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Dini Araştırmalar / Journal of Religious Studies
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ISSN (Print) 1301-966X - ISSN (Online) 2602-2435
Published by Ankara University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • No title

    • Authors: Melek DEMİRDÖĞEN
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A Quantitative Analysis and Evaluation of Articles Written on the
           Qur'an in Turkey (1930-2015)

    • Authors: Muhammet Sacit KURT
      Abstract: The Qur'an is a holy book on which many studies have been carried out by both Muslims and non-Muslims. In terms of its religious and cultural origins, Turkey is one of the countries where the most research on the Qur'an has been conducted. However, the fact that the studies and contributions will be gain a more important place in the international arena, the articles written about Qur'an in Turkey be addressed in various aspects in this article. For this purpose, the articles have been classified firstly by the contents. Thus, it has been questioned which topics have been researched much and which ones have been researched relatively less. Secondly, the article also aims to determine how many articles composed about Qur'an in an interdisciplinary manner. And the numerical changes of the articles are also examined yearly. In addition, the number of articles related with Qur'an and written in a language except for Turkish is also determined in the article. Based on that, some evaluations are made about these articles and their authors. Finally, some formal, contextual and scientific procedural errors in the articles written about Qur'an have been examined, and it has been investigated whether there have been ethical violations in the articles or not. Lastly, various suggestions to eliminate the deficiencies, have been suggested. Since the excessive increase in the number of articles after 2015 made the research difficult, the determinations in the article are limited to the articles between 1930 and 2015.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Two Women, One Pain: Al-Khansā and Antigone

    • Authors: Nilüfer TOPAL; Ömer ACAR
      Abstract: On the one hand, al-Khansā, who made a name for himself in the Jahiliyyah and Islamic period with his laments, on the other hand Antigone, who appears in the famous tragedy of Sophocles; The life stories of these two women and the tragic events that shaped their characters have interesting similarities as well as worth examining. Both have tragically lost their siblings and have become the epitome of sadness and tragedy due to the hardships they have endured. While al-Khansā was mentioned as one of the greatest female Arab poets in her own time and later periods; Antigone, on the other hand, drew a strong female figure with her firm stance, determination and the king's discourses against the king of Thebes. Antigone is a tragic hero, and Khansā is a reflection of her in real life. In addition to this coincidental resemblance in their stories, their effects on the people after them also made them worth examining. Antigone has gained a place in world literature as a symbol with her strong character and has inspired some movements, especially feminism. al-Khansā, on the other hand, has an important place in Arabic literature with her female poet identity and laments. Such a study was deemed necessary in order to fully determine the contributions of these two women, who have made history, in the world literature, social and cultural fields. The life stories of these two women, which constitute the main subject of our article, were discussed in general terms, their similar and different aspects were pointed out under separate titles, and finally, the study was concluded by comparing the two characters.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Sociological Overview of the Ijtihads of the Rashid Caliphs Period

    • Authors: Kemal COŞKUN
      Abstract: Studies in the sociology of religion in Turkey have always kept the concern of examining the objective with an impartial perspective. The fact that researches in Turkey have focused on the religion of Islam and different religious groups with Islamic origins has kept the problem of the objectivity of the sociology of religion on the agenda methodologically. However, it should not be forgotten that understanding Turkish society and other societies where Islam is the dominant religion will be possible by going down to the first sources sociologically as well as religiously, and interpreting the behavior of the first believers of the revelation. In particular, the ijtihads of the "Rashid Caliphs Period", which is a special period in the history of Islam, have been referred to as a religious and rational source both in the formation of Islamic fiqh and in the social structures of Muslim nations. In this context, the question of what are the effects and sociological aspects of the ijtihads of the first four caliphs on the development of Islamic culture and civilization, the govarnance and social formation of Muslim societies will be examined. What social reasons did the Rashid caliphs take into account in their ijtihads, what social events they led to, and how they had an impact on institutions. This study, which will be an essay on "Sociology of Ijtihad", also aims to question the possibilities of a common study field for Sociology and Fiqh.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Design Argument Based on Spatial Regularities: William A. Dembski Example

