
       
  • Thermal cycling at constant stress for thin films over a wide temperature
           range: Design and fabrication of a specific device for the study of
           microactuators

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      Authors: Bruno F. Malvasio, Lucio M. Isola, Jorge A. Malarria
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The characterization of the mechanical behavior of shape memory thin film alloys is essential for their application as microactuators. Depending on the particular application, different elements have been considered for the fabrication of ternary NiTi-based alloys in order to shift the martensitic transformation toward a lower or a higher temperature range. This work presents the design and implementation of a specific device to perform thermal cycles at constant stress on film-like samples over a wide temperature range, between −130 and 300 °C. The uniaxial stress application, the elongations and contractions measurements associated with the martensitic transformations, and the cooling and heating methods are detailed in the present work. The fabrication and operation features of this relatively low cost device facilitate and promote the study of shape memory thin films.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T03:59:42Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0124410
       
  • Research on fatigue identification methods based on low-load wearable ECG
           monitoring devices

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      Authors: Huiquan Wang, Mengting Han, Tasmia Avouka, Ruijuan Chen, Jinhai Wang, Ran Wei
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The identification of fatigue in personal workers in particular environments can be achieved through early warning techniques. In order to prevent excessive fatigue of medical workers staying in infected areas in the early phase of the coronavirus disease pandemic, a system of low-load wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) devices was used as intelligent acquisition terminals to perform a continuous measurement ECG collection. While machine learning (ML) algorithms and heart rate variability (HRV) offer the promise of fatigue detection for many, there is a demand for ever-increasing reliability in this area, especially in real-life activities. This study proposes a random forest-based classification ML model to identify the four categories of fatigue levels in frontline medical workers using HRV. Based on the wavelet transform in ECG signal processing, stationary wavelet transform was applied to eliminate the main perturbation of ECG in the motion state. Feature selection was performed using ReliefF weighting analysis in combination with redundancy analysis to optimize modeling accuracy. The experimental results of the overall fatigue identification achieved an accuracy of 97.9% with an AUC value of 0.99. With the four-category identification model, the accuracy is 85.6%. These results proved that fatigue analysis based on low-load wearable ECG monitoring at low exertion can accurately determine the level of fatigue of caregivers and provide further ideas for researchers working on fatigue identification in special environments.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T12:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0138073
       
  • Low-drift-rate external cavity diode laser

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      Authors: Eddie H. Chang, Jared Rivera, Brian Bostwick, Christian Schneider, Peter Yu, Eric R. Hudson
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We present the design, construction, and simulation of a simple, low-cost external cavity diode laser with a measured free-running frequency drift rate of 1.4(1) MHz/h at 852 nm. This performance is achieved in a compact aluminum structure held inside an airtight, temperature-controlled enclosure. The high thermal conductivity of the laser cavity and the stable temperature environment inside the enclosure minimize the time-varying, spatial temperature gradients across the laser cavity. We present thermal finite element method simulations, which quantify the effects of temperature gradients, and suggest that the drift rate is likely limited by the laser-diode and piezo-aging.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T12:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0079210
       
  • Temperature-insensitive optical fiber strain sensor fabricated by two
           parallel connection Fabry–Perot interferometers with air-bubbles

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      Authors: Han Zhang, Chao Jiang, Jin Hu, Jiao Song, Xiping Zhu, Pei Wang, Hong Li
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      A strain sensor formed by a parallel connection of two Fabry–Perot interferometers (FPI) is proposed. The femtosecond laser is used to process a micro groove on the end face of a single-mode fiber (SMF), and then, it is welded with another SMF to form a small air bubble at the fusion point, fabricating an FPI. When the axial strain acts on the air bubble, the transverse length of the air bubble will change, causing the air cavity of the FPI to be easily deformed, and FPI can obtain high strain sensitivity. Three FPIs were manufactured with the air bubble sizes of 63, 78, and 93 µm, respectively, and the strain sensitivities of the three FPIs are 2.9, 2.0, and 1.5 pm/µε, respectively. The experimental results show that the smaller the air bubble, the higher the strain sensitivity of FPI. Since the free spectral ranges of the three FPIs are relatively similar, we, respectively, paralleled them to form two Vernier effect strain sensors, and their sensitivities are −14.9 and −14.5 pm/µε, respectively. Their sensitivities are increased by 5.1 times and 7.3 times, respectively. In addition, because three FPIs are composed of air cavities, they have very low temperature sensitivities. When they are connected in parallel, their resonance peak wavelength moves in the same direction with an increase in temperature, forming a reduced Vernier effect, and the temperature sensitivity amplification is very small. Therefore, the temperature cross-sensitivity of the sensor is extremely low and can be ignored.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:58:32Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0129959
       
