Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 227)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.683
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 28  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1741-427X - ISSN (Online) 1741-4288
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Buyang Huanwu Decoction Promotes Angiogenesis after Cerebral Ischemia by
           Inhibiting the Nox4/ROS Pathway

    • Abstract: Background. Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used clinically for centuries for the treatment of various diseases. The study aims to explore the BYHWD effects on angiogenesis and neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury in rats and to explore the underlying angiogenic roles and mechanisms of BYHWD in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) model. Methods. The effects of BYHWD on neurological function were screened by measuring neurological deficits, spatial memory function, and angiogenesis (by microvascular density (MVD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF)) after CI/R injury in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo in rats. In vitro, we examined the angiogenic roles and mechanisms of action of BYHWD in an H2O2-induced oxidative stress HUVECs model by measuring cell viability, apoptosis, vascular tube formation, intracellular ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity, and Nox4 protein expression. Results. BYHWD significantly improved neurological function, including neurological deficits and spatial learning and memory, and significantly increased MVD and CBF in the ischemic penumbra after CI/R injury in rats. BYHWD significantly increased cell viability, inhibited apoptosis, induced vascular tube formation, decreased intracellular ROS generation, and reduced Nox activity and Nox4 protein expression in H2O2-treated HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that BYHWD promotes neurological function recovery and increases angiogenesis. BYHWD exerts angiogenic effects against cerebral ischemic injury through the downregulation of Nox4, which results in the reduction of ROS generation.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 17:50:00 +000
  • In Vitro Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Effect of Panax notoginseng
           Saponins by Activating the EGFR/PI3K/AKT Pathway

    • Abstract: Context. About 15 million people worldwide suffer strokes each year and 5 million people are left with permanent disabilities which is due to the loss of local blood supply to the brain, resulting in a neurologic deficit. Panax notoginseng (Bruk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used in the treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Objective. This study investigated whether Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) extracted from Panax notoginseng (Bruk.) F. H. Chen played a neuroprotective role by affecting the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway in oxygen-glucose deprived (OGD) SH-SY5Y cells. Materials and Methods. Different groups of OGD SH-SY5Y cells were treated with varying doses of PNS, PNS + AG1478 (a specific inhibitor of EGFR), or AG1478 for 16 hours. CCK8, Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis analysis, and LDH release analysis were used to determine cell viability, apoptosis rate, and amounts of LDH. Quantitative real-time PCR (q-RT-PCR) and western blotting were used to measure mRNA and proteins levels of p-EGFR/EGFR, p-PI3K/PI3K, and p-AKT/AKT in SH-SY5Y cells subjected to OGD. Results. PNS significantly enhanced cell viability, reduced apoptosis, and weakened cytotoxicity by inhibiting the release of LDH. The mRNA expression profiles of EGFR, PI3K, and AKT showed no difference between model and other groups. Additionally, ratios of p-EGFR, p-PI3K, and p-AKT to EGFR, PI3K, and AKT proteins expression, respectively, all increased significantly. Conclusions. These findings indicate that PNS enhanced neuroprotective effects by activating the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway and elevating phosphorylation levels in OGD SH-SY5Y cells.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 15:50:01 +000
  • Qiju Dihuang Decoction for Hypertension: A Systematic Review and

    • Abstract: Objective. To systematically evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine Qiju Dihuang Decoction (QDD) for hypertension. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of randomized controlled trials using QDD to treat hypertension was conducted in 7 electronic databases, including Chinese databases. Subjects and abstracts of the trials were read in NoteExpress for preliminary screening, and the full text was read for further screening. The data extraction table was made for the selected 19 trials, and risk of bias was assessed by using the Cochrane collaboration tool, followed by data analysis using Rev Man 5.3. Results. The antihypertensive efficacy of QDD is 1.45 times that of antihypertensive drugs and 1.56 times that of conventional therapies, which can also reduce the endothelin level. QPAD exhibits an antihypertensive effect, and its clinical efficacy is 1.34 times and 1.61 times that of antihypertensive drugs, which can not only significantly lower the diastolic blood pressure but also reduce the 24 h mean ambulate blood pressure. At the same time, it can decrease the TCM syndrome score, inhibit the inflammation, protect the renal function, reduce the insulin resistance, and improve the life quality of patients. Conclusion. QDD can effectively reduce blood pressure and improve the life quality of patients with hypertension, which plays a certain role in preventing hypertension complications. However, due to the methodological deficiencies, more rigorous randomized controlled trials will be needed in the future to provide stronger evidence.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 15:05:00 +000
  • Study on the Mechanism of Ginseng in the Treatment of Lung Adenocarcinoma
           Based on Network Pharmacology

    • Abstract: Background. Ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, was used to prevent and treat many diseases such as diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. In recent years, there are some reports about the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma with ginseng monomer compounds, but there is no systematic study on the related core targets and mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma up to now. Therefore, this study systematically and comprehensively studied the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma based on network pharmacology and further proved the potential targets by A549 cell experiments for the first time. Methods. The targets of disease and drug were obtained from Gene database. Subsequently, the compound-target network was constructed, and the core potential targets were screened out by plug-in into Cytoscape. Furthermore, the core targets and mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma were verified by MTT test, cell scratch test, immunohistochemistry, and qRT-PCR. Results. 1791 disease targets and 144 drug targets were obtained by searching the Gene database. Meanwhile, 15 core targets were screened out: JUN, MAPK8, PTGS2, CASP3, VEGFA, MMP9, AKT1, TNF, FN1, FOS, MMP782, IL-1β, IL-2, ICAM1, and HMOX1. The results of cell experiments indicate that ginseng could treat lung adenocarcinoma by cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In addition, according to the results of the 15 core targets by qRT-PCR, JUN, IL-1β, IL-2, ICAM1, HMOX1, MMP9, and MMP2 are upregulated core targets, while PTGS2 and TNF are downregulated core targets. Conclusion. This study systematically and comprehensively studied 15 core targets by network pharmacology for the first time. Subsequently, it is verified that 9 core targets for ginseng treatment of lung adenocarcinoma, namely, JUN, IL-1β, IL-2, ICAM1, HMOX1, MMP9, MMP2, PTGS2, and TNF, are closely related to the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cells. This study has reference value for the clinical application of ginseng in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 12:50:00 +000
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang Ameliorates Impaired
           Gastrointestinal Motility and Intestinal Inflammatory Response in a Mouse
           Model of Postoperative Ileus

