Publisher: Society for Indonesian Biodiversity (Total: 11 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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Cell Biology and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversitas : J. of Biological Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.203, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ocean Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Drylands     Open Access  
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Biofarmasi J. of Natural Product Biochemistry     Open Access  
Asian J. of Agriculture     Open Access  
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
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Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0216-6887 - ISSN (Online) 2301-8658
Published by Society for Indonesian Biodiversity Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Pectinase production from a local isolate of Aspergillus niger using
           orange bagasse as a carbon source

    • Authors: TIMOTHY MGBEDE, Mida Habila Mayel, EMOCHONE ROY YOHANNA, MOSES ABAH ADONDUA, UGWUOKE KENNETH CHINEKWU, BIYARGA BUMA BINUNGA, TYRON JANET
      Abstract: Abstract. Timothy M, Mayel MH, Yohanna ER, Adondua MA, Chinekwu UK, Binunga BB, Janet T. 2022. Pectinase production from a local isolate of Aspergillus niger using orange bagasse as a carbon source. Asian J Nat Prod Biochem 19: 81-86. Pectinases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of pectin substances. The largest industrial applications of pectinases are in fruit juice extraction and clarification. However, it is in short supply, but due to the gradual increase in global population, fruit juice industries will need to increase the production of fruit juices, hence the need for mass production of pectinase. Little or no work has been done on producing pectinase from the locally sourced fungus Aspergillus niger in Wukari using orange bagasse as a carbon source. The present investigation was carried out to produce pectinase from a locally sourced fungus, A. niger, in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. A. niger was identified morphologically and screened for pectinase production. Submerged fermentation was carried out, and the crude pectinase was harvested, with maximum enzyme production at 72 hrs. The effect of pH on pectinase activity was assessed, and different temperatures were used to test for pectinase activity. The crude enzyme's kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) were also determined. The optimal pH of pectinase was alkaline, at pH 8.0. The temperature at the crude enzyme expressed the highest activity was 50ºC. The crude enzyme activity was tested with the effect of substrate concentration; the optimum substrate concentration was discovered to be 2.0%. At the end of this research, the results showed that pectinase could be mass-produced to serve the needs of industries in demand to make good products from fruits available, considering the population increase.
      PubDate: 2022-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Phytochemical composition of Dichrocephala integrifolia crude extracts,
           antiviral activity and toxicity

    • Authors: ABDI HUSSEIN HADUN, JAMES MBARIA, GRABRIEL OLUGA ABOGE
      Abstract: Abstract. Hadun AH, Mbaria J, Aboge GO. 2022. Phytochemical composition of Dichrocephala integrifolia crude extracts, antiviral activity and toxicity. Asian J Trop Biotechnol 19: 72-81. Human herpes simplex viruses are among the world's most ubiquitous human infections. Generally, there are two types of Human Herpex simplex viruses (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2, infecting over 90% of people with either one or both. HSV-1 is a viral disease to cause genital and oral lesions. As a major antiviral drug to treat HSV infections, Acyclovir has proven unsatisfactory as resistance, and severe side effects in pregnant mothers and infants have been frequently reported. The high prevalence of HSV, lack of vaccines, and limited treatment options warrant an urgent need for more effective anti-HSV agents. The aim of this study was to investigate phytochemical composition, in vitro anti-HSV, and in vivo and in vitro toxicity of Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.fil.) Kuntze crude extracts. Leaves, roots, flowers, and stems of D. integrifolia were collected from Mabariri Village in Nyamira County, Kenya. The identification by a botanist in the school of biological sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The materials were extracted with methanol and water, and Qualitative tests were conducted to determine alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoids presences. The MTT assay investigated in vitro cytotoxic activity using Vero cell lines from the center for viral research Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI). Antiviral activity has assessed the ability to protect normal cells (Vero cell lines) from HSV attack. In vivo toxic effects in female Swiss albino mice using oral acute toxicity protocols by OECD. The qualitative phytochemical showed the extracts contained tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols, glycosides, and saponins. It was not cytotoxic to Vero cells except the flower's methanolic extract, which had a CC50 value of 71.31± 2.65 µg/mL. The extracts interference adsorption step of HSV-1 blocks the virus's epitopes on the cell's membrane. Methanolic extracts of the stem, leaves and aqueous extracts of leaves inhibited HSV-1 virus from causing a cytopathic effect, with IC50 values of 63.95±5.36 µg/mL, 54.45±3.45 µg/mL, 86.20±7.56 µg/mL. Methanolic flower, aqueous root, and methanolic leaves extract show virucidal with IC50 values of 45.27±2.41 µg/mL, 0.333±1.23 µg/mL, and 30.53±4.51 µg/mL. Oral administration to mice at 300 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg did not result in any toxic effects or mortality. In all the groups, no major behavioral or appearance changes were observed. Pharmacologically phytochemicals such as flavones, phenols, terpenoids, and tannins in antimicrobial action support this plant's pathologies management. The cytotoxicity, efficacy, and acute oral show no major toxicity; preparing antiviral herbal remedies may be safe for patients. Further research into plant mechanisms and isolating the bioactive agents are needed; studying toxic effects is also recommended to formulate pharmacological products.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Identifying bacteria associated with diseased Oreochromis niloticus in
           Lake Kariba, Zambia