  • Dark matter axion search using a Josephson Traveling wave parametric
           amplifier

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      Authors: C. Bartram, T. Braine, R. Cervantes, N. Crisosto, N. Du, G. Leum, P. Mohapatra, T. Nitta, L. J. Rosenberg, G. Rybka, J. Yang, John Clarke, I. Siddiqi, A. Agrawal, A. V. Dixit, M. H. Awida, A. S. Chou, M. Hollister, S. Knirck, A. Sonnenschein, W. Wester, J. R. Gleason, A. T. Hipp, S. Jois, P. Sikivie, N. S. Sullivan, D. B. Tanner, E. Lentz, R. Khatiwada, G. Carosi, C. Cisneros, N. Robertson, N. Woollett, L. D. Duffy, C. Boutan, M. Jones, B. H. LaRoque, N. S. Oblath, M. S. Taubman, E. J. Daw, M. G. Perry, J. H. Buckley, C. Gaikwad, J. Hoffman, K. Murch, M. Goryachev, B. T. McAllister, A. Quiskamp, C. Thomson, M. E. Tobar, V. Bolkhovsky, G. Calusine, W. Oliver, K. Serniak
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We describe the first implementation of a Josephson Traveling Wave Parametric Amplifier (JTWPA) in an axion dark matter search. The operation of the JTWPA for a period of about two weeks achieved sensitivity to axion-like particle dark matter with axion–photon couplings above 10−13 Ge V−1 over a narrow range of axion masses centered around 19.84 µeV by tuning the resonant frequency of the cavity over the frequency range of 4796.7–4799.5 MHz. The JTWPA was operated in the insert of the axion dark matter experiment as part of an independent receiver chain that was attached to a 0.56-l cavity. The ability of the JTWPA to deliver high gain over a wide (3 GHz) bandwidth has engendered interest from those aiming to perform broadband axion searches, a longstanding goal in this field.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0122907
       
  • Development of the control system for electron cyclotron resonance heating
           on J-TEXT tokamak

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      Authors: X. X. Chen, F. R. Hu, W. T. Weng, W. Zheng, D. H. Xia, Z. J. Wang, Y. Pan
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      A 105 GHz/500 kW/1 s electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system has been developed on J-TEXT tokamak since 2017. The core component of the ECRH system is a gyrotron manufactured by Gyrotron Complexes Ltd. (GYCOM Ltd.), which generates microwaves of a certain frequency and power. To guarantee safe and stable operation, it is necessary to design a specialized control system. The control system is expected to perform time sequence trigger, protection, signal monitoring, communication, and data acquisition. The hardware is built with real-time processors and data acquisition modules from National Instruments. The control program is realized by LabVIEW. Test results indicate that the control system can commit stable and safe operation of the gyrotron, which guarantees the integrated commissioning tests of the whole ECRH system and ECRH related physics experiments. Under the operation of this control system, the gyrotron can generate microwaves as expected, and the ECRH system is well protected when a fault takes place.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:53:12Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0141637
       
  • High efficiency radio frequency antennas for amplifier free quantum
           sensing applications

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      Authors: S. Mahtab, P. Milas, D.-T. Veal, M. G. Spencer, B. Ozturk
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Radio frequency (RF) signals are frequently used in emerging quantum applications due to their spin state manipulation capability. Efficient coupling of RF signals into a particular quantum system requires the utilization of carefully designed and fabricated antennas. Nitrogen vacancy (NV) defects in diamond are commonly utilized platforms in quantum sensing experiments with the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) method, where an RF antenna is an essential element. We report on the design and fabrication of high efficiency coplanar RF antennas for quantum sensing applications. Single and double ring coplanar RF antennas were designed with −37 dB experimental return loss at 2.87 GHz, the zero-field splitting frequency of the negatively charged NV defect in diamond. The efficiency of both antennas was demonstrated in magnetic field sensing experiments with NV color centers in diamond. An RF amplifier was not needed, and the 0 dB output of a standard RF signal generator was adequate to run the ODMR experiments due to the high efficiency of the RF antennas.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:51:09Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0136233
       
