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J. of Bioresource Management     Open Access  
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Journal of Bioresource Management
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2309-3854
Published by Bioresource Research Centre Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A Review on Empirical Approach to Therapeutic Recombinant Protein
           Production Factories: Applications, Pharmacokinetics and Challenges

    • Authors: Zahra Naz et al.
      Abstract: Major portion of the proteins in a cell refers to their critical roles in metabolism of the living body. Proteins dysfunction results in the severe disorders which need to be treated in time. For this, respective proteins can be extracted by the external sources and be supplied to the human beings. Such medicinal proteins are known as therapeutic proteins (TPs). This review summarizes some of the key areas about these miracle proteins like their types, classification, production factories, routes of administration, pharmacokinetics, and potential applications. Furthermore, challenges and hurdles faced in getting a potential protein drug, its FDA approval and commercial availability are also highlighted for further research.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:22:40 PDT
       
  • Environmental and Habitat Preferences of the Algerian Hedgehog Atelerix
           Algirus(Lereboullet, 1842) in El Kala National Park (North-East Algeria)

    • Authors: Sakraoui Rym et al.
      Abstract: We conducted this study to identify the preferred habitat of Atelerix algirus in the National Park of El Kala (PNEK), through the analysis of the catches rates of the species combined to an ethno zoological survey carried out among the residents. The study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2011, in five localities of the Park, different by their useful areas (forests and agricultural land) and their degree of urbanization: Raml Souk, El Aioun, Berrihane, El Kala and Bougous. We also surveyed 57 residents of Berrihane locality. Our results identified the locality of Berrihane as the preferred area of life for the species within the PNEK. This area, which has the highest abundance, is rather semi-urban and as much forest as agricultural, meeting the different needs of the species in terms of survival, sustainability and reproduction. This study provided fundamental data on the bio-ecology of this urban adapt species in Mediterranean environments.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:22:24 PDT
       
  • Application of Vibration Technique for the Control of Physical Properties
           of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.) Sprouts During Storage in Funaab, Nigeria
           Environment

    • Authors: Kifilideen Lekan Osanyinpeju et al.
      Abstract: Early sprouting of yam tuber is a typical problem during storage resulting into weight losses, deterioration, shrinkage and reduction in quality. This research work therefore carried out investigation on the application of vibration technique for the control of physical properties of yam (Dioscorea spp.) sprouts during storage in FUNAAB, Nigeria environment. The physical properties (length, number and weight of sprout, number of leaves and weight of roots) of the yam sprouts were determined for 140 white yam tubers. The yam tubers were divided into 108 experiment and 32 as control. The factors of the experimental design examined were frequency, amplitude and time of vibration of low (1 – 5 Hz, 5 mm and 3 minutes), medium (60 – 100 Hz, 10 mm and 10 minutes) and high (150 – 200 Hz, 20 mm and 15 minutes) respectively; weight of yam tuber of two levels of small (0.1 – 2.9 kg) and big (3.0 – 5.0 kg) were also considered. The tubers were stored for ten weeks after vibration, the physical properties of the yam sprouts were observed and records were taken every week. All the physical properties of yam sprouts examined followed the same trend. It was discovered that as the frequency, amplitude and time of vibration were increasing, the physical properties of the yam sprouts studied were decreasing significantly at p < 0.05 for both weight of yams between 0.1 – 2.9 kg and between 3.0 – 5.0 kg. The results revealed that mechanical vibration significantly help in slowing down sprouting in yam tubers.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:17:41 PDT
       
  • In-Silico Determination of Phytochemicals against Spike Protein of
           Covid-19

