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Journal of Fisheries and Environment
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ISSN (Print) 2630-0702 - ISSN (Online) 2630-0826
Published by Kasetsart University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Impacts of Rainfall and Related Hydrological Factors on Spawning
           Characteristics of Silver Barb (Barbonymus gonionotus Bleeker, 1849) in a
           Tropical Reservoir Ecosystem

    • Authors: Porawadee Asawamanasak, Charumas Meksumpun
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Climate change has a major influence on aquatic biodiversity and hydrological conditions, and it will continue to adversely affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. Ubolratana Reservoir is a shallow mesotrophic reservoir in Northeast Thailand and serves multiple purposes, including fisheries activity. This study investigates the possible impacts of rainfall, water inflow, and water storage of the reservoir on spawning characteristics of silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus Bleeker, 1849). Results show that meteoro-hydrological factors affected fish larvae in the riverine zones of the Phong and Choen river inlets during the early rainy season (June of 2018 and 2019). High densities of larvae (1,096 and 12 individuals·1,000 m-3) were found in Phong and Choen rivers, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the density of newly hatched larvae (age<3 days) in the Phong River channel was correlated with rainfall (λ = 0.19) and its relative increase (λ = 0.51), while density of older larvae (age>3 days) was correlated with volume of inflow (λ = 0.81) and its relative increase (λ = 0.76). Therefore, rainfall and inflow are identified as important factors influencing the larval densities of silver barb in the reservoir’s riverine ecosystem. These findings imply that rainfall and inflows into the reservoir ecosystem should be considered along with other factors for further conservation management of fishery resources.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Water Level Fluctuations and Fish Yield Variations in Lake Naivasha,
           Kenya: The Trends and Relationship

    • Authors: George Morara, Reuben Omondi, Beatrice Obegi, Albert Getabu, James Njiru, Nehemiah Rindoria
      Pages: 13 - 27
      Abstract: Water level fluctuations (WLF) influence the distribution and abundance of aquatic species. This study analyzed Lake Naivasha's WLF and fish yield datasets from 1980 to 2019 to determine their trends and interrelationships for sustainable fishery management. Trends detection applied the Mann-Kendall formula, while the effect of WLF on fish yield was tested using simple linear regression. Results show an average annual water level elevation of 1887.4 m above sea level and average annual fish yield of 446.1 tonnes·year-1. Both WLF and fish yield depicted significant monotonic increasing trends (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Fish yield and WLF showed a positive relationship. Simple linear regression confirmed that fish yield could be predicted by trends in WLF. Significant regression equations were found in both direct (p = 0.0227; r2 = 0.1396) and indirect (p = 0.005; r2 = 0.2096) datasets. Periodic WLF affect available fish habitat area and stock abundance, with consequent implications for total annual fish yield. Given the fluctuating water level conditions, effective control of fishing effort in Lake Naivasha is likely to have positive influence on its annual fish yield. Sustainable management of the lake’s fishery resource should include measures aimed at mitigating both human and climate-induced impacts on the lake level.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Growth Analysis of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria (Halodeima) atra
           (Holothuroidea Aspidochirotida) in Seagrass and Seaweed Habitats

    • Authors: Vanyarat Kongsap, Ekkalak Rattanachot, Wittaya Buaphol, Jaruwan Mayakun
      Pages: 28 - 36
      Abstract: The sea cucumber Holothuria atra is an ecologically and economically important benthic animal. However, biological and ecological data on growth of H. atra in Thai waters are non-existent. Therefore, the present study aimed to obtain and compare growth parameters from length-frequency data of H. atra collected from two habitats. Specimens were collected above ground on intertidal seagrass and seaweed beds along the Andaman coast of Thailand in Satun Province. Theoretical von Bertalanffy growth parameters were analyzed using the ELEFAN I program in the FiSAT II software package. Asymptotic length was smaller and growth coefficient was higher in the seagrass habitat than in the seaweed habitat (L∞ = 32 cm; K = 0.65 year-1 and L∞ = 40 cm; K = 0.55 year-1, respectively). It might be that sea cucumbers in the seagrass habitat survived in the less favorable environment by reaching asymptotic length more rapidly. The more complex structure of the seaweed habitat provides protection and shelter from water movement and low tide stresses. These conditions might be more suitable for growth. The theoretical age at length zero was -0.24 year in the seagrass habitat and -0.27 year in the seaweed habitat. In both habitats, length at birth was around 5 cm. Growth was rapid from age 0-2 years, but slow thereafter, until asymptotic length was reached at around 4 years in the seagrass habitat and 5 years in the seaweed habitat. These findings suggest that different habitats influence the growth of H. atra.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Antifouling Activity from Extracts of
           Aboveground and Belowground Parts of Seagrasses Cymodocea rotundata and
           Cymodocea serrulata