    • Abstract: This study was to explore the therapeutic effect and mechanism of the traditional Chinese medicine with the formula Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (T-DCQT) and a modified Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (M-DCQT) in a postoperative ileus (POI) mouse model. POI was induced via small bowel manipulation, and T-DCQT or M-DCQT was given by enema. The intestinal motility was measured with a charcoal mixture gavage. The intestinal tissues were collected for further studies by histopathological, qPCR, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blotting. Levels of inflammatory cytokines in blood were determined using a high-throughput liquid chip. We found that gastrointestinal dysfunction was alleviated after administration of either a T-DCQT or M-DCQT enema. Increased expression of NF-κB, p38 MAPK, and TLR4 in the intestinal tissues of POI mice were reversed following treatment. IL-1α, IL-6, MIP-1β, and IL-17 levels were significantly reduced at 24 h and 48 h following treatment, while the MCP-1 level was only observed to be reduced at 24 h after the treatment. Furthermore, compared with the T-DCQT effect, M-DCQT treatment was more effective in alleviating the increased IL-6, MIP-1β, and IL-1α levels. So, we draw a conclusion that T-DCQT or M-DCOT could ameliorate the POI-associated inflammatory response and improve GI motility in a POI mouse model.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 07:20:02 +000
  • Medicinal Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities of Quercus

    • Abstract: Quercus species, also known as oak, represent an important genus of the Fagaceae family. It is widely distributed in temperate forests of the northern hemisphere and tropical climatic areas. Many of its members have been used in traditional medicine to treat and prevent various human disorders such as asthma, hemorrhoid, diarrhea, gastric ulcers, and wound healing. The multiple biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, gastroprotective, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities have been ascribed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as triterpenoids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. This paper aimed to provide available information on the medicinal uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacology of species from Quercus. However, further investigation is needed to fully clarify the mode of action of its bioactive compounds and to evaluate in vivo chronic toxicity, before exploring their potential use as a supplement in functional foods and natural pharmaceutics.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 06:05:00 +000
  • Evaluation of the Effects of Schisandra chinensis on the Myocardium of
           Rats with Hyperthyroid Heart Disease by Using Velocity Vector Imaging
           Combined with the Estimation of p53 Expression and Calmodulin Activity

    • Abstract: Schisandra chinensis (SC) is reported to improve myocardial ischemia. Velocity vector imaging (VVI) is a noninvasive technique for evaluating myocardial function in humans, while few reported on the application in animals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the improved effects of SC on the myocardium of Sprague Dawley rats having hyperthyroid heart disease (HHD) using VVI technique. HHD models were established by injecting daily with subcutaneous levothyroxine (0.5 mg/kg). Then, the SC group was administered the aqueous extract of SC (2 g/kg) once daily, while the HHD and control (CON) groups were administered the same amount of distilled water daily. All the rats were provided the same amount of food and water daily, and the intervention was stopped after 28 days. The efficacy of SC in HHD rats was evaluated by ultrasound VVI. The serum total triiodothyronine level, total thyroxine level, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide expression, p53 expression, and calmodulin (CaM) activity were assessed by western blotting, Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson staining, and electron microscopy. The results indicated that SC significantly improved the systolic velocity, diastolic velocity, strain, systolic strain rate, and diastolic strain rate of the heart by significantly reducing p53 expression and CaM activity (), improving myocardial fibrosis in HHD rats. Also, VVI can be a valuable tool for the evaluation of myocardial function in HHD rats.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 15:20:02 +000
  • Acupuncture for the Postcholecystectomy Syndrome: A Systematic Review and

    • Abstract: Background. Postcholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) has become a common postoperative syndrome that requires systematic and comprehensive therapy to achieve adequate clinical control. Acupuncture and related therapies have shown clinical effects for PCS in many studies. However, systematic reviews/meta-analyses (SRs/MAs) for them are lacking. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of PCS using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods. Potentially eligible studies were searched in the following electronic databases up to 1 February 2020: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science (WoS), Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Database (WF), and China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP)), and other sources (WHO ICTRP, ChiCTR, Clinical Trials, and Grey Literature Database). The RevMan 5.3 was employed for analyses. The Cochrane Collaboration’ risk of bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias (ROB). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. A total of 14 RCTs with 1593 participants were included in this SR. MA showed that acupuncture in combination with conventional medicine (CM) did not show statistical differences in reduction in pain. However, acupuncture in combination with CM significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55–0.92) and improved gastrointestinal function recovery compared to the CM group. Acupuncture combined with traditional Chinese medicine and CM, and acupuncture as monotherapy may improve gastrointestinal function recovery with acceptable adverse events. Conclusion. Acupuncture may be an effective and safe treatment for PCS. However, this study lacks conclusive evidence due to poor quality evidence, limited data, and clinical heterogeneity of acupuncture methods in the included studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 15:20:01 +000
  • Exosomal MicroRNA Expression Profiling Analysis of the Effects of Lycium
           Barbarum Polysaccharide on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Mice

