Publisher: Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology   (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Advances in Environmental Technology
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2476-6674 - ISSN (Online) 2476-4779
Published by Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology Homepage  [1 journal]
  • An experimental study on the effect of composite electrode on the
           membrane- assisted electrode in CDI and MCDI processes towards nitrate ion
           selectivity

    • Abstract: Removal nitrate concentrations above international standards of drinking water - are the most prominant tasks of governments. To do so, various technologies such as reverse osmosis, biological denitrification, electrodialysis, and capacitive deionization (CDI) as an electrochemical approach have been used for nitrate removal from water. In the present research study, a novel composite electrode as E2 named was synthesized and used to improve the efficiency of (M)CDI process for increasing electrosorption capacity of nitrate from water. E1 as a based electrode composed of activated carbon (AC), PVDF and E2 as an optimal electrode containing (AC), PVDF, ZrO2, and PANi -ES which were utilized, respectively. The morphology and structure of the composite electrode were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods were applied to investigate the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes. In MCDI process, with the presence of the E2 electrode, the amount of separated nitrate ion and its adsorption efficiency were 7.51 mg.g-1 and 81.6%, respectively, which demonstrated that the capacity of adsorbed nitrate ion by MCDI process was 30.34% higher than CDI process. On the other hand, E2 electrode compared to E1 electrode, ameliorated the performance of almost 50% in the amount of adsorbed nitrate ion and also ion adsorption efficiency during CDI and MCDI processes.Keywords: Selective nitrate removal; Electrosorption; Composite electrode; Membrane capacitive deionization
       
  • Impact of phosphorus amendments on cadmium uptake by sunflower inoculated
           with Rhizophagus irregularis mycorrhizae in a contaminated soil

    • Abstract: Immobilization of heavy metals (HMs) by phosphorus compounds is an efficient and cheap technique in decreasing their phytoavailability in soil, depending highly on the type and rate of HMs. Greenhouse research was performed to evaluate the impact of various amendments on cadmium (Cd) absorbed by sunflower plants in HM-contaminated soil collected from a mining area. The experiment was performed as a randomized complete block design with two factors, namely mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis) and amendments (di-ammonium phosphate, humic acid, bone meal, and humic acid +bone meal), in three replications. The results showed that applying all the amendments reduced the amount of soluble Cd and Cd2+ species in the soil. The highest decreases occurred with the di-ammonium phosphate treatment (51% for soluble Cd), probably through decreasing pH and increasing phosphorus solubility, as a consequence, forming insoluble Cd phosphates. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly decreased (p≤0.05) the Cd in the soil solution and the plant shoot but increased it in the plant root, probably through Cd accumulation in the fungal hyphae as Cd phosphates. The use of phosphate compounds is strongly recommended in order to immobilize Cd in highly contaminated sites.
       
  • Investigation of Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Heat
           Treated Fe3O4/TiO2/Ag Loaded Polycaprolactone/Polyethyleneoxide
           Electrospun Nanofibers

    • Abstract: The electrospinning technique is utilized to physically load Fe3O4/TiO2/Ag nanoparticles on PCL/PEG nanofibers scaffold for oxidative decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenol as a model organic pollutant. The scaffold is used in order to eliminate the need for separation of the catalyst after treatment, thus, making the catalyst system recyclable and reusable. Prepared nanofibers were thermally processed to change the morphology to crystalline form to make them transparent to visible light which is a necessity for the function of photocatalysts. Different analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, and field emission electron microscopy were implemented to identify and characterize presented products. Kinetic performance of both particulate system and nanofiber system was determined. Prepared products demonstrated good catalytic activity by 53% decomposing the target pollutant in 180 minutes of visible light exposure. The new catalyst loaded nanofiber system maintained the decomposition performance of the particulate system and improved its reusability. Although this scaffold nanofiber based system demonstrates slightly lower pollutant removal performance in the first run compared to the ternary non-fixed particle system (53.12% vs 54.74%), it outperforms the non-fixed particulate system through 2nd and 3rd runs. The decomposition rate is improved from 52.37% to 52.81% in the 2nd run and from 48.08 to 51.02% for the 3rd run. This photocatalytic system can be used as a reusable efficient catalyst system for oxidative decomposing of 2,4-dichlorophenol.
       