    • Authors: Puntip Wisespongpand, Attawut Khantavong, Preecha Phothong, Wutthikorn Wanghom
      Pages: 37 - 53
      Abstract: Seagrasses have been known to produce metabolites with significant bioactivities, which vary by plant part and age, season, location, and solvent used for extraction. This study is the first to specify the most effective parts of seagrasses and solvents for their extraction. Two seagrass species were used in the present study: Cymodocea rotundata (CR) and Cymodocea serrulata (CS). Extracts from aboveground (leaves) and belowground parts (rhizomes and roots) using three different solvents showed significantly different antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifouling activity (p<0.05). The maximum antimicrobial activities were found for the root-dichloromethane extracts of both CR and CS which showed broad antimicrobial activity against seven and five microorganisms, respectively, with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 312.5 mg·mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilis. The root-70% acetone extract of CS and leaf-70% acetone extract of CR possessed the most effective DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 62.1 and 43.96 for CS and 125.8 and 60.60 mg·mL-1 for CR, respectively. The most promising extracts as antifoulants (by their inhibition of byssus production) were leaf-70% acetone extracts of CR and CS, with EC50 of 6.18 and 6.12 mg·mL-1, respectively. Phenol content was correlated with DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition of byssus production (r = 0.468 [p<0.05] and 0.577 [p<0.05], respectively). This study clearly demonstrates beneficial properties of extracts made from CR and CS, and the findings can guide future development of the extracts into safe antimicrobial and antioxidant products and environmentally friendly antifoulants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Morphometric and Meristic Variation of African Snakehead Fish Parachanna
           obscura, Günther, 1861 from Nigeria’s Freshwater Environment

    • Authors: Friday Elijah Osho, Bamidele Oluwarotimi Omitoyin, Emmanuel Kolawole Ajani , Olugbenga Orisasona , Oladeji Kazeem Kareem , Adetola Jenyo-Oni
      Pages: 54 - 65
      Abstract: To attain food security in Africa, the expansion of aquaculture through domestication of endemic species like Parachanna obscura is essential. Optimizing these resources requires a definition of the status of the natural populations that will supply broodstocks and seeds. Morphological variation based on 22 morphological and seven meristic features was investigated. The 12 river basins in Nigeria were purposively selected while one river in each of the basins was randomly chosen for P. obscura sampling. In total, 872 individuals from five rivers (Anambra, Ibbi, Imo, Katsina-Ala and Ogun) were collected and morphometric data taken for ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Standard length (0.969) and post orbital length (0.971) had highest correlation with total length, while anal fin base (0.379) and inter orbital length (0.427) were the least correlated with total length. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Katsina-Ala and Ogun River populations were the most discriminated from the others, based primarily on anal fin base length. Among the meristic characteristics were fin ray counts: dorsal (range 41-48), pectoral (13-17), pelvic 5-7), caudal (12-13), and anal (29-45). Notably, ranges of dorsal and anal fin ray counts observed herein were slightly wider than previously reported. The study revealed significant phenotypic variation to be considered to maximize benefits from future domestication efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Genetic Diversity and Population Differentiation of Ball Sea Cucumber
           Phyllophorella kohkutiensis in Thai Waters Derived from COI and 16S rDNA