  • Development of air-assisted atomization device for the delivery of cells
           in viscous biological ink prepared with sodium alginate

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      Authors: Xintao Yan, Ce Wang, Yuting Ma, Yao Wang, Feifei Song, Jinfeng Zhong, Xiaodong Wu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Skin wounds, especially large-area skin trauma, would bring great pain and even fatal risk to patients. In recent years, local autologous cell transplantation has shown great potential for wound healing and re-epithelialization. However, when the cell suspension prepared with normal saline is delivered to the wound, due to its low viscosity, it is easy to form big drops in the deposition and lose them from the wound bed, resulting in cell loss and uneven coverage. Here, we developed a novel air-assisted atomization device (AAAD). Under proper atomization parameters, 1% (w/v) sodium alginate (SA) solution carrier could be sprayed uniformly. Compared with normal saline, the run-off of the SA on the surface of porcine skin was greatly reduced. In theory, the spray height of AAAD could be set to achieve the adjustment of a large spray area of 1–12 cm2. In the measurement of droplet velocity and HaCaT cell viability, the spray height of AAAD would affect the droplet settling velocity and then the cell delivery survival rate (CSR). Compared with the spray height of 50 mm, the CSR of 100 mm was significantly higher and could reach 91.09% ± 1.82% (92.82% ± 2.15% in control). For bio-ink prepared with 1% (w/v) SA, the viability remained the same during the 72-h incubation. Overall, the novel AAAD uniformly atomized bio-ink with high viscosity and maintained the viability and proliferation rate during the delivery of living cells. Therefore, AAAD has great potential in cell transplantation therapy, especially for large-area or irregular skin wounds.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0102035
       
  • A new high-pressure high-temperature deformation apparatus to study the
           brittle to ductile transition in rocks

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      Authors: G. G. Meyer, M. Acosta, H. Leclere, L. Morier, M. Teuscher, G. Garrison, A. Schubnel, M. Violay
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Understanding the micro-mechanisms underlying the localized–ductile transition (LDT) as well as the brittle–plastic transition (BPT) has become crucial for our wider understanding of crustal processes and seismicity. Given how difficult in situ observations of these transitions are to perform, laboratory experiments might be our only way to investigate the processes active under these conditions (high T and high P). Here, we present Triaxial AppaRatus for GEoThermal energy, a new gas-based triaxial apparatus located at EPFL in Switzerland that was specifically designed to operate under conditions where both the LDT and BPT can occur in geomaterials. We show that the machine is capable of deforming rock samples at confining pressures of up to 400 MPa, temperatures of up to 800 °C, and pore pressures (liquid or gas) of up to 300 MPa while keeping the temperature gradient along samples of 40 mm in length and 20 mm in diameter minimal (less than 30 at 700 °C). Most importantly, the maximum load is 1000 kN (stresses as high as 2.2 GPa on 24 mm samples and 3 GPa on 20 mm samples), allowing for the deformation of very competent rock samples. Moreover, during deformation, the pair of syringe pore pressure pumps allow for continuous permeability or dilatancy recording. We benchmarked our machine against existing data in the literature and show that it accurately and precisely records stress, strain, permeability, pressure, and temperature.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0135947
       
  • Performance of small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering beamline at Indus-2
           synchrotron

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      Authors: Avik Das, Jitendra Bahadur, Ashwani Kumar, Debasis Sen
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      A Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (SWAXS) beamline (BL-18) is installed and commissioned at a 1.5 T bending magnet port (5°) of Indus-2 synchrotron at RRCAT, Indore, India. The ∼40-m-long beamline has tunable x-ray energy in the range of 5–20 keV by using a double crystal monochromator. A 1.5-m-long toroidal mirror is used to focus the x-ray beam at the detector position. The beamline is equipped with a 6-m-long movable detector stage to access different wave-vector transfer ranges. At present, an online image plate area detector and a linear position-sensitive gas detector are installed for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) measurements, respectively. The beamline is operational in simultaneous SAXS/WAXS mode to probe the mesoscopic as well as molecular level structure over a wide range of wave-vector transfer. The specification of the beamline and its performance are reported here. A few recent experimental results, as obtained from BL-18, are also described in brief.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:42:32Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0121310
       
