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Journal of South Carolina Water Resources
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2334-4962
Published by Clemson University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Hydrologic Modeling of Urban Development Scenarios and Low-Impact Design
           Systems on an Undisturbed Coastal Forested Watershed under Extreme
           Rainfall-Runoff Events and Hydro-Meteorological Conditions in a Changing

    • Authors: Julianna Corbin et al.
      Abstract: Watershed 80 (WS80), a reference watershed located in the USDA Forest Service Santee Experimental Forest, has been undisturbed since 1937, including from the silviculture that has historically characterized the region. Therefore, the results from this study are assumed to serve as a baseline of the developmental behavior for similar watersheds along the Southeastern Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was first to analyze and compare the outputs of two rainfall-runoff models, the NRCS program WinTR-55 and the USGS Regional Regression Equations (RREs), with historical data gathered from WS80 to examine which model most accurately fits existing peak flow data. An accurate sense of peak flows is crucial in both the conservation and planning of sites, as proper stormwater management and infrastructure preserve the integrity of both natural resources and humanmade structures. Second, the study sought to analyze the impact of hypothetical development on design peak flow rate with up to 15% watershed imperviousness using each model. Additionally, two hypothetical scenarios of low-impact design (LID) practices such as vegetative rooftops and permeable pavements on development within the watershed were examined using the Purdue University software L-THIA. The USGS RREs overpredicted peak flows by 84% at a 5-yr return period to 12% at a 100-yr return period. WinTR-55 underpredicted peak flows by 31% at a 5-yr return period to 52% at a 100-yr return period. Increases in impervious surfaces led to subsequent increases in modeled design peak flows, with the greatest post-development change in design peak flow rate occurring within the USGS model. Although results showed that neither the USGS nor WinTR-55 models accurately predicted the design peak flow data from the watershed, USGS predictions were closer to the observed values for 50-yr or higher return periods than that from WinTR-55. Though LID practices were only applied up to a hypothetical 15% of the watershed, when fully implemented they were estimated to exert a 98% reduction in runoff which translated to a total reduction in volume by 20% and depth by 16% as compared to traditional design counterparts. This hypothesized evidence indicates the merit for using LID practices for runoff management even in situations of low imperviousness.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:11:56 PDT
  • Gauging Residential Knowledge and Behavior to Inform Stormwater Outreach
           Efforts across South Carolina

    • Authors: Amy E. Scaroni et al.
      Abstract: Public outreach and education are important components of local stormwater management efforts aimed at protecting water quality and reducing pollutants of concern. Increasingly, educators recognize that creating effective outreach material depends on an understanding of the target audience, their current behavior, and their barriers and motivations to adopting pro-environmental behaviors. Clemson Extension’s Carolina Clear program partners with 39 communities across South Carolina to provide compliance-based stormwater education and outreach. On behalf of these community partners, Carolina Clear conducted the third iteration of a telephone survey to gauge local knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of residents related to stormwater and watershed health. Results presented here will highlight key knowledge gaps (e.g., the misconception that stormwater runoff is treated) and behaviors (e.g., dumping down storm drains) that could potentially be targeted through education and removal of barriers (e.g., storm drain markings). Survey results showed ongoing misperceptions about the major sources of stormwater pollution, whether stormwater is treated, and what behaviors generate pollution. However, results also show a high level of concern about water quality, as well as a desire to practice pro-environmental behavior. Highlighting the connection between potential sources of pollution, such as pet waste and septic systems, and impacts, such as shellfish bed closures and swimming restrictions, could provide stronger awareness and motivation, particularly among the large number of residents who enjoy visiting beaches and who swim, fish, and boat in local waterways. Ultimately, the survey results can be used by a variety of educators and practitioners statewide to better understand and identify target audiences and to guide the development of stormwater programming that addresses these knowledge gaps. Conducting focus groups with subpopulations of residents is recommended as a next step to further identify specific motivations within subpopulations of residents. Combining the survey results with focus-group data can help educators remove barriers to taking action and further motivate behavior change.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:11:42 PDT
  • Lowcountry Landowners’ Wetlands Knowledge and Perceptions and the
           Impacts of Land Management Actions on Isolated Wetlands