    • Authors: Thadsin Panithanarak
      Pages: 66 - 79
      Abstract: A ball sea cucumber species (Phyllophorella kohkutiensis) is widely distributed along both coasts of Thailand. Recently, harvest of ball sea cucumber from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea has been increasing, while basic information necessary for conservation and management of this species, such as population data, has never been reported in Thailand. Consequently, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, population structure and haplotype relationships of specimens found in Thai waters were examined in this study using mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and large ribosomal RNA (16S rDNA) genes. The sea cucumber populations from the Gulf of Thailand, Ban Don Bay (Amphur Tha Chang, Surat Thani Province, n = 30), Andaman Sea, Tumbon Koh Sarai (Satun Province, n = 30) and Tumbon Aow Luek Noi (Krabi Province, n = 30) showed relatively moderate overall haplotype diversity (h = 0.509±0.065 for COI, h = 0.544±0.057 for 16S rDNA) and low overall nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00120±0.00021 for COI, π = 0.00142±0.00021 for 16S rDNA). Significant genetic differentiation was observed among these three sampled populations. However, AMOVA and haplotype network analyses provide some evidence of historical gene flow across regions (between the lower Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea) and rapid population expansion.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Heavy Metal Concentrations in Captured Marine Fishes of Peninsular
           Malaysia and Estimation of Target Hazard Quotient through Dietary Intake

    • Authors: Baharom Intan Nurlemsha, Mohd Yusoff Nurulnadia, Abu Yazidyusnisab Muhammad, Ku Kassim Ku Yaacob
      Pages: 80 - 94
      Abstract: Fish is a staple food in countries with direct access to the ocean, including Malaysia. However, in the Malaysian diet, fish also represents the main source of heavy metals, especially in commercial fishes. In this study we determined the concentrations of four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead) in fish and estimated target hazard quotient (THQ) values for local consumers. The concentrations of heavy metals in marine fishes, (Decapterus spp., Nemipterus spp. and Rastrelliger spp.) from three fish landing jetties in West (West PM) and East Peninsular Malaysia (East PM) were determined. Heavy Metals in fish muscle samples were extracted using acid-microwave digestion and determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One-way ANOVA was performed to test for temporal and genus variation. Nemipterus spp. in East PM contained significantly higher (p<0.05) levels of arsenic (As, 1,030 to 3,140 ng·g-1 ww) and mercury (Hg, 113 to 790 ng·g-1 ww) than the other two genera, suggesting a greater ability to retain these two heavy metals. Nemipterus spp. in Tok Bali (TB), East PM alone showed consistently high levels of As and Hg in 2017 and 2018, which exceeded the concentration allowed by Malaysian Food Act 1983 (Amendment) (No. 3) Regulations 2014. Based on these results, local consumers in TB were interviewed to gather information for the computation of THQ. The THQ values for As were greater than 1 in all studied fishes, whereas THQ for Hg only exceeded 1 in Nemipterus spp. Thus, THQ values indicate the potential health risk of consuming these types of fishes, particularly in TB.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Supplementing Green Alga Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus in Feed of Litopenaeus
           vannamei Boone, 1931 Reduced Growth Performance and Red Color of Cooked