  • Novel non-Joule heating technique: Externally laser-heated diamond anvil
           cell

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      Authors: Yoshiyuki Okuda, Kenta Oka, Koutaro Hikosaka, Kei Hirose
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The externally heated diamond anvil cell (EHDAC) conducts high pressure and temperature experiments with spatial uniformity and temporal stability. These are conventionally combined with various spectroscopies and x-ray diffraction measurements. EHDAC techniques perform Joule heating on a heater placed close to or directly in contact with diamond anvils. However, the electrical wiring and heater required for Joule heating complicate EHDAC setups, hindering easy access for the measurement of physical properties. This study proposes an EHDAC technique using laser- instead of Joule-heating. We successfully achieved temperatures reaching 900 K by applying heat to diamond anvils through laser-heating of the gaskets with thermally insulating anvil seats. To test this setup, we measured the melting temperature of H2O ice VII, which was consistent with previous studies. We also measured the high-pressure and temperature impedance of H2O VII and verified the capability of electrical resistivity measurements in this setup. This technique allows various physical property measurements owing to its simple setup required for externally laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments. The unique characteristics of this heating technique are that (1) no heaters or wiring are required, (2) it exhibits the most efficient heating among EHDAC studies, (3) it maintains the DAC body at room temperature, and (4) diamond anvils do not detach from anvil seats after the EHDAC experiment. This method significantly simplifies the experimental setup, which allows much easier access to various physical property measurements using an EHDAC.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0122111
       
  • Toward streaked collective Thomson scattering measurements on an extreme
           ultraviolet plasma light source

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      Authors: M. Simeni Simeni, A. S. Davies, A. Diallo
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We show through forward modeling calculations that streaked collective Thomson scattering measurements are feasible on laser-produced tin plasmas generated under conditions relevant for extreme ultraviolet lithography. Using a 532 nm probe laser beam, the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of electron plasma wave (EPW) and ion acoustic wave (IAW) spectra is investigated. Absolute photon counts for laser scattering off both waves are calculated. Probe laser electron heating and bremsstrahlung background radiation effects are accounted for. While a large spatiotemporal region can be successfully probed based on the IAW feature, only one measurement location can be accessed through the EPW as a result of the low signal to noise ratio. A portable/traveling tabletop system is proposed.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0131598
       
  • A Kr*–Rb cold collision apparatus based on atom trap

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      Authors: Si-Yu Liu, Yu-Chan Wang, Rui-Fan Wu, Guo-Min Yang, Wei Jiang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      A cold collision between atoms and molecules (
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0137853
       
  • Development of an energy spread analyzer for secondary ion mass
           spectrometry ion source

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      Authors: Y. Zhou, Y. J. Zhai, Q. Y. Jin, Y. G. Liu, L. B. Li, P. Zhang, S. Zhang, H. W. Zhao, L. T. Sun
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      The energy spread (ΔE) of an ion source is an important parameter in the production of a finely focused primary ion beam applied in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A variable-focusing retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) has been developed and tested with an Ar+ beam and an oxygen ion beam extracted from a 2.45 GHz microwave ion source, which is developed as a candidate ion source for SIMS applications. The simulation results show that the relative resolution ΔE/E of the designed RFEA reaches 7 × 10−5. The experimental results indicate that a focusing electrode can improve the ΔE measurement results, which is consistent with the simulation results. The ion energy distributions of the Ar+ beam and oxygen ion beam are of Gaussian distribution with the value of ΔE of 3.3 and 2.9 eV, respectively. These results indicate that the designed RFEA is reliable for measuring the ion beam energy spread. The developed RFEA is also used to study the plasma behavior in different settings, which reveals that plasma stability is critical to making a low energy spread ion beam. This paper will present the simulation, design, and test of the variable-focusing RFEA. Preliminary ion beam quality studies with this instrument will also be discussed.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:26:33Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0146274
       
  • Design and verification of a high-gradient and high-power 2nd harmonic
           cavity for the China Spallation Neutron Source upgrade project