    • Abstract: Objective. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pathological condition, affecting an increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. Safe and effective treatment for GDM is very important for the public health. In this study, we utilized a high-fat diet-induced GDM model to evaluate the effects of LBP on GDM and examined the changes of exosomal microRNA expression profiling to decipher the potential underlying mechanism of LBP. Methods. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet, HFD, or 150 mg/kg LBP-supplemented HFD for 6 weeks before conception and throughout gestation. Oral glucose tolerance test and plasma lipid levels were determined, and liver histopathology was assessed. Sequencing was used to define the microRNA expression profiling of plasma exosomes in the three groups of mice, and protein expression levels of the candidate target genes were analyzed. Results. LBP significantly relieved glucose intolerance, abnormal plasma lipid levels, and pathomorphological changes of liver histopathology in HFD-induced GDM mice. Moreover, we found that this effect of LBP was mediated by downregulation of the increase of 6 miRNAs (miR-93-3p, miR-188-5p, miR-466k, miR-1188-5p, miR-7001-3p, and miR-7115-5p) and reversing the increase of the protein expression of CPT1A, which is the target gene of miR-188-5p. Conclusions. Our findings provide novel insights into the biological activities of LBP in the treatment of GDM.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 14:50:00 +000
  • The Efficacy of Tai Chi and Qigong Exercises on Blood Pressure and Blood
           Levels of Nitric Oxide and Endothelin-1 in Patients with Essential
           Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized
           Controlled Trials

    • Abstract: Objective. Tai Chi and Qigong are the two similar traditional Chinese wellness exercises. A strong body of published clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has investigated the health benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong exercises (TCQE) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). This is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of TCQE on blood pressure (BP) and blood levels of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in EH patients and explore the potential antihypertensive mechanism of TCQE. Methods. We conducted a literature retrieval for Chinese and English studies in seven databases from their respective inceptions until January 14, 2020. All RCTs examining clinical efficacy of TCQE for EH patients were considered. The major therapeutic outcomes of TCQE were changes in the blood levels of NO, ET-1, and BP in EH patients. Methodological quality of the included RCTs was detected via The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We evaluated the data reported and performed the meta-analysis by Review Manager 5.3 software. Results. 9 RCTs involving 516 EH patients were included. The intervention duration lasted from 1.5 months to 6 months. The results of comprehensive analysis showed that compared with control interventions, experimental interventions were more effective in reducing the systolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure and contributed higher blood levels of NO and lower blood levels of ET-1. Conclusions. TCQE could be an effective complementary and alternative therapy for EH. The lower BP in EH patients who practice TCQE may have some connection with exercise-related increased blood NO levels and decreased blood ET-1 levels. However, further research is needed to make clear the efficacy of TCQE in management of EH and the mechanism of lowering BP in TCQE.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Effect of Electroacupuncture versus Sham Electroacupuncture in Patients
           with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Objective. To explore the feasibility of evaluating the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture versus sham electroacupuncture for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Method. A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted at a teaching hospital in Beijing. A total of 30 patients with KOA (Kellgren grade II or III) were randomly allocated to an eight-week treatment of either electroacupuncture or sham electroacupuncture. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. The primary outcome was the proportion of responders achieving at least 1.14 seconds decrease in the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) at week eight compared with baseline. The secondary outcomes included the knee range of motion, the knee extensor and flexor muscle strength, Lequesne index, 9-step stair-climb test (9-SCT), and TUG. Results. Of 30 patients allocated to two groups, 27 (90%) completed the study. The proportion of responders was 53.3% (8 of 15) for electroacupuncture group and 26.7% (4 of 15) for sham electroacupuncture group by the intention-to-treat analysis (). There was no statistically significant difference in TUG between the two groups at eight weeks (). The compliance rate measured according to patients who conformed to the protocol and had received treatments ≥20 times was 93.3% (28 of 30). The dropout rate was 20% (3 of 15). Adverse effects were not reported in the study. Conclusion. Our research demonstrated that further evaluation of the effectiveness of electroacupuncture versus sham electroacupuncture was feasible and safe for patients with KOA. Whether or not the electroacupuncture can improve the physical functions of knee joint, expand the knee range of motion, and increase the extensor and flexor muscle strength more significantly than sham electroacupuncture, future studies can be designed with larger sample size, randomization design and less biases. This trial is registered with NCT03366363.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 14:05:01 +000
  • Acupuncture for Cancer-Induced Bone Pain in Animal Models: A Systemic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a highly prevalent symptom, which afflicts vast majority of patients who suffer from cancer. The current treatment options failed to achieve satisfactory effect and the side effects were prominent. Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of animal demonstrate the benefit of acupuncture for CIBP. We sought to determine if the pooled data from available RCTs supports the use of acupuncture for CIBP. Methods. A literature search for randomized controlled trials was conducted in six electronic databases from inception to May 31, 2019. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3 software; the publication bias was assessed by Stata 12.0 software. We used random effects model for pooling data because heterogeneity is absolute among studies to some extent. Results. Twenty-four trials were included in the review, of which 12 trials provided detailed data for meta-analyses. Preliminary evidence indicates that compared to wait list/sham group, acupuncture was effective on increasing paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL). Compared to medicine, acupuncture was less effective on PWT, but as effective as medicine on PWL. Acupuncture can reinforce medicine’s effect on PWT and PWL. Compared to the control group, acupuncture was superior to increase body weight (BW), decrease spinal cord glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Furthermore, some studies showed acupuncture delay or partially reverse morphine tolerance. Three studies found acupuncture has no effect on PWT, but 2 of them found acupuncture could enhance small dose of Celebrex’s effect on CIBP. Conclusions. Acupuncture was superior to wait list/sham acupuncture on increasing PWT and has no less effect on increasing PWL compared to medicine; acupuncture improved the efficacy of drugs, increased the CIBP animals’ body weight, and decreased their spinal cord GFAP and IL-1β. High-quality studies are necessary to confirm the results.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 13:50:05 +000
  • A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome of Qi
           Stagnation and Dampness Obstruction Related to Atypical Antipsychotics
           with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