    • Authors: Pawinee Kleebthong, Chokchai Lueangthuwaprani, Rapeeporn Ruangchuay
      Pages: 95 - 106
      Abstract:             Supplementing shrimp feed with algae has captured interest because it may benefit their growth and health, and even enhance the color of cooked shrimp. In the present study the effects of supplementing Ulva intestinalis in the diet of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Diets of 40 % protein and 10 % lipid were prepared with six different concentrations (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30% [w/w]) of U. intestinalis powder. The experimental diets were given to satiation to stage-30 shrimp post larvae (mean body weight of 0.12±0.01 g) five times per day. After a 12-week cultivation period, the shrimp fed the 0% algae diet (control) had higher final body weight (12.27±0.19 g), daily weight gain (0.42±0.18 g·day-1) and specific growth rate (8.25±2.16 %·day-1) than the groups fed with U. intestinalis. However, the feed conversion ratio (1.80±0.63) and protein efficiency ratio of the control and the groups fed with U. intestinalis diets were not significantly different except for the 30% algae treatment, in which these two parameters were higher than the control. Feeding the alga to the shrimp resulted in reduction of redness (a*) (p<0.05) after cooking, while lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were unaffected in all but one case (b* was significantly reduced in the 30% alga treatment). The shrimp fed 12-24% algae had significantly higher Ca, P and Mg in cooked shrimp than those of the other groups. We conclude that supplementation of U. intestinalis powder in the shrimp diet reduced their growth, while the cooked shrimp had reduced redness.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Hydrodynamics of a Tropical Coastal Lagoon Influenced by Monsoon and Outer
           Sea Conditions: A Case Study of Ao Kung Krabaen Lagoon-Thailand

    • Authors: Tanuspong Pokavanich, Kittipong Phattananuruch
      Pages: 107 - 121
      Abstract: Ao Kung Krabaen Lagoon (AKBL) is a small and shallow coastal lagoon situated in the eastern part of Thailand. It is an important “Blue Carbon” ecosystem of this region. However, water quality of the lagoon has drastically deteriorated in recent years. To counteract the problem, a comprehensive understanding of water circulation within the lagoon and exchange with the outer sea is needed. In this study, seasonal field observations were made and then applied in three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using Delft3D-FLOW. Results indicate that water properties, water circulation and water exchange differ notably by season. During the southwest (SW) monsoon (July-September), circulation is at its strongest, and there are strong double-gyre circulations. This results in enhancing exchange with the sea, hence significantly reducing flushing time. The flushing time during the SW monsoon is approximately three days. During the transition period (April-May) between the northeast monsoon and the SW monsoon, sluggish circulation dominates the lagoon. The flushing time increases to around 10 days, which is the annual maximum. Water circulation within the lagoon is mostly in two-dimensional patterns owing to its shallowness, even though water exchange occurs in three dimensions. This study also demonstrates that the tropical coastal lagoons scattered around the world should be considered three-dimensionally and with attention to varying water density both inside and outside the lagoon to properly model their hydrodynamics and exchange with the outer sea.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Replacement of Fish Meal Protein with Giant Worm (Zophobas morio) and
           Black Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) in Diet of Cobia (Rachycentron

    • Authors: Pitchaya Chainark, Noratat Prachom, Suttisak Boonyoung, Bundit Yuangsoi
      Pages: 122 - 129
      Abstract: Replacement of fish meal with alternative protein ingredients is becoming increasingly important in aquaculture diets. In the present study, giant worm (Zophobas morio) and black cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) were used to replace fish meal in diets of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Cobia fingerlings, with average initial weight 80.84±0.65 g, were fed for eight weeks with three diets: basal diet (100% fish meal as the main protein ingredient), 30 % replacement of fish meal with giant worm meal, and 30 % replacement with black cricket meal. The results showed that the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (63.2-69.1 %) and crude protein (83.9-88.1 %) of cobia were not significantly different (p>0.05) among the three diets. No significant difference in growth was observed among treatments (p>0.05); the average final weight of the experimental fish ranged between 113.11±3.67 and 120.01±2.89 g, and average specific growth rate ranged between 0.53±0.06 and 0.61±0.04 %. Similar results were revealed for feed conversion ratio (1.16±0.07-1.21±0.05) and survival rate (100 %), wherein no significant (p>0.05) differences were observed among treatments. Therefore, the present results clearly demonstrate that giant worm meal and black cricket meal can be used to replace fish meal in cobia diets, at least at 30 % replacement.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Acute Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos (CPF) to Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus): Genotoxicity and Histological Studies