    • Authors: TIPEZENJI SAKALA, ROBINSON H. MDEGELA, BERNARD M. HANGOMBE
      Abstract: Abstract. Sakala T, Mdegela RH, Hangombe BM. 2022. Identifying bacteria associated with diseased Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Kariba, Zambia. Bioteknologi 19: 62-70. The recent intensified aquaculture projects in Lake Kariba, Zambia, have brought about disease outbreaks in cultured Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). This study aimed to identify bacteria associated with diseased O. niloticus and establish their antibacterial resistance patterns. Caged fish were identified as diseased based on behavioral and physical abnormalities, including swimming in circles, swimming in lateral or dorsal recumbency, ocular opacity, hyperpigmentation, fin erosions, and ulcerations. A total of 25 sick and 4 healthy fish were sampled. Samples from the liver, spleen, brain, abdomen, kidney, blood, and ulcers were inoculated on 10% sheep-blood agar and nutrient agar. Then the isolates were classified by genera using biochemical tests and standard culture. Furthermore, the bacterial isolates were tested for resistance to commonly used antibacterial compounds in aquaculture using the disc technique; the spleen, eyes, and liver had the highest number of pathologies in descending order. A total of 15 bacteria genera were identified, where Lactococcus/Streptococcus genera had the highest prevalence with 46.2%, then Aeromonas at 11.5%. All isolates have been observed to have multiple drug resistance, with two isolates, each of Lactococcus Streptococcus and Aeromonas exhibiting complete resistance to most antibiotics tested. The results suggest that increased biomass in diseased cages may be the main risk factor for the disease, with the immune and regulatory organs being first to succumb. The lake environment is a mixing vessel of various microorganisms that show multiple antibacterial resistance. Therefore, risk factors surrounding the existence of these bacteria genera must be accessed, and a more comprehensive, comparative study in antibiotic resistance on farmed, in contrast to wild species, in Lake Kariba, Zambia.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The deleterious effects of chitosan application on red chili pepper growth
           and capsaicin biosynthesis under drought stress