    • Abstract: Backgroud. To observe the effects of Liuyu decoction on qi stagnation and dampness obstruction syndrome of metabolic syndrome related to atypical antipsychotics . Methods. 154 schizophrenics who met both the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome and qi stagnation and dampness obstruction syndrome were randomly divided into 2 : 1 groups. The PANSS and Tess were assessed before treatment and at the end of first month, second month, and third month after treatment; blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and cholesterol were also measured at the same four time points. On the basis of continuous antipsychotic treatment, the study group took Liuyu decoction, and the control group took placebo. Results. Of the 154 cases, 102 were in the study group and 52 in the control group. Before and after treatment, there was a slight increase but no significant difference in blood pressure, blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, TG, DHL, and LHL in two groups () and also between the two groups (). The body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and BMI in the study group decreased, while that in the control group increased from the dividing group to the end of study. At the end of the third month, there was a significant difference in the body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and BMI between the two groups (). Before and after treatment, there was a significant difference in positive symptoms, negative symptoms, general symptoms, and PANSS in two groups, respectively (). The negative symptoms, general symptoms, PANSS, and TESS in the study group were lighter than that in the control group after treatment. Conclusion. Liuyu decoction is not only beneficial to the treatment in body constitution of metabolic syndrome in qi stagnation and dampness obstruction but also beneficial to the improvement of such patients’ mental symptoms and side effects.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 10:50:00 +000
  • Network Pharmacology-Based Strategy for Predicting Active Ingredients and
           Potential Targets of Gegen Qinlian Decoction for Rotavirus Enteritis

    • Abstract: Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Gegen Qinlian decoction (GGQLD) is an effective formula treatment for rotavirus enteritis (RVE), which has been applied for 1900 years. It consists of 4 herbal medicines corresponding to the four roles “monarch, minister, assistant, and guide,” which is the basic rule of prescription composition in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, its active ingredients and therapeutic mechanism on RVE have not been fully investigated. Materials and Methods. In this study, a network pharmacology-based strategy was used to elucidate the mechanism of GGQLD for the treatment of RVE. Oral bioavailability and drug-likeness were taken as the judgment criteria to search the active ingredients of GGQLD in traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP). The affinity between protein and ingredients was further determined using the similarity ensemble approach to find the corresponding targets. According to the genes related to enteritis in GeneCards database, the key targets were screened by intersections between drug and disease targets. And the therapeutic mechanism was predicted using the protein-protein interactions (PPIs), the Gene Ontology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, which was verified by detecting calcium ion concentration with the fluorescent probe. Result. 130 active ingredients were screened from GGQLD, including (R)-canadine, moupinamide, formononetin, and other flavonoids. They act on a total of 366 targets, which is mainly distributed in the biological process of hormone binding or signaling pathways of neuroactive ligand receptor interaction, serotonergic synapse, and calcium signaling pathway. Furthermore, serotonin receptors, adrenergic receptors, cholinergic receptors, and dopamine receptors in the enteric nervous system may be the key targets of RVE treatment by GGQLD. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the potential mechanism that GGQLD can effectively improve the symptoms of RVE may depend on the regulation of calcium ions, serotonin, and gastrointestinal hormone ion that could mutually affect the intestinal nervous system.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:20:01 +000
  • Inhibition of Digestive Enzyme and Stimulation of Human Liver Cells
           (HepG2) Glucose Uptake by Date Seeds Extract

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide, and the United Arab Emirates is presenting one of the world’s highest prevalence rates. Dietary polyphenols exert an antidiabetic effect by modulating carbohydrates digestion and cellular glucose uptake. Due to their particularly high content in polyphenols, date seeds represent a potential antidiabetic agent. This study aims to determine if date seed polyphenols inhibit the activity of the enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), responsible for the digestion of carbohydrates and modulating the glucose uptake by human liver cells. In vitro activity of the intestinal α-glucosidase, pancreatic α-amylase, the glucose uptake by HepG2 cells, and the expression of GLUT4 and AMPK analyzed by western blotting (with and without date seeds extract). Our result showed that the maximum enzymes inhibition was obtained with 400 μg/mL and 900 μg/mL DSE for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. The HepG2 cell viability significantly decreased up to 80% at 4000 μg/mL DSE. The expression of GLUT4 was higher at 100 μg/mL DSE (with insulin and without insulin). However, the expressions of P-AMPK and AMPK were increased by DSE, mainly in a non-insulin-dependent manner. Therefore, DSE, by inhibiting carbohydrate digestion and stimulating glucose uptake by HepG2, can potentially demonstrate the therapeutic potential for diabetes management.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Moxibustion on Constipation: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and safety of moxibustion in the management of constipation. Background. Constipation is extremely common in clinical practice and causes physical and mental pain to patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and safety of moxibustion in the management of constipation. Methods. Studies on moxibustion for constipation published up to November 2019 were searched in PubMed; EBSCO; EMBASE; Cochrane Library; and three Chinese databases, namely, China National Knowledge Internet, Wanfang, and China Biomedical Network. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed on the basis of the CLEAR NPT system evaluation methods of Boutron. Further meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 and Stata 15.0 software. Results. Ten randomized controlled trials involving 760 patients were included in this study. The meta-analysis revealed that, in comparison to western medicine treatment or other Chinese medicine methods (control group), moxibustion (experimental group) had a higher total effective rate (RR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.21, 1.40], ), and the clinical effectiveness of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group in any subgroup analysis. The first defecation time of the experimental group was shorter than that of the control group (SMD = −1.36, 95% CI [−2.03, −0.68], ). The clinical symptom score of the patients in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group (SMD = −0.65, 95% CI [−1.00, −0.30], ). The patients in the experimental group had higher scores on Bristol stool form scale than those in the control group (MD = 0.99, 95% CI [0.48, 1.50], ). However, there was no obvious difference in safety between the two groups (RR = 0.38, 95% CI [0.01, 11.8], ).Conclusions. Moxibustion may have better effect than other treatments on constipation. However, it is not yet possible to assess the safety level of moxibustion therapy, and the quality of the included literature is low, so rigorous studies are warranted. Implications for Nursing and Health Policy. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion therapy in constipation. This evaluation showed that moxibustion therapy has a good effect on constipation and provides an effective treatment for constipation patients. Whether moxibustion therapy can be used for different syndrome types deserves further discussion.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Optimization Extraction of Shikonin Using Ultrasound-Assisted Response
           Surface Methodology and Antibacterial Studies