  • Performance, Combustion, and Emission Characteristics of Direct Injection
           diesel engine fueled with ZnO dispersed canola oil biodiesel

    • Abstract: Diesel engines are critical to economic mobility. Because of the increasing scarcity of petroleum resources and the administration's strict rules, engine manufacturers and users must follow environmental regulations in order to avoid undesirable emissions. Due to its high fluidity, poor stratification, ineffective ignition, and carbon buildup in the fuel system, vegetable oil could be used in diesel engines. The transesterification method reduces the viscosity of vegetable oil by converting it into methyl ester or ethyl ester, which is also known as biodiesel. This research thoroughly examined the productivity, combustion, and output of zinc oxide nanoparticle disseminated canola oil biodiesel. Canola oil biodiesel was produced using the traditional transesterification process. The experimental hydrocarbons were produced using a magnetic agitator and ultrasonication, with a scattering of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles at a dosage of 50ppm. The experiments were conducted at 1500 rpm. The use of Zinc Oxide nanoparticle dispersed canola oil biodiesel improved the Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, and other parameters. When compared to diesel, the brake thermal efficiency, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbon emissions were all lower. This study provides critical guidance on the use of sustainable energy, resulting in lower conventional oil consumption.
       
  • Bio-stimulation of Soil Enzymes using Diammonium Phosphate and Urea
           Fertilizers on Crude Oil Contaminated Sandy-loam Soil

    • Abstract: Pollution caused by crude oil is one of the most prevalent environmental problems in oil-rich countries. Bioremediation processes usually exploit the ability of microorganisms to degrade and/or detoxify organic contaminants. A widely used bioremediation strategy is bio-stimulation of the soil’s indigenous microbes by the addition of nutrients, as crude oil contamination tends to result in the rapid depletion of the available pools of major inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. This study examined the bio-stimulation effect of diammonium phosphate and urea fertilizers on crude oil-contaminated soil enzymes. Soils were artificially contaminated with 3000, 5000, or 8000 ppm of crude oil and treated with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea fertilizers. The activities of soil enzymes such as laccase, lipase, catalase, and peroxidase were analyzed every 6th day for 30 days. The results indicated that the activity of laccase for all the treated soils was significantly higher than the untreated group on days 18, 24, and 30, while those of peroxidase and catalase peaked at day 12, with a sharp decline on days 18 to 30 when compared to the untreated soil. However, the activity of lipase continued to increase until the 30th day in all the treated soils, and the increase was higher in contaminated soils treated with DAP and urea. The decreased activities of peroxidase and catalase in the treated soils may be related to a decrease in the microbial load of the soil. Furthermore, the increase in the activities of soil enzymes, especially in the treated soils, suggested that the treatments contributed to enhancing the activities of the enzymes, and hence may help in the bioremediation process through bio-stimulation of the soil enzymes that function in the breakdown of environmental contaminants.
       
  • Kinetic Modeling of Moving Bed Biofilm Sequencing Batch Reactor for
           Treatment of Sugar Industry Effluent

    • Abstract: India is the second-largest sugarcane producer and consumer in the world, with 29.66 million tonnes of annual production and 25.51 million tonnes of consumption, along with a high degree of pollution loaded wastewater from sugar industries. Sugar industries in India generate about 1,000 litres of wastewater for one tonne of crushed sugarcane. The effluent discharged from sugar industries contains high organic impurities such as biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, nitrogen, and phosphorous, causing serious environmental pollution problems. A combination of suspended and attached growth wastewater treatment systems can be used by integrating a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) known as the moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR), which is an aerobic treatment method. It is a promising technology as it has no requirement for sludge recirculation and requires lesser reactor volumes. In this study, the moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor has been modeled for treating sugar industry wastewater. At a cycle time of 2 h, the biochemical oxygen demand removal efficiency is around 87% at 500 mg/L, sludge loading rate is 13 kg BODm-2d-1, chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency is 84.2%, food to micro-organism ratio is 1.09, and the mixed liquor volatile suspended solids and mixed liquor suspended solids values are around 2909 mg/L and 3639 mg/L, respectively. The economic viability of this technology is still to be established for treating sugar industry wastewater. This study can guide scientists, researchers, designers, and consultants when selecting wastewater treatment technology for the sugar industry. This technology has the potential to be replicated in other industries with similar wastewater characteristics.
       
