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Journal of Economics and International Relations
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2310-9513
Published by V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Trade policy and foreign trade of the European Union

    • Authors: Larysa Grygorova-Berenda, Kateryna Kaverina
      Pages: 6 - 15
      Abstract: Economic globalization is characterized by an increase in international trade and growing interdependence of economies at the global level. The EU's trade policy is a central tool for responding to the challenges associated with globalization and other modern challenges, such as the consequences of the pandemic and the full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine, and turning its potential into real benefits. In other words, the trade policy of the European Union is a significant lever in shaping the competitiveness of the EU in the world market and is based on a wide range of various measures, which determines the relevance of this study. The subject of the study is the peculiarities and prospects of the development of trade policy and foreign trade of the European Union. In turn, the goal is to analyze the specifics of trade policy implementation and the current state of the European Union's foreign trade. It was found that bilateral international agreements play a decisive role among EU policies. But there are also unilateral policy measures that also have a huge impact on the state and performance of foreign trade. Among them are tariff and non-tariff regulation methods. It has been found that despite the fact that the EU's share of world trade has been falling in recent years, it remains at a high level and is a key basis for growth, competitiveness and employment in the EU. At the same time, the EU's export and import dynamics have a tendency to grow, which indicates that despite the decline in the EU's share in world trade, the EU's position as one of the world's trade leaders will strengthen, but competition will grow. To achieve the set goal and solve research tasks, modern methods of scientific research were used in the performance of scientific work, in particular, general scientific and special methods of analysis of economic phenomena and processes: systematic approach, comparative analysis, historical-logical method, comparative analysis, economic-mathematical modeling, and namely: trend analysis. Therefore, the growing indicators of the EU's foreign trade prove that the EU's trade policy is successful.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-01
  • Specifics of activities of China's transnational corporations on
           world markets

    • Authors: Nadiia Kazakova, Alina Sholom, Miao Zhuang
      Pages: 16 - 25
      Abstract: Modern Chinese transnational corporations act as leaders in the world markets and have all the prospects for development. Today, the Chinese government seeks to change the status of the country from 'industrial" to "innovative". so it creates an optimal economic atmosphere for work in the country and in cooperation with other countries. China is strengthening its position in the innovation environment through its contribution to R&D and the development of the digital economy. The subject of the study are all aspects of Chinese TNCs’ production, innovation, investment, which make them successful operation on world markets. The aim of the study is to investigate the specifics of TNC activity, to evaluate how Chinese TNCs function in global markets. The objective: to consider the theoretical and methodological basis of the study of transnationalization in the world economy; to determine the essence and principles of the activities of transnational corporations,  to study the specifics of the emergence and development of transnational corporations in China; to determine the current state and development prospects of China's TNCs on world markets. The research methodology is based on the application of a systematic analysis of the activities of transnational corporations, statistics and the historical-theoretical background of the emergence of TNCs, as well as the use of abstract research methods, expert assessments, correlation - regression analysis and economic analysis. Results: in this article, based on economic analyses, the role of China’s transnational corporations was assessed, and several priority development areas were identified. Conclusions: Most of China's multinational companies are among the top 500 of Fortune Global 500 and top 100 list of Forbes . Chinese multinational corporations use various strategies to increase competitiveness, especially "mergers and acquisitions", expanding not only the scale of production, but also the spheres of activity. Based on this, it can be concluded that Chinese TNCs have significant prospects for development and leadership in world markets.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-02
  • Human potential and its influence on the development of the China economy

    • Authors: Nadiia Kazakova, Alina Sholom, Shi Huili
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Traditional sources of national power of the countries of the world are currently much less important in ensuring the high competitive status of national economies than such factors as the presence of a powerful innovative potential of states, the speed of their mastering the scientific and technological model of economic development and, most importantly, the quality of human resources and conditions of its reproduction. The subject of the study is the conditions and factors of human resource development of national economies and its impact on the development of the economy of the People's Republic of China. The goal is to assess the level of development of the economies of the world's regions depending on the state of human potential. as well as detection. The objective: to reveal the research methodology of the "human resource" category, to analyze the impact of human resources on the development of the country's economy, to assess the current state of the human resources of the PRC and to substantiate the main directions of development and qualitative improvement of the country's human resources. Methods: historical-logical method (when studying the category "human resource" and classifying theories revealing its content, as well as revealing the evolution of the formation and development of the world and domestic scientific school of human resource research); system-structural analysis of economic processes and phenomena (when studying processes of transnationalization of human resources at the micro, state, regional, and global levels); analysis and synthesis (when studying modern forms of intellectualization of production in social reproduction, clarifying the role of human resources in the formation of strategic competitive advantages of countries and the impact of investments in human resources on indicators of the intellectual and educational and qualification level of the population); the method of quantitative and qualitative comparisons (when assessing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the human resources of the People's Republic of China according to international criteria of its competitiveness); statistical and graphic methods (when processing and summarizing statistical data and displaying them in the most informative form - tables, figures, diagrams). The following results were obtained: methodological approaches to the definition of the "human resource" category were revealed, the evolution of the human factor in the process of socio-economic and humanitarian transformations of global development was studied, and the relationship between human resources and the development of the Chinese economy was determined. Conclusions: it is calculated that human potential is of decisive importance for the economic development of the PRC, investing in human potential and promoting its development, in particular through foreign economic cooperation in the field of higher education, turn into the most effective type of investment that contributes to economic growth.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-03
  • Global food security: trends and challenges