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      Authors: Bin Wu, Xiao Li, Chunlin Zhang, Yang Liu, Wei Long, XiaoJun Nie, Xiang Li, Jian Wu, JunYu Zhu, ShengYi Chen, Shenghua Liu, Zhijun Lu, Sheng Wang
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Here, we report our recent progress in the design, fluid thermodynamics simulation, and high-power test of the2nd harmonic cavity for the China Spallation Neutron Source Phase II. A high-performance and large-size magnetic alloy (MA) core was developed as the load material for the radiofrequency cavity to achieve a high gradient of 40 kV/m. The water-cooling structure and cooling efficiency were studied and improved through numerical analysis and thermal experiments. The long-term stability of the cavity, especially the waterproofness of the MA cores with high heat load, was verified by high power tests.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0141079
       
  • Rapid observation of dispersion curves in system-on-chip devices

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      Authors: Zimiao Wei, Yikai Chen, Junfeng Li, Zekai Wang, Xueqin Wu, Jiale Zheng, Xilong Liu, Wenke Lan, Yang Song, Zhonghua Shen, Qiang Fu
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      We have developed a rapid detection instrument to characterize the behavior of light on the surface of devices during light–matter interactions. The equipment enables the non-destructive and real-time observations of the dispersion curves for microstructures, providing the basis for a large number of new planar photonic chip applications. The method is based on the traditional prismatic reflection and makes full use of the grating dispersion capabilities, enabling simultaneous multi-wavelength and multi-angle reflectance measurements over a wide range. This method is beneficial for designing new microstructure devices and brings convenience to delicate microstructure processing. The instruments do not require any mechanical scanning, allowing for rapid acquisition, and the integrated and reusable optics make them easily miniaturized. Additionally, the functionalized design allows for spectral analysis applications, such as far-field spectral measurements. The instrument can also be easily integrated into established microscopic imaging systems, extending their observational characterization capabilities as well as accomplishing dynamic monitoring in proven system-on-a-chip devices.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T12:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0142637
       
  • Publisher’s Note: “Battery-powered FPGA-based embedded system for
           ultrasonic pipe inspection and gauging systems” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 94,
           034712 (2023)]

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      Authors: N. Pavan Kumar, V. H. Patankar
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.

      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T01:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0151522
       
  • Focused laser differential interferometry post-processing methodology for
           flowfields with circular symmetry

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      Authors: Giannino Ponchio Camillo, Alexander Wagner
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      An analytic methodology is presented to reconstruct the pressure waveform of flowfields with circular symmetry from the phase shift detected with Focused Laser Differential Interferometry (FLDI). A weak blast wave generated by an electric spark in ambient air is investigated with the proposed approach. Values of separation distance between the differentiating foci of the FLDI Δx of 76, 120, 175, and 252 μm are employed to probe the flowfield at locations between 3 and 50 mm from the spark source. In a subset of these distances, reference measurements of peak pressure obtained with a surface pressure sensor indicate good agreement with the reconstructed data when small separation distances are used. Further analysis of FLDI reconstructed data is conducted using theoretical correlations for N-waves in terms of the distribution of pressure peak amplitude and compression phase as the wave front propagates. Agreement with theory is verified for all differentiation separation distances except the largest, for which peak pressure comparison shows a 10% loss of measured vs predicted value. A computational FLDI is employed to scrutinize the simplifying hypotheses supporting the waveform reconstruction approach. The direct comparison between experimental and computational FLDI output reveals additional discrepancies for intermediate Δx values but very good agreement for the smallest Δx. The proposed methodology is thus verified to be reasonable, upon appropriate minimization of the FLDI differentiation distance. A parametric analysis using computational FLDI indicates the adequate value of FLDI Δx to be 20% or less of the flowfield characteristic length in terms of density gradient.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T01:08:52Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0132874
       
  • Measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity with improved accuracy using
           automatic threshold error correction