  • Vehicular Noise Pollution and its Environmental Impact in Berhampur City,
           India

    • Abstract: In the developing and developed world, urban residents are increasingly exposed to higher level of traffic noise with each passing day owing to addition of more number of vehicles on the road. Rapid increase of the industrialization, urbanization, road networks and volume of motor vehicles brought noise pollution to the highest level of debacle in a current situation. Traffic noise is one of the major sources of environmental noise pollution in the cities and town. The effects of noise reduce the wellbeing elements of urban residents. Most vulnerable to noise are the people who reside near to traffic areas. Exposure to high noise results in ill health as annoyance, blood pressure, headache, and other physiological and psychological problems. In this experimental study, the assessments and analysis of traffic noise and its impacts on residents in the Berhampur city have been done. The important locations covering the whole city were considered for traffic noise assessment. Also, the wellness and health of the affected people have been studied and statistical validation has been made.
       
  • Assessing the performance of horizontally flowing subsurface wetland
           equipped with Vetiveria zizanioides for the treatment of acid mine
           drainage

    • Abstract: Contamination of different ecological spheres with acid mine drainage (AMD) has raised numerous concerns to countries with well-developed mining industries, thus calling for urgent intervention measures. Due to its chemical composition, AMD can pose severe environmental damage if not properly managed. Herein, the performance of subsurface horizontally flows constructed wetland (SSHF-CW) equipped with Vetiveria zizanioides for the treatment of AMD was assessed. To fulfill the goals of this phytoremediation study, the experiments were administered for a period of 30 days using authentic AMD from an active gold mine and the quality of feed and product water were monitored daily. The results showed a slight increase in pH from 2.4 to 4.01 and a net reduction in electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and sulphate at 47.20%, 46.00%, and 33.04%, respectively. Thenceforth, there was a net removal of metal in the following order: Zn (77.75%) > Fe (75.36%) > Mn (67.48%) > Al (55.05%) > Ni (44.01%) > Cu (11.36%). The results further revealed that Vetiveria zizanioides was tolerant to AMD with a tolerance index of 1.23 after 30 days, while the metal removed were partitioned between substrate, plant, and external factors. Chemical species accumulated by the plants were more concentrated in the roots except for Mn which was more concentrated in the shoots. The X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffractometers analyses revealed the presence of chemical species in the substrate while Fourier transforms infrared and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of chemical species in plants roots confirming that substrate and plants play a huge role in pollutants removal. As such, it can be concluded that SSHF-CW equipped with Vetiveria zizanioides plays a major role in the removal of contaminants from AMD and this could be employed in abandoned mines or small operations as a passive treatment technique.
       
  • Modified Waste Polystyrene as a Novel Adsorbent for Removal of Methylene
           Blue from Aqueous Media

    • Abstract: This research deals with the sequent sulfonation and magnetization of waste polystyrene to form a novel adsorbent. The novelty is assigned by an anionic surface that can adsorb cationic dye and by a magnetic property allowing it to be separated quickly and practically. The sulfonation was conducted using H2SO4, and the magnetization was performed by the coprecipitation of Fe3O4. The prepared adsorbents were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) machines. The adsorption capacity was evaluated for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous media conducted by batch experiment. The contact time, adsorbent weight, and solution pH were optimized. The parameters of kinetic and isotherm adsorptions were also determined. The characterization data showed evidence that sulfonated magnetic polystyrene was successfully produced. The adsorbent with 50 wt% of Fe3O4 showed good adsorption capacity and separability effectiveness. The optimum condition of the adsorption of 10 mg L-1 MB in a 40 mL solution was reached by 15 mg of the adsorbent weight within 45 minutes and at pH 7 with an effectiveness of about 98%. The adsorption kinetics is best suited to a pseudo-second-order with an adsorption rate constant of 0.364 g mg-1 min-1 and is well explained by the Langmuir isotherm model with an adsorption capacity of 46.56 mg g-1.
       
 
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