    • Authors: Larysa Kuchechuk
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Food is the primary need of any human being, which is why the food security at the both national and global levels is always important. The subject of this research is the global food security. The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of global food security, identify its main challenges and development trends of recent years. To achieve the goal of this article the author sets and solves following tasks, namely, analyzes different approaches to defining the concept of «food security» and the number of starving people in the world and in its regions for the period 2005-2021, identifies the main challenges for the world food security. General scientific methods were used to achieve the goal of research: analysis, synthesis, systematization, comparison, abstract-logical method. The results of the research show  that number of starving people both quantitatively and in percentage terms from 2005 to 2018 almost constantly decreased, and from 2019  began to grow steadily. The author notes that the largest number of starving people live in Asia, and the largest percentage of the undernourished population live in the African region. Since 2020 global food security has worsened significantly, and the main reason for this was the global COVID-19 pandemic, because of which the starving people number began to rise rapidly across the planet. The main negative impact was manifested in the population income decrease and an food prices increase. In addition, the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic were also manifested in the reduction of food production, namely, the access of small producers to the necessary resources was reduced, some food products demand decreased due to the closure of public catering establishments, and also  there was a temporary suspension of exports. The author highlightes that at the beginning of 2022 a new global food security challenge appeared, it was the Russian-Ukrainian war. Due to the stopping of Ukrainian exports, record food prices were observed, which significantly worsened the access of the low-income population to food products. After the signing of the grain agreement and the resumption of Ukrainian grain exports, the situation stabilized. Conclusion: a steady deterioration of global food security has been observed since the beginning of 2020, the main cause of which was the COVID-19 pandemic, and in 2022 appeared a new challenge,  Russian-Ukrainian war.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-04
  • Methodical provision of assessment of the efficiency of the use of the
           enterprise’s export-import potential

    • Authors: Daniil Fatyanov
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: The military conditions of the enterprises caused a review of the content of methodical support of many management functions, in particular evaluation. The importance of such assessment characteristics as urgency, timeliness, objectivity, scientific justification, effectiveness is increasing. The article is devoted to the formation of updated methodical support for evaluating the efficiency of using the export-import potential of the enterprise (EIPE), the advantages of which are its specified characteristics. The content of the information and analytical support for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of the export-import potential of the enterprise is considered. The subject of the study is the assessment of the efficiency of using the export-import potential of the enterprise. The goal is to substantiate the logic of the stages of evaluating the efficiency of using the export-import potential of the enterprise, methods of solving evaluation tasks, specifying expected results. The task: to develop methodological support for assessing the efficiency of using the export-import potential of the enterprise. General scientific methods are used: system analysis to determine the meaningful essence of the efficiency of using the export-import potential; methods of constructing a taxonomic indicator of development and an indicator of structural dynamics - to determine the levels of efficiency of the use of the EIPE; regression analysis, canonical analysis - to identify cause-and-effect relationships in EIPE processes. The following results were obtained: on the basis of the conducted generalization and systematization, processing of information regarding the effectiveness of the use of EIPE, a methodical support for its evaluation was formed. Conclusion: the developed structural and logical sequence of assessment implementation stages contributes to the timely identification and elimination of problems in the management of export-import potential in difficult conditions of limited enterprise activity.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-05
  • Creation of agro-tourism cluster as the basis of innovative renewal of
           Kharkiv oblast in the post-war period