    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan et al.
      Abstract: Spike protein is present on the exterior of SARS-CoV-2 that mediates the binding of virus with human ACE2 receptor. S-protein has the ability to mutate in a short span of time. Using S-protein as a therapeutic target, Covid-19 infection can be prevented. Many plant-derived phytochemicals are found effective to treat viral infections. In this study, we selected top 10 phytochemicals following the Lipinski’s rule of five from total 82 candidate phytochemicals. The binding energies were determined through molecular docking of the phytochemical ligands. Top three compounds having maximal interactions and lowest binding energies were visualized. We suggested Dictamnine, Deoxypodophyllotoxin and Deoxyartemisinin as therapeutic agents for Covid-19. The lowest binding energy was observed for Dictamnine (-20.4) followed by Deoxypodophyllotoxin (-20.1) and Deoxyartemisinin (-15.6). This study suggested the binding energies with the highest negative value are more effective to treat viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Further studies on mechanism of actions, bioavailability and clinical trials can provide a clear way for the development of effective compounds that can pave the way for the discovery of the effective drug Covid-19 infection.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:17:29 PDT
       
  • Current Epidemiological Status and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of
           Urinary Tract Infection

    • Authors: Muddasir Khan et al.
      Abstract: With a longitudinal (2020–2021) completion, a set of 300 urine samples of individuals suspected of UTI was characterized based on the biochemical analysis and Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Throughout, a total of 167 samples revealed UTI positivity by obtaining bacterial growth. Reporting that E. coli (69.4 %) was the most dominant when compared with Klebsiella (14.3 %), Proteus (5.9 %), S. aureus (4.7 %), P. aeruginosa (3.5 %), and Enterobacter (1.7 %), respectively. Gender-wise discrimination showed that E. coli was highly distributed among female (50.2 %) patients. A prominent percentage of E. coli (41.9 %) was found in the age group between 21-40 years. Isolates of E. coli represented the highest degree of resistance to Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone (85.3 %), while highly sensitive to Amikacin, and Tazobactam (94.8 %). S. aureus was found highly resistant to Amoxicillin, Levofloxacin, Sulbactam, and Doxycycline (75 %), while highly sensitive to Meropenem, and Cefotaxime (100 %). Proteus spp. was found highly resistant to Sulbactam, and Cefotaxime (100 %), while highly sensitive to Tazobactam (100 %). Enterobacter was found highly resistant to Gentamicin (100 %), while highly sensitive to Aztreonam (100 %). Klebsiella was found highly resistant to Levofloxacin, and Doxycycline (91.6 %), while highly sensitive to Amikacin, Tazobactam, Gentamicin, and Cefoxitin (75 %). P. aeruginosa was found highly resistant to Nalidixic acid (100 %), while highly sensitive to Meropenem, Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin, and Cefotaxime. In conclusion, the Amikacin and Tazobactam were seen to be effective for empirical therapy of UTI.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:17:17 PDT
       
  • Checklist of Zooplankton of the Halda River, Chattogram, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md. Safiqul Islam et al.
      Abstract: The River Halda is one of the important natural breeding grounds of Indian major carp (Labeo rohita, Labeo calbasu, Gibelion catla, Cirrhinus mrigala) in Bangladesh for its unique physicochemical and biological properties of water. The productivity of the Halda ecosystem mainly depends on the plankton diversity. Zooplankton directly affects the productivity of the Halda River ecosystem. Research work was conducted for the two years extending from January 2017 to December 2018 to identify the zooplankton community of the Halda River. A total of 71 species of zooplankton under 37 genera belonging to 9 groups were identified. The dominant group of zooplankton was 44 species of Rotifers (61.98 %) followed by 12 species of Copepods (12.68 %), 5 species of Cladocerans (7.05 %), 3 species of Protozoans (4.22 %), 2 species of Mollusks larvae (2.82 %), 2 species of Insects (2.82 %), 1 species of Cnidarian (1.41 %), 1 species of Nematode (1.41 %) and 1 species of Ostracod (1.41 %). Therefore, the water body of the Halda is eutrophic in its nature.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:12:42 PDT
       