    • Abstract: The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for shikonin from Arnebia euchroma using response surface methodology (RSM) and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shikonin. The maximum yield of shikonin was 1.26% under the optimal extraction conditions (ultrasound power, 93 W; time, 87 min; temperature, 39°C; and liquid-solid ratio, 11 : 1). Shikonin showed inhibitory activity against standard strains and clinical isolates to varying extents (MICs ranging from 128 to 1024 μg/mL, MBCs ranging from 256 to 2048 μg/mL), and it was more effective for Gram-positive bacteria as indicated by lower MIC and MBC values. Time-kill curves revealed that antibacterial activity of shikonin exhibited a dose-response relationship. In summary, via this study, we identified ultrasound-assisted RSM as the optimal extraction method for shikonin, which is a potential material for the treatment of bacterial infections.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 07:05:00 +000
  • Antifatigue Activity of Glycoprotein from Schisandra chinensis Functions
           by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    • Abstract: The glycoprotein from Schisandra chinensis was obtained with alkali extraction and acid precipitation, purified with DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and Superdex G-75 column. The molecular composition structure and antifatigue activities of glycoprotein were studied. SCGP’s molecular weight was approximately 10 KDa, and it consisted of a carbohydrate component (52.94%) and protein component (47.06%). SCGP comprised mannose, galactoside, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, its molar ratio was 2.14 : 1.43 : 1.59 : 8.17 : 8.99 : 3.18 : 18.51 : 1, and it contained 16 kinds of amino acids. SCGP could obviously extend the swimming time in mice by increasing LDH, SOD level, GSH-Px activity, and liver glycogen and decreasing the contents of BUN and MDA. The antioxidant activity of SCGP is a potential mechanism of its antifatigue effect. In vitro antioxidant test showed that SCGP scavenged DPPH and OH radicals in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 was 0.91 mg/ml and 0.72 mg/ml).
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 06:50:00 +000
  • Applying Complex Network and Cell-Cell Communication Network Diagram
           Methods to Explore the Key Cytokines and Immune Cells in Local Acupoint
           Involved in Acupuncture Treating Inflammatory Pain

    • Abstract: Manual acupuncture (MA) can effectively treat a variety of diseases, but its specific mechanism remains unclear. The “acupoint network” activated by MA participates in MA signal transduction, in which immune-related cells and cytokines play an important role. However, which cells and cytokines in the acupoint have changed after MA' What is the network relationship between them' Which cells and cytokines may play the most important role in MA effect' These problems are unclear. In this study, on the basis of affirming the analgesic, detumescence, and anti-inflammatory effect of MA, the concentration of 24 cytokines in ST36 acupoint in rats with inflammatory pain after MA treatment was detected by multiplex immunoassay technology. Then, using statistical and complex network and cell-cell communication (CCC) network diagram method to analyze the detected data depicts the network relationship between the cytokines and related cells objectively and establishes cytokine connection network and CCC network, respectively. The results showed that MA reinforced communication intensity between cells while reducing the overall correlation intensity. On this basis, the key cytokines and key cells at three MA time-points were screened out, cytokines IL-6, MCP-1, fibroblasts cell, and monocyte macrophage screened by the three methods at three MA time-points might be the key cytokines or key cells. After that, we detected the macrophages in ST36 acupoint by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence and found that the relative amount of macrophages increased significantly after MA, especially the macrophage of the dermis of skin. This study provided a basis for revealing the initiated mechanism of MA effect.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 05:50:03 +000
  • Preclinical Evidence of Curcuma longa and Its Noncurcuminoid Constituents
           against Hepatobiliary Diseases: A Review

    • Abstract: Hepatobiliary disease currently serves as an important public health issue due to the fact that it is one of the major causes of death among economically active individuals and can easily progress to chronic diseases. Despite the development of vaccines and numerous drugs, a definite treatment remains lacking owing to different stages of the disease itself, its intricate pathogenesis, an effect uncertainty for long-term use, resistance, and side effects. Curcuma longa (C. longa), which belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and the genus Curcuma, has long been used not only as spice for curry or dye but also as a constituent of herbal formula for the treatment of different diseases due to its bioactive activities. Recently, many studies on the experimental results of C. longa have been published relative to hepatobiliary diseases such as fatty liver, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and tumors. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to summarize the pharmacological effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of C. longa and its four compounds, β-elemene, germacrone, ar-turmerone, and bisacurone, against hepatobiliary diseases. C. longa exhibited antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antisteatotic, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, antitumor, and cholagogic effects by regulating apoptosis, CYP2E1, Nrf, lipid metabolism-related factors, TGF-β, NF-κB, CYP7A1, and so on. In particular, β-elemene could be an attractive compound owing to its remarkable hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antitumor activities. Altogether, the present review provides a preclinical basis for the efficacy of C. longa as an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of hepatobiliary diseases, despite the need for further studies to establish the extraction conditions and separation of active constituents with high bioavailability, and warrants further evaluation in clinical trials.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 05:20:00 +000
  • In Vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potentials of Syzygium
           caryophyllatum L. Alston