    • Authors: Ahmet ERKAN
      Abstract: This article discusses a particular example of the intelligent design argument, which is one of the theistic arguments put forward to prove the existence of God. The intelligent design argument, in contrast to evolutionary theory, is central to the debate between religion and science. In this context, the problem that the article deals with is the validity and persuasiveness of William A. Dembski's design argument based on spatial regularities. Both historical and contemporary versions of design arguments mainly focus on spatial regularities. However, with the widespread acceptance of evolutionary theory in scientific and philosophical circles, design arguments based on spatial regularities have been severely criticized. The article aims to examine a contemporary example of design arguments based on spatial regularities, and to determine whether it maintains its strength against the objections originating from the theory of evolution. Literature review, one of the qualitative data collection methods, was used in the study, and the data were philosophically evaluated in terms of consistency and defensibility. This subject, which has a very comprehensive place in the debates in the context of philosophy of religion, science and religion, is limited to Dembski's proof and objections to him. As a result of this study, it will be argued that Dembski's design argument based on spatial regularities is not convincing enough in the face of criticisms originating from the theory of evolution.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Role of Delawar Hossain Sayedee in the Qur’an Studies of

    • Authors: Mizanur RAHMAN
      Abstract: Looking at history, Bangladesh has a rich identity in terms of Islamic studies. In this country, where more than ninety percent of the population is Muslim, some Islamic scholars engaged in political activities have been influential in politics. In addition to the pressures of imperialism on the religious field, important figures emerged in the Islamic field as well as in the political field in the spread of the Qur'an and the construction of a Bangladeshi society in this way. Delawar Hossain Sayedee is a leading politician and Islamic scholar who warned Muslims in Bangladesh against this situation and supported them in their struggle. It has been emphasized on this topic, due to the scarcity of academic studies on this personality, who has been traveling all over the country, giving sermons, writing books, and trying to introduce people to the Qur'an and Sunnah directly. In this article, the role of Delawar Hossain Sayedee in the field of Qur'an studies in Bangladesh will be explained and one of his most important works, "Translation of the Holy Qur’an", will be evaluated with some of its prominent features.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Relationship with the Qur'an Fıtrat and the Values of
           Managing Humanity

    • Authors: Hasan Rıza ÖZDEMİR
      Abstract: The Holy Qur'an is the divine book of revelation that gives meaning to human life. The relationship between the concept of fitra in the 30th verse of the Qur'an Surah Ar-Rum and the search for the meaning of man is important. The human being, called to act according to the principles of the Qur'an and realize his existence by the wisdom of creation in the verse, a man should give meaning to the values that govern him, to the gains he has achieved at the end of his actions, according to the principles of the Qur'an. Within the framework of the basic responsibility of Read-Think-Understand-Live, which the Qur'an demands from us, answers to the following questions were sought in the article: How does the Quran respond to the needs of human nature and the search for meaning' What basic guiding principles and values do the Qur'an want people to do' We asked these questions because the attitude of a person towards the changing aspects of life is closely related to the answers given to these questions. For this purpose, the titles of the article were created as: "Man's Search for Meaning and the Qur'an"; “Relation between Religion and Fitra in the Context of Verse 30 of Surah Rum”; "The Qur'an's values regarding the meaning of Life that appeals to the Fitra"; This research has a descriptive feature in terms of its function. We tried to describe the issue with the descriptive method. Thus, it is aimed to create awareness about the Qur'an, which introduces itself as the guide of guidance, about the search for meaning in terms of the relationship between the Qur'an and fitra.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • An Unknown Miniature in Hâverânnâme: Ali’s Battle
           with a Dragon

    • Authors: Hamit ARBAŞ
      Abstract: This paper studies miniatures from two copies of Ibn Husam Husafi’s Haveranname. The first one is from the Tahran Gulistan Palace Library, which consists of four pages, and the one-paged work is from the Museum of Riza Abbasi. These miniatures have been produced by Ferhad of Shiraz School of Miniature and his apprentices, in which Ali is depicted in a fierce fight with a dragon. Four of these miniatures have been published but not thoroughly examined. No published information is available about the other miniature, studied here. It is evident from the quality of the drawing that the miniature has been produced by Ferhad. In the miniature, Ali is portrayed on his horse, Duldul, in an open field, attacking a seven-headed dragon with his sword, Zulfikar. The miniature also contains some poetry as well as some depictions of people and imaginary creatures. The miniatures from Haveranname have been auctioned in various parts of the world. In the book of the record, there is no detail about how the museum has retrieved it. As a result of the analyses in the current research paper, it is proposed that the miniature originates from the copy of Haveranname of the Gulistan Palace Library and has been acquired in an auction.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Paul Draper, Agnosticism and the Problem of Evil