    • Authors: MUHAMMAD ABDUL AZIZ, RIZKITA RACHMI ESYANTI, KARLIA MEITHA, FENNY MARTHA DWIVANY
      Abstract: Abstract. Aziz MA, Esyanti RR, Meitha K, Dwivany FM. 2022. The deleterious effects of chitosan application on red chili pepper growth and capsaicin biosynthesis under drought stress. Asian J Trop Biotechnol 19: 52-61. The production of red chili pepper is often impeded by drought. Chitosan is considered as a promising alternative natural fertilizer and defense elicitor. This study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan on red chili plant growth and capsaicin biosynthesis under drought stress. At the onset of the generative phase, the plant was subjected to 1 mg mL-1 chitosan, 50% drought, or chitosan-drought treatment. Observations were made on several growth parameters, yield, PAL expression, PAL activity, and capsaicin content. The results showed that chitosan-drought treatment significantly decreased plant growth and yield. The PAL gene expression was up-regulated around 129-fold higher than control, followed by increased PAL activity and capsaicin content about 1.22 and 1.39-fold higher than control, respectively. PAL activity and capsaicin content on chitosan-drought treated plants were lower than on individual chitosan applications. Therefore, we suggested that the double treatment of chitosan-drought might decrease red chili pepper production and capsaicin content. Interestingly, the individual chitosan treatment significantly increased PAL expression level, PAL activity, and capsaicin content compared to other treatments. Furthermore, it was suggested that chitosan might play a role in the red chili plant defense system involving capsaicin biosynthesis through the phenylpropanoid pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidant potential of ginger extract on metals (lead, cadmium, and
           boron) induced oxidative stress in maize plant

    • Authors: CHUKWUMA STEPHEN EZEONU, SILAS VERWIYEH TATAH, CHINEDU IMO, OJOCHENEMI EJEH YAKUBU, QUEEN HABU GARBA, KAYODE AROWORA, ISAAC JOHN UMARU, MOSES ANDODUA ABAH, MICHAEL SUNDAY ABU, EMOCHONE ROY YOHANNA, MGBEDE TIMOTHY
      Abstract: Abstract. Ezeonu CS, Tatah SV, Imo C, Yakubu OE, Garba QH, Arowora K, Umaru IJ, Abah MA, Abu MS, Yohanna ER, Timothy M. 2022. Antioxidant potential of ginger extract on metals (lead, cadmium, and boron) induced oxidative stress in maize plant. Asian J Trop Biotechnol 19: 45-51. Plants have a high potential to accumulate heavy metals, which may have a toxic effect on them. These heavy metals can induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in plants which may affect their physiological activities. This research aimed to examine ginger extract’s antioxidant potential in treating metals (lead, cadmium, and boron) in contaminated soil in which maize was cultured. Maize seedlings were grown in pots containing soil (A-H) induced with lead acetate, cadmium, and boron (1 g each) and treated with 1 g of ginger extract, simulated for 40 days. The uptake and distribution of the heavy metals (lead, cadmium, boron) with possible induction of oxidative stress alteration in the activity of the antioxidant defense system of the maize plants were determined. The inhibitory effect of ginger against lead, cadmium, boron induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings was also determined, and the percentage inhibition showed an increase in extract concentration of ginger. From the result, maize seedlings grown from 10-40 days with 1 g of lead, 1 g of cadmium, and 1 g of boron showed significant (p<0.05) increased lipid peroxidation in the whole maize plant compared to the control. However, ginger extract caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the accumulation of lipid peroxide concentration in the seedlings. In addition, there was a marked increase in antioxidant enzyme activities in the lead, cadmium, and boron-contaminated soil. The result also showed that lead, cadmium, and boron-induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings could be ameliorated by ginger extract and antioxidant enzymes, which are the biomarkers for metal-induced oxidative stress in maize plants. The result obtained showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in SOD activity in maize seedlings grown in pots B and G (15.95±1.34 nmol/mg and 15.85±0.49 nmol/mg, respectively); B and C (10.70±1.14 nmol/mg and 10.95±0.07 nmol/mg, respectively) and A and H on the soils contaminated with 1 g lead, cadmium, and boron, respectively. SOD activity was observed to be higher in pots E (28.47±1.65 nmol/mg) and H (21.29±1.12 nmol/mg) (boron contaminated soil) when compared with lead and cadmium contaminated soils. The study has clearly shown that lead, cadmium, and boron toxicity induces oxidative stress in maize plants which the ginger antioxidant effect could reduce.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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