  • Microbiological Contamination Associated with the Proximity of A Refuse
           Dumpsite to a River Situated in Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Ebere J. Okafor-Elenwo et al.
      Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the potential contamination of the Okponha river situated near a dumpsite in Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected and analyzed for bacteriological and parasitological quality using standard procedures. Isolation and enumeration of bacterial colonies were performed by pour plate technique and the isolated bacteria were identified by standard phenotypic tests. Helminths and protozoa were screened by the direct smear technique. The values of HPC (3.79 ± 0.12 log10 CFU/ml) and TCC (2.20 ± 0.14 log10 CFU/ml) obtained from the river water samples exceeded WHO and NAFDAC recommended limits (≤ 2 log10 CFU/ml and ≤ 1 log10 CFU/ml for HPC and TCC respectively). Bacillus spp., Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Chromatium spp. were the bacteria that were found in the river water samples. Except for the Chromatium spp., the same bacteria present in the river water were also found in the dumpsite soil, thus indicating a potential runoff from the dumpsite. Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were the main helminth species that were seen in the river water and dumpsite samples, while the main protists that were identified included Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia. The high bacterial load seen in the river water is a source of concern because the water is used for a wide range of domestic purposes by inhabitants. Therefore, health authorities should make the public aware of the potential danger in using untreated water as a source of drinking water and also encourage in-house treatment of the raw water.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:12:30 PDT
       
  • Amelioration of Cr (VI) into Cr (III) by Some Heavy Metal Resistant
           Bacterial Strains Isolated from Naran Valley

    • Authors: Ifrah Fayyaz et al.
      Abstract: Total thirty-two strains were isolated from both water and soil samples collected from Naran Valley which is surrounded by the rugged mountains, located in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Streak plate method was used to screen the bacterial strains for resistance against selected heavy metals like chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Resistance against multiple heavy metals was shown by all the strains, but S15 and W15 were significant as they exhibited a maximum resistance to chromium and copper (1200 µg/ml). These strains also presented multiple antibiotic (ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin) resistance patterns. Bacterial strain W15 exhibited 90 % whereas, S15 exhibited 80 % chromium removal at an initial concentration of 800 µg/ml of chromate within 48 h of incubation. Inductive enzyme activity was shown by both the strains. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains S15 and W15 revealed the homology with Microbacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp., respectively. These two multiple metal resistant strains can be further exploited for the remediation of metal polluted sites.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:12:18 PDT
       
  • Estimation of Chromium in Soil-Plant-Animal Continuum: A Case Study in
           Ruminants of Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Kafeel Ahmad et al.
      Abstract: The increased use of waste water for agriculture purposes has increased around the globe. There are toxic metals present in waste water which affect plants, animals and human health. But at the same time it also contains useful nutrients which increase growth of plants. Different indices were applied to evaluate the metals present in water soil plant and milk. Various and correlation were determined with the help of SPSS, mean significance was found at the probability levels of 0.05, 0.001 and 0.01. The highest value of Cr was found in Avena sativa (0.7872 mg/kg) collected from site 5 while lower concentration of Cr was observed in Brassica campestris (0.0743 mg/kg) at site 4. In soil samples, Trifolium alexandrinum showed highest value of Cr (0.9887 mg/kg) at site 1 while lowered concentration was observed in Zea mays (0.1862 mg/kg) at site 3. Milk samples of site 5 had higher value of Cr (0.2898 mg/kg) and lowest at (0.1540 mg/kg) site 2. Water samples of site 3 had high value of Cr in them (1.849 mg/kg) and lowered concentration was found in water samples of site 5 (0.219 mg/kg). Cr concentration in fodders ranges from 0.0743 to 0.7872 mg/kg, soil 0.1862 to 0.9887 mg/kg, milk 0.1540 to 0.2898 mg/kg and water 0.219 to 1.849 mg/kg. In water samples, Cr level were above than permissible limit. In milk samples, concentration of Cr was greater than permissible limit which shows that it is hazardous to human health, may be due to pollution of environment like air, water and soil. This study concluded that if animals are allowed to graze on contaminated fodders and drink wastewater then metals were accumulated in their tissues and milk which causes toxicity to human health.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:07:57 PDT
       