    • Abstract: Syzygium caryophyllatum L. Alston (Family: Myrtaceae, Sinhala: Heendan) is a red-listed plant that has been used in traditional medicine in Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes, but it is yet to be exploited for its potential uses as a functional food or a source of supplements. The present study focused on the evaluation of antidiabetic property of S. caryophyllatum fruits and leaves assessing antioxidant, antiglycation, and antiamylase activities and functional mineral element composition. The crude extracts (CR) of leaves and fruits were fractionated into hexane (Hex) ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (AQ) and evaluated for bioactivities along with the crude extracts. The isolated fraction (C3) of Hex fraction of fruit showed significantly high () antiamylase activity with IC50 value 2.27 ± 1.81 μg/mL where the Hex fraction of fruits exhibited the IC50 value as 47.20 ± 0.3 μg/mL which was higher than acarbose (IC50: 87.96 ± 1.43 μg/mL). The EA fraction of leaves showed highest values for DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Significantly high () ABTS radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity were observed in Hex fraction of fruit. The composition of volatiles in leaf oil was studied with GC-MS, and 58 compounds were identified. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry data revealed the presence of biologically significant trace elements such as Fe, Zn, Mg, Cu, Se, and Sr in leaves and fruits. It is concluded that the Hex fraction of S. caryophyllatum fruits will be a good source for the formulation of supplements for diabetic management with further evaluation of potency and efficacy.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jul 2020 14:35:01 +000
  • Antiglycation Activities and Common Mechanisms Mediating Vasculoprotective
           Effect of Quercetin and Chrysin in Metabolic Syndrome

    • Abstract: Multiple risk factors combine to increase the risk of vascular dysfunction in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study investigates the extent to which quercetin (Q) and chrysin (CH) protect against vascular dysfunction in MetS rats. MetS was induced by feeding rats a high-salt diet (3%) and fructose-enriched water (10%) for 12 weeks. Thoracic aorta was isolated from MetS rats and from control rats, with the latter being injured by methylglyoxal (MG). Aortae were incubated with CH and Q, and vascular reactivity was evaluated through the analysis of aortic contraction and relaxation in response to PE and ACh, respectively. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the free radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were also evaluated following the introduction of CH and Q. The increased vasoconstriction and impaired vasodilation in MetS aortae were significantly ameliorated by Q and CH. Similarly, they ameliorated glycation-associated exaggerated vasoconstriction and impaired vasodilation produced by MG in control aortae. In addition, both Q and CH were effective in reducing the formation of AGEs and inhibition of glycosylation in response to MG or fructose treatment. Finally, Q successfully scavenged DPPH free radicals while CH showed significant vasodilation of precontracted aorta that was inhibited by L-NAME. In conclusion, Q and CH provide protection against vascular dysfunction in MetS by interfering with AGEs formations and AGEs-associated vascular deterioration, with CH being largely dependent on NO-mediated mechanisms of vasodilation.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 17:20:01 +000
  • Antimetastatic Potential of Rhodomyrtone on Human Chondrosarcoma SW1353

    • Abstract: Chondrosarcoma is primary bone cancer, with the forceful capacity to cause local invasion and distant metastasis, and has a poor prognosis. Cancer metastasis is a complication of most cancers; it is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Rhodomyrtone is a pure compound that has been shown to induce apoptosis and antimetastasis in skin cancer. However, the inhibitory effect of rhodomyrtone on human chondrosarcoma cell metastasis is largely unknown. Effect of rhodomyrtone on cell viability in SW1353 cell was determined by MTT assay. Antimigration, anti-invasion, and antiadhesion were carried out to investigate the antimetastatic potential of rhodomyrtone on SW1353 cells. Gelatin zymography was performed to determine matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activities. The effect of rhodomyrtone on the underlying mechanisms was performed by Western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that rhodomyrtone reduced cell viability of SW1353 cells at the low concentration (80%. Rhodomyrtone at the subcytotoxic concentrations (0.5, 1.5, and 3 μg/mL) significantly inhibited cell migration, invasion, and adhesion of SW1353 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Protein expression of integrin , integrin β3, and the downstream migratory proteins including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the phosphorylation of serine/threonine AKT, Ras, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 were inhibited after treatment with rhodomyrtone. Moreover, we found that rhodomyrtone decreased the protein level of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as the enzyme activity in SW1353 cells. Meanwhile, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 expression was increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Besides, rhodomyrtone dramatically inhibited the expression of growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 (GRB2) and the phosphorylated form of extracellular signal regulation kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2). These results indicated that rhodomyrtone inhibited SW1353 cell migration, invasion, and metastasis by suppressing integrin β3/FAK/AKT/small Rho GTPases pathway as well as downregulation of MMP-2/9 via ERK and JNK signal inhibition. These findings indicate that rhodomyrtone possessed the antimetastasis activity that may be used for antimetastasis therapy in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Network Pharmacology-Based Strategy to Investigate the Pharmacological
           Mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba Extract for Aging