    • Authors: Abigail Locatis Prochaska et al.
      Abstract: The South Carolina Lowcountry has an abundance of geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), which provide important water cycling functions and biogeochemical processing services, and which are habitat for rare and threatened plants and animals. Isolated wetlands are not well protected in a regulatory or legal sense in the United States, including South Carolina, leaving them vulnerable to land use change pressures from rapid growth and in-migration. This project investigated how private landowners in rural areas near Charleston, South Carolina, perceive wetlands and their general knowledge about wetlands using semistructured interviews and site visits. Landowners’ observed and self-reported management and use activities were documented and analyzed for impacts to isolated wetland hydrology and amphibian habitat quality. Most landowners had positive perceptions of wetlands, were somewhat knowledgeable about wetland functions, and were conducting land use activities that could possibly affect the hydrology and negatively impact the habitat quality of the isolated wetlands on their property. Many landowners exhibited a disconnect between the perceived impacts of their management and use activities and the impacts observed in this study. While these private landowners do not seem to be threatening the hydrology of GIWs in this area, the impacts to habitat quality are still concerning. Landowner education programming is recommended, which would link common management activities to impacts on isolated wetlands. Furthermore, policy and land use zoning changes would encourage the protection of isolated wetlands in this region.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:11:27 PDT
  • Stakeholder Voice in Water Resource Planning

    • Authors: Chikezie Isiguzo et al.
      Abstract: Stakeholder engagement for natural resource management at the state and local levels has become an important governance practice. This study examines the association of individual traits (aggressive communication, comfort with technology, and argumentativeness) with stakeholder participant voice in a water basin planning virtual meeting setting. Individual participants of the Edisto River Basin Council (RBC) meetings are the subject of the study. South Carolina decentralized water planning to the river basin level, creating RBCs and appointing interested and relevant stakeholders as members. While the river basin planning process did not envisage virtual (Zoom) meetings for the regular meetings of the RBC, the COVID pandemic required this to begin the planning process. Moreover, meeting participants possess diverse interests, powers, and individual traits that may affect the use of voice and engagement.There is well-established literature on stakeholder participation in resource planning. However, there are gaps in the literature regarding use of voice in virtual meeting settings in water resources planning, especially in settings like water-abundant areas in the Southeastern United States. Using the Edisto RBC as a pilot basin and quantitative surveys, preliminary results found that while RBC participants were on average comfortable with technology, they generally avoided conflict, they exhibited average communication apprehension in a meeting environment, and virtual meetings appear to limit participant’s use of voice. Consequently, meeting planners must recognize that not all participants express themselves optimally in virtual meeting settings. In this vein, planners must work to develop opportunities for as much active engagement and sharing as possible.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:11:12 PDT
  • Guest Commentary - South Carolina Water Quality Monitoring Data Elevated
           for Research, Decision Making, and the Internet of Water

    • Authors: Laura J. Shumway et al.
      Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Water Quality Exchange (WQX) and the Water Quality Portal (WQP) are the nationally accepted data systems used for submitting, storing, and retrieving water quality data. They were designed using strict water quality data standards, facilitate accessibility, and make the data discoverable as recommended by the Internet of Water (IoW).The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), along with their community partners, have demonstrated successful data publishing and incorporation of federal, state, tribal, and community partner data from WQP into research studies and decision making.We encourage all water quality partners in South Carolina, especially authors who publish their research in the Journal of South Carolina Water Resources, to make their data publicly available through WQX/WQP because it allows others to build on original research, increases data inclusion in SCDHEC water quality assessments, and facilitates the public communication of water quality information through EPA’s How’s My Waterway.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:10:57 PDT
  • Foreword

    • Authors: Dwayne E. Porter et al.
      Abstract: Volume 8, Issue 2 of the Journal of South Carolina Water Resources (JSCWR) includes four articles. Three articles focus on the crucial factors of public perceptions and communications across various stakeholder groups. The fourth article examines the hydrologic modeling of a coastal forest watershed. Additionally, an informative guest commentary about the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Water Quality Exchange (WQX) and Water Quality Portal (WQP) was contributed by authors from the EPA and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC).
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:10:42 PDT
  • Widespread Contamination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in South Carolina
           and North Carolina (USA): A Legacy of Malarial Eradication and Mosquito