  • Bombycid Species, Trilocha Varians (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) an Emerging
           Insect Pest of Ornamental Plants in Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Mansoor et al.
      Abstract: Weeping fig, Ficus benjamina, belongs to Moraceae family is planted alongside the roads as decorative plant and landscape purposes. Fig plants were seen infested with Trilocha varians for three years ago in University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. The complete defoliation, even death of whole plant was observed caused by larvae. The complete metamorphosis was recorded with five larval instars. The fecundity of female was recorded very high (180-300) during its whole life period. The results showed that male was long lived than female. Further studies on current pest biology, host range, biological fauna and management associated with it are necessary to avoid future outbreak in Pakistan.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:07:45 PDT
       
  • A Review on Overcoming Dual Challenges for Maize Cropping under High Plant
           Density: Stalk Lodging and Kernel Abortion

    • Authors: Alam Sher et al.
      Abstract: Increased optimal plant density is necessary in ensuring future food security by increasing crop productivity. However, maintaining relatively high plant density has to overcome two challenges i.e. kernel abortion and stalk lodging. The response of maize to increased plant density and the effects of increased plant density on maize productivity were discussed in this research. Increased plant density induces increased plant height, causes low photosynthetic capacity, limits the carbohydrate supply and increases kernel abortion. Also, increased plant density incurs a high risk of stalk lodging due to increased ear height and diminished stem diameter associated with reduced vascular bundles that provide, mechanical force. This review proposes a potential capacity of sucrose storage in stalk for tackling kernel abortion and stalk lodging. The mechanisms of boosting stem sugar storage with more efficient unloading, transporting, and storage in internodes are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 22:07:29 PDT
       
  • Mosquito Survey in Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria Northern): Updated Inventory with
           New Reports

    • Authors: Soumeya Chahed et al.
      Abstract: Mosquitoes play an important role in public health, they are responsible for the transmission of pathogens that cause infectious diseases to both humans and animals. The study of this fauna biodiversity is necessary to determine the vector species of diseases. Our inventory of mosquitoes in Tizi-Ouzou province has been updated in this study, it was carried out from April to September, 2021 at 43 breeding sites, spread over ten different communes. The inventory was based on the sampling of larvae and the capture of adults on human bait. The identification of Culicidae inventoried revealed the presence of 14 species belonging to five genera and two subfamilies. We report the first citation of four species for this region, these are Culex (Culex) laticinctus Edwards, 1913, Culex (Culex) mimeticus Noe, 1899, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) berlandi (Seguy, 1921) and Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889). The genus Coquillettidia was cited for the first time in Tizi-Ouzou. The data of this study was exploited by the ecological indices in order to have the relative abundance and the frequency of occurrence.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2022 02:17:10 PST
       
  • The Study of Tree Biomass Calculation by Comparing Partial Harvest Method
           with the Allometric Equations Method

    • Authors: Kanlayarat Jantawong et al.
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effective of partial harvest method used for tree biomass estimation. Such method was analyzed for the correlation in compare with invented allometric equations. The advantages and disadvantages of those methods were discussed. The significantly difference between estimation methods were analyzed. As a result, tree biomass calculated by the Brown’s allometric equation produced highest results, followed by the partial harvest method, Tsutsumi’s, Chave’s and Pothong’s equations respectively. The selected allometric equations showed the positive correlation with partial harvest method. The highest positive correlation was found between the partial harvest method and both equation of Chave and Pothong (R = 0.99, p ≤ 0.05 and R = 0.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively), followed by Tsutsumi’s and Brown’s equations (R = 0.96, p ≤ 0.05 and 0.88, p ≤ 0.05 respectively). Wood density significantly varied among tree species and that affected the effective of biomass estimation. The allometric equations of Pothong and Chave can be applied for tree biomass estimation in secondary forest or ‘mixed-species’ plantation. The use of site-specific allometric equation should be validated with the results from a partial harvest method to avoid the possible errors of model limitation. Moreover, the partial harvest method can be used for forest monitoring in the national park or protected area to obtain the accurate and reliable results.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2022 02:16:57 PST
       