    • Authors: Nesim ASLANTATAR
      Abstract: The problem of evil is generally taken as evidence for atheism. However, some philosophers can be referred as a sign that this is not necessarily so. For example, one of the leading philosophers of contemporary philosophy of religion, Paul Draper, for whom one can say that the problem of evil is a big problem by looking into the works he brought to the literature, defines himself as an agnostic. Draper does not argue that evil directly supports or justifies agnosticism, but rather that it does not have the power to justify atheism on its own. According to him, the evidence presented for and against theism and atheism leads to a balance between these two stances. The balance here does not mean that the evidence creates a fifty percent probability for both parties and makes a choice difficult as a result, but rather that an evaluation of all the evidence opens the way for an ambiguity that makes it difficult to choose between the two. He states that none of the available evidence is sufficient to decisively establish the truth of neither theism nor atheism; and that neither theism nor atheism/naturalism is true. However, while some evidence raises the possibility that theism is true over naturalism whereas others justify atheism by supporting naturalism. So, this kind of ambiguity justifies agnosticism as the true doxastic stance to adhere to. If the problem of evil was sufficient in terms of evidential power for Draper, he would have to be an atheist, not an agnostic. In an atmosphere where the problem of evil is generally associated with atheism, how Draper grounds agnosticism and why the problem of evil cannot necessarily be considered as a justification for atheism by and only itself is the main focus of this article. Thus, this study aims to reveal why the problem of evil cannot necessarily be a justification for atheism, as a result of a critical reading of Draper’s studies on the problem of evil and agnosticism, as well as the studies in the literature that deals with the discussion and criticize Draper. Likewise, in order to illustrate Draper’s argument regarding the grounding of agnosticism decisively, this study will briefly touch on the discussions of the grounding of agnosticism, and conclude that Draper’s move from “the problem of evil to agnosticism” is more rational than any transition from “evil to atheism”.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Qadî Sirâj Al-Din Urmawi’s Understanding of Metaphysics and His
           Approach to Metaphysical Concepts

    • Authors: Nilüfer ÖZTÜRK KOCABIYIK
      Abstract: Metaphysics is one of the most major disciplines of philosophy. Generally, since Aristotle, its subject has been accepted as "being qua being". However, in the history of Islamic thought, there have been some scholars who think that kalam should be accepted as a superior science instead of metaphysics. Therefore, these thinkers considered "being qua being", which is accepted as the subject of metaphysics, as the subject of theology. In this study, the approach of Qadî Sirâj al-Din Urmawi, a member of the philosophical theology school formed by the philosophical-kalam scholars who think that the claim in question is true and is shaped within the framework of this idea to metaphysical science and metaphysical concepts will be discussed. Therefore, this study is limited to Urmawi’s approach to metaphysics and metaphysical concepts. With this study on Urmawi, it is aimed to determine the essential position of metaphysics according to Urmawi and the meanings of metaphysical concepts in his thought. It is important for the development of philosophical thought to determine the way in which these issues are handled by a thinker who is a member of the philosophical theological school. His works Matali al-Anwâr and Bayân al-Haqq, written in the line of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, are remarkable in terms of revealing his philosophy and the way he dealt with metaphysical concepts in a broader way. Additionally, with this study, which will contribute to the understanding of the position of metaphysics in the 13th century, it is seen that metaphysics is a superior science in the eyes of Urmawi. However, his approach to metaphysical concepts is different from his approach to the science of metaphysics. Indeed, although he gives place to Ibn Sînâ’s views on metaphysical concepts, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi is dominant in his approaching.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A Mixed Methods Study on Technology Competencies of 4-6 Age Quran Course

    • Authors: Yasemin İPEK; Ali ÖNCÜ
      Abstract: This research was carried out within the framework of the question of the level of technical competencies of 4-6 age Quran course teachers and the factors that affect this competence positively or negatively. The main reason for creating such an issue as a problem and working is to draw attention to the importance of using technology in education and training processes that emerged with the pandemic process. In the study, an explanatory sequential design which is one of the mixed methods research models was adopted. The relational screening model, one of the quantitative research methods, was used as the primary data set of the study. In this context, the "Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK)" developed by Horzum et al. (2014) was used as a data collection tool and applied to 528 participants. The case study design, one of the qualitative research methods, was used as the secondary data set of the study. In this context, focus group interviews were held with a total of 20 participants in the form of two sessions and 10 participants in each session. The focus of the interviews was on the fact that the participants' general statements about their experiences with technology usage in 4-6 age group Quran course distance education process and their evaluations of the advantages and disadvantages of the process. In the light of the quantitative findings obtained in the study, it is noteworthy that the general average of the TPCK scale of the teachers is good. However, it is seen that the scores of the teachers from the sub-dimensions related to technology are below the general average. Within the framework of qualitative findings, it was determined that technology literacy awareness increased with the distance education process. Teachers state that they need in-service training seminars to maintain awareness of this technology that emerges in them.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Fatimid-Ihshidi Relations (323-359/935-970)