    • Authors: James B. Glover et al.
      Abstract: The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) has been conducting fish tissue monitoring for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) since 1974 and, based on the results, restrictive fish consumption advice has been in place at two reservoirs in South Carolina for several decades. But in 2009, widespread contamination was reported in fish from the Catawba-Wateree and Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basins. Therefore, beginning in 2010, additional monitoring of fish tissue for PCBs in the rivers and reservoirs of these two basins was initiated. Results from a spatial analysis, combined with evidence from historic literature, suggests that the source of the PCB contamination, in part, is from past direct application of used transformer oil on reservoirs located along the two rivers, the origins of which were hydroelectric projects in both basins. The use of used motor oil for mosquito control and malaria eradication was widespread in the first half of the twentieth century, and results suggest that for some utility operations, PCB oil was utilized to augment these programs. The global ramifications of these findings are not yet known, but they should encourage reconsideration of origin, transport, and fate of PCBs in other regions, particularly where a known source of environmental contamination is not obvious.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 05:30:48 PDT
  • Volume 8, Issue 2

    • Abstract: Volume 8, Issue 2 of the Journal of South Carolina Water Resources (JSCWR) includes four articles. Three articles focus on the crucial factors of public perceptions and communications across various stakeholder groups. The fourth article examines the hydrologic modeling of a coastal forest watershed. Additionally, an informative guest commentary about the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Water Quality Exchange (WQX) and Water Quality Portal (WQP) was contributed by authors from the EPA and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC).
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:28:34 PDT
  • Health Communication Blindspot: A Case Study of Harmful Algal Blooms in
           the South Atlantic States

    • Authors: Jaron King
      Abstract: A Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) is a complex natural event that occurs when algae reach a critical biomass and create one or more toxins harmful to biological life or the environment. By definition, HABs create both ecological and public health challenges. Because governments are the entities most often tasked with the responsibility for shared resources, this case study represents a snapshot of current governmental messaging about HABs in the South Atlantic states. The objective of this online content analysis is to determine the readability of both state and federal government online communications regarding HABs using the Simple Measures of Gobbledygook (SMOG) test. Sources for this study were obtained using a targeted search of both South Atlantic state websites and federal agencies concerned with HABs and their effects on human health. In total, 90 webpages were identified from state (n=38) and federal agencies (n=42), as well as nongovernmental organizations (n=10). The average SMOG score of all 90 sources is an 11th grade reading level (10.7). This content analysis reflects the complexity of scientific communication. However, as evaluation and improvement are the final steps in any public health programming, evaluation needs to be undertaken in all environmental health communications in order to properly inform the public about known toxicological and environmental health risks.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:28:18 PDT
  • Enterococci Contamination on Edisto Island, South Carolina: Frequency,
           Sources of Contamination, and Prospects on How to Improve Water Quality

    • Authors: Christina Ek et al.
      Abstract: Beach monitoring samples were collected from 18 (14 currently in use) locations on Edisto Island, South Carolina, from 2000 to 2016 to assess patterns of water quality violations (contraventions) indicated by the presence of multiple Enterococcus species, including Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, bacteria used to assess the health of surface waters for contact recreation. Statistical analyses were conducted comparing Enterococci levels and different environmental variables including location, tidal stages, wind direction, and time. Specific focus was placed on temporal and spatial patterns for dates when the bacteria levels exceeded 104 Most Probable Numbers (MPN) per 100 milliliters (ml), which is the Enterococcus single sample maximum (SSM) water quality standard in South Carolina.Results indicated that 2.2% of the samples exceeded the Enterococcus SSM standard and that the majority of these SSM contraventions occurred in September, during periods without significant rainfall but when primarily easterly winds occurred, at or near the time of flooding associated with King Tides (flood tides higher than 7.5 ft). Statistical analysis indicated that wind direction and tidal stage (at or around high tide—¾ flood to ¼ ebb) appeared to have more of an impact on bacterial levels than rainfall, per se.Microbial source tracking using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was conducted and used to identify potential bacterial pollution sources causing Enterococci levels to exceed the SSM. Results indicated that birds and domestic dogs, rather than humans, were the major sources of bacterial pollution. These findings suggested that flooding during King Tides inundated a larger area of the beach-face surface containing bird and dog waste, which resulted in elevated levels of Enterococcus SSM contraventions, primarily on the southern end of the island. These findings are particularly relevant due to the increasing sea-level rise associated with climate change.Changes in population growth on Edisto Island were also analyzed and indicated that permanent population has been increasing at a relatively low rate, while high rates of tourism growth have been observed and may play a factor in observed increases in Enterococcus SSM contraventions. Comparisons of contact recreational water quality with other South Carolina (SC) beaches indicated that Edisto Island (2.2% of Enterococcus SSM contraventions) was third only behind the Grand Strand (10.9%) and Sullivan’s Island (3.9%), both of which have much higher population densities (777–1,300 people/sq. mile) compared to Edisto Island (36 people/sq. mile). These low population densities at Edisto Island and microbial source tracking results further indicate that most pollution sources were from birds and dogs and indicate the important role of coastal flooding associated with climate change. Coastal flooding is continuing to significantly increase as 24.4% of all King Tide flooding events in Charleston, South Carolina, over the past 67 years have occurred from 2019 to 2020. Better management of microbial pollution sources from dogs and birds is essential to prevent further degradation and loss of ecosystem services.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:28:03 PDT
  • Identification of Stormwater Pollution Hotspots in Charleston Peninsula