    • Authors: Hanna Haponenko, Olena Yevtushenko, Irina Shamara, Anastasiia Vasylenko
      Pages: 52 - 63
      Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the possibilities of implementing the cluster concept of the development of the tourism industry in the Kharkiv region. The project of the agro-tourism cluster "Slobozhanska kazka" is proposed. The idea of the cluster is to create a chain of various services, where overnight accommodation is organized in one place, quality food in another, and a master class is held. The strength of the cluster is that it creates a collective agritourism product, increases the capacity of the local tourism market and expands the flow of tourists. The subject of the research is the organizational and economic relations that are formed in the process of adaptation and ensuring sustainable interaction of the participants of the market of rural green tourism in accordance with the modern trends of clustering of the economy. The purpose of the work is the development of theoretical and methodological provisions for the improvement of the domestic market of rural green tourism based on the study of the possibilities of implementing the cluster concept in the regions of Ukraine. The achievement of the set goal was ensured by the following interrelated tasks: to characterize the types of active clusters in Ukraine; consider the essence of the concept and structure of an agro-tourism cluster; to develop a Roadmap for the implementation of the cluster concept of Ukraine's economy in the post-war period to support and popularize rural green tourism in Ukraine. The methodological basis of the study consists of a systematic and program-targeted approach, monographic, graphic and economic-statistical methods of scientific research. The following results were obtained.The development of the agro-tourism cluster of the Kharkiv region will allow further application of a comprehensive approach to the development of enterprises in the field of tourism and the organization of promotion of their products both on the domestic market of the region and on the Ukrainian and international markets. The cluster mechanism will promote the innovative activities of its participants, will ensure the development of infrastructure, the expansion of the spectrum and the growth of the quality of their products (goods, works, services), as well as the satisfaction of the collective interests of the participants of the tourism cluster. Conclusions. The Roadmap for the implementation of the cluster concept of Ukraine's economy in the post-war period for 3 years has been developed. These recommendations will make it possible to create a positive image and increase the attractiveness of the territory, form a regional tourist product, increase the flow of tourists and ensure the replenishment of the budget.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-06
  • Possibilities of post-war economic recovery using creative industries

    • Authors: Olena Yevtushenko, Daria Arsenkina
      Pages: 64 - 74
      Abstract: In recent years, a fundamentally new concept of social and economic development has been actively developing in the world, which puts creativity and cultural resources at the forefront of the modern, post-industrial economy. This innovative sector is called the creative economy. The high growth rates of the creative economy (from 3% to 17.6%) are four times higher than the growth rates of industrial production. This concept can also be used in crisis situations to achieve a rapid growth rate of economic indicators. The article highlights the possibilities of using creative industries in post-crisis situations and the post-war recovery program, outlines the signs of a "creative city". The indicators of Ukraine among countries with transition economies in the Global Index of Creativity and the Global Index of Innovation, as well as the possibility of building creative spaces on the basis of destroyed or abandoned premises, were analyzed. The subject of the research is the analysis of the place of creative industries in the post-war economy. The goal is to identify opportunities for the involvement of creative industries in the post-crisis recovery of the economy. The task: to outline the place and features of the development of creative industries in the country's economy, to analyze post-crisis recovery programs involving the creative sector, to define the main elements of a "creative city" and to classify innovative transformations of historical objects. General scientific research methods are used: analysis and synthesis, descriptive, systemic, comparative and structural analysis. During the study, the following results were obtained: the possibilities of using creative industries in post-crisis situations and post-war recovery programs were revealed. Conclusions: the expediency of involving creative industries in the post-war reconstruction of Ukraine in order to ensure sustainable development of the economy and rapid recovery from the crisis situation is substantiated.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-07
  • The history of the Michelin Red Guide

    • Authors: Olha Romanchuk, Rostyslav Koval, Mariia Paska, Andrii Holod, Oksana Nykyha
      Pages: 75 - 86
      Abstract: The article is based on a thorough analysis of the most relevant works of the world’s leading scientists engaged in research in the field of gastronomic tourism. It reveals the main aspects of the development of the famous French restaurant guide «Michelin», which is very important today in the world of haute cuisine, culinary tourism and the art of living. The subject of the article is the study of the main trends in the evolution of the red guide, which during the 20th century passed through three stages – at first it was a technical guide that offered information about goods and services for drivers, later it turned into a tourist guide, and, finally, it was transformed into a gastronomic guide. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the role and the significance of this guide for gastronomic tourism. The history of the French company for the production of car tires «Michelin», the activities of the founders brothers André Michelin and Édouard Michelin, the creation of its symbol Bibendum, the development of the guide itself, and the search for ways to form the optimal principles of cuisine quality classification are described. Attention is also paid to the professional activities of the most famous female chefs, who have been awarded Michelin stars. To achieve the goal, such research methods as historical, descriptive, comparative ones, systematization and generalization were used. Today, the Michelin red guide is published for many worldcountries and for the largest metropolises, the company started publishing the guide-magazine «Food & Travel», launched the «Michelin Green Star» award to recognize restaurants that particularly adhere to sustainable gastronomy, and also launched production of kitchen utensils. It has been established that the best chefs in the world strive to turn their business into business empires, not content with just receiving Michelin awards. They actively write culinary bestsellers, participate in the filming of reality shows, films and TV programs, found schools, and also work in the format of takeaway food and food trucks. At the same time, it was revealed that gastronomy business caused constant stress, consumption of alcohol and drugs by chefs, bullying, significant financial burden, ratings pressure, criticism of Michelin rating system approaches, fear of losing business and suicide. The obtained results make it possible to supplement and expand specialized training courses in higher education institutions of Ukraine, where personnel for tourism and hospitality industry are trained. So, in the course of its historical development, the red guide «Michelin» has become the most famous culinary guide in the world, aimed at ensuring that customers get maximum pleasure from visiting restaurants.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.26565/2310-9513-2022-16-08
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Heriot-Watt University
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