    • Authors: Furkan ERBAŞ
      Abstract: Fatimids, bound up the Shiite/Ismaili sect, have pursued a policy of expansion towards the east since they were established in Ifrîkiye. Within the framework of this political goal, the Turkish dynasty made various attempts to seize the Egyptian lands owned by the Ikhshidids. The relations between the two sides, which lasted for more than thirty years, ended with the Fatimids seizing Egypt and then Syria. In this process, various political and military encounters took place between the Fatimids and the Ikhshidids. In this article, the relations of the Fatimids with the Ikhshidids are discussed. The relations between the two sides included remarkable events in a medium where the Fatimids in the east of the Islamic world and the Ikhshidid in the west increased their political power. The fact that these developments were closely related to the Islamic world of that period increases the importance of this research. Therefore, it would be beneficial to reveal the panorama of the thirty-five-year period by examining the sources that shed light on the relevant period. Ourstudy, which deals with the Fatimid-Ikhshidid relations, consists of three parts. In the first part, the beginning of the Fatimid-Ikhshidid relations will be examined. In the second part, the subject of the Fatimids taking Egypt from the Ikhshidids will be discussed. Finally, in the third chapter, the issue of the Fatimids capturing Syria and putting an end to the Ikhshidids will be discussed. The primary goal of the study in question will be to try to give a clear idea about the subject by addressing the reflections and effects of Fatimid-Ikhshidid relations in the Islamic world.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Afro-American Jews

    • Authors: Şahin KIZILABDULLAH
      Abstract: Judaism is one of the oldest surviving religious traditions in the world. The Jews, who base their history on Abraham and his son Isaac, began to be called religion with Moses. The Jews, who lived their golden age in and around Jerusalem during the David and Solomon periods, also built the Temple, which was at the center of their religious life. The Jews, who rebuilt the Temple during the Babylonian exile and subsequently Ezra's reign, lived in these lands until the destruction of the temple by the Romans in 70 AD. The statelessness that started after the destruction of the temple had an important place in the Jewish identity. The exile life, which continued for two thousand years, caused the Jews to go to different parts of the world and live there. In this period, which is expressed as the period of exile, Jews lived in many regions such as Africa, Anatolia, Europe and America. The arrival of the Jews in the Americas dates back to the Columbus era. Jews were present in South America and subsequently in the British colonies. Currently, most of the Jews in the world live in the USA. Among the Jews who went to the Americas, Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews constitute the majority. However, in the Americas, Jews have formed different groups over time. These include groups such as Conservative, Orthodox, Reformist, and Reconstructionist. Jewish groups formed by African-Americans also have a special place among these formations. These African-American Jews in the USA, are discussed within the framework of this article. In the article, firstly, a piece of brief information about Judaism in America was given, and then the relations between Blacks and Jews were discussed. Afterward, the main features of these formations, which are of African origin and consider themselves the descendants of the Israelites, are emphasized. Finally, the Jewish groups established by Black Jews were contacted and if they had different practices and beliefs from the others, they were included. The research was carried out based on the literature review and information was given about the prominent black Jewish groups.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Ottoman Scholar from Kastamonu Ahmed Mâhir(1860-1925) Efendi and his
           Tafsir Methodology