    • Authors: Ashleigh Kirker et al.
      Abstract: Flooding is of great concern in fast-growing coastal communities, especially in the southeastern US, due to multiplying threats such as extreme precipitation, coastal storms, and rising sea levels. Contamination associated with stormwater runoff is often given less attention during stormwater planning and management decisions. The US EPA has long recognized that stormwater runoff is the biggest contributor to the impairment of water bodies in the US. In this study, we studied stormwater runoff contamination in a densely developed section of downtown Charleston, South Carolina, to better understand the extent of the problem and identify potential hotspots that could aid in future stormwater management decisions.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:27:48 PDT
  • South Carolina Sampling, Analysis, and Governance of Per- and
           Polyfluoroalkyl Substances

    • Authors: Justin Kidd et al.
      Abstract: The extent of sampling, analytical, and governance guidelines for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in individual states is currently inconsistent. There are no federally mandated regulations on PFAS, and the geochemical variations within different states can lead to regionally specific PFAS contamination, resulting in state-specific guidelines for PFAS contamination in different environmental matrices. There are no facilities in South Carolina known to currently or previously produce PFAS; however, they may be used in the production of other goods at industries throughout South Carolina, including Class B firefighting foams, consumer items, packaging, and stain- and weather-resistant fabrics. We assessed the sampling, analytical, and governance strategies of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to understand current state-specific guidelines for PFAS contamination in South Carolina. This assessment indicates that SCDHEC has conducted sampling and analysis of community drinking water systems supplied by surface water for PFAS contamination. Additionally, risk indicators have been made for highly susceptible areas for likely PFAS contamination, including Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sites, airports, and landfills in South Carolina. Recently, bills have been introduced into the South Carolina legislature to address PFAS. These proactive approaches in South Carolina aid in the assessment of the risks of PFAS contamination and are important steps for SCDHEC and South Carolina legislative stakeholders as they continue to develop and enforce state-specific standards for PFAS chemicals and await more information and official regulatory drivers from the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA).
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:27:33 PDT
  • MalNPDES Phase II Stormwater Rule—Integrating Community Engagement
           and Engineering Education

    • Authors: Monica Gray
      Abstract: The Engineering Program at Coastal Carolina University seeks to train future leaders who will develop and implement sustainable solutions to global challenges by engaging students in real-world, community-based projects starting with the two-course Cornerstone Sequence. The program’s vision is to: (1) increase participation of underrepresented and minority groups and address the persistent degree attainment gap in engineering; (2) create a learning and professional environment where diversity is celebrated as seminal to program success and where all students, particularly underrepresented and minority groups, thrive and excel; and (3) develop future leaders who are knowledgeable and who are able to apply scientific and engineering principles to impact the well-being of the global society and its environment. The Coastal Waccamaw Stormwater Education Consortium (CWSEC) members include six citizen science education agencies and eight municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) serving Horry and Georgetown Counties in South Carolina. The mandate of the consortium is to help local governments meet EPA’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Stormwater Management Program Phase II Rule by implementing the following Minimum Control Measures (MCM): (1) Public Education and Outreach on Stormwater Impacts, and (2) Public Participation/Involvement. The consortium and the Engineering Program have partnered on MCM (1) and (2) by: (i) Integrating consortium activities in the ENGR 199/299 Cohort Grant Challenge Cornerstone Course Sequence’s deliverables. The objective of this two-course sequence is for students to identify and formulate complex engineering problems utilizing the National Academy of Engineering’s (NAE)14 Grand Challenges for Engineering in the twenty-first century as a framework for community-based projects; and (ii) Collaborating with representatives from municipalities and educational providers that are members of the consortium to provide current stormwater-related engineering design challenges to student groups. This paper reports on an initial, successful prototype of this partnership that occurred during the 2020 fall semester. Projects were focused on various aspects of the NAE Grand Challenge—“Provide Access to Clean Water.” The long-term vision is to integrate consortium activities into the engineering curriculum while leveraging the talent of engineering students to solve stormwater challenges in the community.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:27:19 PDT
  • “I Won’t Use the Term Dumbing It Down, but You Have to Take the
           Scientific Jargon Out”: A Qualitative Study of Environmental Health
           Partners’ Communication Practices and Needs