  • Identification and Characterization of Active Ingredient Eugenol from
           Syzygium Aromaticum (Clove Oil) through HPLC and its Phytochemical
           Analysis

    • Authors: Ambreen Kanwal et al.
      Abstract: Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, is one of the most valuable, ancient and premium essential oil which has been used as source of spice in agro-food industry and therapeutics for centuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze biological activities of clove oil as well as characterization of its active component Eugenol to make it worthwhile for different food and pharmaceutical formulations. Clove oil extraction was performed by Soxhlet method. Its phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, saponnins, and tannins while proteins and leucoanthocyanins were absent in it. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging assay was performed which showed an increase in percentage inhibition with an increase in concentration of clove oil which confirmed its antioxidant property. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil was tested against three gram positive strains Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis and one gram negative strain Escherichia coli by well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. E.coli presented largest zone of inhibition. T-test was applied for statistical analysis of antimicrobial activity. P-value obtained was 0.0215 which is ˂0.05. Aqueous clove nanoparticles were made and were found to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. Correlation coefficient (R2) through HPLC was found to be 0.973531. Quantitative estimation showed the presence of 740 ppm eugenol. These properties of clove proved it as a valuable spice in pharmaceutical and agro-food sector.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2022 02:16:43 PST
       
  • Preliminary Survey and Diet Analysis of Anurans in The Riparian Zone of
           Calayagon Watershed, Agusan Del Norte, Philippines

    • Authors: Jenessa Verna B. Salo et al.
      Abstract: Watersheds are critical habitats for a diverse array of organisms. Among all the fauna, anurans are excellent biological indicators of environmental health. The community structure is often associated with a relationship between species diversity and diet. An anuran survey was conducted along riparian zones of three selected barangays of Calayagon Watershed (Guinabsan, Rizal, and Malpoc), Philippines. Extensive opportunistic methods for a total of 480 man-hours were spent traversing the area. A total of 195 individuals, consisting of seven species from four families, were recorded. Seventy-two percent of the individual species were regarded as Least concern, and 14 % were Near-threatened. Of the species recorded, 57 % are Philippine endemic, and 29 % are Invasive alien species. Fejervarya vittigera (44.66 %) gained the highest number of individuals across sampling stations. Overall diversity index is high H’= 1.43. The most abundant species in each sampling site were subjected to diet analysis (R. marina, F. vittigera, and F. moodiei). The most dominant prey item were plant matters followed by insect orders. In terms of the number of prey items, the order Hymenoptera was the most abundant. The study was the first to record the diet of the Philippine endemic F. vittigera, and F. moodiei. Noted anthropogenic threats include agricultural expansion and urbanization. Strict implementation of ordinances and policies towards the conservation and protection of a healthy bio-system for anurans and all organisms in the area is highly recommended.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2022 02:16:31 PST
       
  • Toxical Effect of Euphorbia Guyoniana Aqueous Extracts (Euphorbiaceae) on
           Mortality, Larval Development and Sexual Behavior of Drosophila
           Melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    • Authors: Chabi Lila et al.
      Abstract: Euphorbia guyoniana (Boiss and Reut) is a plant of Euphorbiaceae family common throughout the northern Sahara and pre-desert regions. In traditional medicine, they are used in the treatment of various infections. Euphorbiaceae contain various chemical compounds families such as alkaloids, which give them a toxic effect. The toxic effects of seeds decoctions on mortality and development of 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster are studied. A treatment by ingestion shows a good larvicidal activity of this extract. It was shown that the chemical compounds contained in the extract, act on the fly development cycle as most of pupae do not reach adulthood. We also studied the delayed effect of E. guyoniana aqueous extract on D. melanogaster sexual behavior. The ingestion of sublethal concentration (25µg/ml) affects nuptial courtship and different sexual behavior phases as well as mutual recognition of males and females.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2022 02:16:19 PST
       
  • Evaluation of the Toxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Solanum Nigrum L.(
           Solanaceae ) on the Mortality and Development of Drosophila Melanogaster
           (Diptera : Drosophilidae).