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      Authors: Piyush, Nitin Dhiman, Bishan Kumar, Sanjay Yadav, P. K. Dubey
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) measurement is extensively used to monitor the strength and health of concrete structures as per American Society for Testing and Materials C 597 – 09. The commercially available UPV measurement systems work on the basis of single threshold detection of the received signal. Therefore, measurement accuracy is affected due to threshold error. The effect is sensitive to the signal amplitude reaching the threshold comparator and, hence, receiver gain. It is observed that a UPV tester operating at 50 kHz to test concrete might generate an error of up to 10% in the ultrasonic transit time measurement of 50 µs. Hence, it is of great concern and needs to be improved. In this article, the UPV measurement circuit capable of detecting and compensating the threshold error is described. The threshold error correction is achieved with the help of two threshold comparators and two hybrid counters. The circuit developed minimizes the threshold error for wide receiver gain. The measurement carried out with the developed system shows significant improvement, having deviations within 100 ns.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T01:05:33Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0142739
       
  • A resonant inertial impact rotary piezoelectric motor based on a
           self-clamping structure

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      Authors: Liangguo He, Zhikai Wan, Kun Li, Yong Wang, Xinyu Li, Xinfang Ge, Haotian Dou, Zengxiang Shan, Xukang Yue, An Qian
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      A resonant inertial impact rotary piezoelectric motor based on a self-clamping structure is designed, assembled, and tested. The designed piezoelectric motor mainly includes a rotor (two vibrators, preload mechanism, and intermediate connection mechanism), a clamping mechanism, and another auxiliary mechanism. The piezoelectric ceramic sheet on the rotor drives the vibrator to swing under the excitation of a single harmonic wave. Because there is a clamping mechanism formed by the combination of clamp baffle and fixed clamp ring, thus the half-cycle resonant rotation of the rotor can be effectively completed, and repeated harmonic excitation can realize the unidirectional continuous rotation and swing of the rotor. The whole excitation process of the motor is in a resonance state, which has significant advantages, such as low friction and simple structure, compared with the traditional quasi-static piezoelectric motor. The structure of the piezoelectric motor is designed and analyzed using COMSOL5.5 software and then the motor performance is tested and analyzed by building an experimental platform to verify the feasibility of the motor design. The final experimental results show that the optimal working frequency of the piezoelectric motor is 150 Hz, which is consistent with the characteristic frequency of the simulation. When the motor prototype is under the conditions of optimal operating frequency 150 Hz, voltage 240 Vp-p, and preload torque 7.8 N.mm, the maximum angular speed can reach 2.4 rad/s, the maximum load can reach 27.8 N mm and the maximum resolution of the movement angle can reach 0.941°.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T01:03:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0133681
       
  • A rabbit shaped bidirectional linear ultrasonic motor driven by
           single-phase signal

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      Authors: Bing Zhang, Chaodong Li
      Abstract: Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 94, Issue 4, April 2023.
      A rabbit shaped block, single-phase, linear, ultrasonic motor is proposed. The motor is 17.7 × 9.1 × 6 mm3 in size, and the overall mass is 2.3 g. The motor is designed by referring to the rabbit running mode and the principle of a Langevin vibrator concentrator. It can realize bidirectional driving without changing the constraint position. First, the basic structure of the motor is introduced, and the working principle of the motor is discussed. Then, the motion trajectory and driving force of the motor driving foot are theoretically deduced and simulated, and the simulation results are verified by the modal impedance characteristic test. Finally, the mechanical characteristics of the motor prototype are tested. The results show that under the excitation voltage of 5 N preload and 200 Vpp, the motor is driven to the right in B1 mode, the no-load speed is 42.3 mm/s, the maximum driving force is 0.28 N, and the stall torque is 0.27 Nm. Correspondingly, the motor is driven in reverse in B2 mode, the no-load speed is 118 mm/s, the maximum driving force is 1.48 N, and the stall torque is 1.41 Nm.
      Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T01:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0142844
       
 
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Publisher: AIP   (Total: 28 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

Showing 1 - 27 of 27 Journals sorted by number of followers
Physics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.66, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.739, CiteScore: 2)
Physics of Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.19, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 1.382, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.644, CiteScore: 1)
Review of Scientific Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 4.156, CiteScore: 12)
J. of Laser Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 1)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.576, CiteScore: 1)
Acoustics Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.63, CiteScore: 4)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.472, CiteScore: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.592, CiteScore: 2)
Low Temperature Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 1)
Structural Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.625, CiteScore: 4)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary J. of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.046, CiteScore: 3)
Virtual J. of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.558, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese J. of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
Surface Science Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
APL Photonics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scilight     Full-text available via subscription  
APL Bioengineering     Open Access  
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