    • Authors: Katya Altman et al.
      Abstract: Effective research translation and science communication are necessary for successful implementation of water resources management initiatives. This entails active involvement of stakeholders through collaborative partnerships and knowledge-sharing practices. To follow up a recent study with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)–funded Center for Oceans and Human Health and Climate Change Interactions (OHHC2I) project investigators, the center’s Community Engagement Core (CEC) documented center partners’ science communication practices and needs to inform a collaborative training and improve investigator-partner bidirectional communication. Thirteen (13) individuals participated in 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on their research translation needs, science communication and dissemination tactics, and interactions and experiences with scientists. Based on our findings, we recommend a collaborative, scientist-stakeholder training to include plain language development, dissemination tactics, communication evaluation, stakeholder and intended audience engagement, and strategies for effective transdisciplinary partnerships. This work contributes to the knowledge and understanding of stakeholder engagement practices specifically focused on science communication that can enhance relationship-building between academia and partners involved in environmental health–focused initiatives in the context of South Carolina but applicable elsewhere.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:27:03 PDT
  • The Road to Resiliency for South Carolina Water Utilities Paved by
           Planning, Persistence, and Careful Navigation of Realities and

    • Authors: Kaleigh Sims et al.
      Abstract: Planning for a resilient future from known and emerging threats is a topic of interest among many organizations, especially in the utility sector. South Carolina communities depend on reliable and safe sources of drinking water and generally do not anticipate interruptions or issues with their water providers. With the rate at which the state is growing, the dependency will only increase. SynTerra worked with five utilities in South Carolina to assess their risk and resilience and develop or update emergency response plans. This paper reports on key takeaways from this experience in an effort to provide guidance on lessons learned to work toward a resilient future. The overall purpose of this paper is an effort to provide a firsthand account of how assessments and plans can be used as a guide for continuous improvement toward resiliency, with an ultimate goal of protecting human health.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:26:49 PDT
  • Foreword

    • Authors: Geoff Scott et al.
      Abstract: The Journal of South Carolina Water Resources (JSCWR) is dedicated to scientific research and policy to meet the growing challenge of providing water resources for the sustainable growth of South Carolina’s economy while preserving its natural resources. This special issue focuses on Water Quality and Public Health and is sponsored by the federally funded Center for Oceans and Human Health and Climate Change Interactions (COHHC2I) at the University of South Carolina (UofSC). In addition to UofSC researchers, the COHHC2I involves researchers, students, and other participants from Baylor University, The Citadel, College of Charleston, Rutgers University, University of Maryland’s Center for Environmental Science, and the Lowcountry Alliance for Model Communities and Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 12:26:33 PDT
  • Journal of South Carolina Water Resources

    • Abstract: The Journal of South Carolina Water Resources (JSCWR) is dedicated to scientific research and policy to meet the growing challenge of providing water resources for the sustainable growth of South Carolina’s economy while preserving its natural resources. This special issue focuses on Water Quality and Public Health and is sponsored by the federally funded Center for Oceans and Human Health and Climate Change Interactions (COHHC2 I) at the University of South Carolina (UofSC). In addition to UofSC researchers, the COHHC2 I involves researchers, students, and other participants from Baylor University, The Citadel, College of Charleston, Rutgers University, University of Maryland’s Center for Environmental Science, and the Lowcountry Alliance for Model Communities and Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 05:55:41 PDT
  • Floodplain Geomorphology and Response to Hurricanes: Lower Pee Dee Basin,
           South Carolina