    • Authors: Thorn Soum, Raymond J. Ritchie, Raphatphorn Navakanitworakul, Sakshin Bunthawin, Vipawee Dummee
      Pages: 130 - 140
      Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) has recently become a controversial agricultural chemical in Thailand, with proposals to ban it due to public health concerns. Currently (2021), its use is still allowed as an insecticide in ricefields, but there is concern that CPF in the aquatic environment may impact non target species such as Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This study was conducted to evaluate the standard 96-h LC50 for CPF in juvenile tilapia and to detect any DNA damage and tissue alterations caused by exposure to CPF. The 96-h LC50 was calculated using probit analysis and then used in an acute exposure test. The 96-h LC50 was 22.0±6.0 µg·L-1. The comet assay was conducted to detect any DNA damage, and histological techniques were used to observe tissue alterations. The mean percentage of tail DNA detected in the organs of treated fish showed significant difference (p<0.05) from the control fish, and differences were also found among tissues. Several alterations were observed in the organs of treated fish. Gill histology showed hyperplasia and fusion of secondary epithelial cells, damage of columnar tip cells, and detachment of secondary epithelium. Damage in the stratified squamous epithelium was detected in the oesophagus, and the intestines showed numerous goblet cells with expanded size and fusion of columnar epithelium and villi. The study indicates that CPF is an unsafe insecticide. It causes mortality, DNA damage and tissue alterations at low concentrations. Rice fields and freshwater aquaculture share the same water sources, and so CPF is likely to find its way from paddy fields to both subsistence and commercial aquaculture operations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Management Recommendations for Common Carp Fisheries in Turkey in Light of
           Their Reproductivity and Gear Selectivity

    • Authors: Hakkı Dereli, Yusuf Şen, Turhan Kebapçıoğlu, Mirati Erdoğuş, Zeki Serkan Ölçek, Murathan Özdemir, Aylin Ulman
      Pages: 141 - 156
      Abstract: Common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) is a very important freshwater commercial species in Turkey, but landings there decreased by 73 % from 2008 to 2019. There are knowledge gaps regarding the reproductive biology of the species and the selectivity of fishing gear types in Turkish lakes. This study aims to determine appropriate management measures for common carp fisheries based on gillnet and trammel net selectivity and reproductive characteristics of the species. A study was undertaken with local commercial fishers between June 2015 and December 2016 in Demirköprü Dam Lake in Western Turkey. The spawning season peaked in March, with a secondary spawning season suggested in October/November. Their length at 50 % maturity (Lm50) was 38.7 cm for females and 32 cm for males. Modal lengths for gillnets and trammel nets determined by SELECT method were larger than the minimum landing size (40 cm) and the Lm50 values. However, sub-minimum landing size individuals were captured at high rates by both types of nets with 65 mm mesh. Trammel nets had lower modal lengths and larger spread values than gillnets of the same mesh size. These results demonstrate that some management measures currently applied in carp fishery management are insufficient for stock sustainability.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Benefits of Male Monosex Culture of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii): Improving Growth Performance, Production Yield, and

    • Authors: Putsucha Phansawat, Arunothai Keetanon, Tirawat Rairat, Phongchate Pichitkul, Pakawat Poldetch, Niti Chuchird
      Pages: 157 - 168
      Abstract: We evaluated the advantages of all-male giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture over traditional mixed-sex and all-female systems in the aspects of growth performance, production yield, and profitability. The prawn post-larvae were reared in a nursery pond for 43 days until the male sexual characteristics (gonopore complex) could be distinguished externally, then they were sexed and transferred to monosex grow-out ponds (two ponds per sex) and cultured for another 140 days. The prawn post-larvae in the mixed-sex group were reared for 60 days in the nursery phase and 165 days in the grow-out phase. At harvest, the male prawns from the all-male group had higher body weight (93.02 g), average daily growth (0.66 g·day-1), and specific growth rate (3.41%·day-1), compared to the males in the mixed-sex system (69.38 g, 0.41 g·day-1, and 2.56%·day-1, respectively). The proportion of an unfavorable “small male” morphotype was reduced from 20.11 % in the mixed-sex culture to 4.67 % in the all-male system, whereas that of a desirable “orange claw” morphotype was increased from 38.59 to 61.33 %. Ultimately, the production yield of the all-male group was 2,076.6 kg·ha-1, whereas that of the mixed-sex system was 1,273.8 kg·ha-1. The cost-benefit analysis revealed that the former was 155.78 % more profitable than the latter. The all-female group showed the best survival rate and feed conversion ratio, yet it was the least profitable system. In conclusion, the all-male culture was the most productive and profitable system of giant freshwater prawn farming.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Influence of Extraction Methods on the Chemical Composition and
           Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharide Extracts from Discarded Sea Grape
           (Caulerpa lentillifera)