    • Abstract: Aging is a main risk factor for a number of debilitating diseases and contributes to an increase in mortality. Previous studies have shown that Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) can prevent and treat aging-related diseases, but its pharmacological effects need to be further clarified. This study aimed to propose a network pharmacology-based method to identify the therapeutic pathways of EGb for aging. The active components of EGb and targets of sample chemicals were obtained from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) database. Information on aging-related genes was obtained from the Human Ageing Genomic Resources database and JenAge Ageing Factor Database. Subsequently, a network containing the interactions between the putative targets of EGb and known therapeutic targets of aging was established, which was used to investigate the pharmacological mechanisms of EGb for aging. A total of 24 active components, 154 targets of active components of EGb, and 308 targets of aging were obtained. Network construction and pathway enrichment were conducted after data integration. The study found that flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol) and beta-sitosterol may be the main active components of EGb. The top eight candidate targets, namely, PTGS2, PPARG, DPP4, GSK3B, CCNA2, AR, MAPK14, and ESR1, were selected as the main therapeutic targets of EGb. Pathway enrichment results in various pathways were associated with inhibition of oxidative stress, inhibition of inflammation, amelioration of insulin resistance, and regulation of cellular biological processes. Molecular docking results showed that PPARG had better binding capacity with beta-sitosterol, and PTGS2 had better binding capacity with kaempferol and quercetin. The main components of EGb may act on multiple targets, such as PTGS2, PPARG, DPP4, and GSK3B, to regulate multiple pathways, and play an antiaging role by inhibiting oxidative stress, inhibiting inflammation, and ameliorating insulin resistance.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 13:05:01 +000
  • Zishen Huoxue Recipe Protecting Mitochondrial Function of
           Hypoxic/Reoxygenated Myocardial Cells through mTORC1 Signaling Pathway

    • Abstract: Objective. This study focuses on the role of Zishen Huoxue Decoction (ZSHX) in reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing the proportion of apoptosis through the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Methods. In our experiment, we first constructed an in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model of H9C2 cells. Then, the cells were divided into control group, model group (hypoxia/reoxygenation, H/R), ZSHX, ZSHX + Rapa, low-dose ZSHX (100 μg/ml), and middle-dose ZSHX. High-dose ZSHX (400 μg/ml) group was treated with Zishen Huoxue Decoction (ZSHX). Western Blot was used to detect the expression of cell-related protein and RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of the cell-related gene in each group. Flow cytometry was used to assay for ROS content and the apoptotic ratio of H9C2 cells, Seahorse Live Cell Energy Meter was used to detect the Mitochondrial Respiratory Function in H9C2 Cells, and confocal laser scanning was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential of H9C2 cells. Results. Western Blot assay showed that the relative expression of mTOR and Raptor in the H/R group was significantly lower than that in the control group (n = 3, ). The expression of mTOR and Raptor was upregulated and the relative expression of 4E-BP1 was downregulated in the middle- and high-dose ZSHX groups (n = 3, ). In addition, the ROS content of H9C2 cells was detected by flow cytometry, showing the ROS synthesis in H/R group (78.31 + 6.14) higher than that in the control group (34.53 + 6.10) (n = 3, ). The ROS value was increased significantly after rapamycin inhibited mTOR (66.18 (+4.03 vs. 52.31 (+6.01), n = 3, ). The basal mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in H/R group were significantly lower than those in the control group (38.17 + 17.76); the mitochondrial leakage in H/R model group was significantly higher than that in the control group (H/R: 40.93 + 5.18 vs. Ctrl: 27.17 + 8.92, n = 4, ). The apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes in the H/R model group (70.91 + 4.57) was significantly higher than that in the control group (14.52 + 2.37, n = 3, ), and Zishen Huoxue Decoction could decrease the apoptotic rate of hypoxic-reoxygenated cardiomyocytes (ZSHX: 18.24 + 4.17 vs. H/R: 78.91 + 3.48, n = 3, ).Conclusion. ZSHX Decoction has the effects of activating mTORC1, inhibiting the overexpression of 4E-BP1, inhibiting fatty acid oxidation, protecting the respiratory function of mitochondria, reducing ROS and apoptosis, and thus protecting myocardial cells from injury.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 12:20:01 +000
  • Fasting Therapy Contributes to the Improvement of Endothelial Function and
           Decline in Vascular Injury-Related Markers in Overweight and Obese
           Individuals via Activating Autophagy of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    • Abstract: Background. High body mass index- (BMI-) related vascular injury contributes to the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Rigorous calorie restriction is one of the major lifestyle interventions to reduce vascular risk in overweight or obese individuals. However, the effects of fasting therapy (FT) on vascular function and the mechanism are still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the impacts of FT on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and circulating arterial damage parameters in overweight and obese individuals and possible mechanism. Methods. Overweight and obese individuals participated in FT intervention (7-day very low calorie diet). Arterial function including brachial arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), vascular injury-related markers including trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and leptin and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were assessed. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) of these participants were isolated and cultured to investigate EPCs function. mRFP-GFP-LC3 confocal microscopy scanning and western blot were carried out to determine autophagy. Results. After FT, body weight and BMI significantly decreased (81.76 ± 12.04 vs. 77.51 ± 12.06 kg, ; 29.93 ± 2.82 vs. 28.47 ± 2.83 kg/m2, ). FT remarkably improved FMD (5.26 ± 1.34 vs. 6.25 ± 1.60%, ) while baPWV kept unchanged. TMAO and leptin levels decreased (3.96 ± 1.85 vs. 2.73 ± 1.33 μmol/L, ; 6814 ± 2639 vs. 3563 ± 2668 μmol/L, ). EMPs showed a decreased tendency. EPCs function was significantly improved, autophagy fluorescence intensity was enhanced, and the level of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3 II/I also increased after starvation in vitro, and the effects were blocked by autophagy inhibitor. Conclusions. Our present study demonstrated for the first time that FT markedly improves endothelial function and reduces the levels of arterial injury markers through improving EPCs function via activating autophagy. These findings provide a novel insight into FT as a lifestyle intervention strategy to promote the maintenance of vascular homeostasis in overweight or obese individuals. The trial was registered with ChiCTR1900024290.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 09:05:01 +000
  • Commonality and Specificity of Acupuncture Point Selections