    • Authors: Hatice Merve ÇALIŞKAN BAŞER
      Abstract: Ahmed Mâhir, who was born in Kastamonu in 1860-70, is one of the last period Ottoman scholars and is known by the penname "Ballıkızâde". He lived in the 19th century, during the Constitutional Monarchy period when the West progressed in many directions and the Ottoman Empire began to lose land alongside its reforms. After taking lessons from the scholar Ahmed Hicâbî, he also gave lectures and educated many students, and taught tafsir and theology for thirteen years at Daru'l-Fünûn Faculty of Theology and Medresetü'l-Vâizîn. In addition to this, the scholar, who has served as a member of the Supreme Court, a judge, and a deputy, also appears as a political personality. Mâhir, who has four published works, is one of the important personalities that Kastamonu raised in religious, political, and literary fields. In this study, the Constitutional Era and the position of the science of tafsir in this period are discussed. Secondly, after transferring information about Ahmed Mâhir's life, his exegesis method on the works of "Mu'cizât-ı Kur'âniyye" and "al-Fâtiha fî Tefsîri'l-Fâtiha" was examined. The qualitative research method and document analysis technique wasused for this study. In addition, the data were analyzed with the help of description, sampling and association techniques. The fact that Ahmed Mâhir has both a political and religious personality and that we have four works about him today makes it important to research him. In this context, the study aims to reveal Ahmed Mâhir's exegesis based on his works. A doctoral thesis on him, in which his mystical aspect was emphasized, and an article by the same person, again, two master's theses were made about the work he wrote in the field of Sufism. Some sources provide concise information about his life and works, and brief information given in some biographical or literature studies. But his works named "Mu'cizât-ı Kur'âniyye" and "al-Fâtiha fî Tefsîri'l-Fâtiha" have not been studied academically. This situation made this study important. In addition, the existence of various interpretations on whether the author's interpretation of Surah Fâtiha is original or not has caused us to consider this issue as a problem. As a result of our analysis, Ahmed Mâhir has conveyed the negative political or religious situations of his period, especially in his work "Mu'cizât-ı Kur'âniyye". Based on the idea that the Qur'an is perfect and contains everything, he used the verses to correct these situations. His work "el-Fâtiha fî Tefsîri'l-Fâtiha" shows us both the traces of the Ottoman tafsir accumulation of that period and that this scholar has a scientific tradition on tafsir, hadith, and literature.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Way of Truth and Principles of Logic in Parmenides

    • Authors: Ali ÇETİN
      Abstract: In the process that followed the evolution of ancient Greek thought from mythology to a systematic philosophy, Parmenides, the founder of the Elea school, built up his thoughts with theses that were the exact opposite of his time and perhaps common sense in general. His famous poem On Nature, in the light of the logical principles, inferences, and analyses it contains, has profoundly influenced both epistemologies in terms of structure and possibility, and ontologies within the framework of time, space, and movement. In the mentioned period, the logical internal consistency of Parmenides and his followers, and the rational level in their arguments shaped the ancient period. The role he played especially in natural philosophy and metaphysics is undeniable. However, the ambiguities in the context of the theses and their interpretations of his poem, the only work that has been quoted, have not been resolved until today. The dimensions of this mystery are not only related to classical thought. Ontologies related to physics approaches, theoretical and institutional beliefs about them, and various cosmogony and language understandings can be related to Parmenides in some way. It is also possible to find in Parmenides's early forms some of the contents that form the basis of the philosophy of logic and has metaphysical roots constructed by Aristotle in the ancient period and for which he gained a well-deserved reputation. In addition to the deductive approach, especially the law of contradiction, the principle of identity, the law of excluded third, and the principles of sufficient reason are the most important concepts among those mentioned. These principles, which are not directly formulated, have been used in the context of Parmenides’ arguments about knowledge, existence, and related concepts. In our study, by touching on the significant points of the poem written by Parmenides, we will try to examine the conceptual uses and logical structures of the principles we have expressed and follow the traces of the process in question, and examine its effects. The main reason for this effort is that the content presented by Parmenides continues to be discussed today, maintained its influence in many areas mentioned above, and is an important cornerstone in the development of philosophy.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Perfection and the Ontological Proof

    • Authors: Münteha BEKİ
      Abstract: Ontological argument is based on a reasoning that God’s existence can be dedu- ced from His essence/de nition. In this article, we make an attempt to discuss whether it is possible to establish, by such reasoning, a relationship between God’s essence and His existence in terms of the perfection. In this context, various approaches starting from the term ‘perfection’ are examined, and it seems that those approaches contain several dif culties in their conception of perfection and in their argument for God’s existence. Whereas, by arguing that God necessarily has all attributes indicating perfection and all those perfections necessarily require each other, it is attempted to defend the idea that the nature of God can require His existence necessarily. 
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • No title

    • Authors: Vahdeddin ŞİMŞEK
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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