    • Authors: Orranich Honwichit, Pasakorn Ruengsaengrob , Chonchanok Buathongjan , Suvimol Charoensiddhi
      Pages: 169 - 179
      Abstract: Sea grape (Caulerpa lentillifera) is a green marine macroalga which contains polysaccharides as major components of the cell wall. After harvesting and grading for sale, approximately 60-70 % of sea grapes are considered to have defects and are unsaleable. However, their nutritional values are not affected and thus they should be utilized for other purposes such as a source of natural products. The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of pH of the extraction solvents and extraction time on the polysaccharide yield and chemical composition of C. lentillifera extracts, and to investigate their antioxidant potentials. Hot water extraction (pH 6) at 90 °C for 20 min was practical and the most cost-effective method compared to acidic or alkaline conditions and compared to longer extraction times. The polysaccharide extracts contained 47 % total carbohydrate, 31 % minerals, and 19 % sulfate by dry weight (dw). The major monosaccharides (% mol) were galactose (37 %), mannose (32 %), xylose (19 %) and glucose (11 %). The high-molecular weight (Mw) polysaccharide extract was determined to be approximately 3,830 kDa relative to dextran standard. Acid hydrolysis with 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 70 °C for 120 min was performed on the extract to obtain the low-Mw polysaccharide extract (~21 kDa). The antioxidant activities of the low-Mw polysaccharide extract were ten-fold higher than the high-Mw polysaccharide extract. Low-Mw polysaccharide extract had the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 0.08 mg∙mL-1 for DPPH and 1.07 mg∙mL-1 for ABTS, which was lower than the high-Mw polysaccharide extract (0.9 and 10.8 mg∙mL-1). Therefore, the extracted polysaccharide with low-Mw has high potential for use as an antioxidant ingredient in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
  • Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate Distribution and Water Quality as Organic
           Pollution Indicators for Fish Farming Areas in Rawang Sub-basin, Selangor
           River, Malaysia: A Correlation Analysis

    • Authors: Nadeesha Dilani Hettige, Rohasliney Hashim, Ahmad Abas Kutty, Zulfa Hanan Ash’aari, Nor Rohaizah Jamil
      Pages: 180 - 197
      Abstract: Fish farming activities are essential to the economy of many countries. However, the discharge of fish farm effluents into nearby rivers can negatively impact benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality. In Malaysia, the correlation between water quality and benthic macroinvertebrates in areas impacted by fish farming has not been discussed comprehensively. Hence, this research investigated the connection between benthic communities and water quality in the Rawang sub-basin of the Selangor River using several statistical methods. Based on ease of accessibility and proximity to freshwater fish farms, and by using a random sampling method, seven sampling sites in six rivers were chosen including one reference site. Sampling of benthic macroinvertebrates and river water was carried out between April 2019 and March 2020. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that fish farming operations influence various water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, and ammonia-nitrogen. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that families Aeolosomatidae, Chironomidae, Lumbriculidae, Naididae, Planorbidae, and Tubificidae are tolerant to organic pollution. Their abundance was correlated with high BOD5, COD, turbidity, TSS, and ammonia-nitrogen. On the other hand, the families Caenidae, Gomphidae, Aytidae, Leptophlebiidae, Thiaridae, and Viviparidae are sensitive to organic pollution and were correlated with DO concentration. This research revealed that the correlation between benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality in the area is affected explicitly by fish farms.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2022)
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