    • Authors: Makarem Rahat et al.
      Abstract: Solanum nigrum is a plant that has therapeutic properties of the Solanaceae family. It is used extensively in traditional medicine but also as a bio-insecticide to control insect pests. Some parts of this plant can be very toxic to livestock and humans. In the present study, the direct and delayed toxic effects of aqueous extracts of S. nigrum on the mortality and development of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. For this study, an extraction method including decoction is adopted to extract the active principles from the leaves of S. nigrum. The treatment was carried out by ingestion on 2nd instar larvae (L2) and adults. The exposure to the aqueous extract shows that it has a good insecticidal activities, it acts on the larvae by inducing 96.25 % mortality rate at the end of treatment by 50g/l. The adults’ mortality increases with the lengthening of the exposure time as well as with the dose increase. The maximum mortality was recorded is between 97.50% and 100% in males and females. We also recorded a disturbance in the flies development, which took less time to reach the adult stage when they were treated, and this for the five concentrations. Malformations were recorded in the adult wings after treatment with the different concentrations of the toxic plant. In addition, some flies showed a significant increase in size compared to controls.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:02:55 PST
       
  • Composition, Population Structure and Regeneration Potential of Tree
           Species in Oak-Dominated Mixed Forests of Rajouri District in Jammu and
           Kashmir, India

    • Authors: Mohd Junaid Jazib et al.
      Abstract: The study was carried out to explore the diversity and regeneration potential of trees species in mixed Oak forest of Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir (India). A total of 20 tree species were recorded from the area dominated by various species of oak particularly Quercus leuchotrichophora. Quercus leuchotrichophora shows maximum values of density, basal cover and IVI. In different localities, it has different groups of associates like Q. floribunda, Q. semecarpifolia, Q. glauca, Buxux wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Aesculus indica, Rhododendron arboreum, etc. Majority of the species show very poor regeneration and thus demands for immediate implementation of appropriate conservation strategies.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:02:44 PST
       
  • Structure and Parasitism of Egg-Batches of the Pine Processionary Moth,
           Thaumetopoea Pityocampa in the Algerian Cedar Forests.

    • Authors: Zineb Messaadia et al.
      Abstract: Today, climate change is one of the greatest threats facing forest ecosystems. It directly influences the geographical distribution of insects and increases epidemics of harmful insects. The present work took place in this context. It aimed to contribute to the knowledge of egg parasitoids that could affect the evolution of the pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa, a major forest pest in Algeria and Mediterranean countries. The study was carried out on 120 batches of eggs taken from the Atlas cedar at two sites in the Chelia cedar zone (case of eastern Algeria) in 2017. It allowed the analysis of a total of 37,943 eggs. At the first site, the hatch rate was 66%; the egg mortality rate increased at a rate of 15 %, and the parasitism rate was rather high at 18%. The second site was characterized by the parasitism rate lower by about 11%, while the egg mortality rate was relatively comparable in the order of 14% with a hatching rate of 75%. The eggs are more parasitized by Baryscapus servadeii (79%) than by Trichogramma embryophagum (17%), while Ooencyrtus pityocampae remains negligible (4%). Egg parasitoids are an important killer of Thaumetopoea pityocampa eggs.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:02:31 PST
       
  • A Review of Globally Important Plant Origin Antioxidants and their Folk
           Utility for Various Diseases

    • Authors: Nosheen Akhtar et al.
      Abstract: This review article has attempted to analyze the folk utility of important medicinal plants having valuable secondary metabolites used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. It is estimated that two-thirds of the total medicinal plants are used for the treatment of various diseases. Some medicinal plants are known for great antioxidant properties. Antioxidants reduce oxidative stress in cells. Antioxidants are useful for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancers. This review article discloses the naturally occurring antioxidants and their sources. Medicinal plants with such a high potential of antioxidants have been part of folk medicine over centuries. It denotes a high potential for cure with no side effect. These can be utilized in the food industry and used in preventive medication.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:02:18 PST
       
 
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