Publisher: Bangladesh Agricultural University (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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Fundamental and Applied Agriculture     Open Access  
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Fundamental and Applied Agriculture
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2518-2021 - ISSN (Online) 2415-4474
Published by Bangladesh Agricultural University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of orange juice supplemented
           yogurt

    • Authors: Sabina Yasmin, Gajala Shaheen, Dipti Rani, Chhanda Roy, Most Jesmin Akhter, Md Shakil, Md Mahomud, Mouluda Sohany
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: In recent years, the development of enriched dairy products with fruits or fruit parts has been growing due to their potential health benefits and consumer’s preferences. In this research, orange juice incorporated yogurt was elaborated, and the effect of orange juice incorporation was evaluated in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. Fresh orange juice was extracted using an electric juicer. Skim milk powder, starter culture, and sugar were used to prepare four yogurt samples, S1, S2, S3, and S4, containing 0%, 3%, 5%, and 7% orange juice, respectively. Syneresis, water holding capacity (WHC), pH, viscosity, and firmness of the samples were compared, and the sensory quality of the prepared yogurt was evaluated. With the increasing orange juice percentage, the syneresis of the yogurt increased. Sample S4 (7% orange juice supplemented yogurt) exhibited a higher syneresis value (11.37% ± 0.81) than the other samples. Meanwhile, the WHC, pH, and viscosity decreased when a higher proportion of juice was assimilated to the yogurt. The lowest values for WHC, pH, and viscosity were possessed by S4 (7% orange juice), where the values were 53.20, 3.68, and 123.33 m Pas, respectively. The firmness of yogurt improved with the addition of higher orange juice content. In the sensory test, orange juice yogurt obtained higher scores than the control one. The panelists preferred S2 (3% orange juice) which got the highest scores for color, flavor, mouthfeel, taste, and overall acceptability among all the samples. The result exhibited an innovative consumer-based fruit yogurt with changes in its properties.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.5455/faa.139528
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Optimising potassium fertilizer rates for sustainable maize (Zea mays L.)
           production on the volcanic soils of Buea, Cameroon

    • Authors: Christopher Ngosong Ngosong, Agbor Tabi Delly Valdo Valdez Enow, Marie Noela Enyoe Olougou, Aaron Suh Tening
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) production contributes to food security and income generation for many farmers, but productivity is constrained by soil infertility, with potassium (K) deficiency partly accounting for the huge gap between potential and actual yields. This is resolved with K fertilizer input that require appropriate K rates. This study was aimed at determining the optimum K fertilizer rate for maize production on the volcanic soils of Buea in Cameroon. The experiment was setup as randomized complete block design with five K fertilizer rates (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg K ha−1) and four replications. Results reveal increased earthworm abundance at higher K rates (P<0.05). The weight of 1000 maize grains ranged between 320–682 g across K rates, with the lowest in control and highest at 120 kg K ha−1 rate (P<0.05). Maize grain yield ranged between 7.5–11.8 tons ha−1, with the lowest in control and highest in 120 kg K ha−1 rate (P<0.05). Maize yield increased significantly by 17% from control to 30 kg K ha−1, 16% from 30 to 60 kg K ha−1 rates, and only 4% and 6%, respectively, from 60 to 90 and 90 to 120 kg K ha−1 rates (P<0.05). The K use efficiency expressed by the agronomic efficiency decreased significantly by 26% from 30 to 60 kg K ha−1, 24% from 60 to 90 kg K ha−1, and 11% from 90 to 120 kg K ha−1 rates (P<0.05). Similarly, the partial factor productivity decreased significantly by 41% from 30 to 60 kg K ha−1, 31% from 60 to 90 kg K ha−1, and 20% from 90 to 120 kg K ha−1 rates (P<0.05). This decreasing K use efficiency at higher K fertilizer rates is reflected in the decreasing amount of additional maize yield per unit of K fertilizer applied. The income and profitability of K fertilizer input for maize production increased significantly up to 90 kg K ha−1 rate that did not differ from the 120 kg K ha−1 rate (P<0.05). Overall, K fertilization generated additional income that ranged from US$ 3143–4367 ha−1, with the 90 kg K ha−1 rate being the most cost-effective for maize production in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.5455/faa.969718
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Optimization of multifaceted factorials for maximum extraction of
           polyphenols, phenolic acids and flavonoids from lemon peel (Citrus limon)
           using response surface methodology

    • Authors: Zainol Haida, Sharin Ab Ghani, Jaafar Juju Nakasha, Mansor Hakiman
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: One of the most important Citrus species is Citrus limon (Rutaceae), also known as lemon. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, amino acids, carbs, and vita- mins could be found throughout the entire lemon fruit, including the peel, seed, and pulp. However, lemon peel, a by-product of the lemon, is never fully utilised and is constantly discarded. The lemon peel was employed in this work to optimise the quantity of polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids utilising response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used in this study, and factors including ethanol concentration (70–90%), extraction temperature (45–65 °C), and extraction duration (80–120 minutes) were examined. Based on the results obtained, ethanol concentrations and extraction temperatures were significantly affected the total polyphenols, phenolic acids and flavonoids content. However, the experimental data was adequately fitted with the second-order polynomial models. Based on the multi-responses optimized extraction conditions were as follows: 85.77%, 65 °C and 120 minutes for ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time, respectively. This optimized condition could be useful for phenolics extraction from lemon peel.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.5455/faa.99862
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Occurrence of fungal foliar diseases of tomato in different
           agro-ecological zones of Kirinyaga County, Kenya