    • Authors: Thomas M. Williams et al.
      Abstract: Undeveloped forested wetlands in the valleys of coastal plain rivers can play a large role in storing floodwater and attenuating river flooding. In the lower Pee Dee, Little Pee Dee, and Lynches Rivers, these wetlands played a large role in mitigating downstream flooding following Hurricane Florence. Wetland forest flood mitigation was most effective for large flows in the Great Pee Dee River, where flooding on former river terraces determined the course of overbank flow and the potential storage of floodwaters. Floodwater storage and attenuation of water level were less effective if larger flows were limited to the Little Pee Dee River. Large rains prior to Hurricane Matthew, and to a lesser extent Tropical Storm Bertha, caused the forested wetland to be a source of additional flow, although with little increase in peak stage.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Aug 2021 10:18:33 PDT
  • Streamflow and Tidal Dynamics in the Lower Pee Dee Basin: Hurricane

    • Authors: Thomas M. Williams et al.
      Abstract: Over past years, extreme tropical storm events along the North and South Carolina coasts—and subsequent river flooding—have warranted the need for a better understanding of the hydrologic response to these events to protect life, property, businesses, and natural and cultural resources. Our focus in this study is the Pee Dee and Waccamaw River systems, which ultimately flow into Winyah Bay near Georgetown, South Carolina. River flows, coupled with the tidal nature of these freshwater systems, are complex and difficult to predict. The objective of the work is to analyze publicly available data from gauging stations along those river system as measured during Hurricanes Matthew and Florence and Tropical Storm Bertha—three uniquely different storm systems that produced varying rainfall depth, duration, and intensity across the Pee Dee Basin. The most important factor in tidal river analysis is the location of the stagnation point , where downstream river flow exactly balances upstream tidal flow. River flow only controls water level upstream of a tidal stagnation point, while ocean tide controls the water level downstream of a tidal stagnation point. An analysis of major flooding following Hurricanes Matthew, Florence, and Tropical Storm Bertha was used to determine the river flows associated with tidal stagnation at each stream gauge active during these storms. A major limitation of the analysis was a lack of flow data for the tidal channels in Georgetown County, which resulted in uncertainty in the flow associated with stagnation and uncertainty in the role played by each of the creeks that connect the Pee Dee and Waccamaw Rivers. Ignorance of the roles of these creeks most limited understanding of the relative importance of Pee Dee and Waccamaw flow to cause stagnation near Pawleys Island and Hagley gauges on the Waccamaw River and the Socastee gauge on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Aug 2021 10:18:18 PDT
  • Understanding Stakeholders’ Knowledge, Awareness, and Perception of
           Conservation Programs in South Carolina

    • Authors: J. Carl Ureta et al.
      Abstract: The increasing population and economic growth of South Carolina make it attractive for landowners to convert their land to commercial and urbanized zones. However, since ecosystems are directly affected by land use, changes in these land uses directly impact the ecosystem services (ES). Therefore, efforts to conserve ecosystems are paramount and are often supported through conservation-incentive programs. One approach for conservation programs is to provide economic incentives for landowners to retain their land as forest or agricultural land. The success of these programs eventually affects the ES recipients or “end-users,” particularly the residents. Therefore, it is important to understand the stakeholders’ perceptions toward these programs. Understanding the landowners’ perception can provide information on how to engage them to join the conservation programs. Furthermore, knowing the residents’ perception could improve the “buy-in” or support from the public for promoting conservation within the community. The stakeholders’ perception can serve as a feedback mechanism and could provide key information for improving implementation strategies for conservation programs.This study elicited the knowledge, awareness, and perception of South Carolina residents and landowners to conservation programs. Results show that while a majority are not aware of the conservation programs being implemented in the state, there is no doubt that residents and landowners know the importance of conservation and how it affects their well-being. However, since many conservation concepts use technical terminology, stakeholders have increased difficulty grasping these concepts. This poses a challenge for academics and conservation agencies to improve communication methods and better impart conservation messaging. The results also show that residents are willing to support the conservation programs; landowners are willing to participate in conservation activities, especially if they are compensated. Therefore, this emphasizes a good opportunity to establish stakeholder-driven strategies such as sustainable financing mechanisms for conservation programs.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Aug 2021 10:18:02 PDT
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