    • Abstract: Objective. Because individual acupoints have a wide variety of indications, it is difficult to accurately identify the associations between acupoints and specific diseases. Thus, the present study aimed at revealing the commonality and specificity of acupoint selections using virtual medical diagnoses based on several cases. Methods. Eighty currently practicing Korean Medicine doctors were asked to prescribe acupoints for virtual acupuncture treatment after being presented with medical information extracted from 10 case reports. The acupoints prescribed for each case were quantified; the data were normalised and compared among the 10 cases using z-scores. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to categorise diseases treated based on the acupoint prescription patterns. Additionally, network analyses were performed on the acupoint prescriptions, at the individual case and cluster level. Results. Acupoints ST36, LI4, and LR3 were most commonly prescribed across all diseases. Regarding the specific acupoints prescribed in each cluster, acupoints around the disease site (knee and lower back) were frequently used in cluster A (musculoskeletal symptoms), acupoints LI4, LR3, PC6, and KI3 were frequently used in cluster B (psychiatric symptoms), and acupoints ST36, LI4, LR3, PC6, CV12, and SP6 were frequently used in cluster C (several symptoms of diseases of internal medicine). Conclusions. The present study identified the commonality and specificity of acupoint selections based on virtual acupuncture treatments prescribed by practicing clinicians. Acupoint selection patterns, which were defined using a top-down approach in previous studies and classical medical texts, may be further elucidated using a bottom-up approach based on patient medical records.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 08:35:01 +000
  • Huayu Wan Prevents Lewis Lung Cancer Metastasis in Mice via the Platelet

    • Abstract: Objective. To study the mechanism of Huayu Wan on the metastasis of Lewis lung cancer in mice via the platelet pathway. Method. Construction of the lung metastasis model by injection of Lewis cells through the tail vein. The next day, 72 mice were randomly divided into the Huayu Wan group (HYW), the aspirin group, the control group, and the normal group . Treatment was given for 5 days per week for a total of 16 days. The size and distribution of lung metastases were observed. Thromboelastography was used to detect platelet function, flow cytometry was used to analyze platelet activation, and ELISA was used to detect platelet tumor metastasis-related factor expression. Result. Lung weight in the control group was significantly higher than that in the HYW group . The distribution of lung metastases in the control group was obviously more than that in the HYW group. The thromboelastogram showed that the R value of the control group was significantly lower than the normal group, while the R values of the HYW and aspirin groups were higher than the control group . Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of CD62P in platelet-rich plasma in the control group was significantly higher than that in the normal group, while the expression of CD62P in the HYW and aspirin groups was lower than that in the control group . In addition, ELISA showed that the expression of VEGF, bFGF, and CD62P in serum of the HYW group was significantly decreased than the control group , and the expression of VEGF and bFGF in serum of the aspirin group was significantly decreased than the control group .Conclusion. The mechanism of Huayu Wan inhibiting the metastasis of lung cancer in mice may be related to the improvement of blood hypercoagulability, the inhibition of platelet activation, and the expression of VEGF, bFGF, and CD62P.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 08:20:02 +000
  • Scrodentoids H and I, a Pair of Natural Epimerides from Scrophularia
           dentata, Inhibit Inflammation through JNK-STAT3 Axis in THP-1 Cells

    • Abstract: Background. Scrophularia dentata is an important medicinal plant and used for the treatment of exanthema and fever in Traditional Tibetan Medicine. Scrodentoids H and I (SHI), a pair of epimerides of C19-norditerpenoids isolated from Scrophularia dentata, could transfer to each other in room temperature and were firstly reported in our previous work. Here, we first reported the anti-inflammatory effects of SHI on LPS-induced inflammation. Purpose. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of SHI, we investigated the effects of SHI on LPS-activated THP-1 cells. Methods. THP-1 human macrophages were pretreated with SHI and stimulated with LPS. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 were measured by RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The mechanism of action involving phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, P38, and STAT3 was measured by western Blot. The NF-κB promoter activity was evaluated by Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System in TNF-α stimulated 293T cells. Results. SHI dose-dependently reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. The ability of SHI to reduce production of cytokines is associated with phosphorylation depress of JNK and STAT3 rather than p38, ERK, and NF-κB promoter. Conclusions. Our experimental results indicated that anti-inflammatory effects of SHI exhibit attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation and inhibit activation through JNK/STAT3 pathway in macrophages. These results suggest that SHI might have a potential in treating inflammatory disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 04:05:00 +000
  • Different Forms of Ursolic Acid and Their Effect on Liver Regeneration

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of natural and encapsulated sources of ursolic acid on liver regeneration. Four ursolate sources were tested. Two forms of ursolic acid encapsulates were combined with cyclodextrins, i.e., gamma-CD (gCD) and beta-CD, and two natural sources were adjusted by homogenization (HAP) and micronization of apple peel using Jonagold apples. All ursolate forms were applied intragastrically in daily doses of 20 mg for 7 days. Laboratory rats were fed with standard laboratory diet. Further, gCD and MAP were also tested with a high-fat diet (6 weeks). Partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed 24 hours before the end of the experiment. The concentration of plasma hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was determined with an immunoassay; simultaneously, the expression of HGF and CYP7A1 in the liver was quantified through qPCR. HGF expression and plasma levels were significantly increased 24 hours after PH in both the HAP () and HFgCD groups (), respectively. The correlation between HGF expression and plasma values was significant (). The positive effects on liver regeneration were found in both the gCD and HAP forms of ursolic acid, whose effects were confirmed through the upregulation of HGF.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Jul 2020 17:20:00 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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