    • Authors: Fredrick Otieno Ogolla, Moses M Muraya, Benson O Onyango
      Pages: 31–4 - 31–4
      Abstract: Tomato production is characterized by inconsistent quality and yields due to biotic constraints such as fungal foliar diseases. Information on the occurrence of the diseases in different agro-ecological zones of Kenya is scanty. This study assessed the occurrence of early blight, late blight and Septoria spot diseases in tomato farms in five agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Kirinyaga County in Kenya (UM2, UM3, UM4, LM3 and LM4) using cross sectional survey method. Macro plots were systematically established diagonally in tomato farms and were used to assess disease incidence and severity. Incidences and severity data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Kruskal Wallis is H test at α = 0.05. Median comparison was performed using Steel Dwass Critchlow Fligner with bonferroni adjustment in Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) version 9.4. Incidences and severity of early blight, late blight and Septoria spot in tomato farms were significantly different (p<0.05) among the villages and agro-ecological zones. Incidence of early blight ranged from 35.7% to 76.65% with severity ranging from 17.15% to 50.87%. The incidence of Septoria spot ranged from 23.56% to 93.42% with severity ranging from 16.67% to 44.44%. The incidence of late blight ranged from 33.33% to 86.63% with severity ranging from16.67% to 33.33%. The incidence of early blight was significantly higher in AEZ UM3 (Median = 75%), the incidence of Septoria spot was significantly higher in AEZ LM4 (Median = 83.33%) while the incidence of late blight was significantly higher in AEZ UM3 (Median= 50%). The severity of early blight was significantly higher in AEZ UM3 (Median = 38.89%), Septoria spot was significantly severe in AEZ LM4 (Median = 40.28%) while late blight was significantly higher in AEZ UM4 (Median = 32.72%). It can be concluded that the incidences and severity of the three foliar fungal diseases of tomato differed in different AEZ of Kirinyaga County. These findings serve as a baseline study and can be used to enlighten farmers on tomato fungal diseases in the area. However, there is a need for studies to evaluate predisposing factors and to determine the economic impact of foliar fungal diseases of tomatoes in Kirinyaga County.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.5455/faa.140785
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of chemical and non-chemical management approaches in controlling
           wheat blast

    • Authors: Tazrin Akter, Fatema Tuz Zohura, Jasiatunnahar, Sushmita Dey, Islam Hamim, Muhammed Ali Hossain
      Pages: 47–5 - 47–5
      Abstract: Wheat blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae Pathotype triticum (MoT) became one of the common nuisances to the expansion of wheat production in Bangladesh. To find out a suitable control measure, fourteen chemical fungi- cides and five Trichoderma asperellum isolates were evaluated against MoT in in vitro condition. In in vitro conditions the efficacies of fungicides and Trichoderma isolates were evaluated by the measurement of percent inhibition of radial mycelial growth of MoT. The highest percentage of radial mycelial growth inhibition (100%) of MoT was obtained by Mancozeb 63% + Carbendazim 12% (Companion), Carbendazim (Autostin 50 WDG), Py- rochlostrobin 5% + Metiram 55% (Cabrio Top), Tebuconazol (Folicur EW 250) and Hexaconazol (Contaf 5EC) fungicides at low concentration (0.0125%) compared to other fungicides at 10 days after inoculation (DAI). The maximum percent of radial mycelial growth inhibition (58.24%) of MoT was achieved by Trichoderma isolate PMILTE-N51 (58.24%) followed by isolate PMILTE- N41 (53.85%) in the in vitro dual culture assay at 7 DAI. In pot experiment, seven fungicides (Nativo 75WG, Companion, Autostin, Indofil M45, Supreme 250EW, Contaf, Amiscore 32.5 SC) at 0.1% & 0.3% and bioa- gents (T. asperellum, PMILTE-N51-suspension, PMILTE-N51- formulation and T. herzianum based IPM LAB- Formulation) were used to evaluate their efficacy in controlling wheat blast disease and their effects on different yield contributing parameters of wheat. Minimum percentage of blast incidence and severity were recorded for Supreme 250 EW @ 0.3% (14.88% and 2.21%) treated plants followed by PMILTE-N51 suspension compared to control (85.06% and 90.2%). Maximum number of ear/pot (13.67), number of total and healthy spikelets/ear (55.33 and 52.33), number of total and healthy grains/ear (50.33 and 45.67) were achieved by Amiscore 32.5 SC @ 0.3% followed by Supreme 250EW @ 0.3% and a maximum weight of 1000 grains/pot (55 gm) was recorded for PMILTE-N51-suspension, whereas controlled plants showed the lowest value for all the yield contributing parameters among the treatments used in this experiment. These results indicate that Amiscore 32.5 SC and Supreme 250 EW (@ 0.3%) showed the best results as chemical control approaches, where Trichoderma (PMILTE-N51-suspension) can be a better non-chemical management approach against wheat blast in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.5455/